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1.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 88(1): 23-30, mar. 2024. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550717

ABSTRACT

Resumen En las últimas décadas, la resonancia magnética (RM) ha cobrado un rol fundamental en el diagnóstico, la estadificación y el seguimiento de los pacientes con cáncer de recto. En la estadificación inicial, que sean o no tumores localmente avanzados es lo que determina el tratamiento neoadyuvante o quirúrgico, respectivamente. Posterior a la neoadyuvancia, los pacientes que logren una respuesta clínica completa pueden ser considerados para la inclusión dentro de un esquema de vigilancia activa, comúnmente conocido como watch and wait (WW). La estrategia WW se basa en tres pilares, que son el examen digital rectal, la endoscopía y la RM, buscando detectar la presencia temprana de recrecimiento tumoral. En relación a la RM, la secuencia potenciada en T2 de alta resolución, junto con la de difusión (DWI) y el mapa de ADC, son las piezas clave para la detección temprana de recrecimiento. La estrategia de WW lleva a evitar cirugías resectivas con una alta morbilidad y deterioro de la calidad de vida. El examen digital rectal y la endoscopía son métodos de vigilancia complementarios a la RM, con su principal limitación en lesiones sin compromiso mucoso. Esta razón posiciona a la RM como un pilar indispensable para su implementación, detectando no solo áreas de recrecimiento parietal, sino también aquellas extramurales no accesibles por los otros métodos de vigilancia. En nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer ensayo iconográfico que se centra en el análisis estricto del recrecimiento tumoral en pacientes bajo esquema de WW por RM. El objetivo es enfatizar el protocolo de estudio en estos pacientes y mostrar las distintas formas de recrecimiento tumoral con el fin de lograr su detección temprana.


Abstract During the last decades, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an strategic tool for diagnosis, staging and surveillance in patients with rectal cancer. To differentiate patients with locally advanced rectal tumors from those who do not, determinate neoadjuvant therapy or total mesorectal excision, respectively. After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, those who achieve complete clinical response may be considered for inclusion in an active surveillance scheme known as “watch and wait” (WW). WW strategy consists of three pillars, rectal digital exam, endoscopy and the MRI, and the main purpose is to reach the early detection of tumoral regrowth. Regarding MRI, the high-resolution T2-weighted images in conjunction with DWI, and the ADC map plays a key role in this instance. WW leads to avoid resective surgeries with high morbidity rates. The rectal digital exam and endoscopy are complementaries to MRI, whose main limitation is the detection of lesions with no mucosal involvement. This reason places the MRI as a cornerstone in tumoral regrowth, detecting not only luminal regrowth, but those in which the rectal wall is not involved, and thus, not accessible for the other surveillance methods. To our knowledge, this is the first pictorial essay in which imaging regrowth patterns are described. The purpose of this is to emphasize the MRI protocol study and to describe the different forms of tumoral regrowth in order to reach the early tumoral regrowth detection.

2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 70(2): e20230417, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529383

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Rectal cancer is an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the log odds of positive nodes system is a better indicator than tumor node metastasis and lymph node ratio systems to determine rectum cancer prognosis, which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients with rectum adenocarcinoma followed at Gazi University Hospital. The clinicopathological data of 128 patients with rectum adenocarcinoma who underwent low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection between January 2010 and December 2018 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients with rectum adenocarcinoma as the first and only primary diagnosis, which was confirmed by histopathological examination, than those who had undergone complete curative resection via low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection were included. Those with familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch syndrome, those under 18 years of age, with a synchronous tumor, peritoneal spread, or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, and those with <12 lymph nodes dissected from the resection material were excluded from the study. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, age, perineural invasion, tumor node metastasis stage, lymph node ratio stage, and log odds of positive nodes stage were found to be independent prognostic factors (p<0.05). LODDS2 patients' mortality rates were 9.495 times higher than LODDS0 patients [hazard ratio=9.495, (95%CI 4.155-21.694), p<0.001] while LNR2 stage patients' mortality rates were 7.016 times higher than LNR0 stage patients [hazard ratio=7.016, (95%CI 3.123-15.765), p<0.001] and N2 stage patients had a 5.135 times higher risk of mortality than those who were in N0 stage [hazard ratio=5.135 (95%CI 2.451-10.756), p<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Log odds of positive nodes is a more valuable prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients than tumor node metastasis and lymph node ratio systems to determine rectum cancer prognosis.

3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 44(1): 47-52, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558290

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Returning to work is an important cancer recovery milestone. Permanent colostomy can be required for rectal cancer treatment and can significantly impact well-being. We aimed to evaluate the impact of permanent colostomy on health-related quality of life and return to work in patients with rectal cancer. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study on 23 employed patients receiving curative surgery for rectal cancer requiring permanent colostomy. Demographic and health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (the Colostomy Impact Score (CIS), the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30, and the EORTC QLQ-CR29) were posted to eligible patients. Results On average, patients (10 female, 13 male, mean age 61.8 years) were 5.0 ± 3.5 years post-surgery. At the time of questioning, 73.9% had returned to work (21.7% changed their type of work), while 17.4% never returned to work. Of those that returned to work, 11.8% returned within 1 month of surgery, while 23.5% had not returned after 12 months. Comparison of CIS between patients that returned to the same work (14.6 ± 0.93), changed their work (13.0 ± 0.74), and did not return to work (14.3 ± 2.3) revealed no significant differences (p = 0.36). CIS did not correlate with days worked on return, or time to return to work (p > 0.05). Conclusion Returning to work following rectal cancer treatment with permanent colostomy is challenging, with 17.4% never returning to work. Of those who returned to work, 23.5% required more than 12 months. This was not associated with CIS in our study.

4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 44(1): 63-70, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558292

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To identify if there is an association between pelvic entry and pelvic outlet diameters with increased positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) in rectal cancer. Introduction Positive CRMin rectalcancerisa majorpredictor forlocal anddistant recurrence. Pelvic diameters may be related to the difficulty of dissection, as well as intrinsic tumor characteristics such as tumor size, location, distance from the anal margin, and T stage, which may compromise the integrity of the mesorectum and circumferential margin involvement. Methods A retrospective review of the patient's medical records who underwent surgical resection of rectal adenocarcinoma from January 2012 to June 2022 was performed. The patient's preoperative staging, operative characteristics, and histopathologic outcomes were gathered from the medical records. Preoperative MRI scanning was done in all patients. MRI pelvimetry was done by two observers. CRM involvement was recorded as stated in the pathology report. Pelvimetry variables were dichotomized according to their mean values for correlation analysis. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated from a binary logistics regression model to assess the relation between the positive CRM and the independent variables. Results A total of 78 patients were included in this study. A positive CRM was reported in 10 patients (12.8%). BMI >27.4 + 6.6 (p = 0.02), positive extramural vascular invasion (p = 0.027), positive CRM by MRI scanning (p = 0.004), and anal sphincter involvement (p = 0.03) were associated with positive CRM. Pelvimetry values were not associated with a positive CRM. Conclusion No association was found between the pelvic diameters measured by MRI pelvimetry with a positive CRM.

5.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550829

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La microcirugía transanal endoscópica es un procedimiento mínimamente invasivo que se aplica para el tratamiento local del cáncer del recto en estadios iniciales. Su utilización en estadios más avanzados del cáncer del recto resulta controversial. Sin embargo, con el uso rutinario del tratamiento neoadyuvante constituye una opción atractiva que se ha comenzado a considerar. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de la microcirugía transanal endoscópica para el tratamiento del cáncer del recto en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de una base de datos prospectiva de 18 años. La muestra fue de 150 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de selección y las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, indicación, tiempo quirúrgico, entre otras. Resultados: La principal indicación fue el adenocarcinoma del recto T1. La edad media fue 63 años (32-93); el tiempo quirúrgico, 76 minutos (25-240) y el tamaño tumoral, 2,8 cm (1-4). La estancia hospitalaria fue de 1 día (12 horas-7 días), la morbilidad fue 6,7 porciento y las principales complicaciones posoperatorias fueron el sangramiento, la dehiscencia de sutura, el absceso, la fístula rectovaginal y la estenosis. La recurrencia local fue 8,2 porciento, 7,1 porciento y 2,5 porciento para los adenocarcinomas T1, T2 y T3 respectivamente. La supervivencia global a los 5 años fue 97,5 porciento y la supervivencia libre de enfermedad fue 95,5 porciento. Conclusión: La microcirugía transanal endoscópica es una técnica factible y segura en el tratamiento de los adenocarcinomas T1, mientras que en los T2 y T3 se requiere de la radioquimioterapia preoperatoria(AU)


Introduction: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a minimally invasive procedure applied for the local treatment of rectal cancer at early stages. Its use in more advanced stages of rectal cancer is controversial. However, with the routine use of neoadjuvant treatment, it is an attractive option that has begun to be considered. Objective: To assess the outcomes of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for the treatment of rectal cancer at Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso. Methods: A retrospective study of an 18-year prospective database was performed. The sample consisted of 150 patients who met the selection criteria and the variables studied were age, sex, indication, surgical time, among others. Results: The main indication was T1 rectal adenocarcinoma. The mean age was 63 years (32-93); surgical time, 76 minutes (25-240); and tumor size, 2.8 cm (1-4). Hospital stay was 1 day (12 hours-7 days), morbidity was 6.7 percent, and the main postoperative complications were bleeding, suture dehiscence, abscess, rectovaginal fistula and stenosis. Local recurrence was 8.2 percent, 7.1 percent and 2.5 percent for T1, T2 and T3 adenocarcinomas, respectively. Overall survival at 5 years was 97.5 percent and disease-free survival was 95.5 percent . Conclusion: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery is a feasible and safe technique for treating T1 adenocarcinomas, while T2 and T3 adenocarcinomas require preoperative radiochemotherapy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery/methods
6.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550825

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las indicaciones de la Microcirugía Transanal Endoscópica han evolucionado desde la cirugía de tumoraciones rectales hasta otras enfermedades pélvicas. La asociación de esta y la escisión total del mesorrecto transanal ofrece una serie de ventajas. Objetivo: Determinar las indicaciones, describir la técnica quirúrgica y mostrar los resultados a largo plazo obtenidos en la realización de la escisión total del mesorrecto transanal en el tratamiento del cáncer del recto medio y bajo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y prospectivo de los pacientes con cáncer del recto medio y bajo sometidos a esta técnica quirúrgica en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2017 y febrero de 2022 en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso. Resultados: Se operaron 13 pacientes, 9 con cáncer del recto bajo y 4 con cáncer del recto medio y un promedio de edad de 56,2 años (rango 28-76). El promedio de tiempo quirúrgico fue de 183 minutos (rango 120-270) y las pérdidas hemáticas estimadas de 68 mililitros. La incidencia de morbilidad mayor fue de 15,4 por ciento y la media de estadía hospitalaria de 5,4 días. La media del período de seguimiento fue de 35 (rango 9-69) meses con una recidiva local de 7,7 por ciento y una supervivencia global a los 5 años de 100 por ciento. Conclusiones: La escisión total del mesorrecto transanal combinado con cirugía laparoscópica es una técnica factible y segura. La introducción de la variante técnica utilizando el instrumental de la Microcirugía Transanal Endoscópica es más ergonómica y disminuye los costos(AU)


Introduction: The indications for transanal endoscopic microsurgery have evolved from surgery of rectal tumors to other pelvic diseases. The association between this and total excision of the transanal mesorectum offers a series of advantages. Objective: To determine the indications, to describe the surgical technique and to show the long-term outcomes obtained in the performance of total excision of the transanal mesorectum for treating cancer of the middle and lower rectum. Methods: A descriptive and prospective observational study was carried out of patients with cancer of the middle and lower rectum who underwent this surgical technique in the period from February 2017 to February 2022 at Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso. Results: Thirteen patients were operated on, 9 with cancer of the lower rectum and 4 with cancer of the middle rectum, as well as an average age of 56.2 years (range 28-76). The average surgical time was 183 minutes (range 120-270) and estimated blood loss was 68 milliliters. The incidence of highest morbidity was 15.4 percent and mean hospital stay was 5.4 days. The median follow-up period was 35 (range 9-69) months, with a local recurrence of 7.7 percent and an overall 5-year survival of 100 percent . Conclusions: Total excision of the transanal mesorectum combined with laparoscopic surgery is a feasible and safe technique. The introduction of the variant technique using the instruments of endoscopic transanal microsurgery is more ergonomic and reduces costs(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 208-214, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521142

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the complete response (CR) rate and surgeries performed in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy (NT) at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and at Hospital São Paulo, in Ribeirão Preto, from January 2007 to December 2017. Methods: We evaluated 166 medical records of patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (T3, T4 or N+) who underwent NT. The regimen consisted of performing conventional (2D) or conformational (three-dimensional-3D/ radiotherapy with modulated intensity - IMRT) at a dose of 45-50.4Gy associated with capecitabine 1650mg/m2 or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV). The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, pretreatment stage, radiotherapy, CR index, local and distant recurrence rates. Surgical treatment and complications were also evaluated. Results: The CR index was 28.3%. Patients treated with 3D/IMRT radiotherapy had a higher rate of CR (36.3% x 4.8%; p < 0.001), higher rates of clinical follow-up (21% x 0%; p < 0.001), lower surgery rates (79% x 100%; p < 0.001), higher rates of transanal resection (37.1% x 9.5%; p = 0.001), lower rates of abdominal rectosigmoidectomy (25.8% x 50%; p = 0.007) and lower rates of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (16.1% x 40.5%; p = 0.002), when compared to patients treated with 2D radiotherapy. Conclusion Modern radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal and IMRT, by offering greater adequacy and precision of treatment, could result in better local control and less toxicity in organs at risk, enabling organ preservation strategies and less invasive approaches in selected cases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging
8.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 191-198, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521143

ABSTRACT

Stomas are essential for colorectal surgery and are widely used not only for selected cases for bowel obstructions but also in rectal cancer operations to divert stool away from low rectal anastomosis. On the other hand, complications with stomas/ stomas reversal are not uncommon. In this study, we aimed at studying the frequency and the predictors of temporary stomas being permanent, and the contributing factors of surgical stoma/stoma closure related complications. In our cohort, only about 40% of the patient closed their initially planned temporary stomas. The occurrence of intestinal leak, wound sepsis, or any type of morbidity with 30 days of operation were significant predictors of permanent stomas. In addition, alarmingly although Hartmann's procedure was uncommon in our practice, only 9% of those who underwent Hartmann's have had it reversed. Moreover, the only factor that significantly increased stoma related complications was having an end colostomy. There was a tendency toward late closure of stomas with median 8.2 months, however early closure did not correlate to complications. In conclusion, further studies are needed to delineate the low rate of stoma closure. Patients who develop postoperative complications, even wound sepsis, would be at a higher risk of living with permanent stomas. Hartmann's procedures are commonly associated with stoma problems, and reluctance to reverse the stomas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectum/surgery , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Stomas/adverse effects , Health Profile , Retrospective Studies
9.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 224-226, July-sept. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521144

ABSTRACT

Introduction: McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare entity characterized by chronic diarrhea, acute kidney injury, and hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with a large rectal tumor, frequently a villous adenoma. Case report: A 69-year-old male with chronic diarrhea with mucus. He underwent a colonoscopy with biopsies, reporting adenocarcinoma of the rectum in situ, and underwent a robot assisted intersphincteric resection with colo-anal anastomosis and a protecitive ileostomy. Discussion: Described in 1954, this syndrome is manifested by electrolyte imbalance and acute renal injury secondary to diarrhea associated with a rectal villous adenoma, often with long lasting symptoms. The most frequent symptom being watery diarrhea with mucus. The definitive treatment consists of surgical resection. Conclusion: Although this is a rare pathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of chronic diarrhea associated with water and electrolyte disorders. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma, Villous , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Diarrhea , Digestive System Diseases/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 75(3)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515228

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La radioquimioterapia neoadyuvante es uno de los pilares del tratamiento del cáncer de recto localmente avanzado. La neoadyuvancia ha demostrado disminuir la recidiva local, generando también un downstaging tumoral, llegando incluso a una respuesta patológica completa (RPC), esta última relacionada con una mejor sobrevida global (SG) y sobrevida libre de enfermedad (SLE). Objetivo: Reportar los resultados anátomo-patológicos del tratamiento con radioquimioterapia en cáncer de recto, analizando su relación con la SG y la SLE. Material y Método: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se analiza base de datos de cirugías coloproctológicas del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, entre los años 20042019, incluyendo pacientes con cáncer de recto medio y bajo localmente avanzados, los cuales recibieron neoadyuvancia y posteriormente cirugía. Se realizó el análisis de sobrevida con el método de Kaplan-Meier y el test Log-rank para su comparación. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: 411 pacientes fueron operados por cáncer de recto, 143 pacientes recibieron neoadyuvancia, el 19% registró RPC. La SG del grupo con RPC fue 94% (IC 95%; 59,79-79,41%) mientras que la del grupo sin RPC fue 71% (IC 95%; 66,64-99,20%) (p = 0,018), la SLE en aquellos pacientes con RPC alcanzó un 100%, mientras que en aquellos sin RPC fue 74% (IC 95%; 64,08-81,28) (p = 0,008). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con RPC mostraron mejores resultados a largo plazo que aquellos sin RPC. La RPC podría indicar un perfil tumoral biológico favorable, con menos tendencia a la recurrencia y mejor supervivencia.


Background: One of the mainstays in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Neoadjuvant therapy have demonstrated to decrease local recurrence, also generating tumor downstaging, even leading to a pathological complete response (PCR), the latter related to better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (SLE). Aim: To report the anatomo-pathological results of treatment with chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer, analyzing the relationship with OS and SLE. Material and Method: Prospective cohort study. A database of colorectal surgeries from the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile between the years 2004-2019, including patients with locally advanced low and middle rectal cancer, who received neoadjuvant and later surgery. Survival analysis was made with the Kaplan-Meier method and the Log-rank test for comparison. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 411 patients underwent surgery for rectal cancer, 143 patients received neoadjuvant therapy, 19% registered PCR. The OS of the group with PCR was 94% (95% CI; 59.79-79.41%) while that of the group without PCR was 71% (95% CI; 66.64-99.20%) (p = 0.018), the SLE in those patients with PCR reached 100%, while in those without PCR it was 74% (95% CI; 64.08-81.28) (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Patients with PCR have better long-term results than those without PCR. PCR could indicate a favorable biological tumor profile, with less tendency to recurrence and improved survival.

11.
Indian J Cancer ; 2023 Mar; 60(1): 52-58
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221754

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography朿omputed tomography (PET-CT) in determining the correct stage and predicting the pathological response. Methods: Seventy one patients with pathologic proven rectal adenocarcinoma, clinical stage IIA-IVA, and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) were evaluated retrospectively. Radiotherapy was delivered 45� Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant oral capecitabine. Pelvic MRI, colonoscopy, and 18F-FDG PET-CT were performed before the neoadjuvant treatment (NAT). After NAT, MRI and PET-CT were performed for re-evaluation. Results: The median follow-up time was 25 months (range: 3� months). Of the 71 patients who underwent NAT, 57 patients underwent surgery. Downstaging was recorded in 48 (84.2%) of 57 patients who underwent surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between both MRI and PET-CT with pathology results in terms of response evaluation. As a result of the comparison of MRI and PET-CT with pathological results; sensitivity and specificity were 91.6% (44/48) and 22.2% (2/9) for MRI, and 100% (47/47) and 12.5% (1/8) for PET-CT, respectively. Conclusion: PET-CT and MRI are effective in predicting response to NAT and predictive for the pathological response. A more accurate response can be judged when both PET-CT and MRI are executed together in restaging after NAT

12.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 935-940, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997683

ABSTRACT

Rectal cancer is one of the common digestive tract malignant tumors in China. In particular, middle and low rectal cancers are the most common. The treatment goal is to preserve anal function as much as possible through tumor radical resection. Owing to anatomical and biological explorations and the widespread application of new surgical equipment, the possibility of anal function-preserving anastomosis in low rectal cancer has gradually increased. This article reviews the research progress on anastomosis for low rectal cancer surgery and discusses its characteristics and operational difficulties.

13.
Chinese Journal of Radiological Medicine and Protection ; (12): 94-100, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993057

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the correlation between the volume of irradiated pelvic bone marrow and acute hematologic toxicity (HT), in order to provide clinical data to reduce the risk of acute HT and optimize the radiotherapy plan.Methods:From October 2017 to May 2019, 41 LARC patients who received neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were retrospectively reviewed in our center. All patients were treated with 5-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the prescription dose delivered to PTV was 45-50.4 Gy in 25-28 fractions. Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) wasadministered daily 5 days a week during radiotherapy. Different HTswere recorded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Version 5.0 (NCI-CTC.V5.0) based on laboratory tests. The volume of PBM or each site (coxal, sacrum, femoral) receiving more than x Gy refers to as TVx, CVx, SVx, and FVx, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between the volume of irradiated pelvic bone marrow and different HT. Generalized additive model (GAM) and piecewise regression were used to further analyze the possible nonlinear relationship and threshold effect between them. Results:Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low-dose of irradiated total pelvic bone marrow volume ( TV5) and coxal bone marrow volume ( CV5, CV10) were significantly correlated with Grade ≥2 leukopenia( P<0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between the sacrum bone marrow volume ( SV5, SV10) and Grade ≥2 leukopenia ( P<0.05). A thresholdeffect has been observed between CV10 and Grade ≥2 leukopenia by Generalized additive model (GAM) and piecewise linear regression. The threshold between CV10 and Grade ≥2 leukopenia was 575 ml, OR (95% CI) was 1.85 (1.08, 3.16). Conclusions:In neoadjuvant IMRT of rectal cancer, CV is a better predictor of acute HT induced by CCRT than TV. The irradiated volume of CV associated with acute HT was mainly low-dose levels ( CV5, CV10). The thresholds of our study ( CV10= 575 ml) could be a good reference for the optimization of the radiotherapy plan.

14.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 66-73, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989318

ABSTRACT

Rectal cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in China. Accurate and reasonable assessment of the preoperative staging of rectal cancer can significantly enhance treatment outcomes and improve patient prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the technique of choice for local staging of rectal cancer and has significant advantages in the diagnosis of rectal primary tumors (T) and peri-intestinal lymph nodes (N). In this review paper, the research ideas and progress of traditional radiomics and deep learning methods for preoperative TN staging prediction of rectal cancer were reviewed around multimodal magnetic resonance images, with the aim of providing new ideas for realizing fully automated TN staging algorithms for rectal cancer.

15.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 990-995, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005787

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To explore the feasibility, safety and clinical application value of laparoscopic radical rectal cancer surgery with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) by comparing the postoperative pathological data, surgery-related variables and postoperative recovery between laparoscopic radical rectal cancer surgery with NOSE and laparoscopic-assisted radical rectal cancer surgery. 【Methods】 A retrospective analysis was conducted on 74 patients who underwent radical rectal cancer surgery with anus preservation in the Department of General Surgery of The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from July 2017 to April 2022. Among them, 38 cases underwent surgery with specimen extraction through an abdominal auxiliary incision (auxiliary incision group), and 36 cases underwent surgery with specimen extraction through a natural orifice (NOSES group). The differences in the efficacy of the two surgeries were evaluated by comparing the postoperative pathological data, surgical variables, and postoperative recovery of the two groups. 【Results】 There were no statistically significant differences in general data and postoperative pathological data between the two groups (all P>0.05). The NOSES group exhibited significantly shorter operative time, time to first flatus, time to first oral intake postoperatively, and postoperative hospital stay compared to the auxiliary incision group (all P0.05). 【Conclusion】 Laparoscopic surgery with NOSE for rectal cancer is safe and feasible with minimally invasive and accelerated recovery, which is worth promoting and applying in clinical practice.

16.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 940-948, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the value of pretreatment inflammatory-nutritional biomarkers in predicting the pathological response of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT).@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included eligible participants who underwent nCT followed by radical surgery. Pretreatment inflammatory nutritional biomarkers were calculated within one week prior to nCT. Correlations between biomarkers and pathological responses were analyzed. The cut-off values of the pretreatment biomarkers for predicting non-response were determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The inflammation-nutrition score was calculated using the lymphocyte level, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI).@*RESULTS@#A total of 235 patients were retrospectively recruited between January 2017 and September 2022. Lower lymphocyte levels, lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR), and PNI, and higher NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were observed in patients without response. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that NLR could independently predict non-response to nCT in patients with LARC. The sensitivity and specificity of the inflammation-nutrition score for predicting nonresponse were 71.2% and 61.7%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The pretreatment inflammation-nutrition score is a practical parameter for predicting non-response to nCT in patients with LARC. Patients with high scores were more likely to respond poorly to nCT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Lymphocytes , Biomarkers , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 544-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the expression of hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 (HSDL2) in rectal cancer tissues and the effect of changes in HSDL2 expression level on proliferation of rectal cancer cells.@*METHODS@#Clinical data and tissue samples of 90 patients with rectal cancer admitted to our hospital from January 2020 to June 2022 were collected from the prospective clinical database and biological specimen database. The expression level of HSDL2 in rectal cancer and adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and based on the median level of HSDL2 expression, the patients were divided into high expression group (n=45) and low expression group (n=45) for analysis the correlation between HSDL2 expression level and the clinicopathological parameters. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed to explore the role of HSDL2 in rectal cancer progression. The effects of changes in HSDL2 expression levels on rectal cancer cell proliferation, cell cycle and protein expressions were investigated in SW480 cells with lentivirus-mediated HSDL2 silencing or HSDL2 overexpression using CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The expressions of HSDL2 and Ki67 were significantly higher in rectal cancer tissues than in the adjacent tissues (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that the expression of HSDL2 protein was positively correlated with Ki67, CEA and CA19-9 expressions (P < 0.01). The rectal cancer patients with high HSDL2 expressions had significantly higher likelihood of having CEA ≥5 μg/L, CA19-9 ≥37 kU/L, T3-4 stage, and N2-3 stage than those with a low HSDL2 expression (P < 0.05). GO and KEGG analysis showed that HSDL2 was mainly enriched in DNA replication and cell cycle. In SW480 cells, HSDL2 overexpression significantly promoted cell proliferation, increased cell percentage in S phase, and enhanced the expression levels of CDK6 and cyclinD1 (P < 0.05), and HSDL2 silencing produced the opposite effects (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The high expression of HSDL2 in rectal cancer participates in malignant progression of the tumor by promoting the proliferation and cell cycle progress of the cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , CA-19-9 Antigen , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Rectal Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Cycle , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/metabolism
18.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 33-37, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986676

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and prognostic significance of lateral lymph node dissection (LPLND) in patients with lateral lymph node (LPLN) metastasis. Methods The clinicopathological data of rectal cancer patients who underwent total mesorectal excision (TME) combined with LPLND and pathologically confirmed as LPLN metastasis after operation were retrospectively analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics and metastasis rules of patients with LPLN metastasis were discussed, and the survival prognosis after LPLND was analyzed. Results A total of 102 rectal cancer patients with pathologically confirmed LPLN metastasis were included. The common sites of LPLN metastasis were internal iliac vessels lymph nodes (n=68, 66.7%), followed by obturator lymph nodes (n=44, 43.1%), and common iliac vessels or external iliac vessels lymph nodes (n=12, 11.8%). There were 10 patients (9.8%) with bilateral LPLN metastases, and the mean number of LPLN metastases was 2.2±2.4, among which 16 patients (15.7%) had LPLN metastases number≥2. The 3-year OS (66.8% vs. 7.7%, P < 0.001) and DFS (39.1% vs. 10.5%, P=0.012) of patients with LPLN metastases to the external iliac or common iliac lymph node were significantly lower than those with metastases to the internal iliac or obturator lymph node. The multivariate analysis showed that LPLN metastasis to external iliac or common iliac lymph node was an independent risk factor both for OS (HR=3.53; 95%CI: 1.50-8.31; P=0.004) and DFS (HR=2.40; 95%CI: 1.05-5.47; P=0.037). Conclusion LPLN mainly metastasizes to the internal iliac or obturator lymph node areas. The survival of patients with metastasis to the external iliac or common iliac lymph node cannot be improved by LPLND, and thus systemic comprehensive treatment is often the optimal treatment option.

19.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 777-781, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984570

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the clinical efficacy between traditional laparoscopic surgery and laparoscopic surgery under the guidance of membrane anatomy with complete mesangectomy in the treatment of rectal cancer. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 60 patients with rectal cancer who were randomly divided into control group (n=30) and observation group (n=30) in accordance with the principle of randomization.The control group received traditional laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer, and the observation group received laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer under the guidance of membrane anatomy with complete mesangectomy.The different clinical application effects of the two groups were analyzed by comparing the general data, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative rehabilitation. Results All the 60 patients underwent the laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer.No operation-related complications, conversion to laparotomy, or perioperative death cases were reported.No statistically significant differences in age, gender, operation time, postoperative exhaust time, drainage tube removal time, or postoperative complications were found between the two groups (all P > 0.05).Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss and more lymph node dissected (P < 0.05). Conclusion Laparoscopic radical resection of rectal cancer guided by the membrane anatomy with complete mesangectomy can completely remove the mesorectum, enlarge and clear the surgical field, reduce intraoperative bleeding, thoroughly remove lymph nodes, and improve the quality of surgery.

20.
BioSCI. (Curitiba, Online) ; 81(1): 37-43, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442614

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As operações laparoscópicas, assistidas por robô e a abertas são técnicas cirúrgicas comumente utilizadas na vida diária. A viabilidade e os resultados em curto e longo prazos dos procedimentos laparoscópicos e robóticos têm sido amplamente relatados. Objetivos: Comparar os dados clínicos e oncológicos da cirurgia assistida por robô e laparoscópica no câncer retal. Métodos: Foram pesquisados o Pubmed/Medline, Embase, e Cochrane Library para artigos relevantes publicados até 2021. Estudos baseados na comparabilidade entre operação assistida por robô e laparoscópica para câncer retal foram designados. Os parâmetros analisados incluíram tempo operatório, conversão para procedimento aberto, perda estimada de sangue, tempo de recuperação da função intestinal, tempo de internação, vazamento da anastomose e complicações pós-operatórias. Resultados: Operação assistida por robô foi associada com maior tempo operatório (342 vs.192 min na cirurgia laparoscópica, p<0,001), menor conversão para procedimento aberto, menor tempo de internação hospitalar e recuperação mais rápida da função intestinal, menores complicações pós-operatórias de forma significativa (p=0,041). A perda estimada de sangue, a taxa de vazamento da anastomose e os resultados oncológicos, incluindo o número de linfonodos extraídos, não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Conclusão: A cirurgia assistida por robô para câncer retal mostrou maior tempo operatório, menor conversão, taxas de recuperação da função intestinal mais rápidas e menor permanência no hospital. Seus resultados oncológicos forram semelhantes à cirurgia laparoscópica.


Introduction: Laparoscopic surgery, robot-assisted surgery and open surgery are the most commonly used surgical techniques in daily living. The feasibility and short- and long-term results of laparoscopic and robotic procedures have been widely reported. Objectives: To compare the clinical and oncological results of robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. Methods: PubMed/Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles published until 2021. Studies based on comparability between robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer were designed. The parameters analyzed included operative time, conversion to open surgery, estimated blood loss, bowel function recovery time, length of hospital stay, anastomosis leak, and postoperative complications. Results: The robot-assisted surgery group was associated with longer operative time (342 vs. 192 min in laparoscopic surgery,p <0.001), lower conversion to open surgery, shorter length of hospital stay, faster bowel function recovery and lower postoperative complications significantly (p=0.041). Estimated blood loss, anastomosis leak rate, and oncological outcomes including the number of lymph nodes extracted showed no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: Robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer showed longer operative time, lower conversion, faster bowel function recovery rates, shorter hospital stay, and similar oncological outcomes compared to laparoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Rectum
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