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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253065, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sepsis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251883, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350313

ABSTRACT

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


Resumo O menor teor de lignina em espécies de plantas com potencial energético resulta na maior facilidade de quebra da celulose, disponibilizando glicose para geração de etanol. Porém, maiores teores de lignina representa um fator de resistência ao ataque de insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como importantes pragas do sorgo energia, Diatraea saccharalis e Spodoptera frugiperda, se comportam quanto à alimentação e desempenho em sorgo bmr-6, um genótipo mutante com menor concentração de lignina. Foram realizados experimentos em laboratório e casa de vegetação, avaliando o desenvolvimento destas pragas nos híbridos de sorgo biomassa bmr 007, 008, TX635 e seus respectivos genótipos isogênicos convencionais (sem o gene bmr). O teor de lignina foi maior nos híbridos não bmr, mas nos parâmetros avaliados nos insetos, houve variação entre os tratamentos, não sendo consistente em apenas um híbrido e nem por ser ou não bmr. A menor sobrevivência de S. frugiperda foi verificada no híbrido BR008 tanto bmr quanto não bmr. As notas de injúria por S. frugiperda no sorgo em casa de vegetação foram altas (>7) em todos os tratamentos. Para D. saccharalis, não houve diferença significativa para a sobrevivência larval em laboratório, mas em casa de vegetação o híbrido BR007 tanto bmr quanto não bmr proporcionaram maior sobrevivência. Diante da necessidade de diversificar a matriz energética e o fato de que não foi comprovada neste estudo maior suscetibilidade dos híbridos bmr a ambas as pragas, estes resultados são promissores para o cultivo desses híbridos de sorgo biomassa para produção de biocombustíveis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharum/genetics , Sorghum/genetics , Moths , Spodoptera , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503

ABSTRACT

In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Antifungal Agents
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259094, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364533

ABSTRACT

Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buffaloes , Enterococcus , Probiotics , Gastrointestinal Tract , Lactobacillus , Anti-Bacterial Agents
5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2021_0037, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The recovery interval (RI) between sets and exercises has received attention from strength training (ST) researchers, to understand the relationship of rest on performance maintenance, especially the total load in a training session. It is known that each individual responds in a specific way to the training stimulus. So, what would be the effect of the different recovery interval strategies on the strength performance? Objective: Compare the different recovery intervals in strength training volume, considering the number of repetitions in healthy adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis based on methodological criteria, comparing fixed and self-selected RI on training volume, identified by the number of repetitions performed in a weight training program. Three electronic databases (Pubmed, VHL Virtual Health Library, Ebsco Sportdiscus) were analyzed, combining the expressions "resistance training", "resistance exercise", "strength exercise", "recovery interval", "rest interval", "interval auto suggested", "auto range selected" with "AND" and "OR" combination. Results: Pooled data from five studies showed a large significant effect in favor of the experimental group (>2 minutes) (MD: 1.24; 95%-CI [0.78; 1.71]; z: 5.25, Q:1.08; p < 0.01), since in the studies, recovery interval allowed a greater training volume. Conclusion: Longer RI seems be better, for maintaining total training volume, although there is no consensus for different training objectives against the self-selected RI. Thus, we imagine that this strategy may be important in the organizing a bodybuilding exercise program. Level of Evidence I; Systematic Review and Meta Analysis.


RESUMEN Introducción: El intervalo de recuperación (IR) entre series y ejercicios ha recibido atención por parte de los investigadores del entrenamiento de fuerza (EF), contribuyendo a la comprensión de esta variable en relación con el mantenimiento del rendimiento, especialmente la carga durante el entrenamiento con pesas. Se sabe que cada individuo responde de manera específica al estímulo del entrenamiento, entonces, ¿cuál es el efecto de las diferentes estrategias de intervalos de recuperación sobre el rendimiento de fuerza? Objetivo: Comparar diferentes intervalos de recuperación en entrenamiento de fuerza en volumen de entrenamiento, identificados por el número de repeticiones en musculación en adultos sanos. Métodos: Realizamos una revisión sistemática y un metanálisis basado en criterios metodológicos, comparando IR fijo y autoseleccionado en función del volumen de entrenamiento, identificado por el número de repeticiones realizadas en un programa de entrenamiento con pesas. Se analizaron los registros de tres bases de datos electrónicas (Pubmed, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de la BVS, Ebsco Sportdiscus), combinando las palabras "entrenamiento de resistencia", "ejercicio de resistencia", "ejercicio de fuerza", "intervalo de recuperación", "intervalo de descanso", "intervalo auto sugerido", "rango automático seleccionado" con la combinación "AND" y "OR". Resultados: Los datos agrupados de cinco estudios mostraron un gran efecto significativo a favor del grupo experimental (> 2 minutos) (DM: 1,24; IC del 95 % [0,78; 1,71]; z: 5,25, Q: 1,08; p < 0,01), ya que, en los estudios en cuestión, este intervalo de recuperación permitió un mayor volumen de entrenamiento. Conclusión: Los intervalos más largos parecen ser mejores, en el volumen total de entrenamiento, aunque no hay consenso para diferentes objetivos de entrenamiento frente al RI autoseleccionado. Por lo tanto, imaginamos que esta estrategia puede ser importante en la organización del programa de ejercicios de musculación. Nivel de Evidencia I; Revisión Sistemática y Meta Análisis.


RESUMO Introdução: O intervalo de recuperação (IR) entre séries e exercícios, tem recebido atenção dos pesquisadores de treinamento de força (TF), contribuindo no entendimento dessa variável em relação a manutenção do rendimento, em especial da carga durante o treinamento de musculação. Sabe-se que cada indivíduo responde de modo específico ao estimulo do treinamento, desta forma, qual o efeito das diferentes estratégias do intervalo recuperação no desempenho da força? Objetivo: Comparar diferentes intervalos de recuperação no treinamento de força no volume de treino, identificado pelo número de repetições na musculação em adultos saudáveis. Métodos: Realizamos, pelos critérios metodológicos, revisão sistemática e meta-análise, comparando o IR fixo e auto selecionado em função do volume de treino, identificado pelo número de repetições realizados em programa de musculação. Foram analisados os registros de três bases de dados eletrônicas (Pubmed, Biblioteca Virtual da Saúde BVS, Ebsco Sportdiscus), combinando as expressões "treinamento de resistência", "exercício resistido", "exercício de força", "intervalo de recuperação", "intervalo de descanso", "intervalo auto sugerido", "intervalo auto selecionado" com combinação "AND" e "OR". Resultados: Os dados reunidos de cinco estudos mostraram um grande efeito significante a favor do grupo experimental (>2 minutos) (MD: 1.24; 95%-IC [0.78; 1.71]; z: 5.25, Q:1.08; p < 0.01), uma vez que nos estudos em questão, esse intervalo de recuperação possibilitou maior volume de treino. Conclusão: Intervalos mais longos parecem ser melhores no volume total do treinamento, embora não haja consenso para diferentes objetivos do treinamento frente ao IR auto selecionado. Dessa forma, imaginamos que essa estratégia possa ser importante na organização do programa de exercício de musculação. Nível de Evidencia I; Revisão Sistemática e Meta Análise.

6.
São Paulo med. j ; 142(1): e2022663, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442194

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The effect of weight loss (WL) on histopathological aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may provide further insights into the dynamics of hepatic recovery after WL. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of pre-operative WL on insulin resistance- and NAFLD-related histology in individuals undergoing bariatric surgery (BS) with or without pre-operative WL. DESIGN AND SETTING: A matched cross-sectional study was conducted at a public university hospital and a private clinic in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted using prospectively collected databases of individuals who underwent BS and liver biopsy at either a public tertiary university hospital (with pre-operative WL) or a private clinic (without pre-operative WL). Random electronic matching by gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) was performed and two paired groups of 24 individuals each were selected. RESULTS: Of the 48 participants, 75% were female. The mean age was 37.4 ± 9.6. The mean BMI was 38.9 ± 2.6 kg/m2. Fibrosis was the most common histopathological abnormality (91.7%). Glucose was significantly lower in the WL group (92 ± 19.1 versus 111.8 ± 35.4 mg/dL; P = 0.02). Significantly lower frequencies of macrovesicular steatosis (58.3% versus 95.8%; P = 0.004), microvesicular steatosis (12.5% versus 87.5%; P < 0.001), and portal inflammation (50% versus 87.5%; P = 0.011) were observed in the WL group. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative WL was significantly associated with lower frequencies of macro- and mi- crovesicular steatosis, portal inflammation, and lower glycemia, indicating an association between the recent trajectory of body weight and histological aspects of NAFLD.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469263

ABSTRACT

Abstract Routine blood culture is used for the detection of bloodstream infections by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and by common pathogenic yeasts. A retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Maceió-AL, by collecting data of all medical records with positive blood cultures. Out of the 2,107 blood cultures performed, 17% were positive with Staphylococcus coagulase negative (51.14%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (11.21%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.32%). Gram-positive bacteria predominated among positive blood cultures, highlighting the group of Staphylococcus coagulase-negative. While Gram-negative bacteria had a higher number of species among positive blood cultures.


Resumo A cultura sanguínea de rotina é usada para a detecção de infecções na corrente sanguínea por bactérias aeróbias e anaeróbias e por leveduras patogênicas comuns. Estudo retrospectivo realizado em hospital público de Maceió-AL, por meio da coleta de dados de todos os prontuários com culturas sanguíneas positivas. Das 2.107 culturas sanguíneas realizadas, 17% foram positivas com Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (51,14%), seguido por Staphylococcus aureus (11,21%) e Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,32%). As bactérias Gram-positiva predominaram entre as culturas de sangue positivas, destacando-se o grupo das Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo. Enquanto as bactérias Gram-negativas apresentaram um número maior de espécies entre as culturas de sangue positivas.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469264

ABSTRACT

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


Resumo O menor teor de lignina em espécies de plantas com potencial energético resulta na maior facilidade de quebra da celulose, disponibilizando glicose para geração de etanol. Porém, maiores teores de lignina representa um fator de resistência ao ataque de insetos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como importantes pragas do sorgo energia, Diatraea saccharalis e Spodoptera frugiperda, se comportam quanto à alimentação e desempenho em sorgo bmr-6, um genótipo mutante com menor concentração de lignina. Foram realizados experimentos em laboratório e casa de vegetação, avaliando o desenvolvimento destas pragas nos híbridos de sorgo biomassa bmr 007, 008, TX635 e seus respectivos genótipos isogênicos convencionais (sem o gene bmr). O teor de lignina foi maior nos híbridos não bmr, mas nos parâmetros avaliados nos insetos, houve variação entre os tratamentos, não sendo consistente em apenas um híbrido e nem por ser ou não bmr. A menor sobrevivência de S. frugiperda foi verificada no híbrido BR008 tanto bmr quanto não bmr. As notas de injúria por S. frugiperda no sorgo em casa de vegetação foram altas (>7) em todos os tratamentos. Para D. saccharalis, não houve diferença significativa para a sobrevivência larval em laboratório, mas em casa de vegetação o híbrido BR007 tanto bmr quanto não bmr proporcionaram maior sobrevivência. Diante da necessidade de diversificar a matriz energética e o fato de que não foi comprovada neste estudo maior suscetibilidade dos híbridos bmr a ambas as pragas, estes resultados são promissores para o cultivo desses híbridos de sorgo biomassa para produção de biocombustíveis.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469275

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacteria were isolated from samples of Fresh Apple juices from shops of three different localities of Lahore. Analysis of samples from Liberty, Anarkali and Yateem khana Markets show different levels of contamination. There were pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in all samples and were identified by the morphological and biochemical tests. Most of the plasmids of pathogenic bacteria were 4kb in their molecular size. Ribotyping of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was done to confirm Helicobacter pylori strain and Gluconobacter oxydans. The highest sensitivity of 210mm was shown by Enterobacter sp. against Aztheromysine disk (15µg) while Micrococcus sp. was highly resistant against all of the Antibiotics applied. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria was also checked against Ricinus communis plant's extracts, all isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant but only, E.coli was inhibited at 300µl of the extracts. Presence of pathogenic bacteria in Apple juice samples was due to contamination of sewage water in drinking water while some of these pathogenic bacteria came from Apple's tree and other from store houses of fruits.


Resumo As bactérias foram isoladas de amostras de suco de maçã fresco de lojas de três diferentes localidades de Lahore. A análise de amostras dos mercados Liberty, Anarkali e Yateem khana mostram diferentes níveis de contaminação. Havia bactérias patogênicas e não patogênicas em todas as amostras e foram identificadas pelos testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A maioria dos plasmídeos de bactérias patogênicas tinha 4 kb em seu tamanho molecular. A ribotipagem do sequenciamento do gene do RNA ribossômico 16S foi realizada para confirmar a cepa de Helicobacter pylori e Gluconobacter oxydans. A maior sensibilidade de 210 mm foi mostrada por Enterobacter sp. contra disco de azteromisina (15µg) enquanto Micrococcus sp. foi altamente resistente a todos os antibióticos aplicados. A resistência a antibióticos de bactérias patogênicas também foi verificada contra extratos de plantas de Ricinus communis, todos os patógenos bacterianos isolados foram resistentes, mas apenas E. coli foi inibida em 300µl dos extratos. A presença de bactérias patogênicas nas amostras de suco de maçã deveu-se à contaminação da água de esgoto na água potável, enquanto algumas dessas bactérias patogênicas vieram da árvore da maçã e outras de armazéns de frutas.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469384

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


Resumo No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Resumo Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.

12.
CienciaUAT ; 18(1): 178-190, jul.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513978

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Por su alto valor nutricional, el frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) es la especie más importante para el consumo humano entre las leguminosas de grano comestibles. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar 11 líneas RAZ de frijol común, promisorias por su resistencia contra Zabrotes subfasciatus Boh. En octubre de 2019, se sembraron 11 líneas RAZ del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), San José de Las Lajas, Cuba. Se evaluaron 22 caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos del descriptor del frijol común y se realizaron análisis de frecuencia para las características cualitativas y estadígrafos básicos y análisis de componentes principales (ACP) de los atributos cuantitativos. Los caracteres con mayor variabilidad fueron el color primario de la semilla (reportándose 5 diferentes, y siendo el blanco sucio el más frecuente); el color predominante de la vaina en la madurez fisiológica (las cuales presentaron 4 variantes de color, principalmente verdes y amarillas); el aspecto de la testa (destacando el aspecto opaco, registrándose en 6 líneas); así como la ausencia del color alrededor del hilo en 10 de ellas. Los parámetros relacionados con el ciclo biológico presentaron menor variabilidad. El peso de 100 granos correspondió al tipo de grano pequeño. El rendimiento promedio fue 1 685 kg/ha, destacándose la línea 'RAZ 124' con 4 237 kg/ha. El ACP explicó el 61.82 % de la variabilidad total e integró las 11 líneas en 4 grupos que caracterizaron su comportamiento. Los resultados indican que las líneas estudiadas pueden incorporarse en el programa de mejoramiento del frijol en Cuba a través de su evaluación en diferentes ambientes regionales para la selección de posibles nuevos cultivares comerciales.


ABSTRACT Due to high nutritional value, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important species for human consumption among the food grain legumes. The objective of this study was to characterize 11 RAZ lines of common bean, promising for their resistance to the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Boh.). In October 2019, 11 RAZ lines from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) were planted using a randomized complete block design at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA), San José de las Lajas, Cuba. Twenty-two quantitative and qualitative traits of the common bean descriptors were used, and frequency analyses were performed for the qualitative traits and basic statistics and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed for the quantitative traits. The traits with greater variability were the primary seed color (5 different colors were reported, with dirty white being the most frequent); the predominant color of the pods at physiological maturity, (which presented 4 color variants, with green and yellow ones standing out); the opaque aspect of the coat stood out, being registered in 6 lines, as well as the absence of color around the hilum in 10 of them. All possible variants were found for the predominant appearance of the seed coat, predominant pro-file of the pod and presence of color around the hilum. Variables related to the biological cycle showed less variability. The weight of 100 grains corresponded to the small grains type. The average yield was 1 685 kg/ha, with the 'RAZ 124' line standing out with 4 237 kg/ha. The PCA explained 61.82 % of total variability and classified the 11 lines into four groups that characterize their performance. These results indicate that the lines under study can be incorporated into the vean breeding program in Cuba by means of their evaluation in different regional environments for the selection of possible new commercial cultivars.

13.
J. res. dent ; 11(2): 25-31, Oct 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513036

ABSTRACT

Aims: The aim was to evaluate the cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance among thermally treated NiTi rotary instruments with different design features.Materials and methods: Sixty instruments of three systems were used (n=20): TruNatomy 26.04 (TN 26.04), BassiLogic 25.05 (BL 25.05), and Flat File 25.04 (FF 25.04). The cyclic fatigue test (n=10) was performed to evaluate the time to fracture (s) and the number of cycles until failure (NCF). The torsion test was performed to evaluate the torque (N.cm) and maximum angular deflection until fracture (n=10). The fracture surface of each fragment was examined under a scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed by Tukey's test (p<0.05).Results: BL 25.05 and FF 25.04 instruments had a higher number of cycles and time to fracture compared with TN 26.04 (p<0.05). TN 26.04 instruments showed lower torque to fracture.Conclusions: Based on the proposed objectives and the methodology used, TruNatomy 26.04 instruments present lower resistance to cyclic fatigue and torsional fatigue when compared to BassiLogic 25.05 and Flat File 25.04 instruments.

14.
Med. infant ; 30(3): 274-280, Septiembre 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1515976

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia del HIV a los antirretrovirales (ARVs) es una de las principales causas de fallo terapéutico en niños, niñas y adolescentes que conviven con el virus. Desde el año 2006, el Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Retrovirus del Hospital Garrahan realiza el estudio genotípico de resistencia (ER) del HIV-1 a los ARVs a fin de identificar mutaciones que disminuyen la susceptibilidad del virus a los fármacos que componen el tratamiento ARV. Objetivos: El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar el tipo y frecuencia de resistencia del HIV a los ARVs, a través de un análisis de 371 ER realizados entre los años 2006 y 2021 en niños, niñas y adolescentes con HIV-1 adquirido por transmisión vertical y con solicitud médica de ER por presentar fallo terapéutico. Resultados: Entre los años 2006 y 2013 la proporción de casos con resistencia a al menos una clase de fármaco ARV fue mayor al 90%, sugiriendo una asociación directa entre el fallo virológico y la disminución en la susceptibilidad del HIV-1 a uno o más componentes del TARV. A partir del año 2012, se observa una disminución progresiva del nivel de resistencia de HIV-1, llegando al 50% en 2021 (p<0.0001). La frecuencia de mutaciones de resistencia fue diferente para cada una de las clases de ARVs. Mientras que la resistencia a INNTR no sufrió cambios significativos a lo largo del período de estudio, oscilando entre 27% y 75%. La proporción de mutaciones a IPs en pacientes con fallo virológico disminuyó de 87% en 2006 a 17% en 2021 y para los INTR, disminuyó de 79% en 2006 a 45% en 2021. Conclusión: El nivel de resistencia a los ARVs ha disminuido de manera sustancial a lo largo de los últimos 16 años, probablemente por el uso de nuevos fármacos ARV con alta potencia que posibilitaron la intensificación de los tratamientos ARV y la implementación de criterios de fallo terapéutico más estrictos tanto a nivel clínico como virológico (AU)


Introduction: HIV resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs is one of the main causes of therapeutic failure in children and adolescents living with the virus. Since 2006, the Cell Biology and Retrovirus Laboratory of the Garrahan Hospital has been performing the genotypic study of HIV-1 resistance to ARV drugs in order to identify mutations that reduce the susceptibility of the virus to the drugs that constitute ARV treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of HIV resistance to ARV drugs through an analysis of 371 genotype studies performed between 2006 and 2021 in children and adolescents with HIV-1 acquired through motherto-child transmission and with medical request for genotype study due to therapeutic failure. Results: Between 2006 and 2013, the proportion of cases with resistance to at least one ARV drug class was greater than 90%, suggesting a direct association between virologic failure and decreased susceptibility of HIV-1 to one or more components of ART. From 2012 onwards, a progressive decrease in the level of HIV-1 resistance was observed, reaching 50% in 2021 (p<0.0001). The frequency of resistant mutations was different for each of the ARV classes, while resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) did not change significantly over the study period, ranging from 27% to 75%. The proportion of drug-resistant mutations to protease inhibitors (PI) in patients with virologic failure decreased from 87% in 2006 to 17% in 2021 and for NNRTIs from 79% in 2006 to 45% in 2021. Conclusion: The level of resistance to ARV drugs has decreased substantially over the last 16 years, probably due to the use of new ARV drugs with high potency that allowed the intensification of ARV treatments and the implementation of stricter criteria for therapeutic failure both clinically and virologically (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 60(3): 345-349, July-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513701

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreatic disease (NAFPD) is an increase of fat in the pancreas, and has an important association with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research has confirmed that the triglyceridemia/glycemia (TyG) index determines IR as much as does the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp assessment as the homeostasis model testing of IR (HOMA-IR). Objective: To eva­luate the association between degree of NAFPD and TyG index. Methods: In 72 patients undergoing ultrasound of abdomen with a diagnosis of NAFPD, insulin, glucose, and triglycerides levels were evaluated. The HOMA-IR and TyG indexes were used as a reference for IR. The degrees of NAFPD and the TyG index were presented through the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves in order to evaluate the association between different degrees of NAFPD, and the correlation of NAFPD with HOMA-IR was also evaluated. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between the degree of NAFPD and the TyG index. The AUROC curve for the TyG index for predicting the degree of NADPD was 0.855 (0.840-0.865). The intensity-adjusted probabilities of the degree of NAFPD were more strongly associated with TyG values when compared with HOMA-IR. Conclusion: In this study the TyG index correlated positively with the degree of NAFPD, performing better than HOMA-IR.


RESUMO Contexto: A doença pancreática gordurosa não alcoólica (DPGNA) é um aumento de gordura pancreática, e tem uma importante associação com a resistência à insulina (RI) e com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Pesquisas confirmaram que o índice triglicérides/glicemia (TyG) determina a RI tanto quanto a avaliação da clamp hiperinsulinêmico-euglicêmico como o teste do modelo de homeostasia da RI (HOMA-IR). Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre o grau de DPGNA e o índice TyG. Métodos: Em 72 pacientes submetidos a ultrassonografia do abdome com diagnóstico de DPGNA, foram avaliados os níveis de insulina, glicose e triglicérides. Os índices HOMA-IR e TyG foram usados como referência para RI. Os graus de DGPNA e o índice TyG foram apresentados através da curva ROC com o objetivo de avaliar a associação entre diferentes graus de DPGNA, e a correlação do DGPNA com o HOMA-IR também foi avaliada. Resultados: Houve uma correlação estatisticamente significativa entre o grau de DPGNA e o índice TyG. A curva AUROC para o índice TyG para prever o grau do NADPD foi 0,855 (0,840-0,865). As probabilidades ajustadas de intensidade do grau de NAFPD foram mais fortemente associadas aos valores de TyG quando comparadas com o HOMA-IR. Conclusão: Neste estudo, o índice TyG correlacionou-se positivamente com o grau de DPGNA, tendo um desempenho melhor que o índice HOMA-IR.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223154

ABSTRACT

Background: Men with early-onset androgenetic alopecia (AGA) often have an abnormal hormonal milieu. Objective: To ascertain the clinico-phenotypic characteristics and the prevalence of hormonal and metabolic changes in men with early-onset AGA. Methods: Consecutive male patients less than 30 years of age with a Norwood-Hamilton grade ?3 AGA were recruited in this comparative cross-sectional study. After endocrine evaluation they were classified into two groups, that is, Group A consisting of subjects with an altered hormonal profile and Group B with normal hormonal profiles. The groups were assessed for differences in disease phenotype and severity (Norwood-Hamilton grade), insulin resistance and parameters of metabolic syndrome (ATP III guidelines). Results: Altered hormonal profiles were seen in 34 of the 100 subjects with AGA, while insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were noted in 44 and 26 respectively. Altered hormonal profiles were significantly associated with insulin resistance and severe alopecia (grade 4 and above Hamilton-Norwood Scale). Insulin resistant Group A patients had a significantly higher prevalence of severe alopecia (>grade 4) (P = 0.0036). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar in both groups. Limitation: The cross sectional study design was a drawback of this study. Further, a control arm without AGA was not included and the sample size of 100 was selected arbitrarily. Conclusion: An altered hormonal profile and insulin resistance was noted in a third of the males with early-onset AGA. Subjects with altered hormonal profiles had a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and were likely to have severe grades of AGA

17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 86(4): 384-387, July-Sep. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447378

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Bacterial keratitis caused by multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a therapeutic challenge due to a limited number of active antimicrobials and rapid progression to corneal necrosis and perforation. To report the use of topical colistin and surgical tarsorrhaphy in a case of keratitis caused by extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit with clinical symptoms of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. During his stay in the unit, he developed rapidly progressive keratitis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to all drugs except for colistin on culture. Due to incomplete lid closure, a temporary tarsorrhaphy was performed, and a regimen of descending-dose topical colistin was initiated. After five weeks, keratitis resolved completely. Extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an unusual cause of bacterial keratitis. We describe the safe and effective use of topical colistin in a case with severe corneal involvement.


RESUMO A ceratite bacteriana causada por cepas multirresistentes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um desafio terapêutico, devido à disponibilidade limitada de antimicrobianos e à rápida progressão para necrose e perfuração da córnea. O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o uso de colistina tópica e tarsorrafia cirúrgica em um caso de ceratite por Pseudomonas aeruginosa amplamente resistente a medicamentos em um paciente com pneumonia grave por COVID19. Um homem de 56 anos foi internado em uma unidade de terapia intensiva com sintomas clínicos de pneumonia grave por COVID19. Durante sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva, o paciente desenvolveu uma ceratite rapidamente progressiva, cuja cultura foi positiva para Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistente a todos os antimicrobianos, exceto colistina. Devido ao fechamento incompleto da pálpebra, foi realizada uma tarsorrafia temporária e foi instituído um esquema de colistina tópica em doses decrescentes. Após cinco semanas, a resolução completa da ceratite foi alcançada. Pseudomonas aeruginosa amplamente resistente a medicamentos é uma causa incomum de ceratite bacteriana. Este relato descreve o uso seguro e eficaz da colistina tópica em um caso com comprometimento corneano grave.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219458

ABSTRACT

Aims: The paper aimed to clarify the effect of cucumber target leaf spot (TLS) under the Jingdusha (JDS) treatment. Study Design: We applied the method of artificial inoculation in the pot, and analyzed the changes in growth indexes and physiological characteristics. Place and Duration of Study: In 2018, these experiments were conducted in College of Bioscience and Biotechnology of Shenyang Agricultural University (Lab 240). Methodology: The seedlings in the two-leaf period were induced by the best application scheme of JDS, then inoculated Corynespora cassiicola for 24 h. Cucumber seedlings of each treatment group were randomly selected for photographing and growth index determination after inoculation for 5 d. The leaves of cucumber seedlings in each treatment group were randomly collected at 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, and 9 d after inoculation for the determination of physiological and biochemical indicators. Results: When C. cassiicola infects cucumber, JDS can effectively improve the growth and photosynthetic pigment content of cucumber, reduce the degradation of chlorophyll (Chl) under the stress of C. cassiicola, strengthen the variety of metabolic responses in the plant, repair the enzyme protection system of cucumber leaves, reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, shorten the process of membrane lipid peroxidation in blades. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that JDS can improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings to C. cassiicola by regulating growth indexes and physiological characteristics. This work will provide a theoretical basis for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of JDS in cucumber defense against C. cassiicola.

19.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jun; 71(6): 2455-2459
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225121

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report on the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of infectious keratitis at a tertiary center in central India. Methods: The suspected case of severe keratitis underwent microbiological culture and identification using the VITEK 2 technique. Antibiotic susceptibility for different sensitivity and resistance patterns was analyzed. Demographics, clinical profile, and socioeconomic history was also documented. Results: Culture was positive in 233/455 (51.2%) patients. Pure bacterial growth was present in 83 (35.62%) patients and pure fungus was present in 146 (62.66%) patients. The most common bacterial cause of infectious keratitis was Pseudomonas followed by Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Pseudomonas showed 65%–75% resistance against levofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Staphylococcus showed 65%–70% resistance against levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, with Streptococcus being 100% resistant to erythromycin. Conclusion: This study highlights the current trend of microbiological profiles of infectious keratitis and their antibiotic susceptibility at a rural setup in central India. Fungal predominance and increased resistance against the commonly used antibiotics were noted.

20.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2023 Jun; 67(2): 105-112
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223984

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Various physiological mechanisms counteract insulin resistance (IR) during normal pregnancy. Psychological stress is a known, independent risk factor for developing IR. Pregnancy-specific psychological stress may cause IR and increase the risk of overt diabetes. Hence, the study aims to evaluate maternal psychological stress using multiple stress markers and their association with changes in IR during pregnancy and postpartum. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and skinfold thickness were measured using standard techniques. The stress markers were assessed using perceived stress scales (K10 questionnaire), a physiological marker of stress (Heart rate variability [HRV] measures) and biochemical stress markers (Saliva, hair cortisol levels). IR was estimated using homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR). The association of stress markers with IR was studied among fifty healthy pregnant women during pregnancy and postpartum. Results: The psychological stress scores and saliva cortisol were significantly higher during pregnancy than postpartum (P = 0.000). A comparison of cardiac autonomic function as assessed by HRV measures shows that high frequency in normalised units (HFnu) was significantly higher during the postnatal period than in the prenatal period (P = 0.000). High frequency (HF) spectral power in absolute units was also significantly higher (P = 0.002) in the postpartum period (2612.30 ± 432.24) when compared with the prenatal period (1446.10 ± 299.15). Low frequency in normalised units (LFnu), low frequency (LF)/HF ratio was significantly higher during the prenatal period than in the postnatal period (P = 0.000). As assessed by HOMA-IR values, IR was significantly higher during the prenatal period than postpartum (P = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between prenatal psychological stress scores, HRV parameters (LFnu, LF/HF) and postnatal IR. Conclusion: Pregnancy is associated with higher psychological stress levels and IR than postpartum. Furthermore, the maternal cardiac autonomic marker could predict postnatal IR among healthy pregnant women.

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