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2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 39(2): e20230104, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1535539

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Along with cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamping time is directly related to the risk of complications after heart surgery. The influence of the time difference between cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamping times (TDC-C) remains poorly understood. Objective: To assess the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass time in relation to cross-clamping time on immediate results after coronary artery bypass grafting in the Registro Paulista de Cirurgia Cardiovascular (REPLICCAR) II. Methods: Analysis of 3,090 patients included in REPLICCAR II database was performed. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons outcomes were evaluated (mortality, kidney failure, deep wound infection, reoperation, cerebrovascular accident, and prolonged ventilation time). A cutoff point was adopted, from which the increase of this difference would affect each outcome. Results: After a cutoff point determination, all patients were divided into Group 1 (cardiopulmonary bypass time < 140 min., TDC-C < 30 min.), Group 2 (cardiopulmonary bypass time < 140 min., TDC-C > 30 min.), Group 3 (cardiopulmonary bypass time > 140 min., TDC-C < 30 min.), and Group 4 (cardiopulmonary bypass time > 140 min., TDC-C > 30 min.). After univariate logistic regression, Group 2 showed significant association with reoperation (odds ratio: 1.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.66), stroke (odds ratio: 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.99-7.63), kidney failure (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.74), and in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 2.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-3.60). Conclusion: TDC-C serves as a predictive factor for complications following coronary artery bypass grafting. We strongly recommend that future studies incorporate this metric to improve the prediction of complications.

3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 48: e1, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536669

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo. Realizar uma revisão sistemática de publicações científicas que abordaram experiências de aplicação de métodos de estratificação para definir áreas de risco de transmissão de sarampo. Métodos. Foram selecionados artigos publicados nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol em periódicos indexados nas bases SciELO, PubMed e LILACS. A busca utilizou os descritores risk assessment AND measles, sem delimitação de período. Foram excluídos editoriais, artigos de opinião, estudos observacionais de nível individual e publicações que não tratavam da aplicação de métodos de estratificação de áreas de risco de transmissão de sarampo. As informações de ano de publicação, autoria, país de realização do estudo, objetivo, escala geográfica, método utilizado, indicadores e limitações foram extraídas por meio de formulário. Resultados. Foram selecionados 13 artigos publicados entre 2011 e 2022 em nove países das seis regiões da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Desses, 10 tiveram como referência a ferramenta Measles Risk Assessment Tool desenvolvida pela OMS/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Apenas um estudo adaptou a ferramenta ao contexto local. Os indicadores utilizados para a estratificação de risco enfocaram uma combinação das dimensões imunidade populacional, qualidade dos sistemas de vigilância e situação epidemiológica. Como dificuldades para a estratificação de risco, destaca-se a produção sistemática de dados com cobertura e qualidade adequadas. Conclusão. As estratégias de estratificação do risco de transmissão de sarampo parecem ser ainda pouco difundidas, especialmente na escala local. Reitera-se a necessidade de estímulo à capacitação de recursos humanos para processamento e interpretação das análises de risco nas rotinas dos serviços de vigilância.


ABSTRACT Objective. To perform a systematic review of scientific publications addressing the use of stratification methods to define risk areas for measles transmission. Method. Articles published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish in journals indexed in the SciELO, PubMed, and LILACS databases were selected. The search terms risk assessment AND measles were used without date limits. Editorials, opinion articles, individual-level observational studies, and publications that did not focus on the application of methods to stratify measles transmission risk areas were excluded. Year of publication, authorship, country where the study was performed, objective, geographic level of analysis, method used, indicators, and limitations were recorded in a data form. Results. Thirteen articles published between 2011 and 2022 in nine countries from the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions were selected. Of these, 10 referred to the Measles Risk Assessment Tool developed by the WHO/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Only one study adapted the tool to the local context. The risk stratification indicators used in the selected studies focused on a combination of the following dimensions: population immunity, quality of surveillance systems, and epidemiologic status. The systematic output of data with adequate quality and coverage was a noteworthy aspect hindering risk stratification. Conclusion. There seems to be limited dissemination of measles risk stratification strategies, especially at local levels. The need to train human resources to process and interpret risk analyses as part of the routine of surveillance services is emphasized.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Realizar una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas en las que se han abordado experiencias de aplicación de métodos de estratificación para definir las zonas de riesgo de transmisión del sarampión. Métodos. Se seleccionaron artículos publicados en español, inglés o portugués en revistas indizadas en las bases de datos SciELO, PubMed y LILACS. En la búsqueda se utilizaron los descriptores "risk assessment" y "measles", sin limitaciones en la fecha de publicación. Se excluyeron editoriales, artículos de opinión, estudios de observación de pacientes individuales y publicaciones que no tratasen de la aplicación de métodos de estratificación de zonas de riesgo de transmisión del sarampión. Se empleó un formulario para extraer la información sobre año de publicación, autoría, país de realización del estudio, objetivo, escala geográfica, método utilizado, indicadores y limitaciones. Resultados. Se seleccionaron 13 artículos publicados entre el 2011 y el 2022 en nueve países de las seis regiones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). En 10 de ellos se utilizó como referencia la herramienta de evaluación del riesgo de sarampión creada por la OMS y los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades de Estados Unidos. Solamente en un estudio se adaptó la herramienta al contexto local. Los indicadores utilizados para la estratificación del riesgo se basaron en una combinación de las dimensiones de inmunidad poblacional, calidad de los sistemas de vigilancia y situación epidemiológica. Entre las dificultades de la estratificación del riesgo se destaca la de generación sistemática de datos con una cobertura y calidad adecuadas. Conclusión. Las estrategias de estratificación del riesgo de transmisión del sarampión siguen sin estar, al parecer, muy extendidas, en especial a nivel local. Cabe reiterar la necesidad de fomentar la capacitación de recursos humanos para procesar e interpretar los análisis de riesgo en las operaciones habituales de los servicios de vigilancia.

4.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3983, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1515332

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: mapear los instrumentos para la evaluación del riesgo de lesiones por presión en adultos en situación crítica en una unidad de terapia intensiva; identificar los indicadores de desempeño de los instrumentos y la apreciación de los usuarios con respecto al uso/limitaciones de los instrumentos. Método: scoping review. Para redactar el estudio se utilizó la extensión Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. La investigación se realizó mediante la herramienta de búsqueda EBSCOhost en 8 bases de datos, resultando 1846 estudios, de los cuales 22 conforman la muestra. Resultados: se identificaron dos grandes grupos de instrumentos: los generalistas [Braden, Braden (ALB), Emina, Norton-MI, RAPS y Waterlow]; y los específicos (CALCULATE, Cubbin & Jackson, EVARUCI, RAPS-ICU, Song & Choi, Suriaidi y Sanada y el índice COMHON). En cuanto al valor predictivo, EVARUCI y CALCULATE mostraron los mejores resultados de indicadores de desempeño. En cuanto a las apreciaciones/limitaciones señaladas por los usuarios, destaca la escala CALCULATE, seguida de la EVARUCI y la RAPS-ICU, aunque aún necesitan ajustes futuros. Conclusión: el mapeo mostró que las evidencias son suficientes para indicar uno o más instrumentos para la evaluación del riesgo de lesiones por presión en adultos críticos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos.


Objective: to map the instruments for risk assessment of pressure ulcers in adults in critical situation in intensive care units; identify performance indicators of the instrument, and the appreciation of users regarding the instruments' use/limitations. Method: a scoping review. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews in the writing of the study. We carried out the searches in the EBSCOhost search tool for 8 databases, resulting in 1846 studies, of which 22 studies compose the sample. Results: we identified two big instrument groups: generalist [Braden, Braden (ALB), Emina, Norton-MI, RAPS, and Waterlow]; and specific (CALCULATE, Cubbin & Jackson, EVARUCI, RAPS-ICU, Song & Choi, Suriaidi and Sanada, and COMHON index). Regarding the predictive value, EVARUCI and CALCULATE presented better results for performance indicators. Concerning appreciation/limitations indicated by users, we highlight the CALCULATE scale, followed by EVARUCI and RAPS-ICU, although they still need future adjustments. Conclusion: the mapping of the literature showed that the evidence is sufficient to indicate one or more instruments for the risk assessment of pressure ulcers for adults in critical situation in intensive care units.


Objetivo: mapear os instrumentos para avaliação do risco de lesões por pressão nos adultos em situação crítica em unidade de cuidados intensivos; identificar os indicadores de desempenho dos instrumentos e a apreciação dos utilizadores quanto ao uso/às limitações dos instrumentos. Método: scoping review. O Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews foi utilizado para a redação do estudo. A pesquisa foi realizada na ferramenta de busca EBSCOhost em oito bases de dados, resultando em 1846 estudos, dos quais 22 compõem a amostra. Resultados: identificaram-se dois grandes grupos de instrumentos: os genéricos [Braden, Braden (ALB), Emina, Norton-MI, RAPS e Waterlow]; e os específicos (CALCULATE, Cubbin & Jackson, EVARUCI, RAPS-ICU, Song & Choi, Suriaidi e Sanada e o índice de COMHON). Quanto ao valor preditivo, a EVARUCI e a CALCULATE apresentaram os melhores resultados de indicadores de desempenho. Em relação à apreciação/às limitações apontadas pelos utilizadores, destacam-se a escala CALCULATE, seguindo-se da EVARUCI e da RAPS-ICU, embora ainda necessitem de ajustes futuros. Conclusão: o mapeamento mostrou que as evidências são suficientes para indicar um ou mais instrumentos para avaliação do risco de lesões por pressão nos adultos em situação crítica em unidade de cuidados intensivos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Risk Assessment/methods , Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis , Intensive Care Units
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3977, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1515327

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre las categorías de clasificación de riesgo y el Modified Early Warning Score y los resultados de los pacientes con COVID-19 en el servicio de emergencia Método: estudio transversal, realizado con 372 pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 atendidos en la Recepción con Clasificación de Riesgo en Urgencias. En este estudio, el Modified Early Warning Score de los pacientes se clasificó como sin y con deterioro clínico, de 0 a 4 y de 5 a 9, respectivamente. Se consideró que había deterioro clínico cuando presentaban insuficiencia respiratoria aguda, shock y paro cardiorrespiratorio. Resultados: el Modified Early Warning Score promedio fue de 3,34. En cuanto al deterioro clínico de los pacientes, se observó que en el 43% de los casos el tiempo de deterioro fue menor a 24 horas y que el 65,9% ocurrió en urgencias. El deterioro más frecuente fue la insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (69,9%) y el resultado fue alta hospitalaria (70,3%). Conclusión: los pacientes con COVID-19 que presentaban Modified Early Warning Score 4 se asociaron a las categorías de clasificación de riesgo urgente, muy urgente y emergente y tuvieron más deterioro clínico, como insuficiencia respiratoria y shock, y murieron, lo que demuestra que el Protocolo de Clasificación de Riesgo priorizó correctamente a los pacientes con riesgo vital.


Objective: to evaluate the association of the risk classification categories with the Modified Early Warning Score and the outcomes of COVID-19 patients in the emergency service Method: a crosssectional study carried out with 372 patients hospitalized with a COVID-19 diagnosis and treated at the Risk Classification Welcoming area from the Emergency Room. In this study, the patients' Modified Early Warning Score was categorized into without and with clinical deterioration, from 0 to 4 and from 5 to 9, respectively. Clinical deterioration was considered to be acute respiratory failure, shock and cardiopulmonary arrest Results: the mean Modified Early Warning Score was 3.34. In relation to the patients' clinical deterioration, it was observed that, in 43%, the time for deterioration was less than 24 hours and that 65.9% occurred in the Emergency Room. The most frequent deterioration was acute respiratory failure (69.9%) and the outcome was hospital discharge (70.3%). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who had a Modified Early Warning Scores > 4 were associated with the urgent, very urgent and emergency risk classification categories, had more clinical deterioration, such as respiratory failure and shock, and evolved more to death, which shows that the Risk Classification Protocol correctly prioritized patients at risk of life.


Objetivo: avaliar a associação das categorias de classificação de risco com o Modified Early Warning Score e os desfechos dos pacientes com COVID-19 no serviço de emergência Método: estudo transversal, realizado com 372 pacientes internados com diagnóstico de COVID-19 atendidos no Acolhimento com Classificação de Risco no Pronto-Atendimento. Neste estudo, o Modified Early Warning Score dos pacientes foi categorizado em sem e com deterioração clínica, de 0 a 4 e de 5 a 9, respectivamente. Foram consideradas deteriorações clínicas a insuficiência respiratória aguda, choque e parada cardiorrespiratória. Resultados: o Modified Early Warning Score médio foi de 3,34. Em relação à deterioração clínica dos pacientes, observou-se que em 43% o tempo para deterioração foi menor de 24 horas e que 65,9% delas ocorreu no pronto-socorro. A deterioração mais frequente foi a insuficiência respiratória aguda (69,9%) e o desfecho foi o de alta hospitalar (70,3%). Conclusão: pacientes com COVID-19 que tiveram Modified Early Warning Score 4 foram associados às categorias da classificação de risco urgente, muito urgente e emergente e tiveram mais deterioração clínica, como a insuficiência respiratória e o choque, e evoluíram mais a óbito, o que demonstra que o Protocolo de Classificação de Risco priorizou corretamente os pacientes com risco de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Deterioration , Early Warning Score , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals
6.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 48(3): 48-61, 30 sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512551

ABSTRACT

El dolor torácico es un motivo de consulta frecuente en los servicios de urgencia. Su espectro de presentaciones y su diagnóstico diferencial es amplio, con patologías de elevada morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas. Es el síntoma principal en pacientes con un síndrome coronario agudo y, ante su sospecha es mandatorio realizar una evaluación inicial centrada en la estratificación de riesgo de sufrir eventos adversos en cada paciente, para así definir su tratamiento y disposición posterior de forma correcta. Objetivo: presentar los elementos que componen la evaluación inicial del dolor torácico ante una sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo y las herramientas disponibles para realizar la estratificación de riesgo y así guiar la disposición desde el servicio de urgencia. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura sobre la estratificación de riesgo del dolor torácico, buscando la evidencia actual respecto a las herramientas diagnósticas utilizadas habitualmente en el servicio de urgencia. Resultados: Se presenta una revisión con generalidades del dolor torácico, sus diagnósticos diferenciales, los elementos de la evaluación inicial y las herramientas clínicas para la evaluación de riesgo de pacientes con dolor torácico y sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo en el servicio de urgencia. Discusión y conclusiones: La presentación del síndrome coronario agudo es variable en la población. Ante la presencia de un cuadro de dolor atípico y/o un electrocardiograma no diagnóstico, recomendamos el uso de un sistema de puntaje validado como el HEART / HEART pathway para reducir la posibilidad de una inadecuada estratificación de riesgo en el servicio de urgencia


Chest pain is a common complaint in emergency departments. The spectrum of presentation and its differential diagnosis are broad, including pathologies associated with high morbidity and mortality, and it is the main symptom in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome. If suspected, it is mandatory to work out an initial evaluation focused on the risk stratification of adverse events for each patient to define their correct treatment and disposition. Objective: show the elements that involve the initial evaluation of chest pain suspicious of an acute coronary syndrome, the clinical tools available to perform risk stratification, and guide the disposition from the emergency department. Method: a review of the literature on chest pain risk stratification was performed, looking for current evidence of the most commonly used diagnostic tools in emergency departments. Results: we present a literature review of generalities about chest pain and its differential diagnoses, the elements to consider in the initial evaluation, and clinical tools for risk stratification of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome at the emergency department. Discussion and conclusions: the presentation of acute coronary syndrome is variable in the population. In the presence of atypical chest pain or a non-diagnostic electrocardiogram, we recommend using a validated score as the HEART / HEART Pathway to reduce the chance of inadequate risk stratification in the emergency department.

7.
Radiol. bras ; 56(5): 229-234, Sept.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the results obtained with an artificial intelligence-based software for predicting the risk of malignancy in breast masses from ultrasound images. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study evaluating 555 breast masses submitted to percutaneous biopsy at a cancer referral center. Ultrasonographic findings were classified in accordance with the BI-RADS lexicon. The images were analyzed by using Koios DS Breast software and classified as benign, probably benign, low to intermediate suspicion, high suspicion, or probably malignant. The histological classification was considered the reference standard. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51 years, and the mean mass size was 16 mm. The radiologist evaluation had a sensitivity and specificity of 99.1% and 34.0%, respectively, compared with 98.2% and 39.0%, respectively, for the software evaluation. The positive predictive value for malignancy for the BI-RADS categories was similar between the radiologist and software evaluations. Two false-negative results were identified in the radiologist evaluation, the masses in question being classified as suspicious by the software, whereas four false-negative results were identified in the software evaluation, the masses in question being classified as suspicious by the radiologist. Conclusion: In our sample, the performance of artificial intelligence-based software was comparable to that of a radiologist.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os resultados de um software baseado em algoritmo de inteligência artificial para predição do risco de malignidade em nódulos mamários. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo e unicêntrico que avaliou 555 nódulos mamários submetidos a biópsia percutânea em um centro de referência oncológico. Os achados ultrassonográficos foram classificados de acordo com o léxico do BI-RADS. As imagens foram analisadas pelo software Koios DS Breast e divididas em benigna ou provavelmente benigna, suspeita baixa ou intermediária, suspeita alta ou provavelmente maligna. O resultado histopatológico foi considerado como padrão ouro. Resultados: A média de idade das pacientes foi de 51 anos e o tamanho médio dos nódulos foi de 16 mm. A sensibilidade e a especificidade foram de 99,1% e 34,0% para o radiologista e 98,2% e 39,0% para o software, respectivamente. O valor preditivo positivo para malignidade para as categorias BIRADS foi semelhante para o radiologista e para o software. Foram identificados dois resultados falso-negativos na avaliação pelo radiologista que foram classificados como suspeitos pelo software, e quatro resultados falso-negativos na avaliação pelo software que foram classificados como suspeitos pelo radiologista. Conclusão: Na nossa amostra, o software de inteligência artificial demonstrou resultados comparáveis à avaliação pelo radiologista.

8.
Acta méd. peru ; 40(3)jul. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527631

ABSTRACT

Establecer la capacidad discriminativa del puntaje de riesgo finlandés para disglucemia en usuarios de una unidad de medicina familiar localizada en zona conurbana del Estado de Guerrero, México. Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal de marzo a diciembre del 2021 en una Unidad de Medicina Familiar. Previo consentimiento informado aplicamos a 200 personas de 20 a 60 años, el puntaje de riesgo finlandés para detección de disglucemia, obtuvimos medidas somatométricas y cifras de glucosa plasmática en ayuno. Estimamos sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo, razón de verosimilitud positiva y negativa, y calculamos el área bajo la curva (AUC) para estimar la capacidad discriminativa del puntaje de riesgo, donde la prueba de referencia fue la glucosa en ayuno. Realizamos análisis bivariado para identificar factores asociados a disglucemia, obteniendo Odds Ratio (OR), e intervalos de confianza del 95 % (IC95%). La ocurrencia de disglucemia fue de 26.5 % (53/200). El AUC de la curva ROC del puntaje finlandés para disglucemia fue de 0.65 (IC95% 0.57-0.74). Los factores asociados a diabetes fueron ≥40 años (OR 2.1; IC95% 1.1-3.9), índice de masa corporal ≥25 Kg/m2 (OR 2.8; IC95% 1.2-6.7) y padecer hipertensión arterial (OR 2.2; IC95% 1.1-4.4). El FINDRISC demostró por AUC ser una mala herramienta para detectar personas en riesgo de padecer disglucemia, en población adscrita a unidad médica conurbana.


To establish the discriminative capacity of the Finnish risk score for dysglycemia in users of a family medicine unit located in the suburbs of the State of Guerrero, Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March to December 2021 in a Family Medicine Unit. With prior informed consent, we applied the Finnish risk score for the detection of dysglycemia to 200 people between the ages of 20 and 60, we obtained somatometric measurements and fasting plasma glucose figures. We estimated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) to estimate the discriminative ability of the risk score, where the reference test was fasting glucose. We performed bivariate analysis to identify factors associated with dysglycemia, obtaining Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Result: The occurrence of dysglycemia was 26.5% (53/200). The AUC of the ROC curve of the Finnish score for dysglycemia was 0.65 (95%CI 0.57-0.74). The factors associated with diabetes were ≥40 years (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.1-3.9), body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 (OR 2.8; 95%CI 1.2-6.7) and suffering from arterial hypertension (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1 -4.4). The FINDRISC was shown by AUC to be a poor tool for detecting people at risk of suffering from dysglycemia, in a population attached to a suburban medical unit

9.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 91(2): 109-116, jun. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529588

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción : Los puntajes de riesgo cardiovascular tienen limitaciones relacionadas con la calibración, la discriminación y la baja sensibilidad. Se han identificado diferentes "moduladores de riesgo" que permiten mejorar la estratificación del riesgo cardiovascular: placa aterosclerótica carotídea (PAC), puntaje de calcio arterial coronario (pCAC) y lipoproteína(a) [Lp(a)]. Objetivos : 1) determinar la prevalencia de los moduladores de riesgo citados en una población en prevención primaria; 2) determinar la concordancia entre los 2 métodos de detección de aterosclerosis subclínica; 3) establecer qué proporción de pacientes deberían recibir estatinas inicialmente, según su puntaje de riesgo, y posteriormente con el conocimiento de los moduladores de riesgo. Material y métodos : Se incluyeron individuos de 18 a 79 años, que asistieron para una evaluación de riesgo cardiovascular y que no estaban recibiendo tratamiento hipolipemiante. Se calculó el puntaje de riesgo (ASCVD Risk Estimator) en cada paciente. Se evaluó la presencia de PAC, el pCAC y el nivel plasmático de Lp(a). Resultados : Se incluyeron 348 pacientes (edad media 55,6 ± 12,2 años, 45,4% hombres). En la población total, 29,8%, 36,8% y 53,2% de los pacientes mostraron un valor de Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dL, PAC o un pCAC > 0, respectivamente. La prevalencia de PAC y pCAC fue progresivamente mayor según la categoría de riesgo cardiovascular; sin embargo, la proporción de sujetos de bajo riesgo que tenían moduladores de riesgo fue considerable (Lp(a) ≥ 50 mg/dl: 25,7%; PAC: 22%; pCAC > 0: 33%). En los 60 individuos menores de 45 años la prevalencia de pCAC > 0 y PAC fue de 18,3% y 10%, respectivamente. La concordancia entre los dos métodos para determinar la presencia de ateromatosis subclínica fue discreta (kappa 0,33). La indicación del tratamiento con estatinas aumentó un 31,6% luego de evaluar la presencia de moduladores. Conclusión : La presencia de moduladores de riesgo fue frecuente en esta población en prevención primaria, incluso en sujetos de bajo riesgo o menores de 45 años. La detección de moduladores de riesgo podría mejorar la estratificación inicial y llevar a reconsiderar el tratamiento con estatinas.


ABSTRACT Background : Cardiovascular risk scores have limitations related to calibration, discrimination, and low sensitivity. Different "risk modulators" have been identified to improve cardiovascular risk stratification: carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP), coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Objectives : The aims of this study were: 1) to determine the prevalence of risk modulators mentioned in a primary prevention population; 2) determine the concordance between the 2 methods of detecting subclinical atherosclerosis; and 3) establish which proportion of patients should receive statins according to the initial risk stratification and after being recategorized by screening for risk modulators. Methods : Individuals aged 18 to 79 years who consulted for cardiovascular risk assessment and who were not receiving lipid-lowering treatment were included. The risk score was calculated in each patient using ASCVD Risk Estimator. The presence of CAP, CAC score and Lp(a) level were evaluated. Results : The cohort was made up of 348 patients; mean age was 55.6 ± 12.2 years and 45.4% were men. In the total population, 29.8%, 36.8%, and 53.2% of patients showed Lp(a) value ≥50 mg/dL, CAP, or a CAC score >0, respectively. The prevalence of CAP and CAC score was progressively higher according to the cardiovascular risk category; however, the proportion of low-risk subjects who had risk modulators was considerable (Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dl: 25.7%; CAP: 22%; CAC score >0: 33%). In the 60 subjects <45 years, the prevalence of CAC score >0 and CAP was 18.3% and 10%, respectively. The agreement between the two methods for quantifying subclinical atheromatosis was fair (kappa= 0.33). The indication for statin treatment increased by 31.6% after evaluating the presence of modulators. Conclusion : The presence of risk modulators was common in this population in primary prevention, even in low-risk subjects or < 45 years. Detection of risk modulators could improve initial stratification and lead to reconsideration of statin treatment.

10.
Rev. argent. cardiol ; 91(2): 138-143, jun. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529591

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción : Las guías europeas de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP) estratifican el riesgo valiéndose de características clínicas y estudios complementarios entre los cuales está la prueba cardiopulmonar de ejercicio (PCPE), de la cual toma en cuenta 3 parámetros: el consumo de O2 (VO2) pico, su porcentaje respecto del predicho y la pendiente ventilación minuto/ producción de dióxido de carbono (VE/VCO2). Sin embargo, ninguno de los modelos que validaron esta forma de estratificar el riesgo incluyeron la PCPE entre sus variables. Objetivos : Determinar qué proporción de pacientes con HAP del grupo I considerados de bajo riesgo y que caminan >440 metros en la prueba de caminata de 6 minutos (PC6M) tienen en la PCPE parámetros considerados de riesgo moderado o alto. Material y métodos : Se incluyeron pacientes >18 años con diagnóstico de HAP del grupo I considerados de bajo riesgo con una PC6M >400 metros a los que se les realizó una PCPE en la que se registró el VO2 pico, su porcentaje respecto del VO2 predicho y la pendiente VE/VCO2. Se determinó qué proporción de pacientes presentaban estos parámetros en un estrato de riesgo mayor a bajo riesgo (VO2 pico <15 ml/kg/min, su porcentaje respecto del predicho <65% y la pendiente VE/VCO2 >36). Resultados : Se incluyeron 18 pacientes. A pesar de ser pacientes de bajo riesgo y con buena clase funcional todos presentaron un VO2 pico menor al 85% del predicho, lo cual determina un deterioro al menos leve de la capacidad funcional. Un único paciente (6%) presentó los tres parámetros evaluados en bajo riesgo, 8 pacientes (44%) tuvieron al menos un parámetro alterado, 7 pacientes (39%) presentaron 2 parámetros alterados y en 2 pacientes (11%) todos los parámetros estuvieron alterados. Los parámetros que más frecuentemente se vieron alterados fueron el porcentaje respecto del VO2 predicho y la pendiente VE/VCO2, en el 67% de los casos. Solo 4 pacientes presentaron un VO2 pico <15 ml/k/m. Ningún paciente presentó valores de VO2 pico o porcentaje respecto del predicho en la categoría de alto riesgo. Sin embargo, 6 pacientes (33%) presentaron una pendiente VE/VCO2 considerada de alto riesgo. Conclusión : El 94% de los pacientes considerados de bajo riesgo presentaron al menos una variable en la PCPE que no corresponde a un perfil de riesgo bajo. La pendiente VE/VCO2 y el porcentaje de VO2 pico respecto del predicho fueron las variables más frecuentemente alteradas. La pendiente VE/VCO2 fue la única que mostró valores considerados de alto riesgo. La PCPE podría tener un lugar en la estratificación de precisión de pacientes de bajo riesgo. El valor de este hallazgo deberá ser evaluado en estudios prospectivos, al tiempo que genera las bases para el planteo de hipótesis respecto de la estratificación de riesgo y la intensidad del tratamiento en pacientes que aparentan estar en bajo riesgo.


ABSTRACT Background : European guidelines for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) stratify the risk using clinical characteristics and complementary studies, including the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). This takes into account 3 parameters: peak O2 consumption (peak VO2), its percentage with respect to the predicted VO2, and the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope. However, none of the models that validated this way of stratifying risk included PCPE among their variables. Objectives : To determine what proportion of patients with group I PAH considered to be at low risk and who walk >440 meters in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) have parameters considered to be of moderate or high risk in the PCPE. Methods : Patients >18 years of age, diagnosed with group I PAH at low risk of events, who walked >440 meters in the 6MWT and had NT-proBNP value <300 pg/dL were included. A CPET was performed in which the peak VO2, its percentage with respect to the predicted VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope were recorded. It was determined what proportion of patients presented these parameters in a higher than low risk stratum (peak VO2 consumption ≤15 ml/min/Kg, its percentage with respect to the predicted VO2 ≤65% and the VE/VCO2 slope ≥36). Results : Eighteen patients were included. Despite being low-risk patients with a good functional class, all patients presented a peak VO2 less than 85% of predicted, which determines a deterioration of functional capacity. A single patient (6%) presented the three parameters evaluated at low risk, 8 patients (44%) had at least one altered parameter, 7 patients (39%) presented 2 altered parameters and in 2 patients (11%) all parameters were altered. The parameters that were most frequently altered were the percentage of predicted peak VO2 and the VE/VCO2 slope in 67% of the cases. Only 4 patients presented a peak VO2 <15 ml/kg/m. No patient presented peak VO2 values or percentage of predicted VO2 in the high-risk category. However, 6 patients (33%) presented a high-risk VE/VCO2 slope. Conclusion : Majority (92%) of the patients considered low risk and who walk more than 440 meters in 6 minutes presented at least one altered variable in the CPET. The VE/VCO2 slope and the percentage of predicted peak VO2 consumption were the most frequently altered variables. The VE/VCO2 slope was the only one that showed values considered high risk. CPET could have a place in the precision stratification of low-risk patients. The value of this finding should be evaluated in prospective studies.

11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 99(2): 181-186, Mar.-Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430710

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the conservative management of newborns born at ≥35 weeks of gestational age, at risk for early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS). Methods: Retrospective, analytic cohort study (2016 to 2019), including newborns ≥35 weeks of gestational at risk of EOS, asymptomatic at birth, managed conservatively in full rooming-in: serial physical examination and clinical observation for at least 48 h. They were classified into three groups, according to the clinical course: asymptomatic (group A), symptomatic for other reasons (group B), and with sepsis (group C). Risk factors, clinical signs and differential diagnoses of sepsis, length of stay, and discharge conditions were evaluated. Results: The authors evaluated 769 asymptomatic newborns at risk of EOS. (mean birth weight 2999 ± 485 g and gestational age 37.6 ± 1.7 weeks, respectively) corresponding to 12.2% of rooming-in admissions. The most prevalent risk factors were colonization by Group B Streptococcus (29%), prolonged rupture membrane duration (21.9%) and preterm labor (21.4%). Most of all of them (53.9%) remained asymptomatic (group A). Group B corresponded for 45.3%, and the most common clinical signs were hypothermia (24.5%), tremors (8.7%) and vomiting (8%). Environmental dysthermia (50.7%), prematurity (20.0%), and feeding intolerance (15.7%) were common in Group B. Laboratory tests were performed in 3.5%. Five patients (one confirmed) comprised group C (0.8/1,000 live births). There were no deaths. The median length of stay was 64 h (IQR 50-93). Conclusion: The rate of clinical/confirmed EOS was low. Most of the symptomatic patients only needed clinical evaluation to rule out sepsis. Management was shown to be safe.

12.
Psico USF ; 28(1): 135-148, Jan.-Mar. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431098

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to understand to what extent the characteristics of psychopathy are correlated with personality traits and human values in a sample of imprisoned inmates. To this end, a total of 56 prisoners were evaluated, predominantly female (80.4%) with a mean age of 33.44 (SD=7.15). The following instruments were employed: (1) Hare scale, (2) Human Values Questionnaire (BVQ), (3) Big Five Personality Traits Inventory (BFI-S) and (4) Demographic Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were applied. The results indicated a positive correlation between a socially deviant/antisocial lifestyle (Factor 2) and the dimensions of neuroticism (r s =0.44; p<0.001), openness to experience in the BFI-S (r s =0.26; p<0.05) and experimentation in the BVQ (r s =0.36; p<0.001). It was concluded that the present study contributes to an understanding of personality traits and values related to psychopathy, expanding the nomological network of this construct. (AU)


Objetivou-se conhecer em que medida o traço de psicopatia correlaciona-se com os traços de personalidade e os valores humanos em uma amostra carcerária. Para tanto, avaliou-se 56 detentos, a maioria mulheres (80,4%), com média de idade de 33,44 (DP=7,15). Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: (1) Escala Hare, (2) Questionário de Valores Humanos (QVB), (3) Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade (IGFP - 5) e (4) Questionário Demográfico. Foram aplicadas estatísticas descritivas e correlação rho de Spearman. Os resultados indicaram uma relação positiva entre o estilo de vida socialmente desviante/antissocial (Fator 2) e as dimensões de neuroticismo (r s =0,44; p<0,001), abertura a mudança do IGFP-5 (r s =0,26; p<0,05) e experimentação do QVB (r s =0,36; p<0,001). Conclui-se que o presente estudo contribui para o conhecimento dos traços de personalidade e valores relacionados a psicopatia, ampliando a rede nomológica deste construto. (AU)


El objetivo de la presente investigación fue conocer en qué medida el rasgo de la psicopatía se correlaciona con los rasgos de personalidad y valores humanos en una muestra penitenciaria. Para ello, fueron evaluados 56 detenidos, en su mayoría mujeres (80,4%), con una media de edad de 33,44 años (DS=7,15). Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: (1) Escala Hare, (2) Cuestionario de valores humanos (QVB), (3) Inventario de los Cinco Grandes Factores de Personalidad (IGFP-5) y (4) Cuestionario demográfico. Se aplicaron estadísticas descriptivas y la correlación rho de Spearman. Los resultados indicaron una relación positiva entre conducta socialmente desviada/antisocial (Factor 2) y las dimensiones de neuroticismo (r s =0,44; p<0,001), apertura al cambio en el IGFP-5 (r s =0,26; p<0,05) y experimentación de QVB (r s =0,36; p<0,001). Se concluye que el presente estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los rasgos y valores de personalidad relacionados con la psicopatía, ampliando la red nomológica de este constructo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Personality , Prisoners , Social Values , Mental Disorders , Personality Inventory , Personality Tests , Behavior , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Recidivism , Correlation of Data , Sociodemographic Factors
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 38(1): 139-148, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423092

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: A clear assessment of the bleeding risk score in patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI) is crucial because of its impact on prognosis. The Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA score is a validated risk score to predict bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation (AF), but its predictive value in predicting bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) patients receiving antithrombotic therapy is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the predictive performance of the ATRIA bleeding score in STEMI and NSTEMI patients in comparison to the CRUSADE (Can Rapid risk stratification of Unstable angina patients Suppress ADverse outcomes with Early implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) and ACUITY-HORIZONS (Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage strategY-Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction) bleeding scores. Methods: A total of 830 consecutive STEMI and NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI were evaluated retrospectively. The ATRIA, CRUSADE, and ACUITY-HORIZONS risk scores of the patients were calculated. Discrimination of the three risk models was evaluated using C-statistics. Results: Major bleeding occurred in 52 (6.3%) of 830 patients during hospitalization. Bleeding scores were significantly higher in the bleeding patients than in non-bleeding patients (all P<0.001). The discriminatory ability of the ATRIA, CRUSADE, and ACUITY-HORIZONS bleeding scores for bleeding events was similar (C-statistics 0.810, 0.832, and 0.909, respectively). The good predictive value of all three scores for predicting the risk of bleeding was observed in NSTEMI and STEMI patients as well (C-statistics: 0.820, 0.793, and 0.921 and 0.809, 0.854, and 0.905, respectively). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the ATRIA bleeding score is a useful risk score for predicting major in-hospital bleeding in MI patients. This good predictive value was also present in STEMI and NSTEMI patient subgroups.

14.
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 35: e23351389, jan. 31, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517537

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) attacks the immune system, with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being the most advanced clinical manifestation. Prevention strategies have evolved over time in response to scientific advancements. From an institutional perspective, the Unified Health System (SUS) provides tools for Combined Prevention to the entire Brazilian population, universally and free of charge. However, despite therapeutic advances, HIV/AIDS remains a significant public health problem. Objective: To analyze the impact of Combined Prevention measures on the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Brazil from 1980 to 2020. Methods: Quantitative, observational, longitudinal, and retrospective study. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted, specifically employing linear regression techniques. The variables of interest included case incidence and the distribution of: tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), condoms, post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PEP), and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP). Publicly available data were sourced from governmental repositories. Results: The country has accumulated 1,037,878 infection cases, with an average of 25,947 new cases per year. Regarding prophylaxis inputs, five out of six variables demonstrated a negative correlation with the incidence rate, with only the distribution of male condoms showing a positive correlation. The analysis of the effect of PrEP was not statistically significant. Conclusion:Brazil has reduced the incidence of the disease as Combined Prevention measures have advanced. More time is needed to assess the impact of PrEP on the incidence of new cases.


Introdução: O vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) ataca o sistema imunológico. A síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS) é a manifestação clínica mais avançada. As estratégias de prevenção evoluíram ao longo do tempo conforme os avanços científicos. Do ponto de vista institucional, o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) disponibiliza ferramentas de prevenção combinada a toda a população brasileira de forma gratuita e universal. Contudo, apesar de todos os avanços terapêuticos, o HIV/AIDS continua sendo um grave problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: Analisar as medidas de prevenção combinada sobre a incidência de HIV/AIDS no Brasil no período entre 1980 e 2020. Métodos: Quantitativo, observacional, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Estatisticamente, foram realizadas análises descritiva e multivariada, mais especificamente a técnica de correção linear. As variáveis de interesse foram a incidência de caso e as distribuições de: testes para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), preservativos, profilaxia pós-exposição sexual ao HIV (PEP) e a profilaxia pré-exposição ao HIV (PrEP). Os dados utilizados são de caráter público e obtidos em repositórios governamentais. Resultados: O país acumula 1.037.878 casos de infecção, com média de 25.947 novos casos por ano. Quanto aos insumos de profilaxia, cinco das seis variáveis demonstraram correlação negativa com a taxa de incidência. Apenas a distribuição de preservativos masculinos teve correlação positiva. A análise do efeito da PrEP não foi estatisticamente significativa. Conclusão: O Brasil tem reduzido a incidência da doença à medida que avançam as medidas de prevenção combinada. É necessário mais tempo para analisar o impacto da PrEP na incidência de novos casos


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
15.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 942-949, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984247

ABSTRACT

Background A variety of substances in drinking water are hazardous to human health and there are health risks associated with ingestion of these substances via drinking water. Objective To assess the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of drinking water in Shijiazhuang from 2014 to 2021. Methods The collection, preservation, and testing of 10529 drinking water samples (including finished water and tap water) in Shijiazhuang were conducted from 2014 to 2021 and followed the Standard examination methods for drinking water (GB/T 5750—2006). The health risks of 15 chemicals in drinking water by oral exposure were assessed using the US Environmental Protection Agency's four-step method combined with Monte Carlo simulation. Results Among the 15 chemicals in drinking water assessed for their health risks at general exposure levels and high exposure levels via oral route in Shijiazhuang from 2014 to 2021, the leading three chemicals and related values of carcinogenic risks for adults were cadmium (1.11×10−4, 2.98×10−4), arsenic (5.88×10−5, 1.56×10−4), and chromium (5.48×10−5, 2.41×10−4), and the leading three chemicals and related values of non-carcinogenic risks were fluoride (3.57×10−1, 6.57×10−1), arsenic (1.31×10−1, 3.47×10−1), and nitrate (1.14×10−1, 5.98×10−1). The health risk values of trichloromethane and aluminum were elevated but still in acceptable ranges. Drinking water-associated health risk values were higher in males than in females, such as the cancer risk for general exposure levels of arsenic in men was 5.76×10−5, compared to 5.72×10−5 in women. The health risk values of cadmium, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, and other chemicals in ground water were higher than those of surface water, and the health risk values of trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride were lower than those in surface water, such as the non-carcinogenic risk value for general exposure levels of fluoride in groundwater was 3.61×10−1, compared to 2.27×10−1 in surface water. Factors such as water transmission and distribution links, water period, and season affected the health risks of drinking water. The general exposure levels of trichloromethane in tap water had a higher carcinogenic risk of 1.75×10−7 compared with 8.17×10−8 in finished water. The general levels of arsenic exposure was higher in the dry season at 1.36×10−1, compared with 1.26×10−1 in the wet season. Conclusion Except that the carcinogenic risk of cadmium at general exposure levels in Shijiazhuang exceeds the maximum acceptable range recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency, the health risk values of the remaining 14 chemicals are below the maximum acceptable risk. The carcinogenic risk values of arsenic and chromium and the non-carcinogenic risk values of fluoride, arsenic, and nitrate are relatively high, but do not exceed the maximum acceptable ranges. The emphasis should be on the management of drinking water in highly exposed areas and populations.

16.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 93-97, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-973367

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence of ASCVD in adult with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Tianshui City and assess the incidence risk in the next 10 years, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of ASCVD. Methods A total of 904 T2DM patients aged 20~88 years admitted in the cardiology department of Tianshui Hospital from May 2018 to June 2022 were grouped according to physical index (BMI), blood pressure, triglyceride (TG) ,glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum levels of asprosin and the risk of ASCVD by China-PAR model. Results The prevalence of ASCVD in adults with T2DM was 36.06%, and there were significant differences in the prevalence of ASCVD between different gender, hypertension grade, BMI and serum albumin (P310 pg/mL (OR=2.873, 95% CI:2.332-4.103), grade 3 hypertension (OR=1.726, 95% CI:1.281-1.981) and BMI>24(OR>1.5). Conclusion The occurrence of ASCVD in T2DM patients is related to a variety of factors , it is very important to control the serum albumin , BMI , hypertension to reduce the incidence rate of ASCVD within 10 years.

17.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 320-325, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-972768

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the effect of targeted intervention measures based on risk score of venous thromboembolism (VTE), on the prevention of senile type 2 diabetes inpatients, as well as their influence on the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. MethodsA total of 134 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were hospitalized in geriatrics department of Peking university third hospital during June 1, 2018 to September 30, 2018 were selected as the research subjects. All the patients were divided into control group and observation group according to random number table method, with 67 patients in each group. Patients in the control group were treated with conventional intervention methods, and patients in the observation group were treated with targeted intervention measures based on VTE risk score. After one month of intervention, the Padua score, blood glucose level and coagulation indexes of the two groups were compared. The incidence of thrombosis during the intervention period was also recorded. ResultsThe Padua score in observation group (2.09±2.17) points was significantly lower than that (3.19±2.37) points in control group (P<0.05). The indexes of fasting blood glucose, 2h postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The fibrinogen, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in observation group were significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The incidence of DVT, PVT, lower limb swelling, pain and abnormal skin color in the observation group were 4.00%, 2.00%, 2.00%, 2.00%, and 0, respectively, and in the control group were 12.00%, 10.00%, 10.00%, 12.00%, and 8.00%, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in observation group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). ConclusionTargeted intervention based on VTE risk score can significantly reduce the risk of VTE occurrence, improve blood clotting function and blood glucose level in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This nursing measure has important clinical application value.

18.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 342-348, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969640

ABSTRACT

Background The presence of formaldehyde, ammonia, benzene, toluene, and xylene in indoor air of public places has been confirmed to cause health damage. The employees of barber and beauty shops are exposed to relatively enclosed space for a long time, and could surfer more serious health risks from indoor air chemical pollutants. Objective To analyze the concentrations of common indoor air chemical pollutants in barber shops and beauty salons in Liaocheng City, and explore potential health risks of the pollutants for employees. Methods Using a stratified randomized sampling method, 8 to 10 barber shops and 5 to 10 beauty salons were selected in the main urban area of Liaocheng City to conduct monitoring of the sanitary conditions of public places in winter and summer every year from 2016 to 2021; the indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde, ammonia, benzene, toluene, and xylene in the selected sites were measured, and a questionnaire survey was conducted to collect exposure characteristics of indoor pollutants. The concentration distributions of the five chemical pollutants were obtained from the monitoring data for 6 consecutive years, and the health risk assessment model recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to perform health risk assessment of inhalation exposure. Results In 2016–2021, the median indoor air concentrations of formaldehyde, ammonia, benzene, toluene, and xylene in the two types of sites were lower than the limits of Hygienic Indicators and Limits for Public Places (GB 37488-2019), but the concentrations of some monitoring sites were higher than the limits. The disqualification rates of the five pollutants in the barber shops were 16.8%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 6.4%, and 12.0%, respectively. The disqualification rate of formaldehyde was the highest in all pollutants (22.0%), while the disqualification rates of ammonia, toluene, and xylene were 1.3%, 2.0%, and 2.0% in beauty salons respectively. Both formaldehyde and benzene were found to have carcinogenic risks (CR) in the two types of public places. Both median values of CR were greater than 1.0×10−6, and both maximum values were greater than 1.0×10−4. Formaldehyde had the highest non-carcinogenic risk in the indoor air of barber shops and beauty salons. The median non-carcinogenic hazard quotients (HQ) of formaldehyde were both greater than 1, and the maximum values were 16.72 and 12.19 times of the standard value; ammonia and toluene had the lowest non-carcinogenic risks, and their maximum values of HQ were less than 1; the median HQs of benzene and xylene were far less than 1, but their maximum risk values of barber shop were greater than 1. Conclusion For the sake of worker's health, formaldehyde and benzene should be the indoor air pollutant control priority for barber shops and beauty salons in Liaocheng; formaldehyde poses the most serious health hazard to practitioners and should be given high attention and necessary measures to reduce the hazard; benzene poses certain carcinogenic risks, with some of its highest values exceeding 10−4, which is higher than the recommended safety threshold.

19.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; (12): 787-804, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996619

ABSTRACT

@#Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in the world, also causes the most death cases of women among malignancies. Breast cancer risk reduction guidelines (version 2023) was updated by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Based on high-level evidences from evidence-based medicine and the latest research progress, the guidelines provided standardized guidance for breast cancer risk assessment and risk reduction strategies for individuals without a history of invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ, which has attracted widespread attention from clinicians worldwide. Breast cancer is also the most common malignancy in Chinese women, and the number of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases each year in China ranks first in the world due to the large population, so the breast cancer prevention has become a major public health challenge in China. Aimed to provide reference for breast cancer prevention in China, this article interpreted the guidelines (the new version) based on the characteristics of breast structure in Asian women and the epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in China.

20.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 296-306, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996478

ABSTRACT

@#Aflatoxins are ubiquitous and occur in food. Exposure to aflatoxins seriously impact the health of human and animal. It is concerning especially when aflatoxins are odourless, colourless, and tasteless that hardly be detected through naked eyes. Ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food contributes the major route of exposure. The present review is an update on the aflatoxin occurrence in food, aflatoxin regulations in food, and recent risk assessment of aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia. Peanuts and chili were more prone to aflatoxin contamination in Malaysia. The extreme weather experienced in Malaysia and global climatic change may worsen the aflatoxin contamination in food. The regulatory standards for aflatoxins imposed by Malaysia are less stringent than developed countries. The dietary exposure of aflatoxins among Malaysian was relatively high as compared with other Asia countries, ranging from 0.002 to 34.00 ng/kg body weight/day. Nonetheless, Malaysian population had low risk of aflatoxin-related liver cancer, with an estimated liver cancer risk of <1 cancer case/100,000 population/year.

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