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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 546-551, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to understand the perceptions of orthopedists and traumatologists regarding the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation in fluoroscopy procedures. Methods An objective, structured, self-administered questionnaire with sociodemographic, professional, and occupational variables was developed, available through an invitation sent to orthopedist physicians whose contacts were made publicly available. Results A total of 141 questionnaires were answered and analyzed. Most respondents (99%) use fluoroscopy in their surgeries, and only 34.8% of the participants feel safe with the use of the equipment. It was observed that the knowledge about ionizing radiation is inadequate, because 22.6% of the participants are unaware of the type of radiation emitted in fluoroscopy and its biological effects. In addition, 52% of the participants did not know or do not understand the principles of radiological protection and their relationship with surgical practices. Conclusion We concluded that the radiological protection of most orthopedists in surgical procedures is inadequate, and initial and continued training programs of professionals are necessary, bringing health benefits to orthopedists and their patients.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo visa compreender as percepções dos médicos ortopedistas e traumatologistas em relação ao risco da exposição à radiação ionizante nos procedimentos de fluoroscopia. Métodos Desenvolveu-se um questionário objetivo, estruturado, autoaplicável e com variáveis sociodemográficas, profissionais e ocupacionais, disponibilizado através de convite enviado a médicos ortopedistas cujos contatos estavam disponibilizados publicamente. Resultados Foram respondidos e analisados 141 questionários. A maioria dos respondentes (99%) utilizam a fluoroscopia em suas cirurgias, e apenas 34,8% dos participantes se sentem seguros com o uso do equipamento. Observou-se que o conhecimento sobre radiação ionizante é inadequado, pois 22,6% dos respondentes desconhecem o tipo de radiação emitida na fluoroscopia e seus efeitos biológicos. Além disso, 52% dos respondentes não conhecem ou não compreendem os princípios de proteção radiológica e suas relações com as práticas cirúrgicas. Conclusão Conclui-se que a proteção radiológica da maioria dos ortopedistas nos procedimentos cirúrgicos é inadequada e são necessários programas de formação inicial e continuada dos profissionais, trazendo benefícios para a saúde dos ortopedistas e de seus pacientes.

2.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-12, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393169

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic situation made the pharmaceutical companies develop the vaccine with different formulations in a short period. Objectives: The main objective of the review is to focus on different types of vaccine formulations available globally and the importance of technology transfer in vaccine development associated with potential risks. Results: Research on vaccine development led to various types of vaccines, such as Inactivated vaccines, Live Attenuated vaccines, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and Protein Subunit Vaccines for COVID-19. But the process of vaccine development and technology transfer is lined with various risks and challenges. Through risk assessment, we found some major potential risks involved in product development; this leads to a smoother and more efficient method to develop safe vaccines available for public health. Conclusions: This review will explain the significance of technology collaboration for the faster development of various formulations of vaccines globally


Antecedentes: La situación de pandemia de COVID-19 hizo que las empresas farmacéuticas desarrollaran la vacuna con diferentes formulaciones en un corto período. Objetivos: El objetivo principal de la revisión es centrarse en los diferentes tipos de formulaciones de vacunas disponibles a nivel mundial y la importancia de la transferencia de tecnología en el desarrollo de vacunas asociado con los riesgos potenciales. Resultados: La investigación sobre el desarrollo de vacunas condujo al desarrollo de varios tipos de vacunas, como vacunas inactivadas, vacunas vivas atenuadas, vacunas de ácido ribonucleico (ARN) y ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN), vacunas de vectores virales y vacunas de subunidades de proteínas para COVID-19. Pero el proceso de desarrollo de vacunas y transferencia de tecnología está lleno de varios riesgos y desafíos. A través de la evaluación de riesgos, encontramos algunos riesgos potenciales importantes involucrados en el desarrollo de productos, lo que conduce a un método más fluido y eficiente para desarrollar vacunas seguras disponibles para la salud pública. Conclusiones: Esta revisión dará una idea de la importancia de la colaboración tecnológica para el desarrollo más rápido de varias formulaciones de vacunas a nivel mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccine Development , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(4): 680-691, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374350

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A espirometria é subutilizada na insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e não está claro o grau de associação de cada defeito com a capacidade de exercício e com o prognóstico desses pacientes. Objetivo Determinar a relação da %CVF prevista (ppCVF) e do VEF1/CVF contínuos com: 1) pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) e desempenho ao exercício; e 2) prognóstico, para o desfecho composto de morte cardiovascular, transplante cardíaco ou implante de dispositivo de assistência ventricular. Métodos Coorte de 111 participantes com IC (estágios AHA C/D) sem pneumopatia; foram submetidos a espirometria, manovacuometria e teste cardiopulmonar máximo. As magnitudes de associação foram verificadas por regressões lineares e de Cox (HR; IC 95%), ajustadas para idade/sexo, e p <0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados Com idade média 57±12 anos, 60% eram homens, 64% em NYHAIII. A cada aumento de 10% no VEF1/CVF [β 7% (IC 95%: 3-10)] e no ppCVF [4% (2-6)], foi associado à reserva ventilatória (VRes); no entanto, apenas o ppCVF associado à PImáx [3,8cmH2O (0,3-7,3)], à fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) [2,1% (0,5-3,8)] e ao VO2 pico [0,5mL/kg/min (0,1-1,0)], considerando idade/sexo. Em 2,2 anos (média), ocorreram 22 eventos; tanto FEV1/FVC (HR 1,44; IC 95%: 0,97-2,13) quanto ppCVF (HR 1,13; 0,89-1,43) não foram associados ao desfecho. Apenas no subgrupo FEVE ≤50% (n=87, 20 eventos), VEF1/CVF (HR 1,50; 1,01-2,23), mas não ppCVF, foi associado a risco. Conclusão Na IC crônica, ppCVF reduzido associou-se a menor PImáx, FEVE, VRes e VO2 pico, mas não distinguiu pior prognóstico em 2,2 anos de acompanhamento. Entretanto, VEF1/CVF associou-se apenas com VRes, e, em participantes com FEVE ≤50%, o VEF1/CVF reduzido mostrou pior prognóstico proporcional. Portanto, VEF1/CVF e ppFVC contribuem para melhor fenotipagem de pacientes com IC.


Abstract Background Spirometry is underused in heart failure (HF) and the extent to which each defect associates with exercise capacity and prognosis is unclear. Objective To determine the distinct relationship of continuous %predicted FVC (ppFVC) and FEV1/FVC with: 1) maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), exercise performance; and 2) prognosis for the composite of cardiovascular death, heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implant. Methods A cohort of 111 HF participants (AHA stages C/D) without diagnosed pneumopathy, spirometry, manovacuometry and maximum cardiopulmonary test. The association magnitudes were verified by linear and Cox (HR; 95% CI) regressions, age/sex adjusted. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results Age was 57±12 years, 60% men, 64% in NYHA III. Every 10%-point increase in FEV1/FVC [β 7% (95% CI: 3-10)] and ppFVC [4% (2-6)] associated with ventilatory reserve (VRes), however only ppFVC associated with MIP [3.8 cmH2O (0.3-7.3)], LVEF [2.1% (0.5-3.8)] and VO2peak [0.5 mL/kg/min (0.1-1.0)], accounting for age/sex. In 2.2 years (mean), 22 events occurred, and neither FEV1/FVC (HR 1.44; 95% CI: 0.97-2.13) nor ppFVC (HR 1.13; 0.89-1.43) was significantly associated with the outcome. Only in the LVEF ≤50% subgroup (n=87, 20 events), FEV1/FVC (HR 1.50; 1.01-2.23), but not ppFVC, was associated with greater risk. Conclusions In chronic HF, reduced ppFVC associated with lower MIP, LVEF, VRes and VO2peak, but no distinct poorer prognosis over 2.2 years of follow-up. Distinctively, FEV1/FVC was associated only with VRes, and, in participants with LVEF ≤50%, FEV1/FVC reduction proportionally worsened prognosis. Therefore, FEV1/FVC and ppFVC add supplementary information regarding HF phenotyping.

6.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(1): e20210022, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341034

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to evaluate a pediatric risk evaluation and classification service in the aspects of structure, process, and outcome. Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive, and exploratory study in which qualitative data complement the results. Data collection by non-participant observation, interview, and consultation of medical records. Results: we observed two hundred and four visits. The service works in a makeshift room and without privacy. The nurses did not use various materials/equipment available for evaluation, rarely performed a physical examination, used the interview most of the time, and did not consult the protocol. Parents/companions received no information, and medical records showed incomplete records. Nurses classified 69.1% of the children as non-emergency. The most frequent outcome of the visits was discharge. Conclusions: the service showed weaknesses in the physical structure, in the risk classification process, and the outcomes, but it presents a good resolution in the assistance. We recommend a revision in the protocol used and sensitize nurses about the work process and communication with parents/companions.


RESUMEN Objetivos: evaluar un servicio de evaluación y clasificación de riesgo pediátrico en los aspectos de estructura, proceso y resultado. Métodos: estudio transversal, descriptivo y exploratorio, en que datos cualitativos complementan los resultados. Datos recogidos por observación no participante, entrevista y consulta a prontuarios. Resultados: observados 204 atenciones. Servicio funciona en sala improvisada y sin privacidad. Enfermeros no usaron varios materiales/equipos disponibles a la evaluación, raramente realizaron examen físico, usaron la entrevista casi siempre y no consultaron el protocolo. Padres/acompañantes no recibieron información, y los prontuarios mostraron registros incompletos. Enfermeros clasificaron 69,1% de los niños como no urgencia. Desfecho de las atenciones más frecuente fue la alta. Conclusiones: servicio mostró fragilidades en la estructura física, en el proceso de clasificación de riesgo y resultados, pero presenta buena resolutiva en las atenciones. Recomienda la revisión del protocolo usado y sensibilización de los enfermeros cuanto al proceso de trabajo y comunicación con padres/acompañantes.


RESUMO Objetivos: avaliar um serviço de avaliação e classificação de risco pediátrico nos aspectos de estrutura, processo e resultado. Métodos: estudo transversal, descritivo e exploratório, em que dados qualitativos complementam os resultados. Dados coletados por observação não participante, entrevista e consulta a prontuários. Resultados: foram observados 204 atendimentos. O serviço funciona em sala improvisada e sem privacidade. Os enfermeiros não usaram vários materiais/equipamentos disponíveis para a avaliação, raramente realizaram exame físico, usaram a entrevista quase sempre e não consultaram o protocolo. Pais/acompanhantes não receberam informação, e os prontuários mostraram registros incompletos. Os enfermeiros classificaram 69,1% das crianças como não urgência. O desfecho dos atendimentos mais frequente foi a alta. Conclusões: o serviço mostrou fragilidades na estrutura física, no processo de classificação de risco e nos resultados, mas apresenta boa resolutividade nos atendimentos. Recomenda-se a revisão do protocolo usado e sensibilização dos enfermeiros quanto ao processo de trabalho e comunicação com pais/acompanhantes.

7.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(3): e20210050, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to measure the frequency and compliance of breast cancer screening, according to the risk for this disease. Methods: a cross-sectional study with 950 female users of 38 public Primary Health Care services in São Paulo, between October and December 2013. According to UHS criteria, participants were grouped into high risk and standard risk, and frequency, association (p≤0.05), and screening compliance were measured. Results: 6.7% had high risk and 93.3% standard risk, respectively; in these groups, the frequency and compliance of clinical breast examination were 40.3% and 37.1%, and 43.5% and 43.0% (frequency p=0.631, compliance p=0.290). Mammograms were 67.7% and 35.5% for participants at high risk, and 57.4% and 25.4% for those at standard risk (frequency p=0.090, compliance p=0.000). Conclusions: in the groups, attendance and conformity of the clinical breast exam were similar; for mammography, it was higher in those at high risk, with assertiveness lower than the 70% set in UHS.


RESUMEN Objetivos: mensurar frecuencia y conformidad de rastreo del cáncer mamario, segundo riesgo para esa enfermedad. Métodos: estudio transversal con 950 usuarias de 38 servicios de Atención Primaria púbicos en São Paulo, entre octubre y diciembre de 2013. Segundo criterios del SUS, agruparon las participantes en riesgo elevado y riesgo-estándar, y mensurado frecuencia, relación (p≤0,05) y conformidad del rastreo. Resultados: 6,7% tenían riesgo elevado y 93,3% riesgo-estándar, respectivamente; en eses grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron de 40,3% y 37,1% y de 43,5% y 43,0% (frecuencia, p=0,631; conformidad, p=0,290). Realización de mamografía alcanzó porcentuales de 67,7% y 35,5% para participantes con riesgo elevado, y de 57,4% y 25,4% en con riesgo-estándar (frecuencia, p=0,090; conformidad, p=0,000). Conclusiones: En los grupos, la frecuencia y conformidad del examen clínico mamario fueron semejantes, para mamografía fue mayor en las con riesgo elevado, habiendo asertividad inferior a 70% pactados en el SUS.


RESUMO Objetivos: mensurar a frequência e conformidade de rastreio do câncer mamário segundo risco para esta doença. Métodos: estudo transversal em São Paulo, com 950 usuárias de 38 da atenção primária no SUS entre outubro a dezembro de 2013. Segundo critérios do SUS, as participantes foram agrupadas como risco elevado ou padrão e mensurou-se frequência, associação (p≤0,05) e conformidade do rastreio. Resultados: 6,7% tinha risco elevado e 93,3% risco padrão, respectivamente, nestes grupos a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram de 40,3% e 37,1% e de 43,5% e 43,0% (frequência p=0,631, conformidade p=0,290). Realização de mamografia alcançou percentuais de 67,7 e 35,5 para as com risco elevado, e de 57,4 e 25,4 nas com risco padrão (frequência p=0,090, conformidade p=0,000). Conclusões: nos grupos, a frequência e conformidade do exame clínico mamário foram semelhantes, para mamografia foi maior nas com risco elevado, tendo assertividade inferior aos 70% pactuados no SUS.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920595

ABSTRACT

@#Plaque pH detection technology can detect the risk of caries and assist in the prevention of caries, with a mature theory and a relatively simple operation. With the increasing demand for clinical caries risk detection technology and the rapid development of microelectrode techniques, there is an increasing variety of types of microelectrodes that can detect the pH of dental plaque, including glass microelectrodes, metal oxide microelectrodes and ion-sensitive field effect transistors. The glass microelectrode was the first microelectrode to be applied in this field, but its structure is weak. Among the various options, the iridium oxide microelectrode has become the most promising caries risk detection electrode in recent years because of its high strength and excellent response. Metal oxide microelectrodes can also effectively compensate for the insufficient strength of glass microelectrodes. With advances in electrode technology, miniaturized, sensitive ion-sensitive field effect transistors have attracted the attention of researchers. Scientists have also recently developed a way to detect the pH of dental plaque with an optical no-contact technique. Optical contactless detection technology will not damage the dental plaque structure, so it has great research and clinical prospects. Future research will further improve the strength and performance of these electrodes on the premise of ensuring miniaturization and achieving noncontact detection.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928888

ABSTRACT

The chemical characterization analysis of a medical device often results in chemical substances with unknown toxicities. While identification of each individual toxicity could result in a time-consuming hurdle with tremendous labor and financial burden, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is of great significance for toxicity risk assessment of such chemical substances. By establishing quantitative relationship between the molecular structures or active groups of similar chemical compounds with their biological activities, QSAR can be utilized to predict the toxicity of such target compounds with significantly reduced cost and time. In this article, the authors generally summarized the mechanisms of QSAR approaches, current applications of QSAR modeling in the field of medical device, an introduction of the characteristics of publicly and commercially-available QSAR software, and briefly explored future trends of QSAR modeling in medical device toxicological risk assessment. The utilization of QSAR would undoubtedly further advance the toxicological risk assessment of medical devices.


Subject(s)
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Risk Assessment , Software
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the risk of reentry in HBV reactive blood donors and feasibility of HBV reentry strategy.@*METHODS@#HBsAg+ or HBV DNA+ donors who had been quarantined for more than 6 months in Jiangsu Province could propose for reentry application. Blood samples were routinely screened by dual-ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab/Ag, and anti- Treponema pallidum and those non-reactive ones were tested by minipool nucleic acid testing (NAT) for three times. To identify occult HBV donors, samples of NAT non-reactive were further tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for HBV seromarkers (including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb). Donors of only 4 ECLIA patterns were accepted to reentry, including all 5 HBV seromarkers negative, anti-HBs only but having history of hepatitis B vaccine injection, HBcAb only, HBsAb+ / HBcAb+ with HBsAb more than 200 IU/L. Additionally, the detection rate of HBV infection was compared between routine screening mode and ECLIA, as well as the reentry qualified rate of HBsAg+ and HBV DNA+ blood donors.@*RESULTS@#From Oct. 2016 to Aug. 2019, a total of 737 HBV reactive donors had applied for reentry, including 667 HBsAg+ reactive and 70 HBV DNA+ reactive donors. Among 3 screening methods, the highest HBV detection rate (43.15%, 318/737) was observed on ECLIA, while only 4.75% (35/737) on ELISA and 3.12% (23/737) on NAT, respectively. Among 4 qualified patterns of HBV serological markers, the highest proportion was found in the all negative group (22.90%, 155/677), followed by the group with HBsAb+ only and history of hepatitis B vaccine injection (19.35%, 131/677), and the median concentration of HBsAb was 237.7 IU/L. The unqualified rate of HBV DNA+ donors was 82.86%, which was significantly higher than 47.98% of HBsAg+ donors.@*CONCLUSION@#Routine screening tests merely based on ELISA and NAT could miss occult HBV donors and may not be sufficient for blood safety. HBsAb concentration and vaccine injection history should be included in the evaluation of HBV reactive donors who intend to apply for reentry. There is a relatively larger residual risk of occult HBV infection in blood donors quarantined for HBV DNA reactive.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of modified Caprini risk assessment model(Caprini MRAM) in predicting the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).@*METHODS@#A case-control study was used to collect 43 patients with DVT after TKA in lower limb department of Sichuan Orthopedic Hospital from January 2016 to November 2020 in the positive group, and 172 patients without DVT after TKA in the same period according to the 1∶4 ratio between positive and control group were selected in the control group. Caprini MRAM was used to score and grade the risk of DVT. The clinical data, score and risk classification of the two groups were compared. The relationship between the risk of DVT in the patients after TKA and the risk factors in the risk ckassification and assessment of Caprini MRAM was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model.@*RESULTS@#The average score of caprini in DVT group was significantly higher than that in control group[(8.11±2.91) vs(4.07±2.12), P<0.001];DVT group was mainly at medium and high risk group(66.67%), while the control group was mainly at low risk (77.33%). There was a significant difference between the two groups in risk classification composition (P<0.001). BMI≥30 kg/m2, lower extremity edema (<1 month), severe pulmonary disease (<1 month), acute myocardial infarction (<1 month), bed rest (> 2 h), history of superficial or deep vein or pulmonary embolism and family history of thrombosis were the main risk factors for DVT in patients after TKA(all P<0.05). Preoperative D-dimer elevation (OR=4.380), BMI≥30 kg/m2(OR=2.518), lower extremity edema(<1 month)(OR=7.652), acute myocardial infarction (<1 month) (OR=1.994), bed rest (> 72 h)(OR=3.897), history of superficial or deep vein or pulmonary embolism (OR=13.517) and family history of blood embolism (OR=6.551) were independent risk factors for DVT in patients after TKA (all P<0.05). The risk of DVT was 13.457 and 2.739 times higher in high and moderate risk TKA patients with Caprini MRAM classification, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Caprini MRAM can be used to predict the risk of DVT in patients after TKA, especially for patients with high risk.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928074

ABSTRACT

Lonicera Japonica Flos is the dried bud or nascent flower of Lonicera japonica(Caprifoliaceae). The plant suffers from various diseases and pests in the growth period and thus pesticides are often used. As a result, the resultant pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos have aroused great concern. This review summarized the investigation, detection methods, content analysis, and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Lonicera Japonica Flos since 1996, and compared the maximum residue limits among different countries and regions. The results showed that the pesticide residues were detected in Lonicera Japonica Flos from different production areas, and only some exceeded the limits. The residual pesticides have changed from organochlorines to new types such as tebuconazole and nitenpyram. The detection method has upgraded from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most pesticide residues will not cause health risks, except carbofuran. Pesticide residues limit the development of Lonicera Japonica Flos industry in China. In practice, we should improve the drug registration of Lonicera Japonica Flos, promote ecological prevention and control technology, and formulate and promote pesticide residue limit standard of Lonicera Japonica Flos.


Subject(s)
Flowers/chemistry , Lonicera/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Pesticides/analysis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928071

ABSTRACT

Panacis Quinquefolii Radix is the dry root of Panax quinquefolium, which is a perennial plant of Araliaceae. The plant has a long growth cycle and serious growth barrier problem, which leads to the use of pesticides. As a result, the pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix are arousing great concern. This paper reviews the research findings on the investigation, detection methods, content analysis and risk assessment of pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix since 1993, and compares the pesticide residue limit standards of different countries and regions. The pesticide residues in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix have been changing from organochlorines with high toxicity to triazines and triazoles with low toxicity. The pesticide residues are generally low, while the pollution of pentachloronitrobenzene and other pesticides still exist. The detection method has evolved from chromatography to chromatography-mass spectrometry. There are no reports of health risks caused by pesticide residues of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix. Pesticide residue is a major factor restricting the sound development of Panacis Quinquefolii Radix industry in China. Therefore, we suggest to improve the registration of pesticides applied to the plant, popularize mature ecological planting mode and supporting technology, and strengthen the research on the risk assessment and limit standard of pesticide residue in Panacis Quinquefolii Radix.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Ginsenosides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Panax/chemistry , Pesticide Residues/analysis
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927946

ABSTRACT

In this study, the content of five heavy metals(Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Cu) in 59 batches of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos(LJF) medicinal materials and pieces were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The health risk assessment was processed using the maximum estimated daily intake(EDI), target hazard quotients(THQ), and carcinogenic risks(CR) assessment models. With reference to the limit standard for heavy metal content in LJF specified in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, five batches produced in Hebei were found to contain excessive Pb, and the remaining 54 batches met the specifications, with the unqualified rate of 8.47%. Comparative analysis of heavy metal content in LJF samples from three different producing areas, namely Shandong, Henan, and Hebei showed that the levels of Pb, As, and Hg in LJF from Hebei were significantly higher than those from Henan and Shandong. The samples produced in Shandong contained the highest content of Cd. The samples from Hebei contained the highest content of Cu while those from Shandong had the lowest content of Cu. As demonstrated by health risk assessment based on the EDI, THQ and CR models, these 59 batches of LJF samples did not cause significant health hazards for the exposed population, and there was no potential non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risk. In conclusion, a few of LJF samples contained excessive heavy metals, so some measures, including controlling production environment, cultivating management mode, and optimizing processing methods, should be taken for ensuring the medication safety of LJF.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Mercury/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Risk Assessment
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#This study aimed to investigate the ultrasonographic features of paediatric acute appendicitis and incorporate them into a scoring algorithm that will quantify the risk of complications and the strength of recommendation for surgical intervention.@*METHODS@#179 patients with suspected appendicitis who had undergone ultrasonographic examination were included in this study. Based on their medical evaluation and post-surgical histopathological results, patients were categorised into confirmed appendicitis (n = 101) and non-appendicitis (n = 78) groups.@*RESULTS@#In the appendicitis group, the appendix was visualised in 66 (65.3%) patients. In cases where the appendix was not visualised, we looked out for secondary inflammatory signs, which were present in 32 (31.7%) patients. Using stepwise logistic regression, Blumberg's sign, free fluid or collection, hyperaemia, non-compressible appendix and an appendix diameter > 7 mm were found to be significant predictive factors for appendicitis. A new scoring system called POPs was developed, combining inflammatory predictors and ultrasonography findings, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.958 (95% confidence interval 0.929-0.986).@*CONCLUSION@#The newly developed POPs-based diagnosis scheme proved a promising alternative to existing scoring systems such as the Alvarado score. Although further calibration would be beneficial, the proposed scoring scheme is simple and easy to understand, memorise and apply in the emergency room.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Child , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/methods
16.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924404

ABSTRACT

Objective: Frailty has been noticed as an important preoperative risk factor for cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of frailty on the rehabilitation process and walking ability after cardiac surgery. Methods: A total of 213 patients aged 65 years or older who underwent elective cardiac surgery at our hospital between August 2018 and October 2020 and who underwent a preoperative frailty assessment were included. The patients were divided into two groups: group F with frailty and group N without frailty, and the perioperative factors, postoperative course, and walking ability in both groups were examined. Results: Of all patients, 70 (33%) were diagnosed as frail. In the preoperative factors, gait speed and grip strength were significantly lower in group F, and there were more cases of sarcopenia and malnutrition. There was no significant difference in surgical factors between the two groups, except for a bias in the surgical category. In the postoperative course, there were no significant differences in intubation time, ICU stay, postoperative complications, or hospital stay between the two groups, but more patients in group F were transferred to another hospital. In the F group, the start of walking and the day of achieving 100 m walking were significantly delayed, and the number of patients who achieved 300 m walking was 52 (74%), which was significantly lower than 197 (89%) in the N group. The cutoff value of gait speed was 0.88 m/s. Conclusions: Frailty was associated with delayed rehabilitation and reduced walking ability after cardiac surgery, and increased hospital transfers. In addition, the preoperative gait speed was adopted as one of the factors related to the possibility of a 300 m walk after surgery. We believe that preoperative rehabilitation is a promising strategy to improve the condition of frail patients who require cardiac surgery.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924036

ABSTRACT

Objective To review the status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits and the progress of risk assessment, and to provide data support for pesticide residue research, residents' dietary exposure risks and safety risk management. Methods Domestic and international literature and research data available are reviewed and analyzed. Results This article mainly reviews the literature on the investigation of current status of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. It also discusses several methods and models that have been widely employed in the dietary exposure risk assessment of pesticide residues worldwide. Conclusion Pesticide residues have been frequently reported in vegetables and fruits, mainly including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues. The relevant risk assessment results indicate that different groups of people, especially those with high exposure, have cumulative dietary exposure risks to pesticides in vegetables and fruits. Although most pesticide residues have been detected at low concentrations in vegetables and fruits, they have potential toxicity risks and require continuous attention.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924029

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the applicability of two different occupational health risk assessment methods for noise positions in a beer manufacturing enterprise. Methods An occupational health investigation along with the detection of occupational hazard factors were carried out in the workplace of a beer manufacturing enterprise in Wuhan. Workers with 8-hour working day equivalent sound level (LEX,8 h) ≥ 80 dB (A) were selected as research subjects. The “Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management” method and occupational hazard risk index method were used to assess the risk of noise jobs in the beer manufacturing company. The assessment results of the two methods were compared. Results The noise exposure level of the enterprise was between 81.2 and 91.2dB(A). The guideline method predicted that the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness for wine bottling workers and labelers on the bottling production line was high after 35 years exposure to noise. Washing,inspection and boxing on the bottling production line and bottling up on the canning production line were at medium risk, and others were at low risk. The evaluation results of the occupational hazard risk index method showed that the bottlers, bottling workers, wine inspectors, labelers and boxers on the bottling production line were at medium risk, and other positions were at low risk. Conclusion The occupational hazard risk index method is more comprehensive to consider all the factors of health risk, and the evaluation results are close to the “Guidelines for Noise Occupational Disease Risk Management” method. The guideline method can quantitatively predict the risk of high-frequency hearing loss and noise deafness, and the risk of hearing loss increases with the extension of years of noise exposure.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923969

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize the distribution and assess the exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the indoor dust of Shanghai City. Methods Samples were collected from 33 sampling sites, including homes, hotels, offices and public places, in Shanghai in 2018, 2019, and 2020. The samples were pretreated by 100 sieves, extracted and concentrated, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion mode (SIM). Results Results on the characteristics of PAEs in indoor dust in different places showed that concentrations of PAEs were in a range of <0.01-2 464 mg·kg-1.The average concentration of 16 PAEs was 613 mg·kg-1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the main components of PAEs in indoor dust, accounting for approximately 99.5% of 16 PAEs. The intake of DEHP, DBP, DEP and BBP was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) and reference doses (RfD) set by EU CSTEE and U.S. EPA. Conclusion Average daily dose (ADD) via indoor dust is estimated, and the order of intake through different pathways is hand-oral intake>skin contact>respiratory inhalation. Exposure risk of PAEs in children is greater than that in adults.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923947

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize the distribution and assess the exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in the indoor dust of Shanghai City. Methods Samples were collected from 33 sampling sites, including homes, hotels, offices and public places, in Shanghai in 2018, 2019, and 2020. The samples were pretreated by 100 sieves, extracted and concentrated, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion mode (SIM). Results Results on the characteristics of PAEs in indoor dust in different places showed that concentrations of PAEs were in a range of <0.01-2 464 mg·kg-1.The average concentration of 16 PAEs was 613 mg·kg-1. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the main components of PAEs in indoor dust, accounting for approximately 99.5% of 16 PAEs. The intake of DEHP, DBP, DEP and BBP was lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) and reference doses (RfD) set by EU CSTEE and U.S. EPA. Conclusion Average daily dose (ADD) via indoor dust is estimated, and the order of intake through different pathways is hand-oral intake>skin contact>respiratory inhalation. Exposure risk of PAEs in children is greater than that in adults.

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