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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256502, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364493

ABSTRACT

Tagetes genus of Composite family consider one of the most favorite floriculture plants. Therefore, of particular interest examine the salt tolerance of this bedding and coloring agent plant. In this research, was report the role of glycinebetaine (GB) in attenuating the adverse impacts of salt stress in African marigold plant, along with their anti-oxidative capacities and biochemical attributes. The salt stressed African marigold (100 and 150 mM NaCl) was treated with GB at 200 mM, beside untreated control plants. According to the obtained results, the growth characters were negatively in salt stressed plants but a mitigate impact of GB were observed in this respect. Obviously, the morphological as well as some physiological characters were reduced with salinity treatments while GB treatment reverses these effects. Overall, the alleviate impact of GB on the negative impact of salt stress was enhanced through improving total phenolic and antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, it is concluded that GB concentration induces the activities of antioxidative enzymes which scavenged ROS increased under saline conditions.


O Tagetes, da família Composite, é um dos gêneros mais apreciados de plantas de floricultura. Portanto, é de particular interesse examinar a tolerância ao sal desta planta de substrato e corante. Nesta pesquisa, foi relatado o papel da glicinebetaína (GB) na atenuação dos impactos adversos do estresse salino na calêndula africana, juntamente com suas capacidades antioxidantes e atributos bioquímicos. A calêndula africana estressada com sal (NaCl 100 e 150 mM) foi tratada com GB a 200 mM, ao lado de plantas de controle não tratadas. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os caracteres de crescimento foram negativos em plantas estressadas por sal, mas um impacto mitigado de GB foi observado neste aspecto. Obviamente, os caracteres morfológicos e fisiológicos foram reduzidos com os tratamentos de salinidade, enquanto o tratamento com GB reverteu esses efeitos. No geral, o impacto de alívio do GB no impacto negativo do estresse salino foi aprimorado através da melhoria da atividade das enzimas fenólicas e antioxidantes totais. Além disso, conclui-se que a concentração de GB induz as atividades de enzimas antioxidantes que sequestraram ROS aumentadas em condições salinas.


Subject(s)
Calendula/growth & development , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress , Antioxidants
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927692

ABSTRACT

Salt stress may cause primary osmotic stress and ion toxicity, as well as secondary oxidative stress and nutritional stress in plants, which hampers the agricultural production. Salt stress-responsive transcription factors can mitigate the damage of salt stress to plants through regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Based on the soil salinization and its damage to plants, and the central regulatory role of transcription factors in the plant salt stress-responsive signal transduction network, this review summarized the salt stress-responsive signal transduction pathways that the transcription factors are involved, and the application of salt stress-responsive transcription factors to enhance the salt tolerance of plants. We also reviewed the transcription factors-regulated complex downstream gene network which is formed by forming homo- or heterodimers between transcription factors and by forming complexes with regulatory proteins. This paper provides a theoretical basis for understanding the role of salt stress-responsive transcription factors in the salt stress regulatory network, which may facilitate the molecular breeding for improved stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Osmotic Pressure , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Stress , Salt Tolerance , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927691

ABSTRACT

Plant adaptation to adverse environment depends on transmitting the external stress signals into internal signaling pathways, and thus forming a variety of stress response mechanisms during evolution. Brassinosteroids (BRs) is a steroid hormone and widely involved in plant growth, development and stress response. BR is perceived by cell surface receptors, including the receptor brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) and the co-receptor BRI1-associated-kinase 1 (BAK1), which in turn trigger a signaling cascade that leads to the inhibition of BIN2 and activation of BES1/BZR1 transcription factors. BES1/BZR1 can directly regulate the expression of thousands of downstream responsive genes. Studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that members of BR biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways, particularly protein kinase BIN2 and its downstream transcription factors BES1/BZR1, can be extensively regulated by a variety of environmental factors. In this paper, we summarize recent progresses on how BR biosynthesis and signal transduction are regulated by complex environmental factors, as well as how BR and environmental factors co-regulate crop agronomic traits, cold and salt stress responses.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Brassinosteroids/pharmacology , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Stress, Physiological
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22210213, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364438

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was performed to screen out the various species of 'Cucurbitaceae' family, musk melon (Kalash and Durga), bottle gourd (Crystal Long and Nuefield) and squash (Green Round, and Squash Malika) against the salt stress. All genotypes were treated with five different levels of NaCl (T0 = control, T1 = 1.5 dS m-1, T2 = 3.0 dS m-1, T3 = 4.5 dS m-1 and T4 = 6.0 dS m-1) and half strength of Hoagland's nutrients solution as the base nutrient solution. Results showed that the bottle gourd varieties "Nuefield" and "Crystal Long" performed best by maintaining the highest germination (93.2% and 85.6%), number of leaves per plant (4.5 and 5.7), shoot length (16.84 cm and 16.14 cm), root length (13.48 cm and 13.00 cm), plant fresh weight (942.2 g and 918.6 g), plant dry weight (118.4 g and 107.5 g), leaf area (171.2 cm2 and 169.1 cm2), chlorophyll content (3.5 μg/cm-2 and 3.4 μg/cm-2) with low chloride (1.57 ppm and 1.59 ppm) and sodium content (0.47 ppm and 0.51 ppm) under salt stress followed by varieties of Squash (Green Round, and Squash Malika) and musk melon (Kalash and Durga). It was also found that a higher level of salinity (4.5 dS m-1 and 6.0 dS m-1) has more adverse effects on the performance of all selected genotypes. Conclusively, it can be recommended that as compared to all tested species, bottle gourd varieties "Nuefield" and "Crystal Long" have the ability to withstand against salinity stress and should be planted under salt stress conditions.

6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2658-2667, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887831

ABSTRACT

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lipids , Plants , Stress, Physiological
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 1-9, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) bypasses the TCA cycle via GABA shunt, suggesting a relationship with respiration. However, little is known about its role in seed germination under salt conditions. RESULTS: In this study, exogenous GABA was shown to have almost no influence on mungbean seed germination, except 0.1 mM at 10 h, while it completely alleviated the inhibition of germination by salt treatment. Seed respiration was significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 0.5 mM GABA, but was evidently enhanced under salt treatment, whereas both were promoted by 1 mM GABA alone or with salt treatment. Mitochondrial respiration also showed a similar trend at 0.1 mM GABA. Moreover, proteomic analysis further showed that 43 annotated proteins were affected by exogenous GABA, even 0.1 mM under salt treatment, including complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence that GABA may act as a signal molecule in regulating respiration of mungbean seed germination in response to salt stress.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Vigna , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Respiration , Stress, Physiological , Proteins , Germination , Proteomics , Salt Tolerance , Salt Stress
8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-209912

ABSTRACT

Salt stress is said as the most harmful environmental issue affecting the agricultural productivity of manycrops, with deleterious effect on plant growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics, vigour, and cropyields. Salt stress induced oxidative stress in plants by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) that resultsimpairment of cellular membranes, proteins of cells and organelles, especially of mitochondria, chloroplast,and peroxisomes and affects overall integrity of the cell. The various types of ROS are 1O2, H2O2, O2•−, andOH•. Salinity creates osmotic stress in plants that diminishes the root water absorption capacity and causes lossof water from the leaves that increases the accumulation of salts in salt stressed plants. However, plants showtolerance toward salt stress by involving large number of adaptations, for example, osmotic adjustment, ionhomeostasis, hormonal regulation, antioxidant defense system, etc. Biosynthesis of plant growth hormones,such as cytokinins, abscisic acid, auxin, jasmonic acid, gibberellin, and ethylene play important role inamelioration of salt stress in plants by altering biochemical and physiological process plant tissues. Plantsdevelop ion homeostasis in order to eliminate additional salt ions from cytosol by primary and secondarytransport, maintains the balance of cytosolic concentration of Na+ and K+ ions, thus keeps the low concentrationof Na+ ions in cytosol as they are very harmful to cell when present in higher level. Plants develop antioxidantsystem constituting enzymatic components catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbateperoxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic components, suchas glutathione, cysteine, tocopherols, and ascorbate that eliminate or neutralize ROS to cope with the oxidativestress by the antioxidant defense system and protect themselves against detrimental effects of ROS. In thisreview, we discuss on salt stress lead production of ROS, their formation, effects, and scavenging.

9.
Biol. Res ; 53: 37, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soil salinity causes huge economic losses to agriculture productivity in arid and semiarid areas world-wide. The affected plants face disturbances in osmotic adjustment, nutrient transport, ionic toxicity and reduced photosynthesis. Conventional breeding approaches produce little success in combating various stresses in plants. However, non-conventional approaches, such as in vitro tissue culturing, produce genetic variability in the development of salt-tolerant plants, particularly in woody trees. RESULTS: Embryogenic callus cultures of the date palm cultivar Khalas were subjected to various salt levels ranging from 0 to 300 mM in eight subcultures. The regenerants obtained from the salt-treated cultures were regenerated and evaluated using the same concentration of NaCl with which the calli were treated. All the salt-adapted (SA) regenerants showed improved growth characteristics, physiological performance, ion concentrations and K+/Na+ ratios than the salt non-adapted (SNA) regenerants and the control. Regression between the leaf Na+ concentration and net photosynthesis revealed an inverse nonlinear correlation in the SNA regenerants. Leaf K+ contents and stomatal conductance showed a strong linear relationship in SA regenerants compared with the inverse linear correlation, and a very poor coefficient of determination in SNA regenerants. The genetic fidelity of the selected SA regenerants was also tested using 36 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, of which 26 produced scorable bands. The primers generated 1-10 bands, with an average of 5.4 bands per RAPD primer; there was no variation between SA regenerants and the negative control. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the variants generated from salt-stressed cultures and their potential adaptation to salinity in date palm cv. Khalas. The massive production of salt stress-adapted date palm plants may be much easier using the salt adaptation approach. Such plants can perform better during exposure to salt stress compared to the non-treated date palm plants.


Subject(s)
Salt Tolerance/genetics , Phoeniceae/genetics , Acclimatization , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Salinity
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872854

ABSTRACT

Objiective: In the process of microRNA expression analysis by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR),the selection of miRNA plays an important role in data standardization. Method:In this paper,13 Armillaria gallica.Candidate miRNAs were selected for bioinformatics analysis of their precursors,and the PMRD was used to predict similar sequences of their precursors,and the RNAfold was used to predict the secondary structure of the candidate miRNAs and their similar sequences. Real-time PCR was used to detect miRNAs expression in two genotypes of Armillaria gallica(genotype A,genotype B) before and after salt stress,and geNorm,NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to analyze the stability of miRNAs expression. Result:Secondary structure prediction and characterization of 9 candidate miRNA precursors showed that the miRNA predicted belonged to the miR family with typical stem-loop structure and the mature miRNAs were at the 5' or 3' end of the miRNA precursors.geNorm analysis showed that genotype A Armillaria gallica could select Novel-4* and Novel-9 as reference gene,genotype B could select Novel-9 and Novel-16 as its reference gene.NormFinder analysis showed that Novel-9 was stable in both genotype A and B Armillaria gallica.BestKeeper analysis showed that Novel-12* was stable in genotype A Armillaria gallica and Novel-2* was stable in genotype B Armillaria gallica. Conclusion:miRNA Novel-9 is the best stable reference gene,which lays a foundation for further research on the regulation mechanism of miRNA in Armillaria gallica.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-845998

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of exogenous trehalose on the growth and total flavonoids content of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) seedlings under NaCl stress. Methods: Using licorice seedlings as the material, the effects of NaCl stress on physiological growth, enzyme activity, ion content, osmotic regulation and total flavonoid content of licorice seedlings were studied in this experiment, Microsoft Excel 2010 was used for data processing and analysis, and SPSS19.0 statistical software was used for data analysis of variance. Results: Trehalose (10-20 mmol/L) significantly reduced the damage of NaCl to licorice seedlings, and the effect was the best when the concentration of exogenous trehalose was 15 mmol/L. Under NaCl stress, when exogenous trehalose concentration was 15 mmol/L, the growth of licorice seedlings was the most exuberant and the growth amount increased the most, and the K+ and K+/Na+ concentrations that affected the osmotic regulation of licorice seedlings increased the most, while the concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were decreased compared with those without NaCl stress. When the concentration of exogenous trehalose was 15 mmol/L, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in licorice seedlings under NaCl stress could be improved, and the content of light and chlorophyll in plant cells under NaCl stress could be increased. When the concentration of exogenous trehalose was 15 mmol/L, the contents of soluble sugar, proline and cellular regulatory substance MDA in licorice seedlings under NaCl stress could be reduced. Conclusion: The application of exogenous trehalose with appropriate concentration under NaCl stress can promote the growth of licorice seedlings and the accumulation of effective components, reduce the harm of salt damage to the growth of licorice, and enhance the growth ability of Licorice under NaCl stress.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878782

ABSTRACT

In this study, Andrographis paniculata seedlings were used as experimental materials to study the effects of salicylic acid(SA) on the growth and effective component accumulation of A. paniculata under NaCl stress. The results showed that with the increase of NaCl concentration, the growth of A. paniculata seedlings was significantly inhibited, and the content of carotene and carotenoid decreased. The activity of antioxidant enzyme was enhanced. At the same time, the contents of proline, proline and soluble protein were on the rise. The contents of andrographolide, new andrographolide and deoxyandrographolide showed an upward trend, while deoxyandrographolide showed a downward trend. Treatment with 100 mmol·L~(-1) NaCl+5 mg·L~(-1) SA showed a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity in A. paniculata leaves. Treatment with 100 mmol·L~(-1) NaCl+10 mg·L~(-1) SA showed significant changes in soluble protein and proline content in A. paniculata leaves, while MDA content in A. paniculata leaves significantly decreased. 10 mg·L~(-1) SA had the best effect on the growth of A. paniculata seedlings under salt stress. Under the treatment of 50 mmol·L~(-1) NaCl+10 mg·L~(-1) SA, fresh weight, dry weight and leaf dry weight of A. paniculata seedlings reached the highest level, which were 1.02, 1.09 and 1.11 times of those in the control group, respectively. The concentrations of NaCl and 10 mg·L~(-1) SA were significantly higher than those of the control group. Four key enzyme genes of A. paniculata diterpene lactone synthesis pathway were selected to explore the molecular mechanism of salicylic acid to alleviate salt stress. With the increase of salt stress, the relative expressions of HMGR, GGPS and ApCPS were up-regulated, indicating that salt stress may enhance the synthesis of A. paniculata diterpene lactone through MVA pathway. SA can effectively promote the growth and development of A. paniculata under salt stress, improve its osmotic regulation and antioxidant capacity, improve its salt tolerance, and alleviate the effects of salt stress on A. paniculata.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Plant Leaves , Salicylic Acid , Salt Tolerance , Seedlings/genetics
13.
Univ. sci ; 24(1): 91-109, Jan-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014755

ABSTRACT

Abstract Identifying naturally existing abiotic-stress tolerant accessions in cereal crops is central to understanding plant responses towards stress. Salinity is an abiotic stressor that limits crop yields. Salt stress triggers major physiological changes in plants, but individual plants may perform differently under salt stress. In the present study, 112 barley accessions were grown under controlled salt stress conditions (1 Sm-1 salinity) until harvest. The accessions were then analyzed for set of agronomic and physiological traits. Under salt stress, less than 5 % of the assessed accessions (CIHO6969, PI63926, PI295960, and PI531867) displayed early flowering. Only two (< 2 %) of the accessions (PI327671 and PI383011) attained higher fresh and dry weight, and a better yield under salt stress. Higher K+ /Na+ ratios were maintained by four accessions PI531999, PI356780, PI452343, and PI532041. These top-performing accessions constitute naturally existing variants within barley's gene pool that will be instrumental to deepen our understanding of abiotic-stress tolerance in crops.


Resumen La identificación de accesiones existentes en condiciones naturales que sean tolerantes al estrés abiótico en cultivos de cereales es fundamental para entender las respuestas al estrés. La salinidad es un factor de estrés abiótico que limita el rendimiento de los cultivos. El estrés por salinidad desencadena importantes cambios fisiológicos en las plantas, pero plantas individuales pueden comportarse diferencialmente bajo este tipo de estrés. En el presente estudio se hicieron crecer 112 accesiones de cebada bajo condiciones controladas de estrés por salinidad (1 Sm-1 salinidad) hasta la cosecha. Posteriormente las accesiones se analizaron para determinar sus caracteres agronómicos y fisiológicos. Bajo condiciones de estrés por salinidad, menos del 5 % de las accesiones estudiadas (CIHO6969, PI63926, PI295960 y PI531867) mostraron floración temprana. Solamente dos (< 2 %) de las accesiones (PI327671 y PI383011) alcanzaron mayores pesos fresco y seco y un mayor rendimiento bajo estrés por salinidad. Se mantuvieron mayores proporciones K+/Na+ en cuatro accesiones PI531999, PI356780, PI452343 y PI532041. Estas accesiones que tuvieron el mejor rendimiento constituyen las variantes existentes en condiciones naturales dentro del acervo genético de la cebada, que pueden ser instrumentos para profundizar en nuestro entendimiento de la tolerancia de los cultivos al estrés abiótico.


Resumo A identificação de acessões existentes em condições naturais que sejam tolerantes ao estresse abiótico em culturas de cereais é fundamental para entender a resposta ao estresse. A salinidade é um fator de estresse abiótico que limita o rendimento das culturas. O estresse por salinidade desencadeia importantes mudanças fisiológicas nas plantas, no entanto, plantas individuais podem se comportar diferentemente sob este tipo de estresse. No presente estudo 112 acessões de cevada foram cultivadas sob condições controladas de estresse por salinidade (1 Sm-1 salinidade) até a colheita. Porteriormente, as acessões foram analizadas para determinar suas características agronômicas e fisiológicas. Sob condições de estresse por salinidade, menos de 5 % das acessões estudadas (CIHO6969, PI63926, PI295960 e PI531867) mostraram floração prematura. Somente duas (< 2 %) acessões (PI327671 e PI383011) atingiram maiores pesos frescos e secos e um maior redimento sob estresse por salinidade. As maiores proporções K+/Na+ foram mantidas em quatro acessões PI531999, PI356780, PI452343 e PI532041. As acessões com maior rendimento constituem as variantes existentes em condições naturais dentro do fundo genético da cevada, que podem ser instrumentos para aprofundar no nosso entendimento da tolerância dos cultivos ao estresse biológico.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-187982

ABSTRACT

Salt stress is one of the main factors limiting plant growth and yield globally. Seed priming technique with different chemicals including β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is found to be effective in enhancing plant growth and development under biotic and abiotic stresses. Scarce reports have been found about BABA seed priming in medicinal plants under stress conditions; however, several studies have been conducted on other crops but have not made an in-depth study to investigate biochemical and physiological changes. In current study the shoot growth, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, nutrient content (N, P, K, Na and Cl), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, antioxidants enzymes (CAT, SOD and POD), membrane stability index (MSI), total phenolic and flavonoids contents lipid peroxidation and membrane permeability were investigated in Calendula officinalis L. leaves due to BABA seed priming and/or salt stress treatment. Salt stress treatment significantly reduced the growth characters, inflorescence number as well as its fresh and dry weights, N, P and K contents in leaves, RWC, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, MSI and total phenolic and flavonoids contents of pot marigold. However, proline content, MDA accumulation, H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, SOD and POD) were increased due to salt stress. On the other hand, seed priming with BABA significantly improved the growth characters, inflorescence attributes and the previously mentioned physiological and biochemical parameters investigated relative to the control. Applying seed priming under salt stress conditions significantly mitigated the negative effects of salinity and enhanced the growth and productivity of pot marigold and therefore was suggested to be an effective technique prior to cultivation.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851136

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the expression patterns and levels of transcription factors (TFs) in three generations of excised roots of Aquilaria sinensis under salt stress, and analyze the variation of TFs family genes in each generation in response to salt stress. Methods The excised roots of A. sinensis were used as experimental material, using highthroughput sequencing technology (Illumina Hiseq4000), all the unigene sequences were compared with the plant transcription factor database (PlantTFDB), and the three generation differential expressed TFs between the treated and the control group were analyzed. Results:A total of 48 286 Unigenes were obtained by de novo splicing from three generation of excised roots of A. sinensis, containing 1 156 potential TFs distributed in 54 TF families. Among them, bHLH, ERF, and NAC were the three most enriched families. Totally, 290, 277, and 349 differentially expressed TFs were respectively screened in three successive generations, which were mainly down-regulated. The expression induced by salt stress were different in each TF family, the numbers of up-regulated DEGs increased in NAC, MYB, and WRKY families, and decreased in GRAS family with the increase of stressed generations. There were 70 common TFs differentially expressed in three generations, and the down-regulated expression multiples of eight genes increased with the increase of salt stress generations. Conclusion:The effect of salt stress on the expression of TFs was mainly down-regulatied. The number of differential expressed TFs in the treated and control group increased with the increase of salt stress generations. The expression of different TF family genes was different under salt stress, and some genes might be involved in the transmission of stressful memory. This study is helpful to understand the expression characteristics of TFs at the whole level and provide a reference for further study on the stressful memories and the molecular mechanism of the salt stress response.

16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1411-1423, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771788

ABSTRACT

Biorefinery technologies provide promising solutions to achieve sustainable development facing energy and environment crisis, while abundant sugar feedstock is an essential basis for biorefinery industries. Photosynthetic production of sucrose with cyanobacteria is an alternative sugar feedstock supply route with great potentials. Driven by solar energy, cyanobacteria photosynthetic cell factory could directly convert carbon dioxide and water into sucrose, and such a process could simultaneously reduce carbon emissions and supply sugar feedstocks. Here we introduced the history and updated the state-of-the-art on development of cyanobacteria cell factories for photosynthetic production of sucrose, summarized the progress and problems on mechanisms of sucrose synthesis, metabolic engineering strategies and technology expansions, and finally forecasted the future development direction in this area.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Cyanobacteria , Metabolic Engineering , Photosynthesis , Sucrose
17.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 3104-3108, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-817450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of Sinorhizobium fredii, Rhizobium radiobacter and Azorhizobium caulinodans on germination of Andrographis paniculata seed under drought and salt stress condition. METHODS: Drought and salt stress models of A. paniculata seed were established with PEG-6000 (called “PEG” for short)and NaCl respectively. The effects of different concentrations of PEG (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 g/mL) and NaCl (50, 100, 150, 200 mmol/L) on the germination indicators (germination rate, germination potential, germination index, vigor index) of A. paniculata seed were investigated by the method of germination on dish paper. The seeds were soaked with S. fredii, R. radiobacter and A. caulinodans, and then germination indicators were investigated under the condition of drought and salt stress. RESULTS: Drought and salt stress models of A. paniculata seed were established with 0.15 g/mL PEG solution and 50 mmol/L NaCl solution, respectively. S. fredii pretreatment could significantly improve all the germination indicators of A. paniculata seed under drought stress condition, as well as germination index and vigor index of it under salt stress condition, but significantly reduce germination rate and germination index of it under salt stress condition (P<0.05). R. radiobacter treatment could significantly improve all the germination indicators of A. paniculata seed under drought stress condition, as well as germination potential, germination index and vigor index of it under salt stress condition (P<0.05). A. caulinodans pretreatment could significantly improve germination rate, germination index and vigor index of A. paniculata seed under drought stress condition, as well as germination rate and germination potential of it under salt stress condition (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Three kinds of Rhizobia can improve germination ability of A. paniculata seed under drought or salt stress condition to different degrees. This research can provide technical support for planting and cultivation of A. paniculata under drought condition, and using saline-alkali soil as A. paniculata plantation area.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774525

ABSTRACT

Exogenous calcium can enhance the resistance of certain plants to abiotic stress. However,the role of calcium insaltstressed honeysuckle is unclear. The study is aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the biomass,chlorophyll content,gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of honeysuckle under salt stress. The results showed that the calcium-treated honeysuckle had better photochemical properties than the salt-stressed honeysuckle,such as PIABS,PItotal,which represents the overall activity of photosystemⅡ(PSⅡ),and related parameters for characterizing electron transport efficiency φP0,ψE0,φE0,σR,and φR are significantly improved. At the same time,the gas exchange parameters Gs,Ci,Trare also maintained at a high level. In summary,exogenous calcium protects the activity of PSⅡ,promotes the transmission of photosynthetic electrons,and maintains a high Ci,therefore enhances the resistance of honeysuckle under salt stress.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Pharmacology , Chlorophyll , Lonicera , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Salt Stress
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773241

ABSTRACT

We studied the seed germination of Astragalus membranaceus under PEG and Na Cl osmotic stress gradients( 0,-0. 1,-0. 3,-0. 5,-0. 7 MPa) respectively applied with light( continuous light,light 12 h/dark 12 h circulation and continuous dark) and temperature( constant 15 ℃,15 ℃ 12 h/30 ℃ 12 h circulation and constant 30 ℃) treatments. The results showed as following: ① Under the light and temperature interactive treatments,total germination percentage( TGP) was restrained by high temperature and continuous light also decreased TGP under high temperature. Mean germination time( MGT) was not changed by light mode. Root development was enhanced by dark and low temperature. Shoot development was enhanced by light and high temperature. Hypocotyl length was enhanced by dark and high temperature. ② Under the light and temperature interactive treatments combined respectively with PEG and NaCl stress conditions,although the inhibitions of seed germination and growth were gradually strengthened with the increases of osmotic stresses,slight osmotic stress can promote seed germination. Under the same osmotic potential,the effects of PEG on TGPs and MGTs were stronger than that of NaCl. As the temperature increase,the seeds may change from photo-neutrality to photo-phobia. Decreased TGP under drought and continuous light interactive treatment is an adaptation strategy to avoiding drought. Hypocotyl growth accelerated under continuous dark treatment is an ecological trait which could increase dry matter input in stem and height for more light. Seed development under high concentration of NaCl treatment is better than that of PEG treatment due to low water potential caused by Na~+,which can enter into seed coat and promote water absorption.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Droughts , Germination , Light , Salt Stress , Seeds , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Temperature
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773240

ABSTRACT

Exogenous calcium can enhance the resistance of certain plants to abiotic stress. Research have demonstrated that exogenous calcium could enhances the resistance of honeysuckle under salt stress by promoting the transmission of photosynthetic electrons.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on the contents of Na~+,K~+,Ca~(2+),Mg~(2+)and the expression of photosynthetic related genes Cab and rbc L. In this study,we used ICP-OES to analysis ion contents and used qRT-PCR to analysis the expression patterns of Cab and rbc L. The results showed that CaCl_2 significantly enhanced the K~+-Na~+,Ca~(2+)-Na~+,Mg~(2+)-Na+ratio of honeysuckle treated with 50 and 100 mmol·L~(-1) NaCl. Meanwhile,Cab and rbc L were significantly up-regulated under short-term salt stress,and CaCl_2 promoted this trend. From the two gene expression patterns,rbc L rapidly up-regulated on the first day of stress and then decreased,and was more sensitive to environmental changes. In summary,exogenous calcium could alleviate salt stress and increase plant development by increasing intracellular K~+-Na~+,Ca~(2+)-Na~+,Mg~(2+)-Na+ratio,and the transient overexpression of Cab and rbc L.


Subject(s)
Calcium , Physiology , Cations , Lonicera , Physiology , Photosynthesis , Salt Stress
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