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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 680-684, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establis h the method for the simultaneous determination of six iridoids (loganic acid ,loganin, sweroside,dipsanoside B ,dipsanoside A ,sylvestroside Ⅰ)and one triterpene saponin (asperosaponin Ⅵ)in Dipsacus asper . METHODS High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was adopted. The determination was performed on Symmetry® C18 column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile- 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (gradient elution )at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelengths were set at 212 nm(asperosaponin Ⅵ)and 237 nm(dipsanoside B ,dipsanoside A , sweroside,loganic acid ,sylvestroside Ⅰ,loganin). The column temperature was set at 30 ℃,and sample size was 20 μL. RESULTS The linear range of loganic acid , loganin, sweroside, sylvestroside Ⅰ , dipsanoside B , dipsanoside A and asperosaponin Ⅵ were 399.24-931.56,50.30-150.90,48.24-168.84,27.00-70.20,12.93-38.80,40.64-121.92,42.08-147.28 µg/mL (all r>0.999 0). RSDs of precision ,reproducibility and stability tests (24 h)were all less than 2%. Average recoveries were 104.43%(RSD=0.63%,n=6),101.74%(RSD=1.11%,n=6),100.76%(RSD=1.06%,n=6),98.00%(RSD=1.58%,n=6), 99.03%(RSD=2.31%,n=6),102.93%(RSD=2.26%,n=6),102.31%(RSD=1.00%,n=6),respectively,The contents were 142.5-280.6,5.5-49.0,28.0-112.9,7.2-35.8,4.4-16.9,17.2-79.3,0.8-54.5 mg/g,respectively. CONCLUSIONS Established method is accurate and reliable ,and can be used for the content determination of 7 components in D. asper .

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906259

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicine, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) has the functions of tonifying liver, tranquilizing heart, astringent sweat and producing body fluid, which is used to treat neurasthenia, insomnia, dreaminess, debility, night sweat and so on. With the rapid and constant development of ZSS resource industry and its medicinal value, a large number of by-products and waste generated in the production and processing process, resulting in serious environmental problems. In general, the utilization rate of ZSS resources was still not high. Based on this, the chemical components and potential resources of ZSS were systematically combed from the perspective of the medicinal parts and bioactive components in this paper, and the authors had summarized that the widely application of ZSS and its by-products (fruit, leaf, root, etc.) in the fields of food, medicine, functional food and other areas was discovered and summarized as feed, feed additives, activated carbon, organic fertilizer, etc. In addition, this paper systematically summarized the current environmental protection problems of the industry, and put forward suggestions for improvement, aiming at reducing environmental pollution and improving the utilization efficiency of resources, so as to provide reference and basis for the comprehensive utilization of ZSS and its by-products, and promote the green, economical and double-effect development of the industry.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906205

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of notoginseng total saponins (TNS) on adriamycin (Adr) resistance in HepG2/Adr cells and the expression and activity of the mechanisms as the modulators of multi-drug resistance, so as to explore the possible mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways in reversing the resistance of HepG2/Adr cells mechanism. Method:Effect of TNS on HepG2/Adr cell proliferation was detected by thiazole blue (MTT) method. HepG2/Adr cells were treated with different concentrations (100, 50, 25, 0 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) of TNS and (20 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>) Adr respectively, and a blank group was set. The high-content screening platform was used to detect the accumulation of Adr in HepG2/Adr cells after 40 minutes, 3 hours and 6 hours. Western blot was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein /multidrug resistance/ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1(P-gp/MDR1/ABCB1) and other drug resistance-related proteins and the main protein expression of ERK/Akt signaling pathway. The change of MDR1 on cell membranes was observed by laser confocal microscopy. Result:Compared with HepG2 cells, the expression of MDR1 in HepG2/Adr cells was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the Adr group, the half-inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of TNS (25, 50, 100 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) and Adr (20 μmol·L<sup>-1</sup>) co-administration group on HepG2/Adr cells <italic>in vitro</italic> significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the highest reversal multiple was 10 times. Compared with the Adr group, the co-administration group could significantly increase the accumulation of Adr in the cells (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the blank group, the co-administration group could significantly reduce MDR1, ABC semitransporter (ABCG2), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP1), ERK, phosphorylated extracellular regulatory protein kinase (p-ERK), Akt, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), mammals, rapamycin target protein (mTOR) and phosphorylated mammalian rapamycin target protein (p-mTOR) (<italic>P</italic><0.05), with the same results in the doxorubicin group. Compared with the blank group, there was no significant difference in the distribution and fluorescence intensity of MDR1 on the cell membrane between the Adr group and the notoginseng total saponins (25 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) group. Compared with the blank group and the doxorubicin group, TNS could significantly reduce the distribution of MDR1 on the cell membrane (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:TNS can inhibit the ERK/Akt pathway, reduce the expression of MDR1, and significantly increase the accumulation of doxorubicin in HepG2/Adr cells, which may be one of the mechanisms of notoginseng total saponins in reversing resistance.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906203

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the improvement effect of total flavonoids of Mori Cortex combined with total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide on hyperlipidemia rats with osteoporosis and its possible mechanism. Method:The 40 SPF male SD rats were adaptively fed for 7 days, and then randomly divided into normal group, model group, calcitriol group (45 ng·kg<sup>-1</sup>), total flavonoids of Mori Cortex and total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide 1∶2 group (0.6 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>+0.4 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) and 2∶1 group (1.2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>+0.2 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). Except for the normal group, rats in the other groups were fed with high fat for 9 weeks, the normal group and the model grouotal flavonoids of total flavonoids of Mori Cortex and total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloip were given normal saline by gavage, and the other groups were given corresponding drugs by gavage, after 12 weeks of administration, except for the normal group , the other groups were given intramuscular injection of glucocorticoids at the same time. After 22 weeks of administration, the weight of rats with total flavonoids from Mori Cortex combined with total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide was measured. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), osteocalcin (BGP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were determined by biochemical assay. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the pathological changes of rat tibia. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of peroxisomal proliferators activate the receptor gamma(PPAR<italic>γ</italic>) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA in rat bone tissue, immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of PPAR<italic>γ</italic> and Runx2 in rats. Result:Compared with normal group, the body mass of rats in model group was significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the contents of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the serum were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, the body weight of rats in thet total flavonoids of Mori Cortex and total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide 1∶2 group and 2∶1 group were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the contents of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the serum were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.01), the content of BGP and BALP increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). HE staining results showed that compared with the normal group, the tibia fat vacuoles of the model group increased, and the number of osteoblasts decreased, compared with the model group, the total flavonoids of the Mori Cortex and the flavonoids-total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide 1∶2 group and 2∶1 group decreased in tibia fat vacuoles and increased the number of osteoblasts, the results of immunofluorescence and Real-time PCR showed that, compared with normal group, the expression of Runx2 in the model group decreased and the expression of PPAR<italic>γ</italic> increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, the total flavonoids of Mori Cortex-total saponins 1∶2 group and the total flavonoids of Mori Cortex-total saponins 2∶1 Group up-regulated the expression of Runx2 and down-regulated the expression of PPAR<italic>γ </italic>(<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:The total flavonoids of Mori Cortex combined with the total saponins of Anemarrhena Asphodeloide up-regulated Runx2 and down-regulated the expression of PPAR<italic>γ</italic> mRNA and protein, thereby affecting the metabolism of TG and TC in the blood, achieving a therapeutic effect on osteoporosis, provides experimental basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia with osteoporosis.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906122

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi combinations on the growth and quality of<italic> Paris polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> seedlings,in order to provide reference for the cultivation of high quality <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic>. Method:Through the room temperature pot inoculation test method,nine groups of different AM fungi combinations were inoculated into sterilized soil,and the control group was not inoculated. The effects of different AM fungi combinations on root infection rate,photosynthetic parameters,physiological indexes and chemical components of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> seedlings were observed. Result:The spore density in rhizosphere soil,the infection rate and intensity of AM fungi in roots,and the activities of succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in roots of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> were significantly increased by inoculating the combination of exogenous AM fungi. Compared with the control group,the contents of chlorophyll,malondialdehyde,soluble sugar,soluble protein content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> were increased in different AM fungi treatment groups. The content of total saponin increased from T1 to T2,decreased rapidly from T2 to T4,and increased at T5. Conclusion:Different mixed AM fungus can form a good symbiotic relationship with the roots of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic>,improve the mycorrhizal vitality,enhance the resistance of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> to adverse environment,promote the growth and development of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic> and improve the quality of rhizome. According to the comprehensive inoculation effect,the combination of S5,S8 and S9 AM fungus has the best effect,which provides reference value for the application of mycorrhizal biotechnology of <italic>P. polyphylla</italic> var. <italic>yunnanensis</italic>.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905959

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of astragaloside Ⅳ(AST Ⅳ)and Notoginseng total saponins (NTS) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on neural repair and angiogenesis in rats with cerebral ischemia. Method:The rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, low- and high-dose AST Ⅳ + NTS groups, a BMSC infusion group, and low- and high-dose BMSC infusion+AST Ⅳ (10 and 20 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) + NTS group (25, 50 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>). BMSCs were isolated and purified by whole bone marrow adherent culture. The positive expression of surface markers of BMSCs (CD29, CD90, CD34, and CD45) was detected by flow cytometry. The focal cerebral ischemia model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The PKH26-labeled BMSCs were injected into the tail vein of rats in the BMSC infusion group, once a day. The rats in the combination groups received BMSC injection once a day and intragastric administration of drugs twice a day. Other groups were administered twice a day by gavage. The sham operation group and the model group received the same amount of normal saline. Symptoms and signs of neurological deficits were assessed by the Longa method and the cerebral infarction rate was determined by TTC staining. The survival and vascularization [double positive expression of PKH26/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] after transplantation of BMSCs were observed by the immunofluorescence method. The protein expression of Ang1 and TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> was measured by Western blot. Result:BMSCs were properly isolated and cultured. The identification of surface markers CD29, CD90, CD34, and CD45 was consistent with the characteristics of BMSCs. The neurological deficit score and cerebral infarction rate of the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). All drugs and cell transplantation could alleviate the above pathological changes in varying degrees. The strongest effect was observed in high-dose BMSC infusion+AST Ⅳ+NTS group (<italic>P</italic><0.01), which was superior to those in the AST Ⅳ+NTS groups or the BMSC infusion group. BMSC injection helped cells survive in the ischemic brain tissues and promoted angiogenesis, and this effect could be enhanced by the combination with drugs. After cerebral ischemia, the expression of Ang1 and TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> was increased, and the effect in the BMSC infusion+AST Ⅳ+NTS groups was the strongest (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:AST Ⅳ combined with NTS can promote the survival of transplanted BMSCs and facilitate angiogenesis after target repair of damaged blood vessels after cerebral ischemia. The mechanism may be related to the improvement of the local microenvironment in the brain after cerebral ischemia and the promotion of the survival and differentiation of transplanted stem cells.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905900

ABSTRACT

Objective:To illustrate the effect of M1/M2 polarization of macrophages on gouty arthritis models induced with monosodium urate and reveal the molecular mechanism of total saponins from Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma to treat gouty arthritis. Method:A total of 72 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model group, total saponin group (160 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), celecoxib group (43.3 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>), with 18 rats in each group. Gouty arthritis models were induced by injecting monosodium urate into ankle joints bilaterally. Histopathology changes of ankle joints were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. Immunohistochemistry method was used to detect the protein expression change of CD68, interleukin-4(IL-4), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>(TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub>). Result:HE staining results showed that the inflammation of the model group was most obvious on the third day after modeling, and the disease was in the acute stage. On day 5, the inflammation was alleviated, and on day 8, the inflammation was still present but close to normal. The total saponin group and celecoxib group could improve the pathological changes of synovial tissue, and the effect of total saponin group was more obvious. Immunohistochemical results were as follows. Compared with the normal group. The expression of CD68 and iNOS in the model group increased on the 3rd,5th and 8th day of administration (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the total saponins group could reduce the expression of CD68 and iNOS (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01)on the 3rd day of administration, and significantly reduced them expression on the 5th and 8th days (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the normal group, IL-4 and TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> expression were increased in the model group when the drug was given for three days(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Total saponin group could enhance IL-4 expression(<italic>P</italic><0.05)and decreased the TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> expression(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with normal group, the expression of IL-4 in the model group decreased on the 5th and 8th day of administration (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the expression of TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> in the model group decreased on the 5th day of administration(<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the total saponins group could increase the expression of IL-4 and TGF-<italic>β</italic><sub>1</sub> at 5 d and 8 d after administration (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Total saponins from Dioscoreae Nipponicae Rhizoma has the potential effect to treat gouty arthritis by regulating M1/M2 polarization.

8.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2635-2639, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To stu dy the improvement effects o f Trillium tschonos kii total sapo nins(TTM)on adjuvant-induced arthritis model rats and its mechanism. METHODS :SD rats were randomly divided into model group (n=44)and blank group (n=6). Model group was given Complete Freund ’s adjuvant to induce the adjuvant-induced arthritis model ;blank group was given constant volume of normal saline with same method. Model group were divided into model group ,Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside tablets group (40 mg/kg),TTM low-dose ,medium-dose and high-dose groups (50,100,200 mg/kg),with 6 rats in each group. Administration groups were given relevant medicine intragastrically ;blank group and model group were given normal saline intragastrically ,once a day ,for consecutive 9 days. After last intragastric administration ,the body weight and foot swelling degree (bilateral)were detected ,and arthritis score was performed. The contents of tumor necrosis fator α(TNF-α), interleukin 1β(IL-1β)and IL- 6 were detected ;the pathomorphological changes of rat ankle were observed ;protein expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3),apoptosis associated spot-like protein (ASC),caspase-1 were detected ;the protein expression of NLRP 3 in synovial tissue of ankle joint were also determined. RESULTS :Compared with blank group ,foot swelling degree,serum contents of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6,the protein expression of NLRP 3,ASC and caspase- 1 in knee tissue as well as the protein expression of NLRP 3 in synovial tissue of ankle joint were increased significantly in model group (P<0.05 or P< 0.01),while the body weight was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The obvious proliferation of synovial cells ,the congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration of synovial tissue were all observed. Compared with model group ,most of the above indexes were all reversed significantly in TTM groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01);the pathological changes such as synovial cell proliferation , congestion of synovial tissue and chondrocyte destruction were all relieved ,and inflammatory cell infiltration was alleviated.CONCLUSIONS:TTM can improve rheumatoid arthritis of rats, the mechanism of which may be associated with 用。E-mail:yulingling@ctgu.edu.cn inhibiting the activity of NLRP 3/caspase-1 signaling pathway and decreasing the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the underlying mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) on gastric epithelial cell injury and barrier dysfunction induced by dual antiplatelet (DA).@*METHODS@#Human gastric mucosal epithelial cell (GES-1) was cultured and divided into 4 groups: a control, a DA, a PNS+DA and a LY294002+PNS+DA group. GES-1 apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, cell permeability were detected using Transwell, level of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in supernatant were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), expression of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-PI3K (p-PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) were measured by Western-blot.@*RESULTS@#DA induced apoptosis and hyper-permeability in GES-1, reduced supernatant level of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). Addition of PNS reduced the apoptosis of GES-1 caused by DA, restored the concentration of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). In addition, PNS attenuated the alteration of COX-1 and COX-2 expression induced by DA, up-regulated p-PI3K/p-Akt, down-regulated RhoA and GSK-3β. LY294002 mitigated the effects of PNS on cell apoptosis, cell permeability, VEGF concentration, and expression of RhoA and GSK-3β significantly.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PNS attenuates the suppression on COX/PG pathway from DA, alleviates DA-induced GES-1 apoptosis and barrier dysfunction through PI3K/Akt/ VEGF-GSK-3β-RhoA network pathway.


Subject(s)
Cyclooxygenase 1 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921793

ABSTRACT

This paper reviewed the traditional use of Paris polyphylla and its active components, aiming to provide reference for the development and utilization of this plant. It was found that P. polyphylla has been used as a medicinal plant by eight ethnic minorities. A total of 62 experiential effective recipes, including 29 simple recipes and 33 compound recipes, were analyzed for their indications, traditional processing methods, medicinal compatibilities, and administration doses. The top three in the eight ethnic minorities sorted by the quantity of folk recipes were the Yi nationality(18), Naxi nationality(13) and Bai nationality(12). P. polyphylla has been widely employed for the treatment of nine categories of diseases, especially the dermatologic diseases, trauma, and toxicosis currently. The collating of material basis for its traditional functions revealed 26 active components, among which 19 were steroidal saponins capable of resisting cancer, furuncles, carbuncles, abscesses, bacteria, inflammation and stopping bleeding. This study preliminarily proved the efficacy of P. polyphylla in treating cancer and respiratory system, digestive system, and genitourinary system diseases, which has provided clues for related basic research of P. polyphylla and development of new preparations.


Subject(s)
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Plants, Medicinal , Saponins
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921630

ABSTRACT

In this study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) were employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the steroidal saponins in rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis from three different habitats cultured in vitro, in an attempt to explore whether the rhizomes of the medicinal herb cultured in vitro can synthesize the steroidal saponins, including polyphyllinsⅠ, Ⅱ, and Ⅶ, the quality markers specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). A total of 20 steroidal saponins were identified in the rhizomes from Changxin, Yunlong(S1), Fengyi, Dali(S2), and Niujie, Eryuan(S3): parisyunnanoside A and parisyunnanoside D or E, proto-polyphyllin Ⅱ, polyphyllins G and H, polyphyllinsⅠ, Ⅱ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ, and Ⅶ, dioscin, gracillin, prosapogenin A, Tg, isomer of Th, saponin Th, reclinatoside, proto-pairs D, pseudoproto-dioscin, and 23-O-glc-(23S,25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,23α,27-triol-3-O-rha-(1→2)-[ara(1→4)]-glc or 27-O-glc-(23S,25R)-spirost-5-en-3β,27α-diol-3-O-rha-(1→2)-[ara(1→4)]-glc. Among them, polyphyllinsⅠ, Ⅱ, and Ⅶ were detected in the rhizomes from S1, with the mass fraction of 0.109 1%, 0.165 2%, and 0.051 03%, respectively(total 0.325 3%). Polyphyllins Ⅱ and Ⅶ were identified in the rhizomes from S2 with the respective mass fraction of 0.192 2% and 0.074 23% and total content of 0.266 5%. Moreover, polyphyllins Ⅱ and Ⅶ were also found in the rhizomes from S3, which had the mass fraction of 0.207 7% and 0.186 9%, separately, with the total content of 0.394 6%. Thus, steroidal saponins, including the quality makers polyphyllins Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅶ recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition) can be synthesized in rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis cultured in vitro, but their total content fails to meet the standard(0.60% in Chinese Pharmacopoeia). Therefore, in vitro culture of the Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is feasible, but the culture conditions need to be further improved.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome , Saponins
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888178

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to explore the mechanism of the sweating of Dipsacus asper on content changes of triterpene sa-ponins by detecting the total triterpene saponins and the index component asperosaponin Ⅵ in the crude and sweated D. asper, and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification(iTRAQ) combined with LC-MS/MS. After sweating, the content of total triterpene saponins decreased manifestly, while that of asperosaponin Ⅵ increased significantly. As revealed by the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis, 140 proteins with significant differential expression were figured out, with 50 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated. GO analysis indicated a variety of hydrolases, oxido-reductases, and transferases in the differential proteins. The results of activity test on two differentially expressed oxido-reductases were consistent with those of the iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analysis. As demonstrated by the analysis of enzymes related to the triterpene saponin biosynthesis pathway, two enzymes(from CYP450 and UGT families, respectively, which are involved in the structural modification of triterpene saponins) were significantly down-regulated after sweating. The findings suggested that sweating of D. asper presumedly regulated triterpene saponins by affecting the expression of downstream CYP450 s and UGTs in the biosynthesis pathway of triterpene saponins of D. asper.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Dipsacaceae , Humans , Saponins , Sweating , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888059

ABSTRACT

Paris polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) is used as one of the origin plants of Paridis Rhizoma described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020 edition). Its resources shortage makes the planting scale gradually expand, and plenty of aerial parts are abandoned because of not being effectively used. On the basis of previous research, this study separated steroidal saponins to further clarify the chemical composition of the aerial parts of PPC. As a result, three pairs of 25R or 25S epimers of furostanol saponins were obtained by various column chromatography techniques. Their structures were identified as neosolanigroside Y6(1), solanigroside Y6(2), neoprotogracillin(3), protogracillin(4), neoprotodioscin(5) and protodioscin(6) by spectral data combining with chemical transformation. Compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 2, 3 and 5 are isolated from Paris plants for the first time. Compounds 4 and 6 are isolated from this plant for the first time. Previously, only several spirostanol glycosides with 25S configuration were isolated from Paris plants. Guided by mass spectrometry, the present study isolated the furostanol saponins with 25S configuration from this genus for the first time, which further enriches the chemical information of Paris genus and provides a reference for the isolation of similar compounds.


Subject(s)
Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Plant Extracts , Rhizome , Saponins
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888034

ABSTRACT

To overview the systematic reviews of Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMbase databases were retrieved to collect the systematic reviews of the efficacy of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. The retrieval time was from the time of database establishment to January 2021. After two researchers independently screened out the literature and extracted the data, AMSTAR-2 scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews, GRADE system was used to grade the quality of evidences of the outcome indicators, and the efficacy evaluation was summarized. A total of 5 systematic reviews were included. AMSTAR-2 evaluation results showed that 3 items were relatively complete, while 4 items had a poor overall quality. P. notoginseng saponins combined with conventional Western medicine therapy was superior to single conventional therapy in the recovery of neurological function, enhancement of the total effective rate in clinic, and improvement of activities of daily living. GRADE evaluation results showed that the quality of evidence was from low quality to very low quality. In conclusion, in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction, P. notoginseng saponins can improve the clinical efficacy, with a good safety but a not high methodological quality and a low evidence quality. It is suggested that high-quality clinical studies shall be further carried out to provide evidence-based basis for the application of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cerebral Infarction/drug therapy , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Saponins , Systematic Reviews as Topic
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888028

ABSTRACT

Paridis Rhizoma(PR) is prepared from the dried rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis(PPY) or P. polyphylla var. chinensis(PPC) in Liliaceae family. The rapid development of PPY or PPC planting industry resulted from resource shortage has caused the waste of a large number of non-medicinal resources. To clarify the chemical compositions in rhizomes, fibrous roots, stems, leaves, seeds and pericarps of PPC, and explore the comprehensive application value and development prospect of these parts, the qualitative and quantitative analyses on the different parts of PPC were carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). A total of 136 compounds were identified, including 112 steroidal saponins, 6 flavonoids, 11 nitrogen-containing compounds and 7 phytosterols. Rhizomes, fibrous roots, and seeds mainly contained protopennogenyl glycosides and pennogenyl glycosides; leaves and stems mainly contained protodiosgenyl glycosides and diosgenyl glycosides; pericarps mainly contained pennogenyl glycosides, followed by diosgenyl glycosides. The total level of four saponins was the highest in fibrous roots and rhizomes, followed by those in the pericarps and arillate seeds, and the lowest in the stems and exarillate seeds. This study can provide data support for the comprehensive development and rational application of non-medicinal parts of PPC.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Liliaceae , Melanthiaceae , Rhizome , Saponins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887936

ABSTRACT

Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, mainly contains triterpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, coumarins and volatile oils with many pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The widespread applications of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in food, medicine and chemical industries make its demand increase gradually. Therefore, the quality guarantee of the medicinal is of great value. Starting from the elaboration of chemical components and pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and the introduction to the concept of quality marker(Q-marker), this study analyzed the Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from the aspects of plant phylogene-tics, chemical component specificity, traditional efficacy, traditional medicinal properties, absorbed components, different processing methods and so on, which provides reference for quality evaluation, development and utilization of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Rhizome , Triterpenes
17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1670-1676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881567

ABSTRACT

Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins are regarded as the main active constituents of Gynostemma longipes C.Y.Wu. By using MCI and silica gel column chromatography, as well as preparative HPLC, we isolated four new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from the polar saponin fraction of G. longipes C.Y.Wu. Their structures were determined by comprehensive analyses of NMR and MS data and identified as (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-19-oxo-24-ene-3-O-{[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl}-21-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-19-oxo-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-21-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), (20S)-3β,19,20,21-terahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-{[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-[β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→3)]-α-L-arabinopyranosyl}-21-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (20S)-3β,20,21-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-{[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl}-21-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4). Compounds 1-4 are new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins which contain five glycosyl residues.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881390

ABSTRACT

@#PLZ-NPs (PNS-lipid-zein nanoparticles) prepared by co-assembly of Panax notoginseng saponins, lecithin, β-sitosterol and zein were applied for in vitro cell experiment and oral gavage to study the protective effect of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats.PLZ-NPs were characterized by Malvin-particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The toxicity of PLZ-NPs and free carrier were evaluated by MTT, and the uptake of nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells was analyzed by laser confocal and flow cytometry. The cerebral ischemia reperfusion rat model was established by MCAO method and then be given samples by gavage for 3 days. The brain tissues were taken to stain by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazole chloride (TTC) and the biochemical indicators of MDA, inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 from the harvested brain tissues were detected to evaluate the protective effect of PNS in PLZ-NPs on cerebral ischemia reperfusion. The particle size, PDI, and zeta potential of formed PLZ-NPs were (116.4 ± 0.81) nm, 0.048 and -(31.5 ± 0.31) mV, respectively. The results of MTT showed that the zein lipoprotein carrier was non-toxic to Caco-2 cells. The results of laser confocal and flow cytometry showed that FITC uptake of nanoparticles could be significantly improved in Caco-2 cells.The uptake from the nanoparticles at 4h was 1.76 times of that of the free FITC group.Compared with the model group, the TTC staining images of free drug PNS group and PLZ-NPs group showed certain reduction in the white infarct area.The contents of MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α and Bax were significantly decreased, while the content of Bcl-2 was significantly increased. Furthermore, all parameters of PLZ-NPs group showed better results than those of PNS group, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05). All results indicated that the prepared PLZ-NPs had good stability and biological safety, and could significantly increase the uptake in intestinal epithelial cells, and effectively protect against the damage caused by cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881078

ABSTRACT

Seven new triterpenoid saponins, including five ursane-type saponins, ilexchinenosides R-V (1-5), and two oleanane-type saponins, ilexchinenosides W-X (6-7), with four known triterpenoid saponins (8-11) were isolated from the leaves of Ilex chinensis. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic 1D and 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS data. Their sugar moieties were determined by HPLC analysis compared with standards after hydrolysis and derivatization. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 9 and 10 exhibited potential hepatoprotective activity against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced HepG2 cell injury in vitro.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881049

ABSTRACT

Two new triterpenoid saponins, ardisicrenoside R and S (1 and 2), and one new phenylpropanoid glycoside, ardicrephenin (3), along with five known compounds (4-8), were isolated from roots of Ardisia crenata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data and chemical methods. Compounds 2-7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against A549, MCF-7, HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines by MTT assay. Ardicrenin (6) showed significant cytotoxicity, with IC

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