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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928220

ABSTRACT

Difference of chronotypes makes influence to cognitive performance of individuals in routine duties. In this paper, 55 subjects with different chronotypes were subjected to continuous sleep deprivation for 30 h by using the constant routine protocol, during which core body temperature was measured continuously, and subjective sleepiness self-rating and the performance of selective attention were measured hourly. The results showed that the phase difference of core body temperature has no significant difference, yet the amplitude and term difference among the three chronotypes are significant. There was an advance in phase between subjective sleepiness self-rating and core body temperature, and the self-rating sleepiness of evening type came the latest, and the self-rating sleepiness of morning type dissipated the fastest. The response time of selective attention showed a 2 h phase delay with subjective sleepiness self-rating. And the analysis of core body temperature showed that the later the chronotype was, the greater the phase delay was. The correct rate of selective attention of different chronotypes were inconsistent with delay of subjective sleepiness self-rating and core body temperature. We provide reference for industry, aviation, military, medical and other fields to make a more scientific scheduling/ shifting based on cognitive performance characteristics of different chronotypes.


Subject(s)
Attention/physiology , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Homeostasis , Humans , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Deprivation , Sleepiness
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 9-15, out.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359199

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A qualidade do sono é uma das queixas mais frequentes entre estudantes universitários. OBJETIVOS: Identificar a prevalência de má qualidade do sono e os fatores associados em acadêmicos da área da saúde de uma universidade do Centro-Oeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 2171 universitários com média de idade de 22,7 (±3,9). O desfecho, sono de má qualidade, foi avaliado por meio da versão brasileira do questionário Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR). As variáveis independentes (demográficas, socioeconômicas e comportamentais) foram avaliadas por meio de um questionário padronizado. As análises multivariadas foram realizadas por meio de Regressão de Poisson, estimando-se as Razões de Prevalências (RP) ajustadas e seus respectivos Intervalos de Confiança de 95% (IC95%). RESULTADOS: A média do escore do PSQI-BR foi 7,0. A prevalência de má qualidade do sono foi de 63,5% (IC95% 61,4-65,5), sendo 60,3% nos homens e 64,8% nas mulheres. Após análise ajustada, auto percepção de saúde razoável/ruim esteve associada com má qualidade do sono em ambos os sexos. Além disso, para os homens, a prevalência de má qualidade do sono foi maior para os estudantes que fumavam; e foi menor para aqueles que consumiam adequadamente frutas, legumes e verduras e eram suficientemente ativos. Já para as mulheres, a prevalência de má qualidade do sono foi maior naquelas com 24 ou mais anos de idade, sem companheiro, que consumiam bebidas alcoólicas e que cursavam medicina. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se elevada prevalência do desfecho na amostra. Além disso, a má qualidade do sono ocorre de forma diferente entre homens e mulheres. Ressalva-se a importância do monitoramento da má qualidade do sono em estudantes universitários.


INTRODUCTION: Sleep quality is one of the most frequent complaints among college students. OBJETIVE: To identify the prevalence of poor sleep quality and associated factors in health care academics at a university in the Midwest of Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 2171 university students with a mean age of 22.7 (±3.9). The outcome, poor quality sleep, was assessed using the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-BR) questionnaire. Independent variables (demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral) were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate analyzes were performed using Poisson Regression, estimating the adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR) and their respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The mean score of the PSQI-BR was 7.0. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 63.5% (95%CI 61.4-65.5), being 60.3% in men and 64.8% in women. After adjusted analysis, reasonable/poor self-rated health was associated with poor sleep quality in both sexes. Furthermore, for men, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was higher for students who smoked; and it was lower for those who adequately consumed fruits and vegetables and were sufficiently active. As for women, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was higher in those aged 24 or over, without a partner, who consumed alcoholic beverages and who were studying medicine. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of the outcome in the sample. Furthermore, poor sleep quality occurs differently between men and women. Thus, we emphasize the importance of monitoring poor sleep quality in college students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Students, Health Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(4): 31-39, out.-dez. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359225

ABSTRACT

There is a known relationship between seizures and sleep deprivation that increases epileptiform abnormalities and slow waves expressed in the EEG, but chronic insomnia, greater in patients with epilepsy (PWEs) than in healthy control, supposedly has a different mechanism linked to a hyperarousability state with increased rapid EEG activity and associated "restless REM". Therefore, there is a complex interaction at various levels between insomnia and epilepsy that may play a role in seizure presentation. The recognized interconnection between mood and anxiety disorders and insomnia should also advise special care in the management of psychiatric comorbidities in PWEs. This article raises questions related to the interaction between the brain basis of insomnia and epilepsy and the triggers of seizures, particularly sleep deprivation.


Há uma relação conhecida entre crises epilépticas e privação de sono que aumenta as anormalidades epileptiformes e as ondas lentas expressas no EEG, mas a insônia crônica, maior em pacientes com epilepsia (PCE) do que no controle saudável, supostamente tem um mecanismo diferente ligado a um estado de hiperexcitabilidade com aumento da atividade rápida do EEG e associado "REM inquieto". Consequentemente, existe uma complexa interação em vários níveis entre a insônia e a epilepsia que pode desempenhar um papel na apresentação das crises. A reconhecida interligação entre transtornos de humor e ansiedade com a insônia também deve aconselhar um cuidado especial no manejo das comorbidades psiquiátricas do PCE. Este artigo levanta questões relacionadas à interação entre a base cerebral da insônia e da epilepsia e os desencadeadores de crises epilépticas, principalmente a privação do sono.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep Deprivation , Epilepsy/complications , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367804

ABSTRACT

Introducción :La alta prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HTA) es un problema de salud pública a nivel global. Diversas condiciones comprometen un adecuado control de esta enfermedad, siendo una de reciente interés las alteraciones del sueño. Describimos mediante una revisión narrativa los hallazgos recientes en la literatura acerca de los efectos de la calidad y cantidad de horas de sueño en pacientes hipertensos. Se seleccionaron 18 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para esta revisión. En la presente revisión se detallarán los hallazgos encontrados en relación con las complicaciones que guardan relación con la duración y calidad del sueño en pacientes con HTA, así como factores predictores de una mala calidad del sueño en estos pacientes.


Background: High prevalence of arterial hypertension (HTN) is a global public health problem. Various conditions compromise an adequate control of this disease, being one of recent interest the sleep disturbances. We describe through a narrative review the recent findings in the literature about the effects of the quality and quantity of sleep on hypertensive patients. Eighteen articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected for this review. This review will detail the findings related to complications linked to the duration and quality of sleep in patients with HTN, as well as predictive factors of poor sleep quality in these patients.

5.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(3): 185-191, set-out. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348203

ABSTRACT

Distúrbios do sono e as alterações do estado de humor, quando não tratados, estão associados à perda de produtividade e acidentes de trabalho, resultando em lesões e fatalidade. Esses distúrbios são subdiagnosticados e subtratados em contextos clínicos, porque podem ser assintomáticos e o exame de polissonografia tem custo elevado. Por isso, questionários são usados para realizar uma triagem e detectar profissionais com alto risco de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono, de sonolência diurna excessiva e fadiga. Este estudo teve como objetivo aplicar questionários validados para triagem dos distúrbios do sono e do humor em pilotos civis e analisar os resultados obtidos com a aplicação desses instrumentos. Foram coletados dados de 44 pilotos civis por meio de quatro instrumentos: um questionário para a caracterização sociodemográfica e ocupacional da amostra, a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth para avaliar a presença de sonolência diurna excessiva, o Questionário de Berlim para avaliar a Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono e a Escala de Humor de Brunel para avaliar o estado de humor. A Escala de Sonolência de Epworth mostrou que 25% dos pilotos apresentaram pontuação para sonolência diurna excessiva. De acordo com o Questionário de Berlim, 29,5% apresentaram alto risco para a Síndrome da Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono e pela Escala de Humor de Brunel, o domínio vigor, teve a média mais alta (5,09 ±4,06). Portanto, a utilização dos questionários nos exames de admissão e nos periódicos, pode auxiliar na identificação precoce e no monitoramento de distúrbios do sono e dos estados de humor ao longo do tempo em pilotos civis, priorizando aqueles que deverão ser encaminhados para realizarem estudos do sono.


Sleep disorders and mood state changes, when untreated, are associated with loss of productivity and accidents at work, resulting in injuries and fatality. These disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical contexts due to them being asymptomatic and the prohibitive cost of polysomnography exams. For this reason, questionnaires are used to screen and detect professionals at high risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, excessive daytime sleepiness, and fatigue. This study aimed at applying validated questionnaires for screening sleep and mood disorders in civilian pilots and analyzing the results obtained with the application of these instruments. Data were collected from 44 civilian pilots using four instruments: a questionnaire for sociodemographic and occupational characterization of the sample; the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness; the Berlin Questionnaire to assess Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome; and the Brunel Mood Scale to assess the mood state. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale showed that 25% of the pilots presented scores for excessive daytime sleepiness. According to the Berlin Questionnaire, 29.5% were at high risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, and according to the Brunel Mood Scale, the vigor domain presented the highest mean (5.09 ± 4.06). Therefore, the use of questionnaires in admission and periodic exams can assist in the early identification and monitoring of sleep disorders and mood states over time in civilian pilots, prioritizing those who should be referred to sleep studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pilots , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Deprivation , Polysomnography , Confusion , Wit and Humor , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Depression , Fatigue , Sleepiness
6.
Ciênc. cogn ; 26(1): 120-138, 10 set. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293018

ABSTRACT

A privação de sono é o estado ininterrupto de vigília, ocorrendo quando o sono inadequado leva à diminuição do desempenho e do estado de alerta até uma possível deterioração com efeitos danosos à saúde. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi sistematizar o conhecimento já produzido a respeito do efeito da privação de sono na tomada de decisão em militares. A revisão sistemática de literatura foi o método escolhido, seguindo os passos preconizados pelo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA). A busca foi realizada nas bases PubMed; Scopus; SciELO; biblioteca Cochrane e Web of Science. Critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram previamente definidos para seleção do material encontrado. Um total de 14 artigos, sendo a sua maioria com baixo risco de viés, foram selecionados. Os temas explorados versaram sobre perda de confiança, relativização moral, trabalho em equipe, queda de níveis cognitivos e mudança de atividade elétrica cerebral na privação de sono. As pesquisas apontam para um comprometimento importante para a tomada de decisão frente à privação ou restrição de sono nos temas investigados, evidenciando poucos recursos para minimizar esses efeitos.


Sleep deprivation is the uninterrupted state of wakefulness, occurring when inadequate sleep leads to a decrease in performance and alertness, possibly reaching a level of deterioration with harmful health effects. The aim of this research wasto systematize the knowledge produced about the effect of sleep deprivation on decision making in the military. The systematic literature review was the method chosen, following the steps recommended by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA). The search was carried out on the following databases: PubMed; Scopus; SciELO; Cochrane library and Web of Science. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were previously defined for the selection of the found material. A total of 14 articles, most of them with a low risk of bias, were selected to compose the research results. The themes explored in these articles dealt with the loss of confidence, moral relativization, teamwork, drop-in cognitive levels, and changes in brain electrical activity in sleep deprivation. The research demonstrated significant damage to decision-making under sleep restriction or deprivation regarding the investigated topics, presenting few resources capable of minimizing these effects. There is an urge to investigate the role of physical exercise in this process and, especially, in Brazilian samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Deprivation , Decision Making , Military Personnel , Sleep
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(2): 86-89, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254573

ABSTRACT

El sueño es una necesidad biológica. Regula las funciones inmunitarias. Las funciones inmunológicas dependen de los ritmos circadianos y del sueño regular. Según estudios previos a la pandemia, la corta duración del sueño o privación de sueño, en la semana cercana a la vacunación, se asocia con respuestas más bajas de anticuerpos. La privación de sueño da como resultado una función inmunológica más deficiente (es decir, actividad reducida de las células natural killer, producción de IL-2 suprimida) así como un aumento de los niveles circulantes de marcadores inflamatorios (IL-6, TNF-α [factor de necrosis tumoral] y proteína C reactiva). Los médicos deben ser conscientes de que muchas enfermedades que mencionamos en esta resumida actualización son comórbidas con alteraciones del sueño, y es importante, por ello, enseñar a los pacientes a mejorar su comportamiento con respecto al sueño y fomentar la educación sobre higiene del sueño. Destacamos que, en el interrogatorio de cualquier especialidad médica, deben incorporarse preguntas sobre el "dormir", dado que el sueño de buena calidad es fundamental en la prevención y el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades. (AU)


Sleep is a biological necessity. Regulates immune functions. Immune functions depend on circadian rhythms and regular sleep. According to studies prior to the pandemic, short duration of sleep or sleep deprivation, in the week leading up to vaccination, is associated with lower antibody responses to vaccination. Sleep deprivation results in poorer immune function (i.e., reduced natural killer cell activity, suppressed IL-2 production) as well as increased circulating levels of inflammatory markers (IL-6, factor of tumor necrosis, C-reactive protein). Clinicians should be aware that many illnesses, which we mention in this brief update, are comorbid with sleep disturbances and it is therefore important to teach patients to improve their sleep behavior and should encourage sleep hygiene education . We emphasize that in the questioning of any medical specialty, questions about "sleep" should be incorporated, given that good quality sleep is essential in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Deprivation/complications , Sleep Hygiene , Sleep/drug effects , Sleep Deprivation/drug therapy , Vaccination , Pandemics , COVID-19/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(1): 89-94, maio 5, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354840

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a Doença Arterial Periférica (DAP) decorre do estreitamento ou oclusão arterial, que interfere no aporte sanguíneo das extremidades inferiores. A DAP pode levar a um repouso prolongado, causando prejuízos à qualidade de vida e do sono dos pacientes, devido à dor e receio de lesão. Objetivo: descrever o nível de atividade física, a qualidade de vida e do sono em pacientes com DAP. Metodologia: trata-se de um estudo observacional, epidemiológico e transversal, realizado no Hospital Geral de Camaçari-BA. Foram incluídos pacientes com diagnóstico de DAP, ambos os sexos, com idade superior a 18 anos, internados no referido hospital. Foram excluídos os pacientes com distúrbios psiquiátricos e dificuldade de compreensão dos questionários. Para a avaliação do nível de atividade física foi utilizado o Questionário Internacional de Atividade física, para Qualidade de Vida o questionário Short Form Health Survey 36, para qualidade do sono Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh e para Claudicação Intermitente o Questionário de Edimburgo. Resultados: dos 27 pacientes analisados, 55,6% (15/27) eram do sexo feminino e 44,4% (12/27) masculino, 37% (10/27) de cor/raça preta. A média de idade foi de 62,6±8,3 anos, peso 71,8±16,2kg, altura 164,8±8,3cm e IMC 26,3±5. A maioria relatou ser ativo, 33,3% (9/27). Segundo a SF-36 o domínio mais limitante foi "dor" (28,6), o escore global do PSQI foi de 10,4 e a maioria (81,5%) não apresentava claudicação intermitente. Conclusão: a presença de DAP foi mais frequente nos idosos e foram identificados a presença de distúrbios do sono e diminuição da qualidade de vida.


Introduction: peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is due to narrowing or arterial occlusion, which interferes with the blood supply of the lower extremities. PAD can lead to prolonged rest, causing damage to the quality of life and sleep of patients, due to pain and fear of injury. Objective: to describe the level of physical activity, quality of life and sleep in patients with PAD. Methodology: this is an observational, epidemiological and cross-sectional study, carried out at the Hospital Geral de Camaçari-BA. Patients diagnosed with PAD, both sexes, aged over 18 years, admitted to the hospital were included. Patients with psychiatric disorders and difficulty in understanding the questionnaires were excluded. To assess the level of physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used, for Quality of Life the Short Form Health Survey 36 questionnaire, for sleep quality Sleep Quality Index of Pittsburgh and for Intermittent Claudication the Edinburgh Questionnaire. Results: of the 27 patients analyzed, 55.6% (15/27) were female and 44,4% (12/27) were male, 37% (10/27) were black / colored. The mean age was 62.6 ± 8.3 years, weight 71.8 ± 16.2 kg, height 164.8 ± 8.3 cm and BMI 26.3 ± 5. The majority reported being active, 33.3% (9/27). According to SF-36, the most limiting domain was "pain" (28.6), the global PSQI score was 10.4 and the majority (81.5%) did not have intermittent claudication. Conclusion: the presence of PAD was more frequent in the elderly and the presence of sleep disorders and decreased quality of life was identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , Sleep Deprivation , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Intermittent Claudication , Motor Activity , Epidemiologic Studies , Demography , Observational Study
9.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(6): e20201285, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1288423

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze quality of sleep among students of technical courses in nursing according to the exercise of work activity. Methods: a cross-sectional and analytical research, with 213 students from Paraná. Characterization data and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were collected between March and June 2020 and analyzed descriptively and inferentially. Results: quality of poor sleep was 76.5% among those who work and 75.3% among those who do not work. Difficulty in reconciling personal and academic life (p=0.016;adjOR:3.450) and indicating anxiety due to school activities (p=0.017;adjOR:3.236) increased the chances of poor sleep quality among working students. Satisfaction with health reduced the chances of poor sleep quality, regardless of exercising work activity (p=0.002;adjOR:0.210) or not (p=0.008;adjOR:0.215). Conclusions: students who performed work activities have worse sleep quality due to anxiety and the multiple activities to be reconciled with the study.


RESUMEN Objetivos: analizar la calidad del sueño en estudiantes de cursos técnicos en enfermería según el ejercicio de la actividad laboral. Métodos: investigación transversal y analítica, con 213 estudiantes de Paraná. Los datos de caracterización y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburg se recopilaron entre marzo y junio de 2020 y se analizaron de forma descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: la calidad del mal sueño fue del 76,5% entre los que trabajan y del 75,3% entre los que no trabajan. La dificultad para conciliar la vida personal y académica (p=0,016;ORaj:3,450) y la indicación de ansiedad por las actividades escolares (p=0,017;ORaj:3,236) aumentaron las posibilidades de mala calidad del sueño entre los estudiantes trabajadores. La satisfacción con la salud redujo las posibilidades de mala calidad del sueño, independientemente de la actividad laboral (p=0,002;ORaj:0,210) o no (p=0,008;ORaj:0,215). Conclusiones: los estudiantes que realizaban actividades laborales presentaron peor calidad de sueño debido a la ansiedad y las múltiples actividades a conciliar con el estudio.


RESUMO Objetivos: analisar a qualidade do sono entre estudantes de cursos técnicos em enfermagem segundo o exercício de atividade laboral. Métodos: pesquisa transversal e analítica, com 213 alunos paranaenses. Dados de caracterização e o Índice da Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburg foram coletados entre março e junho de 2020 e analisados descritiva e inferencialmente. Resultados: a qualidade do sono ruim foi de 76,5% entre os que trabalham e de 75,3% entre os que não trabalham. Dificuldade de conciliar vida pessoal e acadêmica (p=0,016;ORaj:3,450) e indicar ansiedade devido às atividades escolares (p=0,017;ORaj:3,236) aumentaram as chances de qualidade do sono ruim entre os alunos que trabalham. A satisfação com a saúde reduziu as chances de qualidade do sono ruim, independente de exercer atividade laboral (p=0,002;ORaj:0,210) ou não (p=0,008;ORaj:0,215). Conclusões: os estudantes que exerciam atividades laborais apresentam pior qualidade do sono devido à ansiedade e as múltiplas atividades a serem conciliadas com o estudo.

10.
J. Phys. Educ. ; 32: e3231, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356395

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O sono é uma estratégia importante para a recuperação de atletas e o estado de privação de sono pode influenciar a performance esportiva. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática de literatura para analisar a influência da privação de sono no desempenho físico e esportivo de atletas. A pesquisa foi realizada a partir das bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Scopus, SportDiscus e Scielo. Foram selecionados artigos originais publicados escritos no idioma inglês ou português. Após a busca nas bases de dados foram encontrados 143 artigos sendo 45 no PubMed, 72 no Scopus, 1 no Scielo e 25 no SportDiscus. Posteriormente a análise dos artigos, 8 artigos foram incluídos no presente estudo de acordo com os critérios de inclusão. Após análise dos 8 artigos incluídos na revisão, concluiu-se que a privação de sono influenciou negativamente no desempenho físico e esportivo em 5 dos artigos analisados. Além disso, constatou-se que o período de privação de sono é determinante para o desempenho dos atletas nas tarefas esportivas.


ABSTRACT Sleeping is an important strategy for athletes' recovery and the state of sleep deprivation can influence the sports performance.The objective of the study was to carry out a systematic literature review in order to analyze the influence of sleep deprivation on the physical and athletic performance of athletes. The study was carried out from the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, SportDiscus and Scielo. We selected original articles published and written in English or Portuguese were selected. After the search in the databases we found 143 articles were found being 45 from PubMed, 72 from Scopus, 1 from Scielo and 25 from SportDiscus. After the full analysis of the articles, only 8 of them articles were included in the present study according to the inclusion criteria. After analyzing the 8 articles included in the present review it was concluded that sleep deprivation negatively influenced physical and sports performance in 5 of the analyzed articles. In addition, it was found that the sleep deprivation period is determinant for athletes' performance in sports tasks.

11.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3487, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1347609

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the association of the burnout syndrome with daytime sleepiness and sleep quality among technical-level Nursing students. Method: a cross-sectional, analytical and quantitative study, conducted with 213 students from four technical Nursing courses in a city of Paraná, Brazil. Data collection was carried out using an instrument containing characterization information, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results: the prevalence values of the burnout syndrome, excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality were 4.7%, 34.7% and 58.7%, respectively. Excessive daytime sleepiness significantly increased the chances of high emotional exhaustion (ORadj: 5.714; p<0.001) and high depersonalization (ORadj: 4.259; p<0.001). Poor sleep quality, especially sleep disorders, was associated with all dimensions of the syndrome (p<0.05). Conclusion: high levels of the burnout syndrome dimensions were associated with excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality. Educational institutions should include sleep hygiene and psychosocial support in their student health promotion programs.


Objetivo: evaluar la asociación del síndrome de burnout con la somnolencia diurna y la calidad del sueño en estudiantes de enfermería de nivel técnico. Método: estudio transversal, analítico y cuantitativo, con 213 estudiantes de cuatro carreras técnicas de enfermería en una ciudad del estado de Paraná, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó utilizando un instrumento que contiene información de caracterización, el Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, la Escala de Somnolencia de Epworth y el Índice de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva y regresión logística. Resultados: las prevalencias del síndrome de burnout, de la somnolencia diurna excesiva y de la mala calidad del sueño fueron 4,7%, 34,7% y 58,7%, respectivamente. La somnolencia diurna excesiva aumentó significativamente las posibilidades de alto agotamiento emocional (ORaj: 5,714; p<0,001) y alta despersonalización (ORaj: 4,259; p<0,001). La mala calidad del sueño, especialmente las alteraciones del sueño, se asoció con todas las dimensiones del síndrome (p<0,05). Conclusión: altos niveles de las dimensiones del síndrome de burnout se asociaron con somnolencia diurna excesiva y mala calidad del sueño. Las instituciones educativas deben incluir la higiene del sueño y el apoyo psicosocial en sus programas de promoción de la salud de los estudiantes.


Objetivo: avaliar a associação da síndrome de burnout com a sonolência diurna e a qualidade do sono entre alunos de nível técnico em enfermagem. Método: estudo transversal, analítico e quantitativo, com 213 alunos de quatro cursos técnicos em enfermagem de uma cidade do Paraná, Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de um instrumento contendo informações de caracterização, o Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, a Escala de Sonolência de Epworth e o Índice da Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e regressão logística. Resultados: as prevalências da síndrome de burnout, da sonolência diurna excessiva e da qualidade do sono ruim foram 4,7%, 34,7% e 58,7%, respectivamente. A sonolência diurna excessiva aumentou significativamente as chances de alta exaustão emocional (ORaj: 5,714; p<0,001) e alta despersonalização (ORaj: 4,259; p<0,001). A qualidade do sono ruim, sobretudo os distúrbios do sono, associou-se com todas as dimensões da síndrome (p<0,05). Conclusão: altos níveis das dimensões da síndrome de burnout foram associados à sonolência diurna excessiva e à má qualidade de sono. As instituições de ensino devem incluir a higiene do sono e o apoio psicossocial em seus programas de promoção à saúde dos estudantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Nursing , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Hygiene , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921685

ABSTRACT

To investigate the changes of bile acid(BA) levels in mice with sleep deprivation and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills(JTP) on bile acid metabolism, this study established an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 23 BAs in mice. A total of 24 ICR mice were randomized into normal group, model group, and JTP group. Mice in the model group and JTP group were deprived of sleep at 20 h·d~(-1) by sleep deprivation apparatus for 8 consecutive days. Mice in the JTP group were given(ig, qd) JTP 3.3 g·kg~(-1) and those in the normal group and model group received(ig) the same volume of purified water. UPLC conditions are as follows: Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm), gradient elution with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water-methanol. MS conditions are as below: negative-ion electrospray ionization, multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). Thereby, the content of 23 BAs in serum, liver, and ileum was determined and methodological investigation of the method was performed. The results showed that 23 BAs could be accurately determined within 15 min and the correlation coefficients were all higher than 0.99. The precision, accuracy, specificity, reproducibility, matrix effect, and recovery of BAs all met the requirement. The levels of BAs were significantly increased in the serum, liver, and ileum of sleep-deprived mice, but JTP can significantly reduce the levels. The UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid, and accurate, which can be used for the determination of 23 BAs in biological samples, and JTP can adjust the elevated BA levels of sleep-deprived mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Reproducibility of Results , Sleep , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
13.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1218-1221, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911345

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the effects of propofol, dexmedetomidine and ketamine on oncentrations of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sleep-deprived rats.Methods:Forty SPF healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3-4 months, weighing 230-280 g, were divided into 5 groups ( n=8 each) using a random number table method: control group (group C), sleep deprivation group (SD), propofol group (group P), dexmedetomidine group (group D) and ketamine group (group K). The sleep deprivation was induced using the improved multi-platform sleep deprivation model.Propofol 100 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 100 mg/kg and ketamine 80 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected at 72 h of sleep deprivation to maintain anesthesia for 3 h in P, D and K groups, respectively.Group C entered the large platform for 72 h free activity.The CSF was collected at 3 h of anesthesia for measurement of concentrations of Aβ and tau protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results:The concentrations of Aβ and tau protein in CSF were significantly higher in SD, P, K and D groups than in group C ( P<0.05). Compared with group SD, the concentrations of Aβ and tau protein in CSF were significantly increased in P and K groups, and the concentrations of Aβ and tau protein in CSF were significantly decreased in group D ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Dexmedetomidine can decrease the the concentrations of Aβ and tau protein in CSF of sleep deprived rats, while propofol and ketamine lead to the opposite effect.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909536

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the modulatory effects of GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway on anxiety- and depression-like behavior of mice induced by chronic sleep deprivation (CSD).Methods:Forty-eight 10-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were selected and randomly divided into four groups(with 12 mice in each group): control group, inhibitor-only group (LiCl), chronic sleep deprivation group (CSD) and inhibitor with CSD group (LiCl+ CSD). Elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were used to evaluate the behavior of mice, HE staining was used to observe the pathological morphological changes of hippocampal neurons, and Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of β-catenin, GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β in hippocampal tissues. SPSS 22.0 software was used for independent sample t-test and one way ANOVA. Results:After modeling, the body weight of mice in the CSD group ((26.53±0.76)g) was significantly lower than that of the control group ((28.00±0.37)g) ( q=4.119, P=0.041), and the body weight in the LiCl+ CSD group ((28.04±0.86)g) was improved compared with CSD group ( q=4.240, P=0.036). In EPM, the ratio of the entering times and the proportion of the staying time in the open arm in the CSD group ((48.44±9.16)%) and ((16.47±10.42)%) were significantly lower than those in the control group ((68.92±11.71)% and (42.93±15.89)%) ( q=4.660, P=0.018, q=4.346, P=0.029), but the staying time in the open arm in the LiCl+ CSD group ((32.92±12.05)%) was significantly higher than that in the CSD group ( q=2.432, P=0.038). In FST, the percentage of floating immobility time of the mice in the CSD group ((55.00±5.36)%) was significantly longer than that of the control group ((39.95±2.87)%) ( P=0.023), which was decreased significantly in the LiCl+ CSD group ((42.00±7.92)%) than that in the CSD group ( P=0.040). Western blot results showed that, the expressions of p-GSK-3β and β-catenin in the hippocampus of CSD group were decreased significantly ( P=0.040, P=0.008), while the expression of GSK-3β was significantly increased than that of the control group ( P<0.001). Both p-GSK-3β and β-catenin were significantly reversed in CSD+ LiCl group than that in CSD ( P=0.034, P=0.038). Conclusion:The GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of CSD-induced anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906201

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the mechanism of Suanzaoren Tang in improving learning-memory of sleep-deprived rats based on Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammatome pathway. Method:The rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, Eszolam group(5.4×10<sup>-4</sup> g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group(4.59 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>)and high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group (18.36 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>). In addition to normal control group, other groups were used to constructed sleep-deprived model, which was concurrent with 30-day continuous drug administration. Water maze was used to evaluate the learning-memory function of rats; The mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3, apoptosis-related speckle proteins (ASC), aspartic acid-specific cysteine protease-1 (Caspase-1), interleukin-1(IL-1) and IL-18 in the hippocampus of rats were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot. Result:Compared with control group, the incubation period of the platform, the total distance of swimming and the duration of first reaching the platform in model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the number of platform crossings and the target quadrant time were decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the incubation period, total swimming distance and the duration of first reaching the platform in low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group and high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were decreased to different degrees (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the number of platform crossings and the target quadrant time were increased significantly (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01),but with no significant change in estazolam group. Compared with normal control group, mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-18 in the hippocampus of the model group were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1<italic>β</italic> and IL-18 in the hippocampus of the rats in low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group and high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were all decreased to different degrees (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1<italic>β</italic> and IL-18 in the hippocampus of Suanzaoren group also decreased, but with no significant change. Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang can improve the learning-memory function of sleep-deprived rats, and its mechanism is related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammatome pathway in hippocampus and the alleviation of neuroinflammation.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906144

ABSTRACT

Sleep has been widely concerned by the medical field all over the world. Sleep deprivation can cause damage to organs of the human body, which is related to the occurrence of a variety of diseases. Besides, the pathological change in different organs of the human body is also a key factor that causes or aggravates insomnia. When treating insomnia and its complications, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) focuses on the homology of the brain and heart, and insomnia is mainly treated from the five internal organs, especially the heart and liver. Sleep duration and structure change with age. The prevalence of insomnia is higher in older individuals susceptible to complications than in the younger population. In TCM, insomnia of blood deficiency and Yin deficiency is common among the elderly. Suanzaoren Tang is a classic prescription for nourishing blood and calming the mind and it is critical in the treatment of "sleeplessness due to consumptive disease and dysphoria", with the effects of nourishing liver blood to calm the mind and clearing internal heat to relieve dysphoria. It has good efficacy on the insomnia of the elderly caused by deficiency of Qi and blood and abnormal operation of nutrient Qi and defense Qi. Furthermore, it also shows a certain therapeutic effect on insomnia combined with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The present study revealed the damage to the brain, heart, and liver caused by sleep deprivation and the effect of Suanzaoren Tang on the brain, heart, and liver, and clarified the facts that Suanzaoren Tang inhibited the damage to organs caused by sleep deprivation and regulated energy metabolism, thereby exploring the sedative and hypnotic mechanism of Suanzaoren Tang to provide new ideas for Suanzaoren Tang in the treatment of sleep disorders and other diseases.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906143

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Suanzaoren Tang on energy metabolism of liver mitochondria in aged rats with chronic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation. Method:Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, estazolam group (0.18 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and low- (6.48 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) and high-dose (12.96 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) Suanzaoren Tang groups. Rats in all groups except for the control group received subcutaneous injection of <italic>D</italic>-galactose and then were deprived of sleep using the multiple platform method after the last administration. Following successful modeling, the rats in each group were treated with intragastric administration of the corresponding drugs for seven consecutive days. The morphology of liver mitochondria was observed under the transmission electron microscope. The content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in rat liver was detected by colorimetry, and the activities of ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex Ⅰ), succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex Ⅱ), ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex Ⅲ), and cytochrome c oxidase (complex Ⅳ) in mitochondrial respiratory chain of rat liver were measured by colorimetry. The protein expression levels of citrate synthase (CS), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and ATP synthase, H<sup>+</sup> transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit b, isoform 1 (ATP5F1) in rat liver were assayed by Western blot. Result:The mitochondrial damage in rat liver of the model group was more serious than that in the control group, manifested as mitochondrial swelling and deformation as well as cristae rupture and reduction. The comparison with the model group revealed that both the positive control and Suanzaoren Tang at the high dose obviously alleviated the mitochondrial swelling and deformation and reduced cristae rupture, with better improvements observed in the high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group. Compared with the control group, the content of ATP, the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ, and the protein expression levels of IDH, CS, and ATP5F1 in rat liver of the model group were all significantly decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Compared with the model group, the content of ATP, the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ, and the protein expression levels of IDH, CS, and ATP5F1 in rat liver of the high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were all significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05,<italic>P<</italic>0.01). In the positive control group, the content of ATP, the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and Ⅲ, and the protein expression levels of CS and ATP5F1 in rat liver were significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05,<italic> P<</italic>0.01). The activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes Ⅰ and Ⅲ and the ATP5F1 protein expression in the low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were significantly elevated (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01). Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang alleviates the abnormal liver energy metabolism induced by chronic REM sleep deprivation in the elderly rats, which may be related to its enhancement of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities and the up-regulation of protein expression levels of CS, IDH and ATP5F1.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906142

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of Suanzaoren Tang on mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis. Method:Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, estazolam group (0.18 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and low- (6.48 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) and high-dose (12.96 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) Suanzaoren Tang groups. Rats in all groups except for the control group received subcutaneous injection of <italic>D</italic>-galactose and then were deprived of sleep using the multiple platform method after the last administration. Following successful modeling, the rats in each group were treated with intragastric administration of the corresponding drugs for seven consecutive days. The morphology of mitochondria in hypothalamus was observed under a transmission electron microscope. The activities of Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase and Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase in hypothalamus were detected by spectrophotometry. Western blotting was conducted to determine the protein expression levels of cytochrome C (Cyt C), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) in hypothalamus. Result:In the control group, there was no obvious pathological change in mitochondria, which were moderate in size and oval or spindle in shape, with the cristae arranged orderly. Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited abnormal mitochondrial morphology, manifested as obvious swelling, vacuolation, myelin figures, and cristae rupture and reduction. The comparison with the model group revealed that both the estazolam group and high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group alleviated the mitochondrial damage and reduced the vacuolation and swelling. Only some cristae rupture was present. The improvements were more obvious in the high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group. Compared with the control group, the activities of Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase and Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase and the Bcl-2 protein expression in the model group were significantly decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), whereas the protein expression levels of Cyt C, Bax, and Caspase-3 were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the activities of Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase and Ca<sup>2+</sup>-Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase and the Bcl-2 protein expression in the estazolam group and the high-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were significantly elevated (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), while the protein expression levels of Cyt C, Bax, and Caspase-3 were significantly lowered (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01). The activity of Na<sup>+</sup>-K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase and the Bcl-2 protein expression in the low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group were increased significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), but the Bax protein expression was down-regulated (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang is able to improve the mitochondrial function of hypothalamic nerve cells and inhibit their apoptosis.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906141

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the mechanism of Suanzaoren Tang in regulating the energy metabolism of myocardial mitochondria in aged rats with chronic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation through the sirtuin 3 (SIRT3)/superoxide dismutase2 (SOD2) signaling pathway. Method:Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, estazolam group (0.18 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and low- (6.48 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) and high-dose (12.96 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>) Suanzaoren Tang groups. Rats in all groups except for the control group received subcutaneous injection of <italic>D</italic>-galactose and then were deprived of sleep using the multiple platform method after the last administration. Following successful modeling, the rats in each group were treated with intragastric administration of the corresponding drugs for seven consecutive days. The morphology of myocardial mitochondria was observed under a transmission electron microscope. The content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in rat hypothalamus was detected by colorimetry, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the SOD activity in myocardium were measured by spectrophotometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot were conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT3 and SOD2 in rat myocardium. The localization of SIRT3 was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Result:Compared with the control group, the model group exhibited a disordered arrangement of myocardial filaments, accompanied by filament rupture and dissolution, obviously swollen mitochondria arranged in disorder, and blurring and even rupture of most mitochondrial cristae. Besides, the content of ATP and SOD activity in the myocardium decreased significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), whereas that of MDA increased significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT3 and SOD2 were down-regulated significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), and the average fluorescence intensity of SIRT3 protein declined significantly (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). The comparison with the model group revealed that high-dose Suanzaoren Tang enabled the myocardial filaments to be neatly arranged, relieved the mitochondrial damage and swelling, only manifested as partial mitochondrial cristae rupture, significantly increased ATP content, SOD activity, as well as SIRT3 and SOD2 mRNA and protein expression levels (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), reduced the content of MDA (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), and enhanced the average fluorescence intensity of SIRT3 protein (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). The myocardial mitochondrial injury in the estazolam group was also alleviated. The activity of SOD and the SIRT3 and SOD2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the myocardium were significantly elevated (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), while the activity of MDA was significantly lowered (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). In the low-dose Suanzaoren Tang group, the improvement in myocardial mitochondrial injury was not obvious. However, both the SOD activity and SOD2 protein expression were significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). Conclusion:Suanzaoren Tang ameliorates the myocardial mitochondria injury and abnormal energy metabolism induced by chronic REM sleep deprivation in aged rats possibly by up-regulating the SIRT3 and SOD2 expression.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906105

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Shengyutang on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, and explore its possible mechanism on improving the learning and memory abilities of sleep deprivation (SD) mice. Method:The 50 mice were divided into normal group, model group, estazolam group, Shengyutang low and high dose groups, with 10 mice in each group. A multi-platform water environment was used to prepare SD mouse models. The low and high-dose Shengyutang groups received intragastric administration of 12.5, 25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The mice in the model group were intragastrically administered with the same dose of normal saline daily for 8 weeks. Morris water maze experiment was used to observe the behavioral changes of SD mice in the evasion latency period, the number of crossing platforms, and the stay time in the target quadrant of each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathomorphological changes of the hippocampal tissue of each group. The expression levels of eight monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin (5-HT),dopandne (DA),epinephrine (EP),norepinephrine (NE),5-hydroxyindole acetic acid(5-HIAA), high vanillic acid (HVA), levodopa(<italic>L</italic>-DOPA),and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid(DOPAC)were detected by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression levels of c-Fos protein in hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry. Result:Compared with the normal group, the SD mice in the model group were in a poorer general state and severe fatigue was observed. Compared with the model group, SD mice in each dose group of Shengyutang got improved in eating, activity, sleep, hair color, and response to external stimuli. Compared with the normal group, the body weight of SD mice in the model group was significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.05), but the body weight in the Shengyutang high-dose group increased the most as compared with the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the normal group, the hippocampal cells in the model group were disorderly arranged, incomplete in shape, increased in gap and decreased in number. Compared with the model group, the number of neurons in the hippocampus of SD mice in each dose group of Shengyutang increased. Compared with the normal group, the escape latency time of SD mice in the model group was significantly prolonged, the times of crossing platform and the residence time in the target quadrant significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the times of crossing platform and the residence time in the target quadrant of mice in each dose group of Shengyutang significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the normal group, the levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, <italic>L</italic>-DOPA, DOPAC, EP, NE, HVA and DA in the model group significantly decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic> P</italic><0.01); but these levels in each dose group of Shengyutang were higher than those in model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the normal group, the average MD value of c-Fos protein in the hippocampus of the model group significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and the expression levels of c-Fos protein in the hippocampus of Shengyutang groups were significantly lower than those in model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Shengyutang can improve the learning and memory abilities of SD rats, and its mechanism may be related to the decrease of monoamine neurotransmitter and c-Fos protein expression.

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