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1.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 76(1): e20220153, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1407479

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the contributions of the Brazilian Nursing Association and the Federal and Regional Nursing Councils in the literature for the professionalization of nursing in the light of Eliot Freidson's theoretical conceptions. Methods: Integrative review of the literature, of socio-professional historical interest, carried out from June to November 2021, through the question: How did professional associations contribute to the professionalization of Brazilian nursing according to the literature from 2010 to 2020? The evidence were organized in a synoptic table, which allowed the construction of a conceptual map. Results: In the 23 selected studies, the professional associations presented scientific, social and political contributions, which shape the professional field of nursing, enabling knowledge/expertise, autonomy and self-regulation. Final considerations: The efforts of these institutions reaffirm nursing as an academic and consulting profession, capable of exerting control over the essence of nursing work. They strive to consolidate nursing as a legitimate professional field of health in Brazil.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar las contribuciones de la Asociación Brasileña de Enfermería y de los Consejos Federales y Regionales de Enfermería a la profesionalización de la enfermería bajo la luz de las concepciones teóricas de Eliot Freidson Métodos: Se trata de una revisión integradora, de interés histórico socio profesional, realizada de junio a noviembre de 2021, mediante la pregunta: ¿Cómo han contribuido las entidades de clase con la profesionalización de la enfermería brasileña según la literatura de 2010 a 2020? Las pruebas se organizaron en un cuadro sinóptico que permitió construir un mapa conceptual. Resultados: En los 23 estudios seleccionados, las entidades de clase presentaron contribuciones científicas, sociales y políticas, que forman el campo profesional de la enfermería y facilitan el conocimiento, la experticia, la autonomía y la autorregulación. Consideraciones finales: Las entidades reafirman que la enfermería es una profesión académica y de consulta, capaz de ejercer el control sobre la esencia del trabajo en sí y perseveran para consolidarla como un campo profesional legítimo en el Brasil.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar na literatura contribuições da Associação Brasileira de Enfermagem e dos Conselhos Federal e Regionais de Enfermagem para a profissionalização da enfermagem à luz das concepções teóricas de Eliot Freidson. Métodos: Revisão integrativa, de interesse histórico socioprofissional, realizada de junho a novembro de 2021, mediante a questão: Como as entidades de classe contribuíram para a profissionalização da enfermagem brasileira de acordo com a literatura de 2010 a 2020? Organizaram-se as evidências em quadro sinótico, que possibilitou a construção de mapa conceitual. Resultados: Nos 23 estudos selecionados, as entidades de classe apresentaram contribuições científicas, sociais e políticas, que conformam o campo profissional da enfermagem, possibilitando conhecimento/expertise, autonomia e autorregulação. Considerações finais: Os esforços dessas entidades reafirmam a enfermagem como profissão acadêmica e de consulta, capaz de exercer controle sobre a essência do trabalho da enfermagem. Elas se empenham em consolidar a enfermagem como legítimo campo profissional da saúde no Brasil.

2.
Educ. med. super ; 36(3): e3518, jul.-set. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1404567

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los documentos normativos establecen el estado del arte relacionado con determinado campo del conocimiento. Existe una gran cantidad de normas relacionadas con los servicios de salud y su gestión, cuya aplicación es relevante en este sector. Objetivo: Exponer la importancia de las normas técnicas en la formación de los profesionales en ingeniería biomédica, tecnología y administración en salud. Desarrollo: Diferentes aspectos relacionados con el desempeño y las funciones de los profesionales en ingeniería biomédica, tecnología de la salud y administración en salud están recogidos en normas técnicas internacionales y en otras de carácter nacional, que resultan pertinentes y de gran utilidad para su formación en el nivel de grado y el posgrado. Conclusiones: Las profesiones abordadas requieren emplear los documentos normativos relacionados con sus funciones para contribuir con la calidad de los servicios de salud; de ahí la pertinencia de su incorporación en los planes de estudio de estas carreras(AU)


Introduction: Normative documents establish the state of the art related to a certain field of knowledge. There is a large number of standards related to health services and their management, whose application is relevant in this sector. Objective: To show the importance of technical standards in the training of professionals from the fields of biomedical engineering, health technology and health management. Development: Different aspects related to the performance and functions of professionals from the fields of biomedical engineering, health technology and health management are gathered in international and other national technical standards, relevant and useful for their training at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Conclusions: The addressed professions require the use of normative documents related to their functions in order to contribute to the quality of health services, hence the relevance of their incorporation into the curriculums of these major(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Organization and Administration/standards , Biomedical Engineering/standards , Biomedical Technology/standards , Health Administration/standards , Professional Training , Quality of Health Care/trends
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410309

ABSTRACT

En el presente trabajo se realiza la estandarización del procedimiento espectrofotométrico de determinación de polisacárido capsular e intermedios de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo X, mediante la determinación de los grupos fosfodiéster presentes en su estructura, por el método de Chen. Se realizó un análisis de los siguientes criterios para la estandarización: linealidad, precisión (repetibilidad y precisión intermedia) y exactitud. Se demostró mediante el diseño experimental y los procedimientos estadísticos empleados que el método es lineal (r > 0,99), el coeficiente de variación del factor respuesta < 5 por ciento, la desviación estándar relativa de la pendiente < 2 por ciento, no existiendo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el intercepto de la ecuación con respecto a cero; exacto, porque no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre la concentración determinada en un material de trabajo y su concentración nominal; también demostró ser repetible, pues el coeficiente de variación de las concentraciones de la muestra evaluada (2,44; 2,43; 0,88 por ciento para las concentraciones bajas, medias y altas, respectivamente) es inferior al 3 por ciento y no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las medias de los resultados obtenidos por dos analistas, evaluados durante cuatro días a tres niveles de concentración. La precisión intermedia es satisfactoria(AU)


The present work comprises the standardization a spectrophotometric procedure for assessing Neisseria meningitidis, serogroup X capsular polysaccharide and their intermediates of modification, the phosphodiesters groups present in its structure, based on Chen method. An analysis of the following standardization criteria was performed: linearity, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and accuracy. It was demonstrated through the experimental design and the statistical procedures used that the method is linear (r > 0.99), the coefficient of variation of the response factor < 5 percent, the relative standard deviation of the slope < 2 percent, with no statistically significant difference between the intercept of the equation with respect to zero; exact, because there is no statistically significant difference between the concentration determined in a work material and its nominal concentration; it also proved to be repeatable, because the coefficient of variation of the concentrations of the sample (2.44; 2.43; 0.88 percent for low, medium and high concentrations respectively) is less than 3 percent and there is no statistically significant difference between the means of the results obtained by two analysts, evaluated for four days at three concentration levels. Its intermediate precision was satisfactory(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Reference Standards , Spectrophotometry/methods , Virulence Factors , Meningococcal Infections/diagnosis , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
4.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 13(2): 122-138, jul./dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1378944

ABSTRACT

O estudo apresenta os tamanhos do efeito, seus intervalos de confiança, classificações e visualizações para a atualização normativa de 2018 do Teste não verbal de Inteligência R-1, visto que as diferenças estatisticamente calculadas com base no valor p oferecerem evidências tênues contra a hipótese nula e, por isso, não servem como uma prova da significância clínica. Utilizou-se a amostra normativa do instrumento, composta por 5.595 adultos, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 18 e 65 anos, provenientes das cinco regiões geográficas brasileiras e subdivididos pelos níveis de ensino fundamental, médio e superior. Os resultados apontaram tamanhos do efeito entre médios e grandes na comparação entre os níveis de ensino fundamental e médio; grande a muito grande na relação entre o ensino fundamental e o superior e; pequenos a médios entre os níveis médio e superior de ensino. Concluiu-se que as diferenças estatisticamente observadas, por meio das análises de variância e pos-hoc de Tukey refletem um efeito real quando se considera o impacto da variável nível de escolaridade no desempenho do teste. Entendeu-se que os estudos normativos do instrumento refletem um impacto real quando se considera a variável em estudo, devendo incluir o tamanho do efeito e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança.


The study presents the effect sizes, their confidence intervals, ratings, and visualizations for the 2018 normative update of the R-1 Nonverbal Intelligence Test, since the statistically calculated differences based on the p-value offer tenuous evidence against the null hypothesis and do not serve as a proof of clinical significance. We used the normative sample of the instrument, consisting of 5,595 adults of both sexes, aged 18 to 65 years, from the five Brazilian geographic regions and subdivided by elementary, middle, and high school levels. The results showed medium to large effect sizes in the comparison between elementary and high school levels; large to very large in the relation between elementary and high school; and small to medium effect sizes between high school and high school levels. It was concluded that the statistically observed differences, by means of variance and Tukey's post-hoc analyses reflect a real effect when considering the impact of the education level variable on test performance. It was understood that normative studies of the instrument reflect a real impact when considering the variable under study, and should include the effect size and their respective confidence intervals.


Subject(s)
Intelligence Tests , Benchmarking , Academic Performance
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(1): 81-99, Mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375605

ABSTRACT

Resumo Discute-se neste artigo o papel desempenhado pela Gaceta Médica de México no processo de institucionalização e profissionalização da medicina científica no país entre 1860 e 1890. A partir da noção de tecnologia literária utilizada por Steven Shapin e Simon Schaffer e da análise qualitativa de relatórios médicos com enunciados típicos, examina-se o modo como os membros da Academia Nacional de Medicina, instituição responsável pelo periódico, e da Escola Nacional de Medicina coletivizaram suas experiências e prescreveram formas de ser e agir por meio de suas publicações. Busca-se demonstrar o caráter de "manual não sistematizado" da publicação, importante instrumento de normatização e regulação dos saberes médicos no México nesse período.


Abstract This article discusses the role played by the Gaceta Médica de México in the process of institutionalizing and professionalizing scientific medicine in Mexico from 1860 to 1890. From the notion of literary technology utilized by Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer and qualitative analysis of medical reports containing typical discourse, we examine how members of the Mexican National Academy of Medicine (the institution responsible for this journal) and the National School of Medicine collected their experiences and prescribed ways of being and acting through their publications. The aim is to demonstrate how this periodical acted as an unsystematized manual, an important instrument for normalizing and regulating medical knowledge in Mexico during this period.

6.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936694

ABSTRACT

Real World Data (RWD) has various types of data sources, but each source has a different format and terminology code, which makes analysis process cumbersome and repetitive. The OMOP Common Data Model (CDM) is an open standard for analysis of RWD on a global scale, and the OHDSI community is responsible for its maintenance and development. What sets the OMOP CDM apart from other data standards is the way in which it has created a structure for integrating and handling terminology globally, and the way in which analysis is conducted without exposing individual patient information outside. Such features facilitate international collaboration. The method of not releasing patient data outside is expected to be widely utilized in future because it is highly compatible with Japan's pseudonymously processed information (PPI) based on the personal information protection act, in which PPI data cannot be provided to any third party but the purpose of use can be easily changed. There are many advantages not only for international collaboration, but also for domestic collaboration or in-house use. Epidemiologists and data scientists will be able to handle data in the same model they are accustomed to both domestically and internationally. That will be of great benefit to students, personnel, and their organizations especially when they study abroad, return home, or transfer internationally. Globally, collaborators from more than 70 countries are working on this project. Data on more than 800 million people after eliminating estimated duplicates, or 10% of the world's population, has been converted to the OMOP CDM. More than 250 related published articles have been registered with PubMed. On the other hand in Japan, there are many issues to be solved, such as support system and terminology mapping. To catch up with international levels, strong cooperation from a wide range of fields is needed.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928845

ABSTRACT

In the standardized diagnosis and treatment process of advanced gastric cancer, there is a unappreciated key link between standard radical surgery and accurate pathological reports. That is, the process of dissection, fixation, sampling and recording of the specimen by the surgeons, starting from specimen isolation to the management of the pathologist. Standardizing this process can not only accurately reflect the detailed distribution and exact number of lymph nodes, but also clarify the pathological stage of gastric cancer, so as to make adjuvant treatment plans. Moreover, it can also reflect the scope of intraoperative lymph node dissection to ensure the standardized implementation of surgery, including the overall dissection principle (en bloc resection), and therefore can provide a solid foundation for later related researches. So far, there is still a lack of complete and unified standard for the surgical management of specimens after radical gastrectomy in China. On the basis of the relevant researches and clinical practice about specimen management at home and abroad, the Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, in the name of the Gastric Cancer Professional Committee, Chinese Anticancer Association, as well as the Oncogastroenterology Professional Committee, Chinese Anticancer Association, organized dozens of experts to formulate a consensus on the standardized surgical management of specimens after repeated discussions and revisions for two years. This consensus is aimed to standardize the preparations, basic requirements and sample processing procedures before the surgical treatment of postoperative specimens after a radical surgery for gastric cancer patients, including the processing time of specimens, the processing and data archiving of gastric specimens, and lymph node grouping, sorting and fine sorting records, etc and with the purpose of standardizing the surgical treatment of postoperative specimens on the basis of standardized diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer, in order to further promote the high-quality development of gastric cancer surgery in China.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Gastrectomy/methods , Humans , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936062

ABSTRACT

Standardized surgical management of postoperative specimens of gastric cancer is an important part of the standardized diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. It can reflect the accurate number and detailed distribution of lymph nodes in the specimen and lay the foundation for accurate and standardized pathological reports after surgery. Meanwhile, it can evaluate the scope of intraoperative lymph node dissection, the safety of cutting edge, and the standardization of surgery (principle of en-bloc dissection), which is an important means of surgical quality control. It also provides accurate research samples for further research and is an important way for young surgeons to train their clinical skills. The surgical management of postoperative specimens for gastric cancer needs to be standardized, including specimen processing personnel, processing flow, resection margin examination, lymph node sorting, measurement after specimen dissection, storage of biological specimens, documentation of recorded data, etc. The promotion of standardized surgical management of specimens after radical gastrectomy can promote the homogenization of gastric cancer surgical diagnosis and treatment in medical institutions and further promote the high-quality development of gastric cancer surgery in China.


Subject(s)
Gastrectomy , Humans , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930987

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the configuration and safety of standardized parenteral nutrition solution for premature infants.Methods:A retrospective cohort study was used to the premature infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the West China Second Hospital within 24 hours after birth, 28~34 weeks gestational age, and began parenteral nutrition within 48 hours after birth from June 2015 to November 2018. Electrolytes, blood sugar, phlebitis and venous catheter-related infection during the use of parenteral nutrient fluids were collected, and divided into standardized parenteral nutrient solution group and individualized parenteral nutrient solution group according to the types of parenteral nutrient fluids used. Data analysis is realized by using EmpowerStats statistical software based on R language.Results:A total of 840 premature infants were collected, among them, 541 cases of standardized parenteral nutrition solution group and 299 cases of individual parenteral nutrition solution group. Compared with the individual parenteral nutrition solution group, the incidence of hyperglycemia was 6.3% (34/541) vs. 21.7% (65/299), OR=0.491, 95% CI 0.268~0.899. The incidence of hypokalemia was 13.5% (73/541) vs. 59.9% (179/299), OR=0.137, 95% CI 0.090~0.208. The incidence of hypercalcemia was 25.9% (140/541) vs. 62.8% (188/299), OR=0.249, 95% CI 0.162~0.383. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was 0.2% (1/541) vs. 2.7% (8/299), OR=0.076, 95% CI 0.008~0.686. All the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05) .There was no significant difference in the incidence of catheter-related infections between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Standardized parenteral nutrition is safer in maintaining blood glucose, blood potassium and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in premature infants.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929601

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the increasing scale and scope of public health emergencies have brought serious challenges to China's health emergency system. It is in urgent need to develop the existing health emergency system toward the goal of multi-industry, multi-discipline, multi-professional and multi-regional, while the concept of standardization is essential to achieve this goal. This article describes the construction process of health emergency standardization system by the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Standardization, the United States, and China; analyzes the problems of China's health emergency standardization system by comparing the system between China and the United States, proposes the construction dimensions of China's health emergency standard system, and suggests development strategies targeting the shortcomings of China's health emergency standardization.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929409

ABSTRACT

@#Exosomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles secreted by living cells that can carry a variety of signaling molecules, such as RNA, DNA, protein, and lipids. Exosomes play a role in the transmission of signaling molecules between cells, thus regulating many physiological and pathological processes. The methods of extracting exosomes include differential centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration, coprecipitation, polymer immune affinity, microfluidic separation technology, etc. Each of these extraction technologies has advantages and disadvantages; however, there is no unified international standard. In addition, the expression of specific proteins and genetic material of exosomes from different cell sources are different; thus, their expression characteristics and functions are also distinctive. Based on this situation, research on exosomes is limited to preclinical studies, and difficulties and challenges still exist in clinical application. This paper summarizes the progress of research in the field of exosomes, to understand the characteristics, modification and application of exosomes from different cell sources, and to summarize their advantages and disadvantages as well as challenges, which can help researchers better understand and master the performance of exosomes. Furthermore, improvement of standard procedures in the extraction and manufacturing of exosomes is important, as it will provide a reference for researchers to carry out exosome-related translational clinical research.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928033

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine extracts are the important pharmaceutical materials of Chinese medicinal preparations, but their nomenclature still needs improvement in the field of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). By the analysis of the evolution rules of names of Chinese medicine extracts recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this study proposed a three-level nomenclature of "Chinese medicine name+chemical information+extract" based on the standardization problems involved in the existing nomenclature, striving to accurately suggest the material basic information on extract names. Meanwhile, the basic elements of Chinese medicine components, the special case from Chinese medicine extracts, were clarified, and the core connotations of the professional names were discriminated to arouse attention and discussions of researchers, facilitate the standardization of Chinese medicine terminology, and promote the scienti-fic development of Chinese medicinal preparations, and the modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Asians , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Social Change
13.
Psicopedagogia ; 38(117): 346-363, set.-dez. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356658

ABSTRACT

A Secretaria de Educação do município do Rio de Janeiro aplicou, em 2010, 2011 e 2012, nas 468 creches públicas, o instrumento "Ages & Stages Questionnaire", Terceira Edição, em sua versão adaptada e contextualizada ao Brasil (ASQ3-BR). Esta aplicação teve objetivo de fazer um rastreio do desenvolvimento de 109.758 crianças atendidas pelas creches, com idade entre 10 e 54 meses, especificamente em domínios relacionados à Comunicação, Coordenação Motora Ampla, Coordenação Motora Fina, Resolução de Problemas e Pessoal-Social. Os dados obtidos foram analisados visando o desenvolvimento de normas de interpretação do instrumento para população específica de crianças em creches brasileira. Isto foi realizado através do cálculo das médias e desvios-padrão dos escores, bem como pelos respectivos pontos de corte inferiores, considerados por dois desvios-padrão abaixo da média, e percentis de 5% e 10%. A partir deste procedimento, os resultados obtidos pelas crianças brasileiras foram comparados com os valores normativos estabelecidos pelo instrumento em seu original tanto para confirmar suas características psicométricas como para identificar possíveis diferenças nos resultados das crianças. Observou-se que os resultados obtidos nas creches públicas do Rio de Janeiro são inferiores àqueles observados no contexto norte-americano. Entretanto, eles tendem a se equiparar com o norte-americano no decorrer do amadurecimento da criança, especialmente quando elas ultrapassam os 24 meses de idade. Neste sentido, é possível sugerir que a estimulação oferecida pelas creches contribui para o desenvolvimento das crianças atendidas.


The Rio de Janeiro municipality Education Secretary applied in 2010, 2011, and 2012 the Portuguese-BR version (ASQ3-BR) of the Ages & Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition, in 468 public kindergartens to assess the development of 109,758 children aged 10 to 54 months. This endeavour was carried out to get information about the development of Communication, Gross Motor Coordination, Fine Motor Coordination, Problem Solving, and Personal-Social. The results were analysed, identifying the instrument's norms to its interpretation, as well as the respective cut-offs considering two standard deviations below the mean. In addition, the 5% and 10% percentiles based on the obtained scores were calculated. Also, the results were compared with normative values established by the original instrument to confirm its psychometric characteristics and to identify differences in the obtained data. It was observed that the results obtained in Rio de Janeiro's public daycare centers, although they started with results lower than those observed by the author of the instrument in the United States, after the age of 36 months, and with 24 months of living with other children, the results are matched with the American results, from which it can be concluded that the stimulation by living in daycare centers is effective for the psychomotor development of the children attended.

14.
Rev. Costarric. psicol ; 40(2)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387262

ABSTRACT

Resumen La utilización de pruebas psicológicas validadas y de confiabilidad comprobadas aportan evidencias valiosas al profesional en una multiplicidad de actividades, que comprenden desde el diagnóstico, el plan y el seguimiento de tratamiento hasta la selección laboral, la orientación vocacional, las pericias judiciales e investigación; sin embargo, no siempre se disponen de baremos adaptados a la región en la que se pretende aplicar un instrumento y, en ocasiones, siquiera corresponden a datos normativos del país. En Argentina, la WISC-IV fue adaptada considerando población perteneciente al Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, no se incluye muestra de otras regiones del extenso país. Por lo tanto, se realizó una investigación cuantitativa no experimental, exploratoria- descriptiva, con el objetivo de determinar la importancia de contar con baremos adaptados de la WISC-IV para diferentes regiones de un mismo país; para ello, se analizaron comparativamente los índices obtenidos por 520 escolares de 6 a 14 años (agrupados según los rangos de edad 6-8, 9-11 y 12-14) al aplicar dos baremos argentinos (Buenos Aires y Resistencia) para su corrección mediante un análisis de ANOVA mixto. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias significativas según el baremo sea de Buenos Aires o de Resistencia, en 4 de los 5 índices de la WISC-IV, al abarcar tanto en aspectos relacionados con el funcionamiento cognitivo general (i.e., CIT), como en campos más específicos (i.e., memoria de trabajo - IMO, velocidad de procesamiento - IVP y razonamiento perceptivo - IRP); además, se observaron diferencias entre baremos en CIT, ICV, IRP e IMO y sugerir comportamientos diferentes en los distintos índices según el tipo de baremo aplicado en los diferentes grupos de edad. Los resultados sugieren que la corrección de la escala a un/a estudiante, según las normativas establecidas para una región con características sociodemográficas distintas a la que pertenece el individuo, podría derivar en errores interpretativos de sus aptitudes cognitivas, por lo que se determina la importancia de contar con adaptaciones de las pruebas psicológicas para arribar a interpretaciones que eviten infra o sobrevalorar sus puntuaciones.


Abstract: The use of validated psychological tests provides valuable evidence to specialists in a multiplicity of activities (e.g., predicting diagnoses, guiding treatment and follow-up plans, guiding the job selection process and vocational orientation, determining disability levels for medico-legal purposes). However, a psychological instrument is not generally adapted and standardized in the country in which it is intended to be applied. In Argentina, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was standardized in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area; but did not include samples from other regions across the vast country. This situation is problematic, because Argentina presents disparities in its socio-demographic characteristics across the territory, and an accurate interpre- tation of intelligence test performance, depends on the use of appropriately standardized data. Hence, a quantitative non-experimental, exploratory-descriptive study was conducted to determine the importance of obtaining locally standardized data for WISC-IV. To this end, the indices obtained from 520 children and adolescents aged 6 to 14 years (grouped according to age ranges 6-8, 9-11 and 12-14) were comparatively analyzed, by analyzing two Argentine adaptations (Buenos Aires and Resistencia). Results revealed differences between normative data from the country's different regions in four indices, which included both aspects of general cognitive functioning (i.e., CIT) and more specific processes (i.e., working memory - IMO, processing speed - IVP, and perceptual reasoning - IRP). These results suggest that the assessment of students, according to non-locally established standardized data, could lead to interpretative errors regarding their cognitive abilities. Thus, the study contributes to knowledge about the importance of using contextually appropriate standardized data in the implementation of intelligence tests, to arrive at evaluations that avoid over- or under- estimating students' abilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Reference Standards , Wechsler Scales , Educational Measurement , Argentina
15.
West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 4-8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is relatively high in Guyana. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) reporting allows for early-stage CKD identification when therapeutic interventions can prevent CKD progression. Accurate creatinine measurements are essential for valid eGFR calculations. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana prior to implementing routine eGFR reporting. Methods: Sixteen Guyanese laboratories participated in this study. Each laboratory received a common set of blinded human serum samples (n = 3) containing clinically relevant creatinine concentrations, assigned by an international reference method (ID-GCMS). Laboratories performed repeated measurements of creatinine in each sample. These data were used to calculate bias, precision and total error (TE) for each creatinine method. Linear regression was used to compare measured creatinine results to assigned reference sample values and to post-analytically correct calibration bias, a priori, for recent patient results from each laboratory. Patient eGFR profiles were compared before and after bias correction. Results: The mean across samples CV and bias for all labs were 9% (range 2.5%-39.3%) and 11% positive (range 0.4%-29.1%), respectively. The mean TE was 28.6%. If the mean TE from a subset of the better performing laboratories (CV < 7%) was to apply nationally, an 'all stage' eGFR misclassification rate of 36% would result. Conclusion: There is a pressing need to improve the accuracy of creatinine measurements in Guyana as, at this time, routine reporting of eGFR by Guyanese laboratories cannot be recommended based on the accuracy data presented in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Creatinine/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Data Accuracy , Laboratories, Clinical , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Guyana
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 74(supl.5): e20200456, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1251243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the processes of producing messages and interacting with the media by professional nursing associations. Methods: Qualitative, descriptive study based on semi-structured interviews with managers of five professional nursing associations in Portugal. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Results: Regulatory and union associations use public relations services and refer more strategies for interacting with journalists. Professional specialization associations interact less frequently and prefer social media for publishing their messages. Voluntary work and the reduced professionalization of the communication of specialized associations favors a nursing retraction stance towards the media. Final considerations: Organizational and cultural factors may help to explain nursing's limited access to the media. The use of renewal, cooperation, and education strategies will help overcome some of the limitations experienced by these associations.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir los procesos de producción de mensajes y de interacción mediática por parte de asociaciones profesionales de enfermería. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo de tipo descriptivo con base en entrevistas semiestructuradas con dirigentes de cinco asociaciones profesionales de enfermería de Portugal. Los datos sometidos al análisis de contenido temático. Resultados: Las asociaciones de regulación y sindicalismo recorren a servicios de relaciones públicas y refieren más estrategias de interacción con periodistas. Las asociaciones de especialización profesional interaccionan con menor frecuencia y prefieren las redes sociales para publicaren sus mensajes. El trabajo voluntario y la reducida profesionalización de la comunicación de asociaciones especializadas tienden a una postura de retracción de la enfermería hacia mediática. Consideraciones finales: Factores organizacionales y culturales podrán ayudar a explicar el acceso limitado de la enfermería a la midiática. El recurso a estrategias de renovación, cooperación y educación permitirá superar algunas de las limitaciones vividas por esas asociaciones.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever os processos de produção de mensagens e de interação com a mídia por parte de associações profissionais de enfermagem. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo de tipo descritivo com base em entrevistas semiestruturadas com dirigentes de cinco associações profissionais de enfermagem de Portugal. Os dados foram sujeitos à análise de conteúdo temático. Resultados: As associações de regulação e sindicalismo recorrem a serviços de relações públicas e referem mais estratégias de interação com jornalistas. As associações de especialização profissional interagem com menor frequência e preferem as redes sociais para publicarem as suas mensagens. O trabalho voluntário e a reduzida profissionalização da comunicação de associações especializadas tendem a uma postura de retração da enfermagem para com a mídia. Considerações finais: Fatores organizacionais e culturais poderão ajudar a explicar o acesso limitado da enfermagem à mídia. O recurso a estratégias de renovação, cooperação e educação permitirá superar algumas das limitações vividas por essas associações.

17.
Organ Transplantation ; (6): 115-2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862785

ABSTRACT

Massive blood loss and blood transfusion constantly occur in liver transplantation. Over the past two decades, the amount of blood transfusion during the perioperative period has been decreased dramatically along with the continual maturity of liver transplantation techniques. The goal of liver transplantation without blood transfusion has been achieved. Since bleeding and blood transfusion are correlated with poor prognosis after liver transplantation, reducing bleeding and unnecessary blood transfusion has become the key objective during perioperative period of liver transplantation. In this article, adverse effects of allogeneic blood transfusion during perioperative period of liver transplantation, coagulation function monitoring of patients with end-stage liver disease, blood transfusion management of liver transplant recipients and the strategies of reducing perioperative blood transfusion in liver transplantation were summarized, aiming to provide reference for reducing the requirement of blood transfusion during perioperative period of liver transplantation.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877571

ABSTRACT

The teaching effect of "process management and evaluation" was assessed in resident standardization training plan in acupuncture-moxibustion department of hospital for postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality. A total of 120 postgraduates of non-acupuncture-moxibustion speciality participating in resident standardization training were randomized into an observation group (60 cases) and a control group (60 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the conventional training mode was used. In the observation group, the "process management and evaluation" was adopted, in which, the syllabus was refined, various teaching modes were cooperated and the summary was conducted once a week. The training results were evaluated at the end of 1-month shift test and questionnaire was issued in all of the postgraduates of the two groups. In the observation group, the score for theory and the score of each of the items for technical ability, named differentiation and treatment, technical manipulation and physician-patient communication, as well as the total score were all higher than the control group successively (


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908442

ABSTRACT

The quality control of inguinal hernia is a key point of herniology development in China, which is on the basis of continuous clinical quality improvement. The standardized operation of inguinal hernia repair requires the tacit cooperation of surgeons and the operating room nursing team. According to the existing mature seven step method in inguinal hernia surgery, the authors summarize the seven step nursing process of operation, in order to provide smoother and better operation guarantee in open and laparoscopic hernioplasty.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906500

ABSTRACT

In order to promote the standardization of traditional medicines in Laos, China and Laos jointly formed a census team to conduct resource survey, market survey, species identification and others of medicinal plants in Laos. According to the principles of nationality, tradition, effectiveness and commonness, 160 medicinal materials and 40 prescriptions were selected and collected into Lao Herbal Pharmacopoeia after recommendation, examination of experts and review by the established expert committee. Moreover, quality standards of traditional medicine and scientific and clear translation methods were formulated in line with the national conditions of Laos, and the contents were finally compiled according to the 2010 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The promulgation and implementation of Lao Herbal Pharmacopoeia is a successful example of cooperation in the field of health care between China and Laos, which is conducive to promoting mutually beneficial cooperation between China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries in the field of traditional medicine, and making traditional medicine play a greater role in the medical and health services of ASEAN countries.

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