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1.
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 58(3): 21-28, jul.-set. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400412

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: O Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE) é uma síndrome de déficit neurológico agudo atribuído à lesão vascular do Sistema Nervoso (SN). As técnicas de Inteligência Artificial (IA) na Medicina ­ como algoritmos de Redes Neurais Artificiais (RNAs) ­ têm ajudado na tomada de decisões clínicas voltadas para essa condição. Objetivo: o objetivo desta revisão será avaliar como as redes neurais artificiais estão sendo utilizadas para a predição de diagnóstico de AVE. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de artigos indexados nas bases de dados PubMed, BVS, SciELO, Cochrane e SpringerLink, entre janeiro e fevereiro de 2022. Os critérios de inclusão e filtros para esse trabalho foram: artigos relacionados ao tema, estudos randomizados, coorte e ensaios clínicos, trabalhos em humanos, realizados nos últimos 5 anos, apenas nos idiomas Português, Inglês e Espanhol e com texto completo disponível gratuitamente. Os parâmetros de exclusão foram: artigos duplicados, fuga ao tema, artigos de revisão e trabalhos que não preenchiam todos os critérios de inclusão. Resultados: As RNAs estão sendo utilizadas, principalmente, para avaliação de áreas de lesões isquêmicas e hemorrágicas por métodos de segmentação e os exames mais utilizados para a modelagem dos programas têm sido Ressonância Magnética (RM) e Tomografia Computadorizada (TC). Além da TC e RM, a angiorressonância e angiotomografia também estão sendo utilizadas para o modelamento do algoritmo e são úteis por apresentarem maior sensibilidade para detecção de infartos. Conclusão: Algoritmos de segmentação e classificação aplicados nas RNAs fazem parte da medicina personalizada e servem de base para médicos na prática clínica.


Background: Stroke is an acute neurological deficit syndrome attributed to vascular injury to the Nervous System (NS). Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in Medicine ­ such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) algorithms ­ have helped in making clinical decisions aimed at this condition. Objective: the objective of this review will be to evaluate how artificial neural networks are being used to predict the diagnosis of stroke. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles indexed in PubMed, VHL, SciELO, Cochrane and SpringerLink databases, between January and February 2022. The inclusion criteria and filters for this work were: articles related to the topic, studies randomized, cohort and clinical trials, studies in humans, carried out in the last 5 years, only in Portuguese, English and Spanish and with full text available free of charge. The exclusion parameters were: duplicate articles, escape from the topic, review articles and works that did not meet all the inclusion criteria. Results: ANNs are being used mainly for the evaluation of areas of ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions by segmentation methods and the most used exams for modeling the programs have been Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT). In addition to CT and MRI, magnetic resonance angiography and tomography angiography are also being used to model the algorithm and are useful because they have greater sensitivity for detecting infarctions. Conclusion: Segmentation and classification algorithms applied in ANNs are part of personalized medicine and serve as a basis for physicians in clinical practice.

2.
Curitiba; s.n; 20220809. 149 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1398810

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este estudo objetivou desenvolver uma gerontotecnologia educacional audiovisual sobre Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) para idosos atendidos em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento (UPA). A construção do produto deste estudo possibilitou a produção de um vídeo educacional para idosos, no qual foram abordadas orientações sobre prevenção e identificação precoce do AVC, e medidas emergenciais a serem tomadas. Trata-se de pesquisa metodológica descritiva, realizada na UPA 24 horas do município de Castro/ Paraná. A amostra foi de 56 participantes, constituída por 46 idosos que buscaram atendimento na UPA, e 10 juízes especialistas em gerontologia e/ou urgência e emergência do território nacional. Seguiram-se três etapas: I) Pré- produção- construção da sinopse, argumento, roteiro e storyboard do vídeo, seguido da validação do conteúdo educacional e storyboard pelos juízes especialistas; II) Produção- construção do vídeo educacional, por meio dos programas adobe photoshop, adobe after effects e adobe premiere, contemplando os doze princípios da teoria cognitiva da aprendizagem multimídia e posterior validação do vídeo pelos idosos, utilizando o instrumento Suitability Assessment of Materials; III) Pós-produção- edição, finalização e divulgação do vídeo. Para a análise dos dados empregou-se estatística descritiva, análise de conteúdo para as informações qualitativas com o apoio do software IRaMuTeQ, bem como o cálculo do Índice de Validade do Conteúdo (IVC). Como resultado, observou-se o déficit de conhecimento dos idosos a respeito da identificação, prevenção e necessidade de atendimento precoce diante do AVC. Concomitante à literatura científica, produziu-se o roteiro e o storyboard do vídeo, que foram validados pela concordância dos juízes especialistas (IVC= 0,96). O vídeo foi composto por 20 cenas em resolução Full HD, com duração de 07 minutos e 20 segundos. Houve 100% de concordância entre os idosos participantes, tornando-o adequado e validado. O vídeo educacional foi certificado como produto brasileiro na Agência Nacional do Cinema sob o número B22-002783-00000, divulgado em plataforma digital YouTube e nos monitores de televisão disponíveis na UPA. Conclui-se que a gerontotecnologia educacional desenvolvida no formato de vídeo bidimensional apresenta-se de forma lúdica, caracteriza-se como produção técnica e tecnológica de alta complexidade e médio teor inovativo, que possibilita a educação em saúde dos idosos sobre o acidente vascular cerebral. Responde a um problema previamente identificado no serviço, com potencial impacto social, econômico e de mudança na área de saúde a longo prazo, além de ser passível de replicação, como uma ferramenta de apoio aos profissionais de diferentes serviços de saúde. A ampla divulgação do vídeo proporcionará aos idosos e à rede de apoio conhecimentos e orientações significativas sobre o AVC, para que possam adotar medidas de prevenção, reconhecer precocemente sinais e sintomas e estimular a busca pelo serviço de emergência em tempo hábil, cumprindo com o propósito do produto.


Abstract: This study aimed to develop an audiovisual educational gerontotechology on Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) for elderly people treated at an Emergency Care Unit (UPA). The construction of the product of this study made it possible to produce an educational video for the elderly, in which guidelines on prevention and early identification of stroke were addressed, and emergency measures to be taken. This is a descriptive methodological research, carried out at the 24-hour UPA in the city of Castro/ Paraná. The sample consisted of 56 participants, consisting of 46 elderly people who sought care at the UPA, and 10 expert judges in gerontology and/or urgency and emergency care in the national territory. Three steps followed: I) Pre-production - construction of the synopsis, argument, script and storyboard of the video, followed by the validation of the educational content and storyboard by the expert judges; II) Production - construction of the educational video, through the adobe photoshop, adobe after effects and adobe premiere programs, covering the twelve principles of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and subsequent validation of the video by the elderly, using the Suitability Assessment of Materials instrument; III) Post-production - editing, finalization and dissemination of the video. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, content analysis for qualitative information with the support of the IRaMuTeQ software, as well as the calculation of the Content Validity Index (CVI) were used. As a result, there was a lack of knowledge of the elderly regarding the identification, prevention and need for early care in the face of stroke. Concurrent with the scientific literature, the script and storyboard of the video were produced, which were validated by the agreement of the expert judges (CVI= 0.96). The video consisted of 20 scenes in Full HD resolution, lasting 7 minutes and 20 seconds. There was 100% agreement among the elderly participants, making it adequate and validated. The educational video was certified as a Brazilian product by the Agência Nacional do Cinema under the number B22-002783-00000, published on the YouTube digital platform and on television monitors available at the UPA. It is concluded that educational gerontotechnology developed in two-dimensional video format is presented in a playful way, characterized as technical and technological production of high complexity and medium innovative content, which enables health education for the elderly about stroke. It responds to a problem previously identified in the service, with potential social, economic and change impact in the health area in the long term, in addition to being replicable, as a support tool for professionals from different health services. The wide dissemination of the video will provide the elderly and the support network with significant knowledge and guidance on stroke, so that they can adopt preventive measures, recognize early signs and symptoms and encourage the search for the emergency service in a timely manner, fulfilling the purpose. of product.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Health Education , Educational Technology , Stroke , Geriatric Nursing
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(8): 3295-3306, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384487

ABSTRACT

Resumo As doenças cerebrovasculares (DCV) estão entre as principais causas de mortalidade no mundo e a temperatura do ar é um dos seus fatores de risco, embora sua relação seja pouco estudada no Brasil. Este artigo objetiva investigar a relação entre temperatura do ar e mortalidade por DCV em 10 microrregiões nas cinco grandes regiões brasileiras. Foi realizado estudo de séries temporais com os óbitos diários por DCV e a média diária de temperatura do ar no período de 1996 a 2017. Foram utilizando dados do Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS) e modelos aditivos generalizados com distribuição de Poisson e os riscos relativos e atribuíveis foram estimados (com intervalo de confiança de 95%) até uma defasagem de 14 dias com modelos DLNM (distributed lag non-linear models). No período ocorreram 531.733 óbitos por DCV nestas microrregiões, dos quais 21.220 (11.138-30.546) atribuíveis à temperatura do ar. As temperaturas de mortalidade mínima variaram entre 20,1°C em Curitiba a 29,6°C em Belém. Foram observadas associações entre temperaturas não ótimas do ar e aumento no risco de óbito em todas as cinco regiões brasileiras, destacando Manaus com risco relativo (RR) 1,53 (1,22-1,91) e Campo Grande com RR 1,52 (1,18-1,94) no frio, e Manaus com RR 1,75 (1,35-2,26) e Brasília com RR 1,36 (1,15-1,60) no calor.


Abstract Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Air temperature is one of the risk factors for CVD; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between air temperature and mortality from these diseases in Brazil. This time series study investigated the relationship between air temperature and CVD mortality in 10 microregions located across Brazil's five regions during the period 1996 to 2017 using mortality data from the national health information system, DATASUS and daily mean temperature data. The association between mean air temperature and mortality from CVD was measured using generalized additive models with Poisson distribution and relative and attributable risks were estimated together with 95% confidence intervals using distributed lag non-linear models and a 14-day lag. There were 531,733 deaths from CVD during the study period, 21,220 of which (11,138-30,546) were attributable to air temperature. Minimum mortality temperatures ranged from 20.1ºC in Curitiba to 29.6ºC in Belém. Associations between suboptimal air temperatures and increased risk of death from CVD were observed in all of Brazil's five regions. Relative risk from the cold was highest in Manaus (RR 1.53; 1.22-1.91) and Campo Grande (RR 1.52; 1.18-1.94), while relative risk from heat was highest in Manaus (RR 1.75; 1.35-2.26) and Brasília (RR 1.36; 1.15-1.60).

7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 18-24, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380292

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la primera causa de muerte. El accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es un problema de salud pública. Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas de los pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos durante el periodo de ventana terapéutica en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo 2018 - 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Los sujetos fueron los pacientes de sexo masculino y femenino, mayores de 18 años admitidos en la Unidad de Ictus del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital de Clínicas en el periodo de ventana terapéutica comprendido entre junio del año 2018 y septiembre del año 2020. Resultados: Se incluyó en el estudio 512 pacientes. La media de edad fue 65 ± 12,1 años. El sexo más frecuente fue el masculino con (58,7%) y la mayoría proceden del Departamento Central (61,3%). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial (83,3%), el sobrepeso (34,7%) y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (27,3%). Presentaron infarto moderado (41,8%) y la trombólisis fue realizada en el (16%) de los pacientes. Conclusión: Los pacientes que presentaron accidente cerebrovascular de tipo isquémico admitidos en el periodo de ventana terapéutica fueron en su mayoría del sexo masculino, edad media de 65 años, los factores de riesgo cardiovasculares más frecuentes fueron la hipertensión arterial, el sobrepeso y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, el infarto moderado fue la más frecuente y escasa cantidad recibieron trombólisis.


Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. Ischemic stroke is a public health problem. Objectives: To determine the clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke admitted during the therapeutic window period in the Emergency Department of the Hospital de Clínicas in the period 2018 - 2020. Materials and methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The subjects were male and female patients, over 18 years of age admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Emergency Service of the Hospital de Clínicas in the therapeutic window period between June 2018 and September 2020. Results: Included 512 patients in the study. The mean age was 65 ± 12,1 years. The most frequent sex was male with (58.7%), most of them come from the central department (61.3%). The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (83.3%), overweight (34.7%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (27.3%). They presented moderate infarction (41,8%). Thrombolysis was performed in (16%) of the patients. Conclusion: The patients who presented ischemic stroke admitted in the therapeutic window period were mostly male, mean age 65 years, the most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were arterial hypertension, overweight and mellitus diabetes type 2, moderate infarction was the most frequent and few received thrombolysis.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Overweight , Ischemic Stroke , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Public Health , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Stroke
8.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(291): 8266-8275, ago.2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1391985

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Desenvolver dois aplicativos móveis para educação em saúde acerca do acidente vascular cerebral, destinados a profissionais da saúde e cuidadores ou público em geral. Método: Trata-se de um estudo metodológico para desenvolvimento de dois aplicativos para dispositivos móveis. O delineamento do projeto e processo de construção deu-se no período de agosto de 2020 a novembro de 2021. O referencial metodológico adotado para a construção dos aplicativos foi o de Cook & Dupras, constituído por sete etapas. Resultados: O primeiro aplicativo, destinado a cuidadores e ao público em geral contém os temas: "O que é acidente vascular cerebral?; "Grupo de risco"; "Identificando o acidente vascular cerebral"; "Tempo é cérebro"; e "Serviços de saúde". O segundo aplicativo, para profissionais de saúde, contém os temas: "Avaliação do acidente vascular cerebral"; "Condutas"; "Tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico"; "Monitoramento do acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico"; e "Monitoramento Geral". Conclusão: O desenvolvimento dos aplicativos propiciou o compartilhamento de informações relacionadas ao acidente vascular cerebral contribuindo para orientar e agilizar as tomadas de decisões.(AU)


Objective: To develop two mobile applications for health education about stroke, aimed at health professionals and caregivers or the general public. Method: This is a methodological study for the development of two applications for mobile devices. The design of the project and construction process was from August 2020 to November 2021. The methodological framework adopted for the construction of the applications was that of Cook & Dupras, consisting of seven steps. Results: The first application, aimed at caregivers and the general public, contains the themes: "What is a stroke?; "Group of risk"; "Identifying stroke"; "Time is brain"; and "Health services". The second application, for health professionals, contains the themes: "Assessment of stroke"; "Actions"; "Treatment of ischemic stroke"; "Monitoring of hemorrhagic stroke"; and "General Monitoring". Conclusion: The development of applications provided the sharing of information related to stroke, helping to guide and speed up decision making.(AU)


Objetivo: Desarrollar dos aplicaciones móviles de educación sanitaria sobre ictus, dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y cuidadores o público en general. Método: Se trata de un estudio metodológico para el desarrollo de dos aplicaciones para dispositivos móviles. El diseño del proyecto y el proceso de construcción se llevó a cabo de agosto de 2020 a noviembre de 2021. El marco metodológico adoptado para la construcción de las aplicaciones fue el de Cook & Dupras, compuesto por siete etapas. Resultados: La primera aplicación, dirigida a cuidadores y público en general, contiene los temas: "¿Qué es un ictus?; "Grupo de riesgo"; "Identificación de ictus"; "El tiempo es cerebro"; y "Servicios de salud". La segunda aplicación, para profesionales de la salud, contiene los temas: "Evaluación del ictus"; "Conductos"; "Tratamiento del ictus isquémico"; "Seguimiento del ictus hemorrágico"; y "Monitoreo General". Conclusión: El desarrollo de aplicaciones permitió compartir información relacionada con el ictus, ayudando a orientar y agilizar la toma de decisiones.(AU)


Subject(s)
Health Education , Stroke , Mobile Applications
10.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 101(4): e-174732, jul.-ago. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392147

ABSTRACT

Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) pode causar óbito ou sequelas motoras e funcionais de intensidade variável. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o índice de independência funcional de pacientes pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral submetidos a um programa de reabilitação multiprofissional. Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo por meio de revisão dos prontuários de sobreviventes de lesão vascular na artéria cerebral média, admitidos entre 2014 e 2019 em hospital público de Curitiba - Paraná, e que foram analisados na admissão e na alta por meio da Escala de Rankin modificada (mRS). Foram aplicados teste Qui-Quadrado, Mann-Whitney e Wilcoxon, considerando p < 0,05 %. A amostra, composta por 64 pacientes, teve predomínio masculino (56 %), faixa etária média de 59 anos, eapresentou como sequelas principais déficit motor (98 %), disartria (51 %), afasia (46 %), dor (45 %) e incontinência urinária (42 %). Houve diferença significativa entre os escores aferidos por meio da mRS na admissão e na alta, com maior independência funcional após realização do programa de reabilitação proposto (p < 0,001). Conclui-se que a participação no programa refletiu em ganho de autonomia no autocuidado e na realização de atividades diárias pelos pacientes. [au]


A cerebrovascular accident (CVA) can cause death or motor and functional consequences of variable intensity. This study analyzed the rate of functional independence of patients after a cerebrovascular accident and a multi professional rehabilitation program. This was a retrospective research analyzing the medical charts of middle cerebral artery stroke survivors, admitted to a public hospital at Curitiba-Paraná between 2014 and 2019. The participants were analyzed at admission and discharge using the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The Chi-Squared test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon tests were applied, considering p<0.05%. The sample was composed of 64 patients, mainly men (56%), with a mean age of 59 years old. The main stroke sequelae were motor deficit (98%), dysarthria (51%), aphasia (46%), pain (45%) and urinary incontinence (42%). There was a significant difference between the mRS scores at admission and discharge, with greater functional independence after the proposed rehabilitation program (p <0.001). It is concluded that participation in the program led to increased autonomy in self-care and daily activities for the patients.[au]

11.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(2): e54511, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396769

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Paralisia Facial é uma das sequelas mais comuns em pacientes pós- Acidente Vascular Cerebral, podendo ocasionar uma série de consequências negativas para autopercepção. Objetivos: Avaliar autopercepção dos pacientes quanto à paralisia facial pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral na fase aguda e verificar se está relacionada às condições sociodemográficas e clínicas. Método: Trata-se de estudo descritivo observacional com 86 pacientes com paralisia facial pós-Acidente Vascular Cerebral. Os critérios de inclusão foram idade acima de 18 anos, escala de Glasgow maior que 13 e compreensão preservada. Dados sócio-demográficos e clínicos foram extraídos do prontuário. A mímica facial foi avaliada com protocolo House & Brackmann (1985) e a autopercepção quanto aos incômodos físicos e psicossociais pelo questionário de auto-avaliação da condição facial. Foram realizadas análises descritiva e de associação com significância estatística de 5%. Resultados: O grau de comprometimento da paralisia facial variou entre moderado a paralisia total. A maioria dos pacientes avaliou a face em repouso como boa, movimento da face como péssima e ruim, sendo os lábios com pior classificação. Os pacientes relataram muito prejuízo nas atividades sociais, muita insatisfação com a face e médio prejuízo da alimentação. A análise de associação revelou que a autopercepção da face em repouso está associada ao sexo e ao comprometimento neurológico. Conclusão: Os pacientes na fase aguda do Acidente Vascular Cerebral possuem autopercepção de que a paralisia facial impacta no movimento dos lábios e atividades psicossociais, sendo pior para as mulheres e naqueles com o nível de comprometimento neurológico moderado e grave.


Introduction: Facial palsy is one of the most common sequelae in post-stroke patients, bringing a series of negative consequences for self-perception. Objective: To evaluate patients' self-perception regarding facial palsy after acute stroke and verify if it is related to sociodemographic and clinical conditions. Method: This is a descriptive observational study with 86 patients with facial paralysis after acute stroke admitted to a public hospital. The inclusion criteria were age over 18 years, Glasgow scale above 13 and preserved understanding. Socio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from the medical records. Facial mimicry was assessed using the House & Brackmann protocol (1985) and self-perception of physical and psychosocial discomfort using the facial condition self-assessment questionnaire. Descriptive and association analyses were performed with statistical significance of 5%. Results: The degree of impairment of facial paralysis varied from moderate to total paralysis. Most patients rated the resting face as good, face movement as very bad and bad, with the lips being the worst rated. The patients reported a lot of damage in social activities, a lot of dissatisfaction with the face and medium impairment on eating. The association analysis revealed that self-perception of the face at rest is associated with sex and neurological impairment. Conclusion: Patients in the acute phase of stroke have a self-perception that facial paralysis impacts on lip movement and psychosocial activities, being worse for women and those with moderate and severe neurological impairment.


Introducción: La parálisis facial es una de las secuelas más comunes en pacientes post-accidente cerebrovascular, que puede causar una serie de consecuencias negativas para la auto-percepción. Objetivos: Evaluar la auto-percepción de los pacientes con respecto a la parálisis facial después del accidente cerebrovascular en la fase aguda y verificar si está relacionada con condiciones sociodemográficas y clínicas. Método: Este es un estudio descriptivo observacional con 86 pacientes con parálisis facial después del accidente cerebrovascular. Los criterios de inclusión tenían una edad superior a los 18 años, glasgow escalaba más de 13 y se conservaba la comprensión. Los datos sociodemográficos y clínicos se extrajeron de los registros médicos. El mimetismo facial fue evaluado usando el protocolo house &brackmann (1985) y la auto-percepción de las molestias físicas y psicosociales explora la autoevaluación de la condición facial. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y asociativos con una significación estadística del 5%. Resultados: El grado de afectación de la parálisis facial osciló entre la parálisis moderada y total. La mayoría de los pacientes calificaron la cara en reposo como buena, el movimiento facial como malo y malo, siendo los labios los peor valorados. Los pacientes reportaron mucho deterioro en las actividades sociales, mucha insatisfacción con el deterioro facial y medio de los alimentos. El análisis de la asociación reveló que la autopercepción de la cara en reposo se asocia con el sexo y el deterioro neurológico. Conclusión: Los pacientes en la fase aguda del accidente cerebrovascular tienen la autopercepción de que la parálisis facial afecta el movimiento de los labios y las actividades psicosociales, siendo peor para las mujeres y aquellos con el nivel de deterioro neurológico moderado y grave.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Self Concept , Stroke/complications , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Psychosocial Impact , Facial Expression , Sociodemographic Factors
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 315-320, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376540

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), stroke is a major complication that increases morbidity and mortality. The presence of carotid stenosis (CS) increases risk of stroke, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain due to the lack of randomized clinical trials. The aim of this study is to compare three management approaches to CS in patients submitted to CABG. Methods: From 2005 to 2015, 79 consecutive patients with significant CS submitted to CABG were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided in three groups, according to CS treatment: 17 underwent staged carotid endarterectomy (CEA)-CABG, 26 underwent synchronous CEA-CABG, and 36 underwent isolated CABG without carotid intervention. The primary outcomes were composed by 30-day postoperative acute myocardial infarction (MI), 30-day postoperative stroke, and death due to all causes during the follow-up. Results: Patients were evaluated during an average 2.05 years (95% confidence interval = 1.51-2.60) of follow-up. Major adverse cardiac events, including death, postoperative MI, and postoperative stroke, occurred in 76.5% of the staged group, 34.6% of the synchronous group, and 33.3% of the isolated CABG group (P=0.007). As for MI, the rates were 29.4%, 3.85%, and 11.1% (P=0.045), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in total mortality rates (35.3%, 30.8%, and 25.0%, respectively; P=0,72) and stroke (29.4%, 7.7%, and 8.3%, respectively; P=0,064) between groups. Conclusion: Staged CEA-CABG is associated with higher major adverse cardiac events and MI rate when compared to the strategy of synchronous and isolated CABG, but without statistically difference in total mortality during the entire follow-up.

13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 401-404, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376548

ABSTRACT

Abstract The treatment of valvular endocarditis in patients with cardiac implantable electrophysiological device (CIED) includes valvular surgery and lead extraction. This can be challenging in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Reduced LVEF in combination with sepsis and cardioplegic cardiac arrest can make weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass difficult. Some of these patients require venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for postcardiotomy syndrome. Lead extraction by manual traction is often not possible in cases with a long lead dwell time. Therefore, a lead extraction procedure with powered sheaths is required during the VA-ECMO support. We describe our technique for laser lead extraction during VA-ECMO support in a 64-year-old patient with triple valve endocarditis and lead vegetations.

14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(3): 384-389, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of stroke. Inflammation is the primary factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Use of immature granulocytes (IGs) has been recommended as a new indicator of systemic inflammation. However, data on the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat tissue thickness (EFT) and IGs in patients with AIS are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the presences of IGs, epicardial fat tissue and AIS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in a tertiary-care university hospital in Antalya, Turkey. METHODS: Our study included 53 AIS patients and 41 healthy controls with age and gender compatibility. Blood samples and transthoracic echocardiography of all participants were compared. RESULTS: IG levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS than in controls (0.62 ± 0.36 versus 0.28 ± 0.02, P < 0.001). The mean EFT was 3.74 ± 0.61 mm in the control group and 6.33 ± 1.47 mm in the AIS patient group. EFT was significantly greater in AIS patients than in controls (P < 0.001). For the optimum cut-off value for IG (0.95), the area under the curve (AUC) was determined to be 0.840; sensitivity was determined to be 81.1% and specificity, 92.5%. For the optimum cut-off value for EFT (4.95 mm), the AUC was determined to be 0.953; sensitivity was determined to be 90.6% and specificity, 90%. CONCLUSIONS: IG and echocardiographic EFT are clinical markers that can be used to predict AIS risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Echocardiography , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Granulocytes , Inflammation
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(6): 550-556, June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393965

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background There is little information available on stroke epidemiology in the northeast of Brazil. Objective Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of the stroke subtypes, prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and patterns of management in a public neurovascular outpatient referral service, in Alagoas. Methods Data were prospectively collected from consecutive patients with stroke who were treated in a specialized neurovascular clinic between November 2016 and June 2018. Recurrence was evaluated by telephone 12 months after patients had been included in the study. Results We evaluated 190 patients (mean age, 60.22 ( 13.29 years; 60.5% males). Ischemic stroke was the most frequent subtype (85.2%). Sedentary lifestyle was the most common risk factor (71.6%), followed by hypertension (62.6%) and stroke family history (41.1%). Only 21.5% of the patients were transported by ambulance to the hospital, and 42.6% received medical support in hospital units or emergency units with no imaging support. The median NIHSS was 2.5 (IQR, 1-5) and mRS was 2 (IQR, 1-3). We found a high rate of undetermined stroke (35.8%), and few patients completed the etiological investigation. One year after inclusion in the study, 12 patients (6.3%) had died and 14 (7.3%) had had another stroke. Conclusions The prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors and clinical presentation were similar to what had been seen in previous series. A notable number of patients received medical support in institutions with no imaging equipment. The high number of cases of undetermined stroke etiology shows the difficulty in accessing healthcare services in Alagoas.


RESUMO Antecedentes Até o momento existe pouca informação disponível na literatura sobre a epidemiologia do acidente vascular verebral (AVC) no nordeste brasileiro. Objetivo Investigar a prevalência dos subtipos de AVC, dos fatores de risco para doenças cerebrovasculares e o manejo do AVC em um serviço público especializado em Alagoas. Método Os dados foram coletados de forma prospectiva e consecutiva de pacientes com diagnóstico de AVC em um ambulatório especializado em neurovascular, de novembro de 2016 a junho de 2018. Recorrência do AVC foi avaliada por telefone 12 meses após a inclusão no estudo. Resultados Foram avaliados 190 pacientes, idade média de 60,22(13,29 anos, 60,5% homens. AVC isquêmico foi o subtipo mais comum (85,2%). Sedentarismo foi o fator de risco mais prevalente (71,6%), seguido de hipertensão (62,6%) e história familial de AVC (41,1%). Somente 21,5% dos pacientes foram transportados por ambulância até o hospital e 42,6% receberam o primeiro atendimento em serviço médico sem suporte de exame de imagem. A mediana do NIHSS foi 2,5 (IQR, 1-3). Encontramos alta prevalência de AVC indeterminado (35,8%) e poucos pacientes completaram a investigação etiológica. Após um ano da inclusão no estudo, 12 pacientes (6,3%) morreram e 14 (7,3%) tiveram outro AVC. Conclusão A prevalência dos fatores de risco para doenças cerebrovasculares e a apresentação clínica foram similares a séries prévias. Um número expressivo de pacientes recebeu atendimento médico em locais sem exames de imagem. Houve alto número de pacientes com AVC indeterminado, o que mostra a dificuldade de acesso ao sistema de saúde em Alagoas.

16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(6): 634-652, June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393976

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Guidelines for Stroke Rehabilitation are the result of a joint effort by the Scientific Department of Neurological Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology aiming to guide professionals involved in the rehabilitation process to reduce functional disability and increase individual autonomy. Members of the group participated in web discussion forums with predefined themes, followed by videoconference meetings in which issues were discussed, leading to a consensus. These guidelines, divided into two parts, focus on the implications of recent clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in stroke rehabilitation literature. The main objective was to guide physicians, physiotherapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, nurses, nutritionists, and other professionals involved in post-stroke care. Recommendations and levels of evidence were adapted according to the currently available literature. Part I discusses topics on rehabilitation in the acute phase, as well as prevention and management of frequent conditions and comorbidities after stroke.


RESUMO As Diretrizes Brasileiras para Reabilitação do AVC são fruto de um esforço conjunto do Departamento Científico de Reabilitação Neurológica da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia com o objetivo de orientar os profissionais envolvidos no processo de reabilitação para a redução da incapacidade funcional e aumento da autonomia dos indivíduos. Membros do grupo acima participaram de fóruns de discussão na web com pré-temas, seguidos de reuniões por videoconferência em que as controvérsias foram discutidas, levando a um consenso. Essas diretrizes, divididas em duas partes, focam as implicações de recentes ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises sobre reabilitação do AVC. O objetivo principal é servir de orientação a médicos, fisioterapeutas, fonoaudiólogos, terapeutas ocupacionais, enfermeiros, nutricionistas e demais profissionais envolvidos no cuidado pós-AVC. As recomendações e níveis de evidência foram adaptados de acordo com a literatura disponível atualmente. Aqui é apresentada a Parte I sobre tópicos de reabilitação na fase aguda, prevenção e tratamento de doenças e comorbidades frequentes após o AVC.

17.
Acta fisiátrica ; 29(2): 112-117, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373040

ABSTRACT

O tratamento trombolítico promove reperfusão cerebral após acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico, e é considerado o tratamento mais eficaz na fase aguda, estando associado a melhores desfechos clínicos e funcionais. Entre as principais sequelas após AVC estão a hemiparesia e o déficit de equilíbrio, que repercutem diretamente na locomoção do indivíduo. Objetivo: Investigar quais fatores estão associados com a recuperação da marcha na fase aguda do AVC trombolisado. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo longitudinal, com 32 indivíduos na fase aguda do AVC trombolisado. Os indivíduos foram avaliados nas primeiras horas após terem sido submetidos à terapia trombolítica, e após 7 dias ou no momento da alta da unidade de internamento. Resultados: O desfecho principal foi a presença ou não de marcha independente até o sétimo dia de internamento ou até a alta da unidade. A variável resposta foi o número de dias necessário para recuperar a marcha, sendo analisada em 3 categorias: "1 dia", "2 dias" e "3 ou mais dias". Dos 32 indivíduos da amostra apenas 4 não andaram em até 7 dias após o AVC e cerca de 50% andou no primeiro dia de internamento. Houve associação significativa entre a Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg e o tempo para andar. Conclusão: O estudo sugere que a maioria dos indivíduos submetidos à trombólise para tratamento de AVC isquêmico recupera a capacidade de andar dentro de sete dias da ocorrência do evento, e que esta recuperação está associada ao equilíbrio nas primeiras horas após o AVC.


The thrombolytic treatment promotes cerebral reperfusion after ischemic stroke and it is considered the most effective treatment in the acute phase. The thrombolysis is associated with better clinical and functional outcomes. Hemiparesis and balance deficits are important sequelae after a stroke and both affect the individual's locomotion. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate what factors are associated with gait recovery in the acute phase of stroke after thrombolysis. Method: This is a longitudinal study, including 32 individuals in the acute phase of stroke after thrombolytic treatment. The individuals were evaluated in the first hours after thrombolytic therapy, and then, after 7 days or at the time of discharge from the inpatient unit. Results: The main outcome was the presence or absence of independent gait until the seventh day of hospitalization or until discharge from the unit. The response variable was the number of days required to recover gait, being analyzed in 3 categories: "1 day", "2 days" and "3 or more days". Of the 32 individuals in the sample, only 4 did not walk within 7 days after the stroke and about 50% walked on the first day of hospitalization. There was a significant association between the Berg Balance Scale and the time to walk. Conclusions: This study suggests that most individuals undergoing thrombolysis for the treatment of ischemic stroke recover their capacity to walk within seven days of the event and this recovery is associated with balance in the first hours after stroke.

18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(3): 364-372, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375640

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Among the various pathologies that affect the elderly, Heart Failure (HF) stands out. Recently, an attempt has been made to verify the existence of cognitive impairment associated with HF. Objectives: To compare the cognitive performance of elderly people with heart failure with that of age-matched individuals without this pathology. Check the existence of marked impairment in some cognitive functions in the clinical group. Methods: The sample consisted of 78 elderly people, whose inclusion criterion was the presence of HF and no HF (control group); age over 60 years, both sexes, and any level of education. The control group consisted of 37 individuals (with a median age of 68 years - Interquartile range of 12) and the HF group, with 41 individuals (with a median age of 67 years - Interquartile range of 11). The subjects were matched in terms of education level, with a predominance of elderly people with 0 to 4 years of education (65.9% in the Clinical Group and 59.5% in the Control Group). Eleven neuropsychological tests covering cognitive functions were used: attention, language, memory, mood, and executive function. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 23, with a significance level of 5%. The Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. Results: The results showed significant differences between the groups, mainly in executive functions, which include the ability to plan, switch, and recall previously stored information. Conclusion: Our study showed differences between the cognitive performance of elderly people with HF and elderly people without HF. The main alteration was found in the so-called executive functions, attention, and memory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attention , Aging , Executive Function , Cognitive Dysfunction , Heart Failure , Memory , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Nervous System Diseases , Neuropsychology
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 1919-1928, maio 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374982

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é verificar a associação raça/cor e acesso a serviços de reabilitação pós-AVC. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 966 adultos (≥18 anos) pós-AVC, respondentes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Desfecho, acesso à reabilitação, e exposição (raça/cor) foram coletados de modo autorreferido. Variáveis sociodemográficas, histórico clínico, plano de saúde e limitação pós-AVC foram considerados para o ajuste. Regressão de Poisson com estimativa de variância robusta foi utilizada para estimar a associação nas análises bruta e ajustada. Da amostra total, 51,8% são autodeclarados negros ou outras raças, 61,4% demandam por reabilitação, sendo que apenas 20% têm acesso ao serviço de reabilitação. Dificuldade em acessar reabilitação foi referida por 57,5% dos autodeclarados amarelos ou indígenas, 43% dos negros, e 35,4% dos brancos. Na análise ajustada, negros têm 4% menos acesso à reabilitação se comparados com seus pares brancos (RP 1,04, IC95% 1,00-1,08). Pessoas da raça amarela ou indígena 17% menos acesso que brancos (RP 1,17, IC95% 1,13-1,20). No Brasil, autodeclarados negros, amarelos, indígenas e outros têm pior acesso à reabilitação pós-AVC quando comparados aos autodeclarados brancos, apontando iniquidades raciais na reabilitação em sobreviventes de AVC.


Abstract This article aims to verify the association between race/skin color and access to post-stroke rehabilitation services. It is a cross-sectional population-based study including 966 post-stroke adults (≥18 years) that responded to the National Health Survey (PNS). The outcome, access to rehabilitation, and exposure (race/skin color) were collected in a self-reported manner. Socio-demographic variables, clinical history, healthcare plan and post-stroke limitation were considered for the adjustment. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to estimate the association in the crude and adjusted analyses. Based on the sample, 51.8% are self-declared black and 61.4% require rehabilitation, with only 20% having access to the rehabilitation service. Difficulty in accessing rehabilitation was reported by 57.5% of other self-declared races, 43% blacks, and 35.4% whites. In the adjusted analysis, 4% of self-declared black (PR 1.04, CI95%1.00-1.08) and 17% of self-declared yellow and indigenous (PR 1.17, IC95%1.13-1.20) have less access to rehabilitation than their white peers. In Brazil, self-declared black and yellow and indigenous people have worst access to post-stroke rehabilitation in comparison with self-declared white people, highlighting racial inequities in rehabilitation in stroke survivors.

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