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1.
Ethiop. Med. j ; 62(1): 41-51, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1524738

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The use of urinary catheter benefit patients who are unable to urinate for various medical rea-sons. Despite its use, a urinary catheter during its application may introduce bacteria to the urinary tract and result in Urinary tract infection (UTI). Even though the burden of catheter-associated UTI is expected to be high in resource-limited countries, there is limited data. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of culture-confirmed catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), associated factors, and antimicrobial sus-acceptability profiles of bacteria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (HUCSH), Sidama region, from May-August 2022. One hundred forty-nine catheterized patients at HUCSH were included. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected using structured questionnaire. Urine specimens were cultured on blood and MacConkey agar. Culture-confirmed catheter-associated urinary tract infection was established if >1 X 105colonies of bacteria per milliliters of urine was detected. The disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For data analysis, SPSS version 26 was used. Factors associated with culture confirmed CAUTI were assessed using binary logistic regression. Results: The magnitude of culture confirmed CAUTI was 30.2% (n=45; 95% CI=22.8−37.6). The most common bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (n=12; 26.7%), followed by Klebsiella species (n=10; 22.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=6; 13.3%). Duration of catheterization (AOR=9.6, 95% CI=3.8−24.2) and comorbidities (AOR=4.1, 95% CI=1.7−9.8) were significantly associated with culture-confirmed CAUTI. Most Gram-neg-active bacteria were resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents. Conclusions:The magnitude of culture-confirmed CAUTI at HUCSH was high.E.coli was the leading bacteria and most of them were resistant to various types of antimicrobial agents. Duration of catheterization and comorbidities were significantly associated with culture-confirmed CAUTI


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female
2.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 13(1): 1-6, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1556062

ABSTRACT

Background: Standardising procedures is the best way to harmonise and strengthen the quality of laboratory-based antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Since 2018, Burkina Faso has developed and disseminated the national manual of procedures for performing antibiotic susceptibility tests in sentinel laboratories within its national antimicrobial resistance surveillance network. Objective: Our study aimed to assess these sentinel laboratories' compliance with good practices for antibiotics susceptibility tests. Methods: Four teams evaluated the antimicrobial resistance sentinel sites laboratories throughout Burkina Faso from 19 to 28 September 2022. Eighteen out of 19 sentinel laboratories were evaluated. A four-member technical committee designed and validated the evaluation tool composed of three Microsoft Excel sheets. The evaluation emphasised quality controls for culture media, antibiotic discs and compliance with antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures by the laboratories. Excel software was used for data recording and graphs and table design. The free R software version 4.2.0 was used for descriptive statistics. An overall score below 80% was considered noncompliance. Results: Most (83.33%) of the sentinel laboratories conducted at least one quality control activity for culture media, and 66.67% conducted at least one quality control activity for antibiotic discs. Over three-quarters (76.47%) of the laboratories were more than 80% compliant with the modified Kirby Bauer antimicrobial susceptibility testing method. Conclusion: The evaluation revealed the noncompliance of sentinel laboratories with the national procedure manual, particularly in the quality control component. What this study adds: This study has provided baseline data on the sentinel laboratories' compliance with the national antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures manual, particularly in areas performing quality control checks or meeting quality indicators for culture media and antibiotic discs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Practice Guidelines as Topic
3.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 67-72, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007231

ABSTRACT

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inheritable disorder that presents with bone marrow failure, developmental anomalies, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. The etiology of this condition stems from a genetic mutation that disrupts the proper repair of interstrand DNA cross-links (ICLs). The resultant dysregulation of the DNA damage response mechanism can induce genomic instability, thereby elevating the mutation rates and the likelihood of developing cancer. The FA pathway assumes a pivotal role in safeguarding genome stability through its involvement in the repair of DNA cross-links and the maintenance of overall genomic integrity. A mutation in the germ line of any of the genes responsible for encoding the FA protein results in the development of FA. The prevalence of aberrant FA gene expression in somatic cancer, coupled with the identification of a connection between FA pathway activation and resistance to chemotherapy, has solidified the correlation between the FA pathway and cancer. Consequently, targeted therapies that exploit FA pathway gene abnormalities are being progressively developed and implemented. This review critically examines the involvement of the FA protein in the repair of ICLs, the regulation of the FA signaling network, and its implications in cancer pathogenesis and prognosis. Additionally, it explores the potential utility of small-molecule inhibitors that target the FA pathway.

4.
Journal of Prevention and Treatment for Stomatological Diseases ; (12): 70-75, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003448

ABSTRACT

@#Tooth absorption can be divided into physiological absorption and pathological absorption. Root absorption of mature deciduous teeth is physiological absorption. Pathological absorption includes internal absorption and external absorption. Internal absorption, also known as intramedullary absorption, includes inflammatory absorption and alternative absorption. External tooth absorption originates from the outer surface of the root or the neck of the tooth and can be divided into inflammatory absorption, alternative absorption, pressure resorption and invasive cervical resorption. Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) is pathological damage caused by many factors, which usually begins in the cemento-enamel junction and extends peripherally or horizontally in the dentin. It hardly invades the pulp. Orthodontic devices, trauma, bleaching, systemic diseases, and the use of certain medications can all lead to invasive cervical resorption. The clinical manifestations of ICR are usually asymptomatic or not obvious, and most of which are found in imaging examinations. Because caries and internal absorption are often misdiagnosed through plain apical radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) can help to better understand the situation of invasive cervical resorption. Because the pathogenesis and etiology of invasive cervical resorption are not fully understood, clinical negligence and inadequate treatment of invasive cervical resorption can even cause unnecessary tooth loss. This article reviews the latest research progress on the histopathologic features, pathogenic mechanism, susceptibility factors, diagnosis and treatment of ICR, with special emphasis on susceptibility factors and their mechanisms.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255080, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364503

ABSTRACT

In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Candida albicans , Fluconazole , Candida parapsilosis , Antifungal Agents
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 842024.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469384

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the current context of emerging drug-resistant fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, discovery of new antifungal agents is an urgent matter. This research aimed to evaluate the antifungal potential of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide against fluconazole-resistant clinical strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The antifungal activity of 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide was evaluated in vitro by the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm formation and its rupture, sorbitol and ergosterol assays, and association between this molecule and common antifungal drugs, amphotericin B and fluconazole. The test product inhibited all strains of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, with a MIC ranging from 128 to 256 µg.mL-1, and a MFC of 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. It also inhibited up to 92% of biofilm formation and rupture of up to 87% of preformed biofilm. 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide did not promote antifungal activity through binding to cellular membrane ergosterol nor it damages the fungal cell wall. Antagonism was observed when combining this substance with amphotericin B and fluconazole. The substance exhibited significant antifungal activity by inhibiting both planktonic cells and biofilm of fluconazole-resistant strains. Its combination with other antifungals should be avoided and its mechanism of action remains to be established.


Resumo No atual contexto de patógenos fúngicos resistentes emergentes tais como Candida albicans e Candida parapsilosis, a descoberta de novos agentes antifúngicos é uma questão urgente. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antifúngico da 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida contra cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis resistentes a fluconazol. A atividade antifúngica da substância foi avaliada in vitro através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), concentração fungicida mínima (CFM), ruptura e inibição da formação de biofilme, ensaios de sorbitol e ergosterol, e associação entre esta molécula e antifúngicos comuns, anfotericina B e fluconazol. O produto teste inibiu todas as cepas de C. albicans e C. parapsilosis, com uma CIM variando de 128 a 256 µg.mL-1, e uma CFM de 512-1,024 µg.mL-1. Também inibiu até 92% da formação de biofilme e causou a ruptura de até 87% de biofilme pré-formado. A 2-cloro-N-fenilacetamida não promoveu atividade antifúngica pela ligação ao ergosterol da membrana celular fúngica, tampouco danificou a parede celular. Antagonismo foi observado ao combinar esta substância com anfotericina B e fluconazol. A substância exibiu atividade antifúngica significativa ao inibir tanto as células planctônicas quanto o biofilme das cepas resistentes ao fluconazol. Sua combinação com outros antifúngicos deve ser evitada e seu mecanismo de ação deve ser estabelecido.

7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(6): 642-649, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529994

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La detección de patrones de resistencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis se basa en pruebas de susceptibilidad fenotípicas y genotípicas. Los resultados discordantes entre ellas son un desafío clínico para el manejo de pacientes con tuberculosis resistente a fármacos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la concordancia entre pruebas fenotípicas y moleculares en pacientes con tuberculosis resistente a fármacos atendidos en una institución de Cali, Colombia. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal en el que se obtuvo el perfil de sensibilidad fenotípico de cultivos de micobacterias y la susceptibilidad genotípica con las pruebas moleculares Xpert-MTB/ RIF® o Genotype-MDRTBplus ®. Se evaluó el porcentaje de resistencia y porcentaje de acuerdo entre los resultados de las pruebas fenotípicas y genotípicas. Se estimó un coeficiente de kappa de Cohen (κ) para cada tipo de resistencia según la prueba utilizada. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 30 casos con resultados de pruebas genotípicas y fenotípicas. Las pruebas fenotípicas detectaron resistencia a fármacos de primera línea en 29/30 casos, mientras que las moleculares detectaron la resistencia en todos los casos evaluados. El porcentaje de resistencia a rifampicina detectado entre la prueba fenotípica y Genotype-MDRTBplus ® &e 61,5% (acuerdo global 41,1%, κ = 0,40, p = 0,96), mientras que el porcentaje de resistencia detectado con Xpert-MTB/RIF® fue 100% (acuerdo global 81,82%, κ: 0,00, p < 0,001) para este mismo medicamento. El porcentaje de resistencia a isoniacida detectado entre la prueba fenotípica y Genotype-MDRTBplus ® fue 94,4% (acuerdo global 89,47%, κ: -0,055 p = 0,59). CONCLUSIONES: La discordancia entre los resultados de las pruebas genotípicas y fenotípicas es posible, por lo que es importante usar e interpretar ambos tipos de pruebas de manera complementaria en el diagnóstico de la resistencia a fármacos de primera línea en la infección por M. tuberculosis.


BACKGROUND: The detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance patterns is based on phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility tests. The discordant results between them are a clinical challenge for the management of patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis. Aim: To evaluate the concordance between phenotypic and molecular tests in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis treated in an institution in Cali, Colombia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A phenotypic sensitivity profile was obtained from mycobacterial cultures. The genotypic susceptibility was obtained with Xpert-MTB/ RIF® or Genotype-MDRTBplus ®. The percentage of resistance and percentage of agreement between the results of the phenotypic and genotypic tests were evaluated. A Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was estimated for each type of resistance according to the test used. RESULTS: A total of 30 cases with both genotypic and phenotypic testing were included. The phenotypic tests detected resistance to first-line drugs in 29/30 cases, while the molecular tests detected resistance in all the cases evaluated. The percentage of resistance detected between Genotype-MDRTBplus® and the phenotypic test for rifampicin was 61.5% (overall agreement 41.1%, κ = 0.40, p = 0.96), while the percentage of resistance detected with XpertMTB/RIF® was 100% (overall agreement 81.82%, κ: 0.00, p < 0.001) for this same drug. Resistance to isoniazid detected by both types of tests was 94.4% (overall agreement 89.47%, κ: -0.055 p = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: Discordance between the results of genotypic and phenotypic tests is possible, so it is important to use and interpret both types of tests in a complementary way in the diagnosis of resistance to first-line drugs in M. tuberculosis infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Phenotype , Rifampin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Genotyping Techniques , Isoniazid/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 455-460, oct. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521866

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Fosfomicina es un antimicrobiano de amplio espectro utilizado para el tratamiento de las infecciones urinarias bajas; tiene actividad sobre bacilos gramnegativos y cocos grampositivos, así también sobre microorganismos multirresistentes, además de ofrecer una alternativa terapéutica de administración vía oral en dosis única, alcanzando una efectividad de 90%. OBJETIVO: Conocer la sensibilidad in vitro de Escherichia coli frente a fosfomicina, en infecciones urinarias provenientes de personas con discapacidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, en el que se incluyó un total de 273 muestras de urocultivo, de pacientes de ambos sexos que acudieron a SENADIS, y que en el momento de la consulta presentaban síntomas de infección del tracto urinario, por lo que se les solicitó el análisis de orina simple y cultivo. De las muestras procesadas en el laboratorio de microbiología, que fueron positivas con crecimiento bacteriano significativo, se procedió a la identificación bacteriana y a la realización del antibiograma según las recomendaciones de CLSI. RESULTADOS: De estas 273 muestras, 91 fueron positivas para diferentes uropatógenos, 62/91 (68%) resultaron ser E. coli. De estas cepas de E. coli, 59/62 (95%) mostraron sensibilidad in vitro a fosfomicina. Comentario: Aunque el número de muestra obtenido es pequeño y no extrapolable ampliamente, pretendemos extender el trabajo por un tiempo más para compararlo más adelante. CONCLUSIONES: Se observa que fosfomicina presenta buena actividad in vitro frente a cepas de E. coli aisladas de urocultivo, pudiendo representar una buena alternativa terapéutica a ser utilizada en la población en estudio.


BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the treatment of lower urinary tract infections, it is active against gramnegative bacilli and grampositive cocci, as well as against multi-resistant microorganism, in addition to offering a therapeutic alternative for oral administration in a single dose, reaching an effectiveness of 90%. AIM: To study the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to fosfomycin in urinary tract infections, of isolated strains obtained from patients with disabilities. METHODS: It is an observational, descriptive, prospective study in which a total of 273 urine culture samples of patients of both sexes who attended the SENADIS were included, and who at the time of the consultation presented symptoms of urinary tract infection. The urine positive cultures with significant bacterial growth were performed to determine its bacterial identification and the antibiogram according to CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of these 273 samples, 91 samples were positive for different uropathogens, with 62/91 (68%) being positive for E. coli. Of these E. coli strains, 59/62 (95%) showed in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin. Comment: Although the number of samples obtained is small and it cannot be extrapolated, we pretend to extend the work for a while longer to be able to compare it later. CONCLUSION: Fosfomycin has good activity in vitro against E. coli isolated from urine culture in our institution, representing a good alternative to be used in our study population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Fosfomycin/therapeutic use , Fosfomycin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Disabled Persons
9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-221456

ABSTRACT

Background: Enterobacter were proposed as a genus in 1960 by Hormaeche and Edwards based on the division of the former genus Aerobacter into motile, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)–positive strains (Enterobacter) and nonmotile ODC-negative strains (Klebsiella). The Vitek-2 system is the second generation of Vitek and offers a more sophisticated model of data analysis as well as a fully automated process for card identification, organism suspension dilution and card filling. To study Aim and Objectives: identification and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter species by Vitek-2 system isolated from various clinical samples. Material and Methods: A total of 100 Enterobacter species obtained from various clinical samples like urine, pus, sputum, endotracheal aspirate and body fiuids (pleural, ascitic, peritoneal and CSF) etc. of patients received at Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College & Associated Group of Hospitals, Kota during a period of approximately 1 year from May 2021 to May 2022 were taken for the identification and Antibiotic sensitivity testing by Vitek-2 system. Out of 100 Enterobacter isolates, 69% w Result: ere E.cloacae and 31% were E.aerogenes. Antimicrobial susceptibility results of Enterobacter species revealed the susceptibility of 56.41% for Nitrofurantoin, 69% for Piperacillin/ Tazobactam and 72% for Cefoperazone/ salbactam. Enterobacter seems to be emerged with increasi Conclusion: ng resistance to multiple antibiotics.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219680

ABSTRACT

Aims: Ready-to-eat [RTE] animal products like ponmo are preferred by consumers due to its palatability and quality. However, foodborne pathogens particularly Staphylococcus aureus are sources of concern due to cross-contamination of raw and cooked cowhide. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in ready-to-eat locally processed cowhide. Methodology: Sixty (60) RTE cowhide samples were collected from different locations in Lagos, Nigeria and analyzed using conventional microbiological and molecular techniques for the detection of toxigenic S. aureus contamination. Suspected S. aureus isolates were confirmed by the presence of thermostable endonuclease [nuc] gene in their genome. Results: Result showed that 25 (41.67%) and 20 (33.50%) samples harbored coagulase-positive S. aureus and 20 other bacterial species different from S. aureus, respectively while 15 (24.83%) of the tested ponmo samples yielded no bacterial growth. Thirteen of the 15 randomly selected from the 25 suspected isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by the presence of thermostable endonuclease [nuc] gene in their genome. Enterotoxigenic genes were confirmed in all the 13 PCR detected S. aureus. Enterotoxin B gene is most prevalent in ponmo. Multiplex PCR detection of S. aureus enterotoxins [SE] genes revealed the molecular detection of different isolates carrying staphylococcal enterotoxin types A and B, mixed strain carrying both staphylococcal enterotoxins type A and type D. Antibiotic susceptibility of 20 S. aureus isolates revealed varying degrees of susceptibility patterns against the antimicrobial agents. Generally, gentamicin 70% (14/20), azithromycin 75% (15/20), co-trimoxazole 85% (17/20), levofloxacin 95% (19/20) were the most effective antibiotics to S. aureus. A low, ?50% susceptibility was recorded to chloramphenicol 55% (11/20) and nitrofurantoin 65% (13/20). A higher resistance to streptomycin (90%; 18/20) and ceftazidime (95%; 19/20) was identified, with resistance to ceftazidime being the highest (95%; 19/20). Conclusion: It can be concluded that RTE ponmo vended in the study sites is of low hygienic quality and may be of health risk to consumers. High level hygiene practice and good manufacturing practices are required during the production, distribution and marketing of ponmo to curb the potential health consequences of eating ponmo.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jun; 71(6): 2455-2459
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225121

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report on the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of infectious keratitis at a tertiary center in central India. Methods: The suspected case of severe keratitis underwent microbiological culture and identification using the VITEK 2 technique. Antibiotic susceptibility for different sensitivity and resistance patterns was analyzed. Demographics, clinical profile, and socioeconomic history was also documented. Results: Culture was positive in 233/455 (51.2%) patients. Pure bacterial growth was present in 83 (35.62%) patients and pure fungus was present in 146 (62.66%) patients. The most common bacterial cause of infectious keratitis was Pseudomonas followed by Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Pseudomonas showed 65%–75% resistance against levofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Staphylococcus showed 65%–70% resistance against levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, with Streptococcus being 100% resistant to erythromycin. Conclusion: This study highlights the current trend of microbiological profiles of infectious keratitis and their antibiotic susceptibility at a rural setup in central India. Fungal predominance and increased resistance against the commonly used antibiotics were noted.

12.
Rev. invest. clín ; 75(3): 158-168, May.-Jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515318

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The tobacco epidemic has been one of the biggest public health threats, and smoking is one of the world's largest preventable causes of premature death. An estimated 15.4% of all deaths in the world are attributable to tobacco smoking. The present review aims to describe addiction to tobacco smoking and vaping. Tobacco and vaping devices contain nicotine, a highly addictive drug, which explains why smoking is so prevalent and persistent. Electronic cigarettes are a group of novel nicotine or tobacco products that have rapidly gained popularity in recent years. Electronic cigarette devices allow for the use of other drugs, including THC, while the lax regulation may allow for the introduction of toxic compounds that can lead to acute or subacute toxicity, such as the e-cigarette- or vaping-associated lung injury that has been linked to vitamin E acetate. In addition, regular vapers and heated tobacco devices emit toxins, although at lower concentrations than burned tobacco. However, more and more side effects have been identified. No new effective treatment for nicotine addiction has been developed recently, despite its huge adverse impact on overall health and other outcomes. As for the primary line of medications, the last one started in 2006, the varenicline, demonstrating a low interest in developing new medications against smoking, an unacceptable state of affairs, given the huge impact of smoking on morbidity and mortality.

13.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217200

ABSTRACT

Aims: Our proposal aimed to evaluate Acyl Homoserine Lactones (AHL) as a functional marker for Multi drug resistant (MDR) potential in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. We investigated the AHL production potential of clinical isolates using a biosensor assay directly on a commonly used agar media. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Diagnostics and Biomarkers, Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Lakdikapul, Hyderabad-500004. Methodology: Antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing (AST) was performed on 72 clinical isolates of A. baumannii against two front-line antibiotics, Imipenem (10µg) and Meropenem (10µg), by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Production of long chain Acyl Homoserine lactone (AHLs) in the clinical isolates of A. baumannii was tested by cross streaking with the biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum mutant strain CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (NTL4pZLR4) by agar plate diffusion assay. Screening and identification of the quorum sensing mediator gene abaI was done by PCR to confirm its presence in all the 72 clinical isolates. Results: Out of the 72 clinical isolates, 58 were Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and 14 were Carbapenem sensitive Acinetobacter baumannii (CSAB) for AST by agar disc diffusion method. None of our isolates produced short chain AHLs whereas all the isolates could produce varying amounts of long chain AHLs. Genotypic confirmation of AHL gene was obtained by abaI gene PCR. Conclusion: Carbapenems are the front-line antibiotics used to treat gram negative bacterial infections in emergencies and in the critical care units of hospitals. Clinical isolates A. baumannii has innate resistance to several antibiotics due to various mechanisms, biofilms forming the first line of defense against antibiotics for the bacterium. Our study used AST to carbapenem as the leading marker for MDR, assuming the innate resistance of A. baumannii to other beta lactam antibiotics. Our study brought out certain important observations namely: a) All clinical isolates of A. baumannii produced Quorum Sensing signal molecules, the AHLs b) the clinical isolates of A. baumannii did not produce any short chain AHLs b) All the clinical isolates of A. baumannii produced long chain AHLs c) AHL production is not specific to carbapenem drug resistance because even CSAB isolates produced AHL d) AHL production is inherent to all clinical isolates of A. baumannii and it apparently indicates an underlying biofilm potential and MDR trait in these A. baumannii isolates. e) AHLs could be a universal marker for revealing MDR trait and biofilm potential in clinical microbiology AST profiling protocols.

14.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218020

ABSTRACT

Background: Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants <28 days old. Neonatal sepsis contributes substantially to neonatal morbidity and mortality and is an ongoing major global public health challenge. Aim and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility of blood culture from neonates in GMERS Medical College, Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: For culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test, blood samples were taken from the suspected cases admitted in NICU. Total 271 blood culture positive NICU admitted patient with septicemia were taken in this study. Results: Total 271 septicemic neonates having blood culture positive septicemia, neonatal septicemia was predominantly caused by Gram-negative organism Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.60%). Among the all Gram-negative organisms, Piperacillin/Tazobactam was most sensitive drug followed by Meropenem. Moreover, for the all Gram-positive organism, vancomycin and linezolid were the most sensitive drugs. Conclusion: Neonatal septicemia is major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Multiple antibiotic resistance among the isolates worsen the condition more. A high level of suspicions is needed on clinical ground for diagnosis. Judicious use of antibiotics should be promoted.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220211

ABSTRACT

Objective: The goal of this investigation was to look at the frequency and dispersal of bacteria isolated from pus/wound, as well as their susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods?A study was conducted on 175 patients who provided pus and/or wound discharge samples in different wards (outpatient department or inpatient department). MacConkey agar and blood agar plates were immediately inoculated with samples and incubated at 37°C for 24?hours. The Gram stain and biochemical tests were used to identify all isolates after incubation. Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method was used to perform sensitivity tests on Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Results?This study covered 175 patients, with a bacterial isolation rate of 102 (58.28%). Males outnumbered females in the samples (M:F?=?1.8:1), with a median age of 45 years as majority were in the age group of 40 to 60 years which was 41 (40.20%). Total 90.1% samples showed monomicrobial infection, whereas 9.8% showed polymicrobial infection, and total 112 bacterial strains were isolated. Conclusion?Escherichia coli was the most prevalent isolate in present investigation, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chloramphenicol is the only antibiotic which is effective for both gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci. This report's susceptibility statistic may be worth considering for developing empiric treatment regimens for pyogenic infections.

16.
Salud UNINORTE ; 39(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1536847

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el perfil microbiológico y resistencia antimicrobiana en infección urinaria en niños. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, observacional y multicéntrico. Se estudiaron 445 urocultivos procesados y los resultados de antibiogramas en tres hospitales públicos de Quito (Ecuador). En relación con los agentes causales se establecieron frecuencias absolutas y proporciones. En el análisis bivariable entre el antecedente de malformación renal o de la vía urinaria y el riesgo de infección, se aplicó el test Chi2 (p < 0,05) y la RP [IC 95 %; p < 0,05]. Resultados: Se evidenció una resistencia ante aminopenicilinas del 73,5 %; ampicilina más sulbactam 31,8 %; trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol 55,5 %; cefalosporinas de primera y segunda generación hasta 33 %; cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación del 21,3 al 47 %. Ante malformación urinaria y aislamiento de bacterias diferentes a Escherichia coli, se identificó a Klebsiella pneumoniae RP 2,66 [IC 95 %, 1,9-3,6; p < 0,05] y Pseudomonas aeruginosa RP 2,07 [IC 95 %, 1,2-3,5; p < 0,05]. Conclusiones: En nuestro medio, ante el diagnóstico de infección urinaria, no parece adecuado iniciar tratamiento antibiótico con aminopenicilinas, trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol ni cefalosporinas de primera a cuarta generaciones por su elevada resistencia. La presencia de malformación urinaria se asocia a infección por bacterias diferentes de Escherichia coli.


Objective: Determine the microbiological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility in urinary infection in children. Materials and methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, observational, and multicenter study. 445 urine cultures and the results of antibiograms were studied in three public hospitals in Quito (Ecuador). In relation to the causal agents, absolute frequencies and proportions were established. In the bivariate analysis, Chi-squared test (p < 0.05) and PR [CI 95 %; p < 0.05] were applied between history of kidney or urinary tract malformation and risk of infection. Results: There was evidence of resistance to aminopenicillins of 73.5 %; ampicillin plus sulbactam 31.8 %; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 55.5 %; first and second generation cephalosporins up to 33 %; resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins from 21.3 to 47%. In relation to urinary malformation and the isolate of a bacteria different from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae PR 2,66 [CI 95 %, 1.9-3.6; p < 0.05] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR 2.07 [CI 95 %, 1.2-3.5; p < 0.05] were identified. Conclusions: In our locality it wouldn't be appropriate to start antibiotic treatment with aminopenicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or first to fourth generation cephalosporins in urinary tract infection due to their resistance. The presence of urinary malformation is associated with infection by bacteria other than Escherichia coli.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218849

ABSTRACT

Background & Objectives: This study was aimed to observe the susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from respiratory tract infection (RTI). Respiratory tract infection is considered as one of the major public health problems and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. Respiratory tract is the part of the human system that plays a vital role in breathing processes. In human, the respiratory system can be subdivided into an Upper respiratory tract and a Lower respiratory tract based on anatomical features. The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to microbes due to the extensive surface area. The present study was conducted retrospectively for a periodMethods: of one year November 2021 to October 2022. All respiratory specimens included Sputum, BAL, throat swab; endotracheal aspirate specimens were collected aseptically from patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media (Blood agar, MacConkey agar & Chocolate Agar). Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and antimicrobial susceptibility performed by standard methods as per CLSI 2022. 152Results: (72.3%) of total 210 samples were positive for bacterial culture. 126 (82.8%) were gram negative bacilli (GNB) and 26 (17.1%) were gram positive cocci (GPC). The predominant pathogen isolated was K. pneumoniae 46 (30.2%) followed by Escherichia coli 28 (18.4%).The overall susceptibility of GNB was highest towards Imipenem, Meropenem followed by Piperacillin tazobactam and Amikacin. Gram positive organisms exhibited highest susceptibility towards Vancomycin and Linezolid. Imipenem is the most sensitive antibiotic followed by Piperacillin tazobactamConclusion: and Amikacin which can be used for empirical therapy for respiratory tract infections (RTI). The antibiotic therapy should be modified as per the culture and sensitivity report. Regular determinations of the type of bacterial pathogens and updation of antibiogram must be followed in every institution to aid in better patient management by helping the clinician in the judicious use of antibiotics.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217991

ABSTRACT

Background: Mostly intensive care unit (ICU) patients are more susceptible to nosocomial infections caused by hospital-based various strains of bacteria and other opportunistic pathogens. Due to the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, these strains of pathogens are often multi-drug resistant. To prevent resistance against the antimicrobial agent various departments of the health care system have to work together, so we can use the antimicrobial agents as effectively as we can to treat illnesses. Aim and Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of different micro-organisms causing infections in ICU and their sensitivity and resistance pattern and to determine the overall microbiological and resistance profile which helps formulate therapeutic guidelines in ICU. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Ahmedabad to assess the culture and sensitivity pattern of clinical samples such as blood, urine, sputum, wound, and endotracheal aspiration for a 1-year duration (August 2019 - August 2020). Results: A total of 941 samples were received for microbiological investigation from ICU, out of which 322 were positive. The Utmost isolated organism was - Klebsiella (37.26%) followed by Escherichia coli (16.45%), Pseudomonas (12.42%), and Staphylococcus aureus (7.45%). The Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were most sensitive to drugs like colistin (96.26% %) and tigecycline (83.40%) followed by carbapenems (71.79%), aminoglycosides (71.36%), and fluoroquinolones (67.21%). More sensitive drugs for isolated Gram-positive organisms were linezolid (100%) followed by teicoplanin (98.41%) and vancomycin (98.41%). Conclusion: High prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and GNB producing Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase, AmpC, or carbapenem-resistant GNB in our study, raise serious concerns about antibiotic resistance. The main reason for increasing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is poor infection control practices and inappropriate use of antibiotics. Hence, research regarding antibiotic sensitivity and resistance will be very helpful for doctors to initiate appropriate empirical antibiotics in treating critical illnesses.

19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-223527

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: This study was aimed at estimating the proportion among sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients diagnosed at a tertiary care centre in India, who did not undergo universal drug-susceptibility testing (UDST), assessing the sociodemographic and morbidity-related factors associated with it, ascertaining the reasons for not getting tested and estimating the proportion with any drug resistance (DR). Methods: TB Notification Register and TB Laboratory Register, maintained in Designated Microscopy Centre and Intermediate Research Laboratory, respectively were used to obtain the patient details and information regarding UDST and DR-TB status. Under UDST, the TB patients had undergone rapid molecular tests to check for any DR. TB patients who dropped out of this strategy (those who did not submit a sputum sample for DR testing even after being instructed) were telephonically contacted and asked regarding reasons for not getting themselves tested. Results: Of the 215 patients, 74 [34.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.1-41.2] did not undergo UDST. Of these 74 participants, 60 per cent reported the reason that they were not informed regarding the drug-susceptibility test. Among the 141 patients who underwent UDST, six (4.3%, 95% CI: 1.58-9.03) had DR. Non-UDST patients were significantly more in percentage among TB patients who were aged <30 years (adjusted prevalence ratio 2.36; 95% CI: 1.19-4.68) compared to >60 years. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings point towards a need to sensitize healthcare workers and TB patients to improve UDST.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-220716

ABSTRACT

The contemporary world's highlight is women and their harrowing experiences. Times gone by there are a perceptible unwillingness to acknowledge the reality of suffering. After independent India when a woman's life started altering owing to spread in education, the modern attitude woman started emerging. Women aware of their rights and when they started becoming economically independent, there was a striving for the realization of their own ambitions. Now, the new woman is a obsessive appearance out of the Indian existing ethos and not just a blind replication. Even in modern India, women are still caught between cultural values and traditional style of life and fast approaching new life. Caught among the burden of the administrative center, residence, childbearing, mothering, and struggling with principles; women's ?rst step to survive with equality is a far weep. The wide-ranging image of women in literature identi?es the real position according to woman in society – as daughter, mother, and wife in a familial setting.

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