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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e713, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351983

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La administración manual en bolo ha evolucionado desde la infusión volumétrica basada en regímenes farmacológicos estandarizados, hasta los sistemas de infusión controlada por objetivo y los más sofisticados sistemas de circuito cerrado. Objetivo: Describir los principios tecnológicos y aplicaciones clínicas extendidas de la infusión controlada por objetivo y los sistemas de circuito cerrado. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión no sistemática de la literatura, en bases de datos científicas como Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, Science Direct, OVID y el buscador académico Google Scholar, en el mes de septiembre del año 2020. Desarrollo: La disponibilidad y portabilidad de dispositivos electrónicos con capacidad de procesamiento avanzado a precios relativamente accesibles, el perfeccionamiento del aprendizaje automático e inteligencia artificial aplicado a las decisiones médicas, y las iteraciones tecnológicas complejas incorporadas en los sistemas de circuito abierto y cerrado, desarrollados originalmente en el campo de la Anestesiología, han posibilitado su expansión a otras especialidades y entornos clínicos tan disímiles como el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus, administración de fármacos antineoplásicos, ventilación mecánica, control de las variables hemodinámicas y la terapia antimicrobiana en pacientes críticos. Conclusiones: La infusión controlada por objetivo y los sistemas de circuito cerrado se han convertido en tecnologías maduras, seguras y viables, aplicadas clínicamente en múltiples naciones y escenarios, con un desempeño superior a los sistemas manuales tradicionales(AU)


Introduction: Manual bolus administration has evolved from volumetric infusion based on standardized pharmacological regimens to target-controlled infusion systems and the most sophisticated closed-loop systems. Objective: To describe the technological principles and extended clinical applications of target-controlled infusion and closed-loop systems. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the literature was carried out, during September 2020, in scientific databases such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, Science Direct, OVID and the academic search engine Google Scholar. Development: The availability and portability of electronic devices with advanced processing capacity at relatively affordable prices, the refinement of machine learning and artificial intelligence applied to medical decisions, as well as the complex technological iterations incorporated into open and closed-loop systems, originally developed in the field of anesthesiology, have enabled their expansion to other specialties and clinical settings so diverse as treatment of diabetes mellitus, administration of antineoplastic drugs, mechanical ventilation, control of hemodynamic variables and antimicrobial therapy in critical patients. Conclusions: Target-controlled infusion and closed-loop systems have become mature, safe and viable technologies, applied clinically in multiple nations and settings, with superior performance compared to traditional manual systems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Artificial Intelligence , Machine Learning , Anesthesiology , Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit/methods , Early Goal-Directed Therapy
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Bispectral index (BIS) can reflect the depth of propofol sedation. This study aims to compare the anesthetic satisfaction, anesthetic dose, and hemodynamic changes between closed-loop target controlled infusion (CLTCI) and open-loop target controlled infusion (OLTCI) during abdominal surgery.@*METHODS@#From December 2016 to December 2018, 70 patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia were selected in Beijing Hospital, including 51 males and 19 females, at the age from 49 to 65 years old. They were classified as grade I-II by the American Society of anesthesiologists (ASA) and were randomly divided into the CLTCI group and the OLTCI group (@*RESULTS@#In the induction stage, the percentage of adequate anesthesia time in the CLTCI group was higher than that in the OLTCI group, and the percentage of deep anesthesia time in the CLTCI group was significantly lower than that in the OLTCI group (both @*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with propofol OLTCI, anesthesia with propofol CLTCI under BIS guidance can maintain a more appropriate depth of anesthesia sedation and more stable hemodynamics.


Subject(s)
Abdomen/surgery , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propofol , Remifentanil , Surgical Procedures, Operative
3.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 403-406,411, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743741

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the correlation between analgesia nociception index (ANI) and hemodynamic changes during laparoscopic surgery after tracheal intubation andto assess the effectiveness of ANI.Methods A multicenter, prospective clinical study was conducted and 284 patients underwent laparoscopic surgery were enrolled. Patients were monitored after entering the operating room. Endotracheal intubation was completed by anesthesia induction with target controlled remifentanil and propofol, after arterial and central venous catheterization were improved. Anesthesia was maintainedby continued propofol and remifentanil target controlled infusion.The ANI value, systolic pressure, heart rate of 5 minutes after completion of the entry, completion of the first trocar and completion of all the trocars were recorded. The ANI values and the changes in the vital signs (systolicblood pressure and heart rate) were observed during the laparoscopic operation, and the effectiveness of the ANI index to assess the pain caused by the insertion of a laparoscope trocar was evaluated. Results (1) The area under the ANI curve was positively correlated with the one under thesystolic blood pressure and the heart rate curve during the period from cutting the skin to 5 mins after completing all the trocars (P < 0.05). (2) ANI was negatively correlated with SBP and HR when skin incision and the first trocar were completed (P < 0.001). Conclusions The changes in ANI were in accordance with the balance between analgesic and noxious stimuli, and negatively correlated with the changes insystolic blood pressure and heart rate. ANI could accurately evaluate the pain situation when the card was inserted.

4.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 277-280,284, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-697602

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the anesthetic effect and adverse events on different doses of oxyco-done combined with propofol target controlled infusion(TCI)in patients with choledocholithiasis undergoing endo-scopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography(ERCP)with endoscopic sphincterotomy(EST).Methods One hun-dred and twenty patients with choledocholithiasis underwent ERCP with EST in Department of Gastroenterology, Fuzhou General Hospital,from January,2016 to March,2017 were enrolled in this study.Patients were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=30 in each group)including the sufentanil control group(Group A),low dose of oxyco-done group(Group B),moderate dose of oxycodone group(Group C),and high dose of oxycodone group(Group D).Patients in Group A received 0.10 μg/kg intravenous sufentanil,and patients in Group B,C,and D received 0.08 mg/kg,0.10 mg/kg,and 0.12 mg/kg intravenous oxycodone,respectively,at 5 min before induction of gener-al anesthesia followed by propofol TCI. Effect of compartment concentration(Ce)of propofol,mean arterial pres-sure(MAP),and heart rate(HR)at the given time point when patients transferring to operation room(T0),after induction(T1),endoscope through throat(T2),and endoscope through major duodenal papilla(T3)were record-ed.The accumulative dose of propofol,duration of operation,and recovery time were also recorded.Intraoperative sever hypotension,bradycardia,respiratory depression,coughing and moving,and postoperative nausea and vom-iting were recorded. Results Propofol Ce at T1~T3as well as MAP and HR at T2and T3in Group B were signifi-cantly higher than those in Group A,C,and D,respectively(P < 0.05). The accumulative dose of propofol in Group B was more than that in Group A and C,while the accumulative dose of propofol in Group D was less than that in Group A,B,and C,respectively(P<0.01).Recovery time in Group D was longer than that in Group A, B,and C,respectively(P<0.05).Similar incidences of intraoperative sever hypotension,bradycardia,respiratory depression,coughing and moving,and postoperative nausea and vomiting were also observed. Conclusions 0.10 mg/kg intravenous oxycodone at 5 min before induction of general anesthesia combined with propofol TCI presents a favorable anesthetic effect in patients with choledocholithiasis undergoing ERCP with EST without a prolonged recovery time and the increased incidence of adverse events.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare hemodynamic and recovery characteristics of total intravenous anesthesia using propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) versus sevoflurane for extraction of four third molar teeth. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing extraction of four third molar teeth under general anesthesia were randomized to one of two groups. Group 1 received propofol TCI-oxygen for induction and propofol TCI-oxygen-air for maintenance. Group II received a propofol bolus of 2 mg/kg for induction and sevoflurane-oxygen-air for maintenance. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), operating time, time to emergence, nausea and vomiting, and sedation and pain scores were measured in each group. RESULTS: Demographic data, including age, gender, weight, and height, were not significantly different between the two groups. The MAP was significantly higher after intubation (P = 0.007) and injection of anesthesia (P = 0.004) in the propofol group than in the sevoflurane group, with significant reflex bradycardia (P = 0.028). The mean time to emergence from anesthesia using propofol was 25 s shorter than that of sevoflurane (P = 0.02). Postoperatively, the propofol group was less sedated than the sevoflurane group at 30 min (0.02 versus 0.12), but this difference was not significant (P = 0.065). CONCLUSION: Both propofol TCI and sevoflurane are good alternatives for induction and maintenance of anesthesia for short day-case surgery. However, propofol TCI does not blunt the hemodynamic response to sudden, severe stimuli as strongly as sevoflurane, and this limitation may be a cause for concern in patients with cardiac comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Arterial Pressure , Bradycardia , Comorbidity , Heart Rate , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intubation , Molar, Third , Nausea , Propofol , Reflex , Tooth , Vomiting
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-733867

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of propofol infusion on the side effects of carboplatin and trometamol at different plasma target concentrations in cesarean section.Methods From January 2016 to October 2017,a total of 184 cases of cesarean section pregnant women in the People's Hospital of Quzhou were selected for prospective study.They were divided into A group ,B group,C group and control group (N group) according to random number table method,with 46 cases in each group.The A,B,C three groups were target -controlled infusion of propofol,the concentrations were 0.8μg/mL,1.2μg/mL,1.6μg/mL,respectively,while N group was infused 0.9%sodium chloride injection at the rate of 0.5mL· kg-1· h-1.The operative time,intraoperative blood loss,fluid replacement,elevated blood pressure,decreased blood pressure ,the incidence of tachycardia and adverse reactions were compared among the four groups.Results The operation time of the four groups were (46.65 ±5.32) min, (49.21 ±4.75)min,(48.74 ±4.28) min,(49.76 ±5.25) min,respectively,the differences were not statistically significant(F=1.501,P >0.05).The volume of intraoperative blood loss in the four groups were (425.66 ± 39.54)mL,(428.71 ±41.03)mL,(427.96 ±41.55)mL,(431.56 ±42.35)mL,respectively,the differences were not statistically significant(F=1.882,P>0.05).The fluid replacement in the four groups were (884.59 ±51.22)mL, (879.20 ±47.63)mL,(883.59 ±50.14)mL,(896.33 ±50.23)mL,respectively,the differences were not statistically significant(F=1.634,P>0.05).The satisfaction rate of sedation in B group was 91.30%,which was significantly higher than 58.70%in A group and 30.43%in C group(Z=91.428,P<0.05).The incidence rates of cardiovascular events in B group and C group were significantly lower than those in A group (all P<0.05),which in B group were lower than those in C group(all P<0.05).There were no statistically significant differences in chest tightness ,head-ache,facial flushing incidence in the three groups (χ2=3.450,4.816,5.396,all P>0.05).The incidence rates of nausea and vomiting in B group were 8.70%and 4.35%,respectively.The incidence rates of nausea and vomiting in C group were 8.70%and 2.17%,respectively,which were significantly lower than those in A group (26.09% and 19.57%)(χ2=7.485,10.405,all P<0.05).Conclusion Targeted infusion of propofol at 1.2 μg/mL can effec-tively prevent the side effects of cesarean section carduvastatin trometamol with good sedative effect .

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732098

ABSTRACT

Background: The study aimed to determine the effects of dexmedetomidine on the induction of anaesthesia using different models (Marsh and Schnider) of propofol targetcontrolled infusion (TCI). Methods: Sixty-four patients aged 18–60 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II who underwent elective surgery were randomised to a Marsh group (n = 32) or Schnider group (n = 32). All the patients received a 1 μg/kg loading dose of dexmedetomidine, followed by TCI anaesthesia with remifentanil at 2 ng/mL. After the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil reached 2 ng/mL, propofol TCI induction was started. Anaesthesia induction commenced in the Marsh group at a target plasma concentration (Cpt) of 2 μg/mL, whereas it started in the Schnider group at a target effect-site concentration (Cet) of 2 μg/mL. If induction was delayed after 3 min, the target concentration (Ct) was gradually increased to 0.5 μg/mL every 30 sec until successful induction. The Ct at successful induction, induction time, Ce at successful induction and haemodynamic parameters were recorded. Results: The Ct for successful induction in the Schnider group was significantly lower than in the Marsh group (3.48 [0.90] versus 4.02 [0.67] μg/mL; P = 0.01). The induction time was also shorter in the Schnider group as compared with the Marsh group (134.96 [50.91] versus 161.59 [39.64]) sec; P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic parameters and Ce at successful induction. Conclusion: In the between-group comparison, dexmedetomidine reduced the Ct requirement for induction and shortened the induction time in the Schnider group. The inclusion of baseline groups without dexmedetomidine in a four-arm comparison of the two models would enhance the validity of the findings.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247817

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the clinical effect of ear point embedding on plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol-remifentanil in elderly patients who underwent abdominal external hernia surgery at the time of consciousness and pain disappearing by target-controlled infusion (TCI) and bispectral index (BIS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty patients who underwent elective abdominal hernia surgery were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each one. In the observation group, 30 minutes before anesthesia induction, Fugugou (Extra), Gan (CO), Pizhixia (AT), and Shenmen (TF) were embedded by auricular needles until the end of surgery, 10 times of counter press each point. In the control group, the same amount of auricular tape was applied until the end of surgery at the same points without stimulation 30 minutes before anesthesia induction. Patients in the two groups were given total intravenous anesthesia, and BIS was monitored by BIS anesthesia depth monitor. Propofol was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 1.5μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients lost their consciousness. After that, remifentanil was infused by TCI at a beginning concentration of 2.0μg/L and increased by 0.3μg/L every 30s until the patients had no body reaction to pain stimulation (orbital reflex). Indices were recorded, including mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and the BIS values, at the time of T(entering into the operation room), T(losing consciousness) and T(pain relief), the plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol at T, the plasma and effect site concentrations of remifentanil at T. After surgery we recorded the total amounts of propofol and remifentanil, surgery time and anesthesia time.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At Tand T, MAP and HR of the observation group were higher than those of the control group (<0.05,<0.01). At T, the plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (<0.05,<0.01). At T, the plasma and effect site concentrations of remifentanil in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group (<0.05,<0.01). There was no significant difference in BIS values at Tand Tbetween the two groups (both>0.05). There was no significant difference in operation time and anesthesia time between the two groups (both>0.05). The total amount of remifentanil in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (<0.01). There was no significant difference in the total amount of propofol between the two groups (>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Ear points embedding combined with propofol-remifentanil TCI could reduce the plasma and effect site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil and the total amount of remifentanil in elderly patients with extra-abdominal hernia surgery, and had the effect of assisting sedation and analgesia.</p>

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-512989

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between maintaining concentration and loss of consciousness (LOC) concentration of propofol target controlled infusion (TCI) in patients undergoing heart valve replacement.Methods Thirty patients undergoing elective heart valve replacement were enrolled to receive propofol by ladder plasma TCI for anesthesia induction,8 males and 22 females.The initial plasma concentration (Cp) of propofol was set to 1.0 μg/ml,0.3 μg/ml Cp was increased every 1 min until LOC when the prediction effect-cite concentration (Ce) reached 0.5 μg/ml,then sufentanil 0.8-1.0 μg/kg and rocuronium 0.6-0.9 mg/kg were given for intubation.When BIS reached 50,Cp was decreased to the level of Ce.All the surgeries were performed under hypothermia CPB.MAP,HR,CVP,CO,SV,SVR,BIS,propofol Cp and Ce values were recorded at baseline (T0),LOC (T1),BIS reached 50 (T2),and other time points during operation (T3-T9).The correlation analysis between propofol Ce at LOC and perioperative variables were completed.Results In correlation analysis,there was a significant positive correlation between propofol Ce at LOC and baseline CO,SV (P<0.01),there was a significant negative correlation between propofol Ce at LOC and age (P<0.05),there was a significant positive correlation between propofol Ce at LOC and propofol Ce at T2-T9(P<0.01).Conclusion In patients undergoing valvular replacement,the Ce of propofol at maintenance are related to the concentration of propofol at LOC,which is helpful for adjusting the Ce of propofol at maintenance according to the Ce of propofol at LOC.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2036-2039, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-609832

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of target-controlled infusion of etomidate combined with remifentanil on in-dexes of immune and stress response in elderly surgery patients. METHODS:Totally 60 patients undergoing elective surgery were randomly divided into control group(n=30)and observation group(n=30). Control group was given Propofol injection 1.5-2 mg/kg intravenously. Observation group was given Remifentanil hydrochloride for injection with pump volume of 0.5 μg/(kg·min), and then target controlled infusion of Etomidate injection 0.1-0.3 mg/kg;the dose of etomidate increased by 0.05-0.1 mg/kg accord-ing to physical activity during surgery. Postoperative eye opening time,recovery time of orientation and extubation time were com-pared between 2 groups as well as the levels of immune indexes(CD4+,CD8+,CD4+/CD8+),stress response indexes [serum norepi-nephrine(NE),adrenaline(E)and cortisol(Cor)]. The occurrence of ADR was recorded during surgery. RESULTS:Postopera-tive eye opening time,recovery time of orientation and extubation time in observation group were significantly shorter than control group,with statistical significance(P0.05). After surgery,CD4+ and CD8+ of 2 groups were significantly higher than before surgery,and the ob-servation group was significantly higher than the control group,CD4+/CD8+ of 2 groups was significantly lower than before,and the observation group was significantly lower than control group,with statistical significance(P0.05);after surgery,the levels of NE,E and Cor in 2 groups were significantly higher than before surgery,but the observation group was significantly lower than the control group, with statistical significance(P<0.05). There were no obvious adverse reaction occurred in 2 groups during the surgery. CONCLU-SIONS:The target-controlled infusion of etomidate combined with remifentanil is ideal for perioperative anaesthesia in the elderly patients and effectively improves related immune indexes and stress response indexes with good safety.

11.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 1266-1269, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619154

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of multimodal postoperative analgesia of thoracotomy for malignant tumor excision.Method Sixty patients undergoing thoracotomy for malignant tumor excision were recuited.They were randomized into four groups:group A receiving single flurbiprofen axetil injection,group B using electronic analgesia pump for sufentanil PCIA,group C using electronic analgesia pump for dezocine PCIA and group D receiving sufentanil controlled by PCA-TCI system.Vital signs,artery lood gas analysis,PrinceHenry score,Ramsay score,remedial measure and untoward reactions were recorded.Results The falling down degree of Prince-Henry score of Group D was higher than those of Groups A,B and C (P < 0.05).Reduction of Ramsay score of Group D was higher than those of Groups A,B and C (P < 0.05).The number of the patients in Group D not undergoing Bolus remedial measure was larger than that of those in Groups B and C (P < 0.05).Conclusion When referring to the effectiveness and safety of the models administrated the thoracotomy for malignant tumors excision,the analgesia model of PC A-TCI sufentanil (plasma target concentration:0.12~ 0.14 ng/ mL) used in Group D is superior to other models used in Groups A,B and C.Moreover,individual analgesia can be reached by the PCA-TCI sufentanil model.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618597

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the accuracy of bispectral index (BIS)-guided closed-loop target controlled infusion (TCI) system in comparison with opened-loop manual TCI during anesthesia of biliary tract and pancreas surgeries.Methods Forty adult patients undergoing open surgery of biliary tract or pancreas under total intravenous anesthesia, including 17 males and 23 females, aged 18-75 years, falling into ASA physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ, were randomly allocated into closed-loop group (group C, n=20) and opened-loop manual group (group M, n=20).In group M, the propofol effect-site concentration was adapted at the discretion of the anesthesiologist to reach and maintain a BIS as close as possible to 42-52.In the closed-loop TCI group, propofol was administered using the closed-loop anesthesia delivery system to reach and maintain atarget BIS of 42-52.The BIS values would be recorded automatically by the system at each second after it began to run.The anesthesia duration, unconsciousness time, endotracheal intubation time, recovery time and endotracheal extubation time were recorded.The total usage of propfol and remifentanil were calculated.The incidence rates of emergence agitation, postoperative nausea and vomiting and intraoperative awareness were recorded.The frequencies of vasoactive drug were recorded.MDAPE, Wobble, GS through BIS values were calculated.Results BIS was maintained within ±10% of target (excellent) for significantly longer time in group C (52.1±10.5)% than that in group M (37.6±5.8)% (P<0.05).BIS was maintained within ±(10%-20%) of target (good) for the same time in both groups.MDAPE in group C (10.1±2.2)% were significantly lower than those in group M (15.3±6.4)% (P<0.05).GS in group C (23.1±8.9)% was significantly lower than that in group M (33.5±15.8)%.The usages of propofol in group C ·kg-1·min-1 were similar to those in group M (0.12±0.03) mg·kg-1·min-1, and the usages of remifentanil in group C (0.12±0.03) μg·kg-1·min-1 were similar to those in group M (0.15±0.05) μg·kg-1·min-1.The frequencies of vasoactive drug were similar in both groups.There was one incidence of emergence agitation in groups M.Postoperative nausea and vomiting and intraoperative awareness didn't occur in both groups.Conclusion The depth of the anesthesia is maitained more appropriately and stable in the closed-loop group than that in manual administration group.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-613867

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of different concentration propofol target controlled infusion on postoperative cognitive function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.Methods182 cases with coronary heart disease undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly divided into groupA and groupB from January 2014 to December 2016 in our hospital, 91cases in each group.GroupA were given a small dose propofol target controlled infusion anesthesia;groupB were given high dose propofol target controlled infusion anesthesia.The total dose of propofol induction and effect compartment concentration in the two groups were observed, and the Mini Mental State Examination(MMSE) in the two groups was evaluated preoperative, postoperative 24h, 48h, 72h.Concentration of S100β was determined at suture, postoperative 24h, 72h.ResultsThe total dose of propofol induction in the groupA was significantly lower than that in the groupB (P<0.05), effect compartment concentration between the two groups had no statistically significant difference.MMSE scores in the group A at postoperation 24h, 48h, were higher than those in the group B (P<0.05).Concentration of S100β in the group A was lower than those in the group B at suture, postoperative 24h, 72h.MMSE and concentration of S100β in the two groups were not statistically significant at post operation 72h.ConclusionLow dose propofol target controlled infusion can reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, which is worthy of clinical application.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-673050

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of target-controlled infusion (TCI)of dexme-detomidine on the median effective concentration of effect-site (Ce50 )of propofol at loss of conscious-ness (LOC)in patients.Methods Sixty-four patients,28 males and 36 females,aged 20-60 years, ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,scheduled for elective surgery,were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine of 0 ng/ml (group P),dexmedetomidine of 0.4 ng/ml (group D1),dexmedetomi-dine of 0.6 ng/ml (group D2)and dexmedetomidine of 0.8 ng/ml (group D3)for 1 5 min before TCI of propofol,n =1 6 in each group.The propofol infusion was started to provide an effect-site concen-tration of 1.0 μg/ml,and increased by 0.2 μg/ml when propofol effect-site concentration and target concentration were equilibrium until LOC.Results The Ce50 (95%CI )at loss of consciousness in groups P,D1,D2 and D3 were 2.30 (2.24-2.36)μg/ml,1.92 (1.87-1.96 )μg/ml,1.60 (1.55-1.65)μg/ml and 1.41 (1.35-1.45 )μg/ml,respectively.There was a negative correlation between the effect-site concentration of propofol-induced LOC and target concentration of dexmedetomidine (r=-0.84,P <0.01).Compared with groups P,D1 and D2,the incidence of bradycardia was higher in group D3 (P <0.05).Conclusion The Ce50 of propofol-induced LOC gradually decreases with in-creasing target concentration of dexmedetomidine.Combining propofol with dexmedetomidine of 0.4 or 0.6 ng/ml that can reduce the Ce50 of propofol-induced LOC,which is suitable for induction of an-esthesia with a lower incidence of bradycardia.

15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 96 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846761

ABSTRACT

Durante a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea e hipotermia (CEC-H) ocorre alteração na efetividade do propofol e na sua farmacocinética realizada a partir das concentrações plasmáticas do propofol total no decurso do tempo. A ligação do propofol à proteína plasmática parece estar alterada em consequência de diversos fatores incluindo a hemodiluição e a heparinização que ocorre no início da circulação extracorpórea, uma vez que se reportou anteriormente que a concentração plasmática do propofol livre aumentou durante a realização da circulação extracorpórea normotérmica. Por outro lado, a infusão alvo controlada é recomendada para manter a concentração plasmática do propofol equivalente ao alvo de 2 µg/mL durante a intervenção cirúrgica com CEC-H. Se alterações significativas na hipnose do propofol ocorrem nesses pacientes, então o efeito aumentado desse agente hipnótico poderia estar relacionado à redução na extensão da ligação do fármaco as proteínas plasmáticas; entretanto, o assunto ainda permanece em discussão e necessita de investigações adicionais. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi investigar as concentrações plasmáticas de propofol livre em pacientes durante a revascularização do miocárdio com e sem o procedimento de CEC-H através da abordagem PK-PD. Dezenove pacientes foram alocados e estratificados para realização de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea (CEC-H, n=10) ou sem circulação extracorpórea (NCEC, n=9). Os pacientes foram anestesiados com sufentanil e propofol alvo de 2 µg/mL. Realizou-se coleta seriada de sangue para estudo farmacocinético e o efeito foi monitorado através do índice bispectral (BIS) para medida da profundidade da hipnose no período desde a indução da anestesia até 12 horas após o término da infusão de propofol, em intervalos de tempo pré-determinados no protocolo de estudo. As concentrações plasmáticas foram determinadas através de método bioanalítico pela técnica de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A farmacocinética foi investigada a partir da aplicação do modelo aberto de dois compartimentos, PK Solutions v. 2. A análise PK-PD foi realizada no Graph Pad Prisma v.5.0 após a escolha do modelo do efeito máximo (EMAX sigmóide, slope variável). Os dados foram analisados utilizando o Prisma v. 5.0, p<0,05, significância estatística. As concentrações plasmáticas de propofol total foram comparáveis nos dois grupos (CEC-H e NCEC); entretanto o grupo CEC-H evidenciou aumento na concentração do propofol livre de 2 a 5 vezes em função da redução na ligação do fármaco às proteínas plasmáticas. A farmacocinética do propofol livre mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos no processo de distribuição pelo prolongamento da meia vida e aumento do volume aparente, e no processo de eliminação em função do aumento na depuração plasmática e redução na meia vida biológica no grupo CEC-H. A escolha do modelo EMAX sigmóide, slope variável foi adequada uma vez que se evidenciou alta correlação entre os valores do índice bispectral e as concentrações plasmáticas do propofol livre (r2>0.90, P<0.001) para os pacientes investigados


During coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) profound changes occur on propofol effect and on kinetic disposition related to total drug plasma measurements in these patients. It was reported that drug plasma binding could be altered as a consequence of hemodilution and heparinization before starts CPB since free propofol plasma levels was increased by twice under normothermic procedure. In addition, the target controlled infusion (TCI) is recommended to maintain propofol plasma concentration (2 µg/mL) during CABG CPB-H intervention. However, whether significant changes that occur in propofol hypnosis in these patients could be related to the reduction on the extension of drug plasma binding remain unclear and under discussion until now. Then, the objective of this study was to investigate propofol free plasma levels in patients undergoing CABG with and without CPB by a pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) approach. Nineteen patients were scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG-CPB, n=10) or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG, n=9) were anesthetized with sufentanil and propofol TCI (2 µg/mL). Blood samples were collected for drug plasma measurements and BIS were applied to access the depth of hypnosis from the induction of anesthesia up to 12 hours after the end of propofol infusion, at predetermined intervals. Plasma drug concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by a propofol pharmacokinetic analysis based on two compartment open model, PK Solutions v.2; PK-PD analysis was performed by applying EMAX model, sigmoid shape-variable slope and data were analyzed using Prisma v. 5.0, considering p<0.05 as significant difference between groups. The total propofol plasma concentrations were comparable in both groups during CABG; however it was shown in CPB-group significant increases in propofol free plasma concentration by twice to fivefold occur as a consequence of drug plasma protein binding reduced in these patients. Pharmacokinetics of free propofol in CPB-H group compared to OPCAB group based on two compartment open model was significantly different by the prolongation of distribution half-life, increases on plasma clearance, and biological half-life shortened. In addition, the kinetic disposition of propofol changes in a different manner considering free drug levels in the CPB-H group against OPCAB group as follows: prolongation of distribution half-life and increases on volume of distribution, remaining unchanged biological half-life in spite of plasma clearance increased. BIS values showed a strong correlation with free drug levels (r2>0.90, P<0.001) in CPB-H group and also in OPCAB group by the chosen EMAX model sigmoid shape-variable slope analyzed by GraphPad Prisma v.5.0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Myocardium , Propofol/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/statistics & numerical data , Extracorporeal Circulation/statistics & numerical data , Hemodilution , Hypotension, Controlled/standards , Hypothermia , Pharmacokinetics , Pharmacologic Actions , Plasma
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285250

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish a new propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI) model in animals so as to study the general anesthetic mechanism at multi-levels in vivo. Twenty Japanese white rabbits were enrolled and propofol (10 mg/kg) was administrated intravenously. Artery blood samples were collected at various time points after injection, and plasma concentrations of propofol were measured. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using WinNonlin software. Propofol TCI within the acquired parameters integrated was conducted to achieve different anesthetic depths in rabbits, monitored by narcotrend. The pharmacodynamics was analyzed using a sigmoidal inhibitory maximal effect model for narcotrend index (NI) versus effect-site concentration. The results showed the pharmacokinetics of propofol in Japanese white rabbits was best described by a two-compartment model. The target plasma concentrations of propofol required at light anesthetic depth was 9.77±0.23 μg/mL, while 12.52±0.69 μg/mL at deep anesthetic depth. NI was 76.17±4.25 at light anesthetic depth, while 27.41±5.77 at deep anesthetic depth. The effect-site elimination rate constant (ke0) was 0.263/min, and the propofol dose required to achieve a 50% decrease in the NI value from baseline was 11.19 μg/mL (95% CI, 10.25-13.67). Our results established a new propofol TCI animal model and proved the model controlled the anesthetic depth accurately and stably in rabbits. The study provides a powerful method for exploring general anesthetic mechanisms at different anesthetic depths in vivo.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics, Intravenous , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Animals , Drug Monitoring , Infusions, Intravenous , Models, Statistical , Propofol , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Rabbits , Software
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-497527

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the hemodynamic change and stress reaction of target-con-trolled infusion (TCI)of propofol guided by Narcotrend for anesthetic induction in renal transplanta-tion patients.Methods Forty patients (25 males,1 5 females,aged 21-38 years,ASA grade Ⅲ orⅣ)undergoing related living donor kidney transplantation were randomly divided into two groups:group A and group B (n =20).Group A was induced using TCI system with propofol under the moni-toring of Narcotrend.Group B was induced with propofol manually.HR,MAP,Narcotrend index (NTI),blood glucose (Glu)and plasma cortisol (Cor)were measured before induction (T0 ),before tracheal intubation (T1 ),and 1 (T2 ),3 (T3 ),and 5 (T4 )minutes afterwards.Results HR and MAP at T1 were lower than those at T0 (P < 0.05 )in two groups,they were significantly lower in group B than in group A at corresponding points(P <0.05).HR and MAP in group B increased sig-nificantly (P <0.05)and were significantly higher than those in group A (P <0.05)at T2 and T3 . There was no obvious difference in Glu and Cor between T0 and T2-T4 in group A.Glu and Cor at T2-T4 were obviously higher than those at T0 (P <0.05)in group B and those at corresponding points in group A (P <0.05).Conclusion TCI of propofol guided by Narcotrend in renal transplantation pa-tients can better control the depth of anesthesia,attenuate the stress reaction caused by tracheal intu-bation,and keep hemodynamic smooth during anesthesia induction.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-494509

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of the etomidate target controlled in-fusion (TCI)in the total thoracoscopic mitral valve replacement surgery.Methods One hundred and ten patients,aged 29-55 years,48 males and 62 females with ASA grade Ⅱ or Ⅲ rheumatic mitral valve disease planned to be corrected with total thoracoscopic mitral valve replacement surgery were randomly divided into group E and group P,55 cases in each group.In group E,etomidate-sufentanil target controlled infusion was used for induction (the initiate plasma concentration of etomidate was 0.2 ng/ml and increased 0.1 ng/ml per minute according to the bispectral index and the effect-site concentration of sufentanil was maintained at 1.0 ng/ml)and maintenance.In group P,using propo-fol-sufentanil target controlled infusion for induction (the initiate plasma concentration of propofol was 1.0 ng/ml and increased 0.3 ng/ml per minute according to the bispectral index and the effect-site concentration of sufentanil was maintained at 1.0 ng/ml)and maintenance.We documented the incidence of hypotension during the induction phase, recorded the basic clinical parameters of patients,the dosage of vasopressors during induction and sufentanil during anesthesia,time of eyelash reflex absence,operation time,CPB time,clamping time,APACHE Ⅱ score when enter CCU,pos-itive inotropic score 24 h postoperatively,wakening time,mechanical ventilation time,CCU stay,in-hospital stay,blood glucose and lactic acid preoperatively,2,6,24 h postoperatively,cortisol,aldo-sterone and adrenocorticotropin preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively and postoperative complications in both groups.Results The incidence of hypotension during induction in group E was much lower than that in group P (P<0.05).The dosage of norepinephrine during the induction in group E were much less than group P (P <0.05).The wakening time,mechanical ventilation time,CCU stay and in-hospital stay in group E were significantly shorter than group P (P <0.05).The blood glucose and lactic acid at postoperative 2,6,24 h were much higher than the preoperative value within each group (P <0.05).They reached the maxim at 6 h postoperatively and began to decline at 24 h postoperatively. Blood glucose and lactic acid at all the time points between two groups were similar.Cortisol at 24 h postoperatively was much higher than the preoperative value in group P (P <0.05).The dosage of cortisol and aldosterone 24 h postoperatively in group E were much less than that in group P (P <0.05).The incidence of postoperative lung infection in hospital in group E was remarkably lower than that in group P (P <0.05).Conclusion Etomidate target controlled infusion can maintain stable he-modynamics during the induction period, shorten postoperative recovery time and reduce postoperative lung infection obviously,which can be safely used in total thoracoscopic mitral valve re-placement surgery.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-494508

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the safety and efficacy of different concentration of remifen-tanil TCI combined with dexmedetomidine for awake nasal intubation in cervical spine surgery patients and explore the clinical suitable concentrations for remifentanil TCI.Methods Sixty cervical spine surgery patients undergoing selective surgery under general anaesthesia (male 40 cases,female 20 ca-ses,aged 18-68 years,ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ)were randomly divided into three groups according to TCI con-centration of remifentanil.The plasma concentration of remifentanil TCI of group A,B,C were 1.5 ng/ml,2.0 ng/ml,2.5 ng/ml respectively,which combined with dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg.The value of MAP,HR,SpO2 ,RR were recorded when patients entering the operating room(T1 ), before intubation(T2 ),immediately after tracheal tube passing through nasopharynx(T3 ),immedi-ately after tracheal intubation(T4 ),immediately after tracheal tube cuff inflated(T5 )and 1min after intubation(T6 ).The success rate of first intubation were recorded.The incidence of cough,limb movement,respiratory depression,awareness and other adverse reactions during intubation were re-corded.Results In group A,MAP and HR at T3-T5 were significantly higher than those at T1 (P <0.05);SpO2 at T4-T6 and RR at T3-T6 were significantly lower than those at T1 (P <0.05)in group C.In group A,the incidence of cough and limb movements were significantly higher than those in group B,C(P <0.05).In group C,the incidence of respiratory depression was significantly higher than that in group A,B(P <0.05).Conclusion TCI concentration 2.0 ng/ml for remifentanil com-bined with dexmedetomidine can effectively inhibit the stress response to intubation with little respira-tory depression and can be widely used for awake nasal intubation in cervical spine surgery patients.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-500767

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of rapid colloid and crystalloid infusions on the plasma concentration of propofol( Cp) during target-controlled infusion.Methods Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to three interventions(12 patients per group).At least 30 min after the start of propofol infusion,the hydroxyethyl starch solution group(HES)received HES of 24 mL/(kg· h),on the former 20 min,the sodium acetate Ringer’s injection group(AR)received AR of 24 mL/(kg· h),while HES group and AR group of later 20 min and the control group of whole course received AR of 2 mL/(kg· h).The plasma concentrations of propofol were recorded per 2 min and a half.The cardiac outputting,blood volume and clearance of indocyanine green were measured by pulsed dye density analyzer,the effective hepatic blood flow( EHBF) were obtained.Results The varying of Cp with time showed a significant treatment factor(F[2,33] =14.14,P<0.001)and time factor(F[16,528] =10.37,P<0.001)and interaction between the above factors(F[32,528] =2.82,P <0.001) by ANOVA for repeated measurement;the difference of Cp among each group,Cp in HES group was significantly lower than AR group(5-40 min)or control group(10-40 min),with significant difference(P<0.05).The varying of EHBF with time showed a significant treatment factor(F[2,28] =3.68,P=0.038)and time factor(F[2,56] =5.37,P=0.007)and interaction between the above factors(F [4,56] =3.67,P=0.010);while there was no significant difference in other groups.Conclusion Rapid HES infusion increases the effective hepatic blood flow,resulting in a decrease of propofol concentration during target-controlled infusion.Rapid HES infusion should be used cautiously as it may decrease the depth of anesthesia.

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