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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252845, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355877

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate whether skeletal development of the Pantanal Caiman (Caiman yacare) is similarly influenced by temperature variation and controlled increases in embryo motility. All eggs were incubated at 90% humidity and 29 °C for the first 45 days. Thereafter, the incubation temperature was either maintained at 29 °C and embryos were treated with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on days 46, 47, 48, and 49 (Group I, 29 °C 4-AP, n = 15); maintained at 29 °C (n = 14; Group II); or at 33 °C (n = 14, Group III). Embryonic movement was measured using an Egg Buddy® digital monitor on days 30, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 60, at which point embryos were euthanized and samples were collected for analysis. No differences were observed between groups with varying incubation temperatures. In contrast, embryonic motility was greater in embryos treated with 4-AP (P < 0.001) on day 49, and this was associated with higher proportions of snout-vent and hand lengths. This study demonstrates for the first time that pharmacologically induced increases in embryo motility result in phenotypic changes to the proportion of elements during prenatal ontogeny, thereby effectively altering the adaptation of the species to specific environments.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura e motilidade embrionária sobre o desenvolvimento esquelético de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare). Os ovos foram incubados com 90% de umidade e empregou-se a temperatura de 29°C por 45 dias. Após, para a incubação do Grupo I a temperatura continuou em 29°C, mas associou-se à injeção de 4-aminopiridina (29°C-4AP, n = 15) aplicada nos dias 46, 47, 48 e 49, do Grupo II permaneceu em 29°C (n = 14) e do Grupo III elevou-se para 33°C (n = 14). A movimentação foi mensurada através do monitor digital Egg Buddy® nos dias 30, 35, 42, 49, 56 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, os embriões foram eutanasiados e coletadas amostras embrionárias. Na análise estatística não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos para o fator temperatura sobre a motilidade embrionária no desenvolvimento esquelético. Em contraste, a motilidade evidenciou diferença estatística no dia 49 para o Grupo I (P < 0,001) e apresentou maiores proporções de nariz e mão. Esses dados demonstraram pela primeira vez que o aumento na motilidade, induzidos farmacologicamente resultam em divergências fenotípicas na proporção de segmentos anatômicos durante a ontogenia pré-natal, podendo alterar efetivamente a adaptação dos animais em ambientes específicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alligators and Crocodiles , Temperature
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245206, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339387

ABSTRACT

Abstract A huge amount of rice cultivation and consumption occur in Asia particularly in Pakistan and China. However, multiple abiotic stresses especially high and low-temperature proved to be a substantial threat for rice production ultimately risks for food security. To overcome various types of abiotic stress; seed priming is among the effective approaches to improve the rice seed germination and growth vigor. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate physiological and biochemical modifications in Chinese and Pakistani rice varieties by Qiangdi 863 biological assistant growth apparatus nano treated water (NTW), Osmopriming Calcium chloride (CaCl2), redox priming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hormonal priming by Salicylic acid (SA) under temperature stress conditions. The experiment was performed with completely randomize design conditions. Five rice varieties, nomenclature as Zhongzoa 39, (Chinese rice variety) KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati and PK 1121 aromatic (Pakistani rice variety) were sown under low temperature (LT) (17ºC), optimal temperature (OT) 27ºC and high temperature (HT) 37ºC conditions. The present study indicated that nanopriming were the most effective treatments increased Germination Energy Percentage (GEP) (96.1, 100, 100%), Speed of Germination (SG) (27.2, 35.45, 37.1), Final Germination Percentage (FGP) (98.2, 99.1, 99.4%), Seedling Dry Weight Biomass (DWB) (0.1, 0.137, 0.14g), Total Chlorophyll Content (0.502, 13.74, 15.21), antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)(3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh-1), Catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) and decreased Malondialdehyde (MDA) (6.5, 12.2, 6.5 µmol g-1 FW) for Zhongzao 39 and KSK 133 rice varieties under low (LT+NTW), optimal temperature (OP+NTW) and high temperature (HT+NTW) stress., Therefore, nano-priming is recommended to cope with the high and low-temperature stress conditions along with improved productivity of rice.


Resumo Cultivo e consumo de arroz ocorrem em grandes quantidades na Ásia, particularmente no Paquistão e na China. No entanto, vários estresses abióticos, especialmente de alta e baixa temperatura, provaram ser uma ameaça considerável para a produção de arroz, em última análise, riscos para a segurança alimentar. Para superar vários tipos de estresse abiótico, o priming de sementes está entre as abordagens eficazes que melhoram a germinação e o vigor de crescimento das sementes de arroz. Portanto, o presente estudo foi planejado para avaliar as modificações fisiológicas e bioquímicas em variedades de arroz chinês e paquistanês por Qiangdi 863, aparelho assistente biológico de crescimento com água nanotratada (NTW), Osmopriming cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2), peróxido de hidrogênio redox (H2O2) e priming hormonal por ácido salicílico (SA) em condições de estresse de temperatura. O experimento foi realizado em condições de delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. Cinco variedades de arroz, nomenclaturas como Zhongzoa 39 (variedade de arroz chinês), KSK 133, KS 282, Super basmati e PK 1121 aromático (variedade de arroz do Paquistão) foram semeadas sob baixa temperatura (LT) (17 ºC), temperatura ótima (OT) 27 ºC e condições de alta temperatura (HT) 37 ºC. O presente estudo indicou que nanocondicionamento foi o tratamento mais eficaz: aumento da porcentagem de energia de germinação (GEP) (96,1%, 100%, 100%), velocidade de germinação (SG) (27,2, 35,45, 37,1), porcentagem de germinação final (FGP) (98,2%, 99,1%, 99,4%), biomassa de peso seco de mudas (DWB) (0,1 g, 0,137 g, 0,14 g), conteúdo total de clorofila (0,502, 13,74, 15,21), enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase (SOD) (3145, 2559, 3345 µg-1FWh- 1), catalase (CAT) (300, 366, 3243 µg-1FWh-1) e malondialdeído diminuído (MDA) (6,5, 12,2, 6,5 µmol g-1 FW) para as variedades de arroz Zhongzao 39 e KSK 133 sob baixo (LT + NTW), temperatura ótima (OP + NTW) e estresse de alta temperatura (HT + NTW). Portanto, o nanopriming é recomendado para lidar com as condições de estresse de alta e baixa temperatura, juntamente com a produtividade aprimorada do arroz.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Seeds , Stress, Physiological , Temperature , Germination , Seedlings , Hydrogen Peroxide
3.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 830-833, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376730

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction There are slight differences in heart rate variation (HRV) between athletes from different sports, and different exercise loads justify the most important reason for this slight difference in HRV. Objective To study the detection of heart rate and body temperature in adolescents by physical training. Methods Twelve young basketball players were randomly selected. Heart rate variability and body temperature indicators were collected before starting the sports intervention activity, lasting four weeks in a specific protocol. After the intervention period, the participant's heart rate variability indicators and body temperature indicators were collected again. In an attempt to understand physical function training using comparative analysis and data processing obtained before and after the exercise intervention. Results A high increase in blood circulation velocity after exercise is directly proportional to the increase in body temperature. After four weeks of training, the heart rate of the 12 athletes increased from 92.35±3.65 to 84.77±5.13 beats per minute. Conclusion Body temperature can rise from the average temperature of 36.5°C before training to 36.7°C. The maximum temperature of 37°C can be reached within 5 minutes after stopping activity. The increasing intensity in physical function training can effectively improve the Standard deviation of the average normal RR intervals and root mean square velocity in the domain index in heart rate variability. Evidence level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução Existem pequenas diferenças na variação de frequência cardíaca (VFC) entre atletas de diferentes esportes, e a razão mais importante para essa pequena diferença de VFC é justificada por diferentes cargas de exercício. Objetivo Estudar a detecção da frequência cardíaca e temperatura corporal em adolescentes pelo treinamento físico. Métodos Doze jovens jogadores de basquete foram selecionados aleatoriamente. Os indicadores de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e os indicadores de temperatura corporal foram coletados antes do início da atividade de intervenção esportiva, com duração de 4 semanas em protocolo específico. Após o período de intervenção, os indicadores de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca dos participantes e indicadores de temperatura corporal foram coletados novamente. Utilizando a análise comparativa e processamento dos dados obtidos antes e após a intervenção do exercício, buscou-se compreender o treinamento de função física. Resultados O elevado aumento da velocidade da circulação sanguínea após o exercício é diretamente proporcional ao aumento da temperatura corporal. Após 4 semanas de treino, a frequência cardíaca dos 12 atletas passou de 92,35±3,65 para 84,77±5,13 batimentos por minuto. Conclusão A temperatura corporal pode elevar-se da temperatura média de 36,5°C antes do treino para 36,7°C. A temperatura máxima de 37°C pode ser alcançada em 5 minutos após a interrupção da atividade. O aumento da intensidade no treinamento de função física pode efetivamente melhorar o desvio padrão nos intervalos RR normais e a raiz da velocidade quadratica média no índice de domínio na variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - Investigação de resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción Existen pequeñas diferencias en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC) entre atletas de diferentes deportes, y la razón más importante de esta pequeña diferencia en la VFC se justifica por las diferentes cargas de ejercicio. Objetivo Estudiar la detección de frecuencia cardiaca y temperatura corporal en adolescentes mediante entrenamiento físico. Métodos Doce jóvenes jugadores de baloncesto fueron seleccionados al azar. Se recogieron indicadores de variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca e indicadores de temperatura corporal antes del inicio de la actividad de intervención deportiva, con una duración de 4 semanas en un protocolo específico. Después del período de intervención, se recogieron nuevamente los indicadores de variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca y los indicadores de temperatura corporal de los participantes. Utilizando el análisis comparativo y el procesamiento de datos obtenidos antes y después de la intervención de ejercicios, se buscó comprender el entrenamiento de la función física. Resultados El elevado aumento de la velocidad de la circulación sanguínea después del ejercicio es directamente proporcional al aumento de la temperatura corporal. Después de 4 semanas de entrenamiento, la frecuencia cardíaca de los 12 atletas pasó de 92,35±3,65 a 84,77±5,13 latidos por minuto. Conclusión La temperatura corporal puede subir desde la temperatura media de 36,5°C antes del entrenamiento hasta los 36,7°C. La temperatura máxima de 37°C se puede alcanzar dentro de los 5 minutos después de detener la actividad. El aumento de la intensidad en el entrenamiento de la función física puede mejorar efectivamente la desviación estándar en los intervalos RR normales y la velocidad cuadrática media en el índice de dominio en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.

4.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 394-400, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Here we describe our technique and results of beating heart pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in four patients for treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from patients who underwent PTE for CTEPH between January 2019 and September 2020. Patients were followed up with clinical assessment, 2D echocardiography, and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram. Results: Four patients were operated for CTEPH using our technique. Moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and severe TR were found in two patients each. Severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction was found in all cases. Thrombi were classified as Jamieson type II in three cases and type I in one case. Postoperative median direct manometric pulmonary artery (PA) pressures decreased (from 46.5 mmHg to 23.5 mmHg), median CPB time was 126 minutes, and median temperature was 33.35 °C. Mechanical ventilation was for a median of 19.5 hours. There was one re-exploration. Median intensive care unit stay was 7.5 days. There was no mortality. Postoperative 2D echocardiography revealed decrease in median PA systolic pressures (from 85 mmHg to 33 mmHg), improvement in RV function by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (median 14 mm vs. 16 mm), and improved postoperative oxygen saturations (88.5% vs. 99%). In follow-up (ranging between 2-15 months), all patients reported improvement in quality of life and were in New York Heart Association class I. Conclusion: With our described simple modifications, advances in perfusion, and blood conservation technologies, one can avoid the need for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest during PTE.

5.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(3): 213-216, May-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical activity is accomplished by the coordination of various organ systems of the human body, and physical exercise can positively impact the activities of many of these systems. Because the impact of high-intensity sports on human organs is different according to the environmental temperature and exercise intensity, we must make more detailed observations and discussions. Objective: To analyze the changes in the body shape, function, and organ function of middle school students before and after high-intensity physical exercise through the study of human movement. Methods: Through the experimental research on the characteristics of metabolic gas exchanges in high-intensity incremental load exercise of college students. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of physiological reactions shown by the students who underwent high-intensity incremental load exercise, such as abdominal pain, dyspnea, tachycardia, nausea, dizziness, and muscle aches (P<0.05). Hypothermia was accompanied by a decrease in heart rate during exercise. Conclusion: Carrying out overload training can effectively mediate physiological functions. It is an important, in improving sports performance, to carry out warm-up activities in a low-temperature environment to increase body temperature. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: A atividade física acontece por meio coordenação de vários sistemas de órgãos do corpo humano, e os exercícios físicos podem ter impacto positivo nas atividades de vários desses sistemas. Uma vez que o impacto de esportes de alta intensidade nos órgãos humanos é diferente de acordo com a temperatura do ambiente e com a intensidade do exercício, é necessário realizar observações e discussões mais detalhadas. Objetivo: Analisar as mudanças de forma e função do corpo, e das funções dos órgãos de alunos universitários antes e depois de atividade física de alta intensidade, através do estudo do movimento humano. Métodos: Pesquisa experimental sobre as características da troca gasosa em exercícios de alta intensidade com aumento gradual de carga em alunos universitários. Resultados: Houve diferenças estatísticas significativas na incidência de reações fisiológicas dos estudantes que passaram pela atividade de alta intensidade com aumento gradual de carga, incluindo dores abdominais, dispneia, taquicardia, náusea, tonturas, e dores musculares (p<0,05). Na presença de hipotermia havia uma queda na frequência cardíaca durante os exercícios. Conclusão: Exercícios de sobrecarga podem mediar funções fisiológicas eficientemente. Para melhorar a performance esportiva em ambientes de baixa temperatura é importante realizar exercícios de aquecimento para aumentar a temperatura do corpo. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação de resultados de tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La actividad física ocurre por medio de la coordinación de varios sistemas de órganos del cuerpo humano y los ejercicios físicos pueden tener impacto positivo en las actividades de varios de estos sistemas. Dado que el impacto de deportes de alta intensidad en los órganos humanos es diferente de acuerdo con la temperatura del ambiente y con la intensidad del ejercicio, es necesario realizar observaciones y discusiones más detalladas. Objetivo: Analizar los cambios de forma y función del cuerpo, y de las funciones de los órganos de alumnos universitarios antes y después de la actividad física de alta intensidad, a través del estudio del movimiento humano. Métodos: Investigación experimental sobre las características del intercambio de gases en ejercicios de alta intensidad con aumento gradual de carga en alumnos universitarios. Resultados: Hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas en la incidencia de reacciones fisiológicas de los estudiantes que pasaron por la actividad de alta intensidad con aumento gradual de carga, incluyendo dolores abdominales, disnea, taquicardia, náuseas, mareos y dolor muscular (p<0,05). En la presencia de hipotermia se produjo un descenso cardíaco durante los ejercicios. Conclusión: Los ejercicios de sobrecarga pueden mediar las funciones fisiológicas eficientemente. Para mejorar el rendimiento deportivo en ambientes de baja temperatura es importante realizar ejercicios de calentamiento para aumentar la temperatura corporal. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de resultados de tratamiento.

6.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 27(1): 1-9, jan.-fev. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364827

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As florações de cianobactérias vêm aumentando em intensidade e frequência em todo o mundo, ameaçando a sustentabilidade dos recursos aquáticos e o abastecimento humano. A construção de reservatórios, o uso de fertilizantes artificiais e o descarte de esgotos não tratados são os principais motores dessa expansão. As alterações climáticas, como o aquecimento global, as chuvas e as secas extremas, têm contribuído para a acelerar esse processo. Qualquer medida de mitigação dessas florações deve considerar os impactos sobre os outros organismos, os custos, além dos resíduos gerados. Nessa perspectiva, a aplicação do peróxido de hidrogênio em reservatórios artificiais traz uma série de vantagens para o controle a curto prazo, sendo uma das principais a destruição seletiva de cianobactérias. Apesar de vários estudos indicarem que as cianobactérias são o alvo preferencial do peróxido de hidrogênio, uma explicação bioquímica desse fenômeno ainda não foi encontrada. Este trabalho, portanto, procura congregar assuntos relacionados a esse tema e traz também uma coletânea de experiências recentes sobre o uso em escala real do peróxido de hidrogênio, apontando as principais lacunas de conhecimento que deverão ser preenchidas caso sua utilização em reservatórios seja para abastecimento. Uma das lacunas a ser preenchida está relacionada às vantagens do peróxido de hidrogênio sobre outros métodos de controle, pois apresentam maior eficiência no controle de cianobactérias posto que são preferencialmente destruídos pelo peróxido de hidrogênio, em relação aos fitoplânctons, sendo, dessa forma, importante o estudo de técnicas de aplicação do peróxido de hidrogênio em reservatórios de grande porte.


ABSTRACT Cyanobacterial blooms are increasing in intensity and frequency throughout the world, threatening the sustainability of aquatic resources and human supplies. The construction of reservoirs, the use of artificial fertilizers and the disposal of untreated sewage are the main engines of this expansion. Climate change, such as global warming, rainfall and extreme droughts, has contributed to accelerate this process. Any mitigation measure of the blooms should consider the impacts on the other organisms, the costs beyond the waste generated. In this perspective, the application of hydrogen peroxide in the artificial reservoirs has a number of advantages for short-term control, one of the main ones being the selective destruction of cyanobacteria. Although several studies indicate that cyanobacteria are the preferred target of hydrogen peroxide, a biochemical explanation for this phenomenon has not yet been found. This work, therefore, seeks to gather subjects related to this topic and brings a collection of recent experiences on the real scale use of hydrogen peroxide, pointing out the main knowledge gaps that should be filled if their use in reservoirs is for supply. One of the gaps to be filled is related to the advantages of hydrogen peroxide over other control methods, as they present greater efficiency in the control of cyanobacteria, as they are preferentially destroyed by hydrogen peroxide in relation to phytoplankton, therefore, it is important to study the application techniques of hydrogen peroxide in large reservoirs.

7.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(1): e20200908, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339653

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Eggshell quality is directly linked to the good acceptability of the product by consumers, whereas the industry is concerned with economic losses. Prolonged periods of laying, diseases, nutrition, bird age and genetics can influence egg quality. This study aimed to examine the influence of the environment, bird age and storage period on the physical characteristics of the shell of eggs from commercial laying hens. The experiment involved 288 eggs from Hy-line hens, which were distributed in a completely randomized design with a triple 3×2×4 factorial arrangement represented by three ages (31, 62 or 88 weeks), two storage temperatures (ambient or refrigerated), and four storage periods (one, 10, 20 or 30 days), totaling 24 treatments. Four replications were used with three eggs each. Eggshell strength, percentage and thickness were measured. Differences were observed, with the eggs stored at room temperature exhibiting lower shell strength. Laying eggs at an advanced age (88 weeks) resulted in decreased eggshell strength as compared with the other ages, whereas the eggs from young layers (31 weeks) had a thicker shell. The advancing age of the laying hens reduced eggshell quality, regardless of the storage environment. Nonetheless, the eggs stored in the refrigerator showed better eggshell quality and integrity than those stored at ambient temperature.


RESUMO: A qualidade da casca está diretamente ligada à boa aceitabilidade do produto pelos consumidores, enquanto a indústria se preocupa com as perdas econômicas. Períodos prolongados de postura, doenças, nutrição, idade da ave e genética podem influenciar a qualidade dos ovos. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência do ambiente, idade da ave e período de armazenamento nas características físicas da casca de ovos de poedeiras comerciais. Foram utilizados 288 ovos de poedeiras Hy-line, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial triplo 3x2x4, sendo os fatores: três idades (31, 62 e 88 semanas), temperatura de armazenamento (ambiente e refrigerado), e quatro períodos de armazenamento (um, 10, 20 e 30 dias), totalizando 24 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de três ovos. Avaliou-se a resistência, percentual e espessura da casca. Foram observadas diferenças, uma vez que os ovos armazenados em temperatura ambiente apresentaram diminuição na resistência de casca. Ovos de poedeiras em idade avançada (88 semanas) apresentaram pior resistência de casca em relação às demais idades, enquanto ovos provenientes de poedeiras jovens (31 semanas) apresentaram maior espessura de casca. A idade avançada da poedeira reduziu a qualidade de casca dos ovos, independentemente do ambiente de armazenamento. Ainda, os ovos armazenados em geladeira apresentaram melhor qualidade e integridade da casca em comparação com os armazenados ao ambiente.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e253898, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360194

ABSTRACT

Abstract High temperature stress events are critical factors inhibiting crop yield. Meanwhile, world population is growing very rapidly and will be reached up to 9 billion by 2050. To feed increasing world population, it is challenging task to increase about 70% global food productions. Food crops have significant contribution toward global food demand and food security. However, consequences from increasing heat stress events are demolishing their abilities to survive and sustain yield when subjected to extreme high temperature stress. Therefore, there is dire need to better understand response and tolerance mechanism of food crops following exposure to heat stress. Here, we aimed to provide recent update on impact of high temperature stress on crop yield of food crops, pollination, pollinators, and novel strategies for improving tolerance of food crop under high temperature stress. Importantly, development of heat-resistant transgenic food crops can grant food security through transformation of superior genes into current germplasm, which are associated with various signaling pathways as well as epigenetic regulation in response to extreme high temperature stress.


Resumo Eventos de estresse de alta temperatura são fatores críticos que inibem o rendimento das culturas. Enquanto isso, a população mundial está crescendo muito rapidamente e atingirá até 9 bilhões em 2050. Para alimentar a crescente população mundial, é uma tarefa desafiadora aumentar cerca de 70% da produção global de alimentos. As culturas alimentares têm uma contribuição significativa para a procura global de alimentos e a segurança alimentar. No entanto, as consequências do aumento de eventos de estresse por calor estão destruindo suas habilidades de sobreviver e manter a produção quando submetidos a estresse de alta temperatura. Portanto, há uma necessidade urgente de entender melhor o mecanismo de resposta e tolerância das safras de alimentos após a exposição ao estresse por calor. Aqui, nosso objetivo foi fornecer atualizações recentes sobre o impacto do estresse de alta temperatura no rendimento de culturas de alimentos, polinização, polinizadores e novas estratégias para melhorar a tolerância de culturas de alimentos sob estresse de alta temperatura. É importante ressaltar que o desenvolvimento de culturas alimentares transgênicas resistentes ao calor pode garantir segurança alimentar por meio da transformação de genes superiores em germoplasma atual, que estão associados a várias vias de sinalização, bem como à regulação epigenética em resposta ao estresse de alta temperatura extrema.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e258816, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364491

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of season and various housing systems on behavioral i.e. sitting, standing, walking and physiological i.e. respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), time of sexual libido (TSL) attributes of local breed of rabbits reared in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Adult rabbits (n = 40) of 6 month to 1 year old were divided into two groups (n = 20 / group). Group I was placed under traditional colony system in the soil while group II was kept under modern cage system. Sitting and standing was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher during summer and winter respectively. The RR and RT were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in summer as compared to other study seasons. Standing behavior was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in caged rabbits as compared to colony-reared ones. Statistically higher (p ≤ 0.05) TSL value was observed in summer as compared to other three study seasons. From this study it is concluded that rabbit's behavioral and physiological traits are significantly affected by season and housing systems. We concluded that rabbits show better physio-behavioral performance in autumn and winter season while summer stress negatively affects physiology and behavior under caged-system. This study could contribute new aspects of behavioral and physiological processes in local breed of rabbits due to different seasons and housing systems.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito da estação do ano e de vários sistemas de alojamento nos atributos comportamentais, isto é, sentar, levantar, andar e fisiológico, isto é, frequência respiratória (RR), temperatura retal (TR), tempo de libido sexual (TSL), atributos da raça local de coelhos criados no sul de Punjab, Paquistão. Coelhos adultos (n = 40) de 6 meses a 1 ano de idade foram divididos em dois grupos (n = 20 / grupo). O grupo I foi colocado sob o sistema de colônia tradicional no solo, enquanto o grupo II foi mantido sob o sistema moderno de gaiolas. Sentar e ficar em pé foi significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maior durante o verão e inverno, respectivamente. O RR e o TR foram significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maiores no verão, em comparação com as outras estações do estudo. O comportamento em pé foi significativamente (p ≤ 0,05) maior em coelhos engaiolados, em comparação com os criados em colônia. O valor de TSL estatisticamente maior (p ≤ 0,05) foi observado no verão, em comparação com outras três temporadas de estudo. A partir deste estudo, concluiu-se que os traços comportamentais e fisiológicos dos coelhos são significativamente afetados pela estação do ano e pelos sistemas de alojamento. Concluímos que os coelhos apresentam melhor desempenho fisiocomportamental no outono e inverno, enquanto o estresse do verão afeta negativamente a fisiologia e o comportamento em sistema enjaulado. Este estudo pode contribuir com novos aspectos dos processos comportamentais e fisiológicos em raças locais de coelhos devido às diferentes estações do ano e sistemas de alojamento.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920366

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the modification effect of atmospheric temperature on outpatient visits caused by O3 in Linzhi City. Methods The daily outpatient data, the daily O3 concentration and daily meteorological data (including daily average temperature, average relative humidity, etc.) in Linzhi City from 2018 to 2019 were collected. The distributed lag non-liner-model (DLNM) was used to quantitatively evaluate the impact of O3 in different temperature layers on the risk of outpatient visits. Results At low temperature layers, the cumulative relative risk (CRR) of total outpatient visits and non-injury outpatient visits increased by 53.8%(4.2% -126.9%) and 59.1%(5.8% -139.2%)for every 10 μg/m3 increase of O3 concentration, respectively. The subgroup analysis showed that for every 10 μg/m3 increase of O3 concentration at low temperature, the CRR of patients with circulatory diseases, men, women, and people being 3 in Linzhi City. In general, the cumulative risk increases as the temperature decreases.

11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 332-337, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the content changes of ch emical constituents of processed products of Terminalia chebula at different temperatures ,and to compare its anti-ulcerative colitis effect. METHODS Processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures(160,180,200,220,240,260,280,300 ℃)were prepared by sand scalding technology. HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of gallic acid ,chebulagic acid ,chebulinic acid and ellagic acid in crude drug and processed products of T. chebula at different temperatures. The mice were divided into blank group ,model group ,Mesalazin enteric-coated tablets group (positive control ,0.4 g/kg),crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures (1.3 g/kg),with 10 mice in each group. Except for blank group ,other groups were given 6% acetic acid 0.1 mL via anus to induce ulcerative colitis model. After modeling ,blank group and model group were given water intragastrically ,and other groups were given relevant drug intragastrically ,20 mL/kg,once a day ,for consecutive 7 days. The general physical signs of mice in each group were observed and the body weight was recorded. The colorectal length and index ,serum levels of related inflammation indexes [superoxide dismutase (SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),interleukin-10 (IL-10),IL-1 β ,tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)] were detected. The pathomorphological changes of colon and rectum were observed ,and the comprehensive score of pharmacodynamics was performed. RESULTS With the increase of processing temperature ,the contents of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid decreased gradually ,the content of gallic acid increased first and then decreased ,and the content of ellagic acid increased. Compared with model group ,the general physical signs ,body weight ,colorectal length ,colorectal index and related inflammation indexes were all improved significantly in crude drug and processed products groups of T. chebula at different temperatures(P<0.05 or P<0.01). The glandular recess structure of colorectal tissue was repaired ,the infiltration of inflammatory cells was reduced ,and the comprehensive score of efficacy of processed products prepared at 260 ℃ was the highest. CONCLUSIONS The contents of chemical components in T. chebula processed at different temperatures change significantly and their anti-ulcerative colitis effects are different. The processed products of T. chebula prepared at 260 ℃ show the best anti-ulcerative colitis effect.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 511-531, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929312

ABSTRACT

Aging is by far the most prominent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and both aging and AD are associated with apparent metabolic alterations. As developing effective therapeutic interventions to treat AD is clearly in urgent need, the impact of modulating whole-body and intracellular metabolism in preclinical models and in human patients, on disease pathogenesis, have been explored. There is also an increasing awareness of differential risk and potential targeting strategies related to biological sex, microbiome, and circadian regulation. As a major part of intracellular metabolism, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial quality-control mechanisms, and mitochondria-linked inflammatory responses have been considered for AD therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes and highlights these efforts.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928879

ABSTRACT

Body temperature is an essential physiological parameter. Conducting non-contact, fast and accurate measurement of temperature is increasing important under the background of COVID-19. The study introduces an infrared temperature measurement system based on the thermopile infrared temperature sensor ZTP-135SR. Extracting original temperature date of sensor, post-amplification and filter processing have been performed to ensure accuracy of the system. In addition, the temperature data of environmental compensation which obtained by polynomial fitting is added to the system to further improve measurement accuracy.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Body Temperature , COVID-19 , Humans , Temperature , Thermometers
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Associations of acute glycemic complications with season and ambient temperature have been reported in general population with diabetes. However, little is known about the risks of acute glycemic complications in relation to season and ambient temperature in pregnant women, who are likely to be even more vulnerable. This work aimed to investigate the associations of season and ambient temperature with pregnancies complicated with hyperglycemia emergency or severe hypoglycemia.@*METHODS@#Two separate case-control studies were nested within 150,153 pregnancies by women with type 1, type 2, or gestational diabetes between 2009 and 2014 in Taiwan. Hyperglycemia emergency (mainly diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state) and severe hypoglycemia occurred in 77 and 153 diabetic pregnancies (cases), respectively. Ten control pregnancies were randomly selected for each case by matching each case pregnancy on type of diabetes (i.e., T1DM, T2DM, or GDM), maternal age on the date of acute glycemic complication occurrence (i.e., index date), and "length of gestation at risk" (i.e., period between conception and index date). Meteorological parameters were retrieved from 542 meteorological monitoring stations across Taiwan during 2008-2014. Conditional logistic regression analysis with generalized estimation equation was separately performed to estimate the covariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of each of the two acute glycemic complications in association with season and ambient temperature within 30 days prior to the index date.@*RESULTS@#Compared to summer, winter season was associated with a significantly elevated risk of severe hypoglycemia with an OR of 1.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.79). The OR of hyperglycemic emergency was also elevated in winter season at OR of 1.88, but the significance is only marginal (95% CI 0.97-3.64, p = 0.0598). Subgroup analyses further noted that such seasonal variation was also observed in pregnancies with pre-pregnancy type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. On the other hand, ambient temperature was not significantly associated with the two acute glycemic complications.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A moderately but significantly elevated risk of severe hypoglycemia was found in pregnant women with diabetes during winter season, and such increased risk was more evident in pregnancies with T1DM.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/etiology , Incidence , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Taiwan/epidemiology , Temperature
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927865

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of air temperature on the hospitalization of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases and its lag effect in Dingxi city. Methods The meteorological data and air pollution data of Dingxi city from 2018 to 2019,as well as the daily hospitalization data of rural residents due to cardiovascular diseases,were collected.The distributed lag non-linear models were employed to analyze the relationship between daily mean air temperature and the number of inpatients with cardiovascular diseases.Meanwhile,stratified analysis was carried out according to gender,age,and disease. Results There was a non-linear relationship between air temperature and the number of hospitalized rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city.The exposure-response curve approximated a bell shape.The curves for different cardiovascular diseases appeared similar shapes,with different temperature thresholds.Low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) exhibited a cumulative lag effect on the number of patients hospitalized with cardiovascular diseases.With a cumulative lag of 7 days at -7 ℃ and 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values peaked,which were 1.121(95% CI=1.002-1.255) and 1.198(95% CI=1.123-1.278),respectively.With a cumulative lag of 14 days at 0 ℃,the RR values were 1.034(95% CI=1.003-1.077) and 1.039(95% CI=1.004-1.066) for the number of hospitalized patients with ischemic heart disease and heart rhythm disorders,respectively.The cumulative lag effects of moderately high temperature(17 ℃) and high temperature(21 ℃) on ischemic heart disease,heart rhythm disorders,and cerebrovascular disease all peaked on that day.Specifically,the RR values at 17 ℃ and 21 ℃ were 1.148(95% CI=1.092-1.206) and 1.176(95% CI=1.096-1.261) for ischemic heart disease,1.071(95% CI=1.001-1.147) and 1.112(95% CI=1.011-1.223) for heart rhythm disorders,and 1.084(95% CI=1.025-1.145) and 1.094(95% CI=1.013-1.182) for cerebrovascular disease,respectively.There was no cumulative lag effect of air temperature on the number of hospitalized patients with heart failure.In addition,stratified analysis showed that low temperature(-7 ℃) and moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected the number of hospitalized female patients with cardiovascular diseases,and only moderately low temperature(0 ℃) affected males.The cumulative lag effect of high temperature on females was higher than that on males.Air temperature exhibited a stronger impact on female patients than on male patients. Additionally,the population aged<65 years old was more sensitive to low temperature and high temperature than that aged ≥65 years old. Conclusions Air temperature changes increase the hospitalization risk of rural residents with cardiovascular diseases in Dingxi city,which presents a lag effect.The effects of air temperature on patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases varied among different etiologies,genders,and ages.It is necessary to emphasize on the impact of temperature changes on health in residents,especially for key populations such as females,people aged<65 years old,and those with ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Temperature
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect between head acupuncture combined with exercise therapy and conventional acupuncture for nonspecific low back pain.@*METHODS@#A total of 64 patients with nonspecific low back pain were randomized into an observation group (32 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (32 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the control group, conventional acupuncture was applied at Jiaji (EX-B 2) of L1 to L3, ashi point, Shenshu (BL 23), Dachangshu (BL 25), Yaoyangguan (GV 3) and Weizhong (BL 40). The observation group was treated with head acupuncture combined with exercise therapy, head acupuncture was applied at foot-motor-sensory area on the healthy side and Cuanzhu (BL 2), Tongziliao (GB 1) on the affected side, and McKenzie therapy was performed during retention. The needles were retained for 40 min, once a day, continuous treatment for 6 days with the interval of 1 day, 14 days were required in the two groups. Before and after treatment, the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score and infrared thermography temperature of pain area in the low back were compared in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the VAS and ODI scores after treatment were decreased in the two groups (P<0.01), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.01). Compared before treatment, the infrared thermography temperature of pain area in the low back after treatment was increased in the two groups (P<0.01), and that in the observation group was higher than the control group (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Head acupuncture combined with exercise therapy could relieve pain, improve dysfunction and increase the local temperature of pain area in patients with nonspecific low back pain, and its curative effect is better than conventional acupuncture.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Low Back Pain/therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics and rules of acupoint sensitization phenomena based on knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one of the clinical dominant diseases of acupuncture-moxibustion.@*METHODS@#In combination with literature and expert experiences, the acupoints with the highest use frequency in treatment of KOA were screened, e.g. Heding (EX-LE 2), Liangqiu (ST 34), Mingmen (GV 4), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Ququan (LR 8) and Dubi (ST 35). In 814 patients with KOA and 217 healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature, mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were detected separately. Using machine learning method, the sensitization was judged at each acupoint.@*RESULTS@#Compared with healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature was increased and the mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were reduced in KOA patients (P<0.05). Besides, the cut-off value was presented to distinguish whether the acupoint was sensitized or not. The results of machine learning showed that the highest prediction accuracy of acupoint sensitization was 86.7% (Shenshu [BL 23]) and the lowest one was 73.9% (Heding [EX LE 2]). The prediction accuracy at the third clinical stage trial was higher, the highest was 93.3% (Ququan [LR 8]) in KOA patients.@*CONCLUSION@#It is confirmed that the acupoint sensitization reflects the characteristics of disease and is correlative with the conditions of illness, which may provide the reference for the auxiliary diagnosis and condition assessment of KOA.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Moxibustion , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924008

ABSTRACT

@#The properties of adhesives and light-cured resin composites are closely related to the repair of dental defects. Therefore, improving the properties of adhesives and resins composite to increase the success rate of filling has been the focus of research in the field of prosthodontics in recent years. Current studies have confirmed that temperature can change the properties of adhesives and light-cured resin composites, affecting their repair effect. A proper storage temperature ensures the good performance of materials: the self-etching adhesive system should be refrigerated, and the light-cured resin composite should be refrigerated or stored at room temperature according to its composition, proportion and other properties; however, the appropriate storage temperature for the etch-and-rinse adhesive system is not clear. The appropriate application temperature could improve the fluidity, monomer conversion, bonding strength, compressive strength and other properties of the materials to improve the quality of filling restoration. However, there is a wide variety of adhesives and resin composites, and the effect of temperature on each material is different. Thus, it is still necessary to explore the temperature range for material storage, precooling and preheating. Few studies have been performed in vivo, and the clinical restorative effects of adhesives and resin composites stored and used at different temperatures need to be further studied.

19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236354, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249288

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cladocera represent an important zooplankton group because of their seasonal prominence in terms of abundance and their contribution in controlling primary production (phytoplankton). On a global scale, there are few studies on Cladocera in hypersaline environments. The present work aims to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation of the Cladocera assemblage across a salinity gradient in the habitats of the Araruama Lagoon. Samples were collected in random months over a period of four years at 12 fixed stations in the Araruama Lagoon using a WP2 plankton net equipped with a flow meter. Our results do not reveal significant influence of the tide and seasonal variation as factors affecting the Cladocera assemblage. Five Cladocera species were found in the Araruama Lagoon, only in stations 11 and 12 where they reached an average of 1,799 ± 3,103 ind. m-3. The mean of the Shannon Diversity Index was 0.45 ± 0.2. The species that stood out in terms of frequency and abundance were: Penilia avirostris (frequency of occurrence: 71%), followed by Pseudevadne tergestina (41%). The same species also stood out in terms of relative abundance, Penilia avirostris (87%) and Pseudevadne tergestina (11%). The absence of Cladocera in the innermost parts of the lagoon suggests that their entrance to these locations is possibly inhibited by the salinity and temperature gradient of the lagoon, being the main factors influencing the dynamics of the Cladocera assemblages.


Resumo Os cladóceros representam um importante grupo de zooplâncton, devido ao seu destaque sazonal em termos de abundância e à sua contribuição no controlo da produção primária (fitoplâncton). Em escala global, há poucos estudos com Cladocera em ambientes hipersalinos. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a variação espaço-temporal da assembleia de Cladocera em um gradiente de salinidades da Lagoa de Araruama. As amostras foram coletadas em meses aleatórios, durante um período de quatro anos, em 12 estações fixas na Lagoa de Araruama, utilizando uma rede de plâncton WP2 equipada com um fluxômetro. Os nossos resultados não revelam uma influência significativa da maré e da variação sazonal como fatores que afetam a assembleia de Cladocera. Cinco espécies de Cladocera foram encontradas na Lagoa de Araruama. A assembleia apresentou maior densidade absoluta estações 12 e 11, atingindo uma a média de 1.799 ± 3.103 inds-3. A média do Índice de Diversidade de Shannon foi de 0,45 ± 0,2. As espécies que se destacaram em termos de frequência e abundância foram: Penilia avirostris (frequência de ocorrência: 71%), seguida de Pseudevadne tergestina (41%). As mesmas espécies também se destacaram em termos de abundância relativa Penilia avirostris (87%) e Pseudevadne tergestina (11%). A ausência de Cladocera nas partes mais interiores da lagoa sugere que a sua entrada nestes locais é possivelmente inibida pela salinidade e gradiente de temperatura da lagoa, sendo os principais fatores que influenciam a dinâmica da assembleia de Cladocera.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cladocera , Phytoplankton , Plankton , Seasons , Zooplankton
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236355, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153474

ABSTRACT

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees have a wide distribution in the Cerrado, and it is protected by federal laws. The need to monitor and understand pest damage to crops and forests is a major motivation for the study of population distribution. The mites (Acari) population distributions on C. brasiliense are unknown. We studied seasonal mite population distribution and their ecological indices on C. brasiliense trees in Cerrado areas during three years. Greatest number of Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae), and diversity and species richness on leaves of C. brasiliense occurred in the autumn; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) on leaves in the autumn and winter; Histiostoma sp., and Proctolaelaps sp. in fruits in the summer. No significant effect of season was observed in the abundance of Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) and Acaridae. The populations of Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 negatively correlated with temperature. Proctolaelaps sp. and Tetranychus sp.1 correlated negatively with rainfall and Eutetranychus sp. and Proctolaelaps sp. positively with sunlight. The period with low rainfall and relative humidity increases the phytophagous mites and their predators, especially Agistemus sp.. The Tetranychus sp. and Histiostoma sp. species may become pests in C. brasiliense in the Cerrado domain.


Resumo As árvores Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) têm ampla distribuição no Cerrado e são protegidas por leis federais. A necessidade de monitorar e entender os danos causados pelas pragas às culturas e florestas é uma das motivações para o estudo da distribuição populacional que para ácaros (Acari) em C. brasiliense é desconhecida. A distribuição sazonal de populações de ácaros e seus índices ecológicos em C. brasiliense em áreas de Cerrado foram estudados durante três anos. Maior número de Agistemus sp. (Stigmaeidae), Histiostoma sp. (Histiostomidae), Proctolaelaps sp. (Ascidae) e diversidade e riqueza de espécies nas folhas de C. brasiliense ocorreram no outono; Tetranychus sp.1 (Tetranychidae) no outono e inverno; Histiostoma sp. e Proctolaelaps sp. em frutos ocorreram no verão. Não foram observados efeitos das estações na abundância de Eutetranychus sp., Tetranychus sp.2 (Tetranychidae) e Acaridae. As populações de Acaridae, Eutetranychus sp., Proctolaelaps sp. e Tetranychus sp.1 correlacionaram-se negativamente com a temperatura. Correlações negativas foram observadas entre chuva e Proctolaelaps sp. e Tetranychus sp.1 e positivas entre luz solar e Eutetranychus sp. e Proctolaelaps sp.. Baixa pluviosidade e umidade relativa do ar aumentaram os ácaros fitófagos e seus predadores, principalmente Agistemus sp.. As espécies Tetranychus sp. e Histiostoma sp. podem se tornar pragas em C. brasiliense no domínio do Cerrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tetranychidae , Malpighiales , Mites , Seasons , Trees , Demography
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