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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235475, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plants that produce secondary metabolites with allelopathic activity or phytotoxicity can be biotechnologically important, serving as sources of allelochemicals, and thus contributing to the agroindustrial sector. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) is an Amazonian species that grows in clumps called vismiais, from which most other plants are absent. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify possible phytotoxicity effects of hexane and methanol extracts of Vismia japurensis leaves and branches in vivo and from seedlings grown in vitro on Lactuca sativa. In addition, fresh and dry leaves were assayed by the sandwich method in order to determine their ability to release allelochemicals. The hexanic extract from in vitro seedlings reduced germination by 10%, while the methanol extract produced a 16% reduction in germination speed. Root growth of Lactuca sativa was inhibited by 64.7% when subjected to hexane leaf extract, by 39.3% under the influence of hexane branch extract, and by 96.09% for in vitro seedling hexanic extract. When analysed by thin layer chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, extracts showed evidence of terpenes, anthraquinones and flavonoids, with greater intensity of signals in the aromatic region of in vitro seedling hexanic extract. Clearly, Vismia japurensis has a high biotechnological potential in terms of the production of substances of low polarity with capacity to interfere in plant development.


Resumo Plantas que produzem metabólitos secundários com atividade alelopática ou fitotóxica podem ser biotecnologicamente importantes, servindo como fontes de aleloquímicos e, assim, contribuindo para o setor agroindustrial. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) é uma espécie amazônica que cresce em grupos, formando vismiais. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de extratos hexânicos e metanólicos de folhas e ramos de Vismia japurensis in vivo e de plântulas cultivadas in vitro sobre Lactuca sativa. Além disso, folhas frescas e secas foram analisadas pelo método sanduíche, a fim de determinar sua capacidade de liberação de aleloquímicos. O extrato hexânico de plântulas in vitro reduziu a germinação em 10% e o extrato metanólico promoveu uma redução de 16% na velocidade de germinação. O crescimento radicular de Lactuca sativa foi inibido em 64,7% quando submetido ao extrato hexânico das folhas, em 39,3% sob influência do extrato hexânico dos galhos e em 96,09% para o extrato de hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Quando analisados ​​por cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H, os extratos mostraram evidências de terpenos, antraquinonas e flavonoides, com maior intensidade de sinais na região aromática do extrato hexânico das plântulas in vitro. Assim, Vismia japurensis possui elevado potencial biotecnológico em termos de produção de substâncias de baixa polaridade com capacidade de interferência no desenvolvimento de plantas.


Subject(s)
Germination , Clusiaceae , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Leaves , Seedlings , Allelopathy
2.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 14(1): 113-123, jan-mar 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254255

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do timol e carvacrol contra Aspergillus flavus e a produção de aflatoxinas. Foram determinadas a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), o espectro fungitóxico e a atividade inibidora de micotoxinas pelo timol e carvacrol. Os resultados mostraram que timol e carvacrol exibiram ação fungicida de acordo com a CIM de 2500 e 30 µg mL-1, respectivamente. Tanto o timol quanto o carvacrol inibiram significativamente o crescimento de A. flavus (p<0,05) a partir de 600 e 15 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A biomassa fúngica, estimada pela determinação da concentração de ergosterol, foi significativamente reduzida (p <0,05) em 2500 µg mL-1 de timol e 250 µg mL-1 de carvacrol. O timol e o carvacrol exibiram efeitos antiaflatoxigênicos em 600 e 125 µg mL-1, respectivamente. O timol e o carvacrol exibiram atividade antifúngica, mas não exibiram alta atividade antiaflatoxigênica. Carvacrol e timol podem ser considerados como potentes compostos naturais antifúngicos contra A. flavus.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of thymol and carvacrol upon production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus and upon its growth. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), fungitoxic spectrum and mycotoxin inhibition were assessed. Results showed thymol and carvacrol exhibited fungicidal action, as determined by MIC values of 2500 and 30 µg mL-1, respectively. Both thymol and carvacrol significantly inhibited growth of A. flavus (p<0.05) at concentrations of 600 and 15 µg mL-1, respectively. Fungal biomass, as estimated by determination of ergosterol concentration, was significantly reduced (p<0.05) at thymol concentrations of 2500 µg mL-1 and at carvacrol concentrations of 250 µg mL-1. Thymol and carvacrol exhibited antiaflatoxigenic effects at concentrations of 600 and 125 µg mL-1, respectively. While both thymol and carvacrol showed possessing antifungal activities, neither were highly antiaflatoxigenic. Carvacrol and thymol might be considered for use as potential antifungal natural compounds against A. flavus.

3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21210327, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355809

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis, commonly known as soybean caterpillar, causes important economic losses in soybean crops. Synthetic pesticides are the standard practice to control this insect. However, the indiscriminate use of these substances has increased the resistance of this pest. Thus, it is necessary to search for different control alternatives that are also more environmentally friendly. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of Lavandula dentata L. essential oil (EO) and its activity on A. gemmatalis. The major compounds of essential oil were 1,8-cineole (31.5 wt.%), camphor (16.6 wt.%), and fenchone (15.9 wt.%). Bioassays were performed with third-instar caterpillars. EO concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0% v/v were diluted in Tween-80® 0.5% v/v and incorporated into the artificial diet given to caterpillars. Water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% w/v were added as negative and positive controls. For the aversion tests, soybean leaf discs were immersed in solutions with 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% v/v of EO, plus a negative control (water), and offered to caterpillars. In the bioassay, 100% mortality was observed from the concentration 0.6% v/v of the essential oil of L. dentata in 24 h; without statistical difference from 0.4 and 0.5% v/v. There was no important change in mortality between 24 and 72 h. In the aversion test, all EO treatments caused deterrence of caterpillars when compared to control, but without difference between EO concentrations. It was observed that L. dentata EO can be used as an alternative in the control of A. gemmatalis.

4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e009321, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351872

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oils (EOs) of Illicium verum and Pelargonium graveolens were evaluated for lethality, inhibition of development and residual efficacy against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis. Their chemical composition was characterized by means of gas chromatography with a flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection. Mortality at different immature stages and among adult fleas was measured through in vitro filter paper tests at different concentrations of EOs. The chemical characterization of I. verum volatile oil showed that E-anethole (79.96%) was the major constituent, while the major compounds in P. graveolens were citronellol (29.67%) and geraniol (14.85%). Insecticidal activity against both immature and adult flea stages were observed. The EO of I. verum had insecticidal activity for approximately 18 days, while the EO activity of P. graveolens lasted for 13 days. The pulicidal activity of I. verum remained above 70% for up to 9 days, while the activity of P. graveolens was 41.7% for up to 2 days. Essential oils, especially that of I. verum, showed insecticidal activity for flea control at different life cycle stages and have potential for the development of ectoparasiticides (biopesticides) for veterinary use.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais (OE) de Illicium verum e Pelargonium graveolens foram avaliados quanto à letalidade, inibição do desenvolvimento e eficácia residual contra a pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis. Sua composição química foi caracterizada por meio de cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama e espectrometria de massas. A mortalidade entre os diferentes estágios imaturos e pulgas adultas foi avaliada por meio de testes in vitro em papel filtro, contendo diferentes concentrações de OEs. A caracterização química do óleo volátil de I. verum mostrou que o E-anetol (79,96%) foi o constituinte majoritário, enquanto os principais compostos de P. graveolens foram citronelol (29,67%) e geraniol (14,85%). Foi observada atividade inseticida contra os estágios imaturos e adulto da pulga. O OE de I. verum teve atividade inseticida por aproximadamente 18 dias, enquanto o de P. graveolens durou 13 dias. A atividade pulicida de I. verum permaneceu acima de 70% até o 9º dia, enquanto a atividade de P. graveolens foi de 41,7% até o 2º dia. Os óleos essenciais, principalmente de I. verum, apresentam atividade inseticida para o controle de pulgas em diferentes estágios do ciclo de vida e têm potencial para o desenvolvimento de ectoparasiticidas (biopesticidas) de uso veterinário.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Illicium/chemistry , Pelargonium/chemistry , Ctenocephalides/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/veterinary
5.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 49(1): 44-69, Jan.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Dental plaque is a complex environment that maintains a balance with certain microbial communities; however, this microhabitat can be disturbed by some endogenous species causing disease. An exploratory systematic review was carried out using the PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, and Science Direct databases, identifying that the thymol, menthol, and eucalyptol compounds present varying antimicrobial activity, intra- and interspecies discordance, and a strong antimicrobial intensity on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Streptococcus mutans, indicating that these phytochemicals can be considered broad-spectrum antimicrobial substances, with an effect on microorganisms linked to oral diseases.


RESUMEN La placa dental es un ambiente complejo que mantiene un equilibrio con determinadas comunidades microbianas; sin embargo, este micro hábitat puede ser perturbado por algunas especies endógenas causando enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria empleando las bases de datos Pubmed, Scopus, Lilacs y Science Direct y se identificó que los compuestos timol, mentol y eucaliptol presentan actividad antimicrobiana variable, discordancias intra e inter-especie y una intensidad antimicrobiana fuerte sobre Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillusplantarum and Streptococcus mutans; indicando que estos fitoquímicos pueden ser consideradas como sustancias antimicrobianas de amplio espectro, con efecto sobre microorganismos relacionados con enfermedades bucales.

6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 522-529, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the protective effects of Ganoderma terpenoid extract (GTE) against Plasmodium berghei-malarial infection in mice, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of GTE in combination with chloroquine disulphate (CQ) on erythrocyte-selected inflammatory markers and antioxidant defense status in P. berghei-infected mice.@*METHODS@#P. berghei-infected mice were divided into six groups: infected control (IC) group, administered 1 mL Tween 20; GTE@*RESULTS@#Infected mice treated with a combination of GTE and CQ (GT@*CONCLUSION@#Data generated in this study showed that GTE enhanced the anti-plasmodial action of CQ in mice through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878847

ABSTRACT

Pain is a complex, unpleasant feeling and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, and manifests itself in certain autonomous psychological and behavioral responses. The commonly used opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics(NSAIDs) may cause adverse reactions to the kidney, liver, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system and cause problems of drug abuse. Therefore, it is necessary to study new analgesic drugs with less side effects and significant analgesic effects. A variety of natural products derived from terrestrial plants, microorganisms, marine organisms and fungi have been an important source of clinical medicines and provide an inexhaustible resource for the development and innovation of modern medicines. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the natural non-alkaloids with analgesic activity in order to provide reference for the research and development of analgesic drugs derived from natural products.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain/drug therapy
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873236

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the main chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine compound Bushao Tiaozhi capsules by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. Method:The separation was eluted with Waters CORTECS UPLC C18 column(2.1 mm×150 mm,1.6 μm) in a gradient mode, with methanol-0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. The column temperature was 40 ℃,the flow rate was 0.24 mL·min-1,and the injection volume was 1 μL. The mass spectrometry condition was X500R QTOF mass spectrometry,the positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) was adopted for determine the chromatographic effluent,and the main chromatographic peaks were assigned and distinguished by Q-TOF. Result:A total of 53 chemical constituents were identified by reference confirmation,literature comparison,and high mass spectrometry data analysis. The chemical constituent cluster was composed of 21 flavonoids,10 phenolics,5 monoterpene glycosides,7 diterpene lactones and 10 sesquiterpenes. Furthermore,all of the constituents were surveyed and classified according to their medicinal materials derivation. Among them,the 5 flavonoids components(mangiferin,isoquercitrin,typhaneoside,isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside,tiliroside)were identified in Microctis Folium for the first time. Conclusion:This study shows that UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology provides a simple,rapid,and accurate method for the identification of chemical constituents in Bushao Tiaozhi capsules. The identified chemical components mostly cover the main constituents of each medicinal material in the formula,so as to provide a new technological method and theoretical foundation for further defining the pharmacological basis and mechanism of action and optimizing the quality control of Bushao Tiaozhi capsules.

9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132215

ABSTRACT

Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Biological Assay , Lethal Dose 50
10.
Rev. colomb. ciencias quim. farm ; 48(1): 80-93, jan.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042800

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Nature gives us a large number of compounds with interesting biological properties, within them we have essential oils, which are an important source of new bioactive molecules, which can replace synthetic chemicals, since they are friendly to the environment and they are less toxic. Currently there are more than 20.000 publications in which essential oils are related to some biological activity, according to the search made in different databases until January 2018. This confirms the wide utility of essential oils as the main source of bioactive metabolites, which can be used in different areas of our life.


RESUMEN La naturaleza nos proporciona una gran cantidad de compuestos con interesantes propiedades biológicas, dentro de los cuales tenemos los aceites esenciales, los cuales son una fuente importante de nuevas moléculas bioactivas, que pueden reemplazar a los químicos sintéticos, ya que son amigables con el medio ambiente y son menos tóxicos. Actualmente existen más de 20.000 publicaciones en las que los aceites esenciales están relacionados con alguna actividad biológica, según la búsqueda realizada en diferentes bases de datos hasta enero de 2018. Esto confirma la amplia utilidad de los aceites esenciales como principal fuente de metabolitos bioactivos, que pueden ser utilizados en diferentes áreas de nuestra vida.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851107

ABSTRACT

Active components of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are the material basis of its efficacy and the keys to realize modernization of CMM. How to improve the content of active ingredients of CMM has become a research hotspot, and microbial transformation is one of its key technologies. The practice has proved that the strains are different, the types of CMM are different, and the transformation effects are different. Therefore, the research on fungal transformation of CMM active ingredients such as terpenes, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, quinones, steroids, organic acids, etc. is reviewed in this study.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850974

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to establish an efficient analysis method for the identification of the complex components in Qianliexin Capsule rapidly, and provide the basic research data for the systematic elaboration of its chemical constituents. Methods: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used for the identification analysis of the components in Qianliexin Capsule accurately, and the multistage fragments ions data was compared with the standard substance and consulting the literatures. Results: Sixty-one compounds were identified in this study, including 12 flavones, 11 coumarins, six terpenes, 19 organic acids and other categories. Conclusion: The accurate and rapid identification of various chemical constituents of Qianliexin Capsule was achieved in this study, which provided the theory basis for the pharmacodynamic material and the quality control study of Qianliexin Capsule.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850733

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study lignans and terpenes of Moringa oleifera Lam. Methods: The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatographic techniques and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The structures of the compounds were identified through the combined analysis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence. The antineoplastic activity, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of compounds were evaluated by MTT method, PNPG method and Ellman colorimetric method, respectively. Results: Twelve compounds were isolated from M. oleifera by various chromatographic methods and were identified as lariciresinol (1), 3-(α,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-4-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxybenzyl) tetrahydrofuran (2), (7S,8R)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (3), macadiol (4), diethyl pinoresinol (5), pinoresinol (6), evofolin B (7), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-O-4’-dihydroconiferyl alcohol (8), tricyclohumuladiol (9), 9α-hydroxy-2β-methoxyclovane (10), 3β-hydroxy-oleana-11,13 (18)-dien-28-oic acid (11), oleanolic acid (12). Compounds 12 showed antineoplastic activity. Compound 1 and 2 exhibited α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: Compounds 1-11 are separated from Moringa Adans for the first time. This plant has the potential of developing functional product for their antineoplastic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850651

ABSTRACT

Phloroglucinol terpenes are the mainly naturally active ingredients from Eucalyptus genus. Based on the modern pharmacological studies, phloroglucinol terpenes with unique polyketoditerpenoid skeleton have been confirmed to have the anticancer activity, which could be the important source to find the novel potential anticancer lead compounds. In this article, the structure, antitumor mechanism and activity of these known phloroglucinol terpenes from Eucalyptus genus were reviewed, which can provide the references for the following researches on the novel anticancer drugs of phloroglucinol terpenes.

15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1519-1529, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003342

ABSTRACT

Resumen La caries dental, es una patología de origen multifactorial y actualmente los productos naturales son un tratamiento alternativo eficiente. El trabajo buscó evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de tres sustancias (Cymbopogon citratus y los componentes citral y mirceno) contra Streptococcus mutans ATCC UA159, así como su citotoxicidad sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos humanos. A través de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, se observó la morfología típica de S. mutans, y una formación característica de polisacáridos, con una disposición más estructurada a las 48 h. El efecto de viabilidad bacteriana contra S. mutans en biofilms se evaluó a través de la exposición a las tres sustancias mediante el uso de la técnica de alto rendimiento MBEC, a concentraciones de 1, 0.1 y 0.01 μg/ml y clorhexidina como control positivo. La citotoxicidad de los compuestos se evaluó sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos, mediante la técnica de reducción de MTT, utilizando 0.5 mM de H2O2 como control de muerte celular (control negativo) y etanol 1 % como control del vehículo (control positivo). Las tres sustancias evaluadas, tuvieron efectos sobre la viabilidad bacteriana de S. mutans con una mortalidad entre 74 y 96 %, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (P > 0.393); adicionalmente, no fue evidente la citotoxicidad sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos en un tratamiento de 24 h. Las sustancias evaluadas mostraron efectos antimicrobianos significativos; por lo tanto, estos deben estudiarse más a fondo como posibles coadyuvantes para prevenir la caries dental que causa efectos adversos menores.(AU)


Abstract Dental caries is a pathology of multifactorial origin and currently natural products are an efficient alternative treatment. The work sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the three substances (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and the citral and myrcene components) against Streptococcus mutans ATCC UA159, as well as their cytotoxicity on keratinocytes and human fibroblasts. Through Scanning electron microscopy, the typical morphology of S. mutans was observed and, a characteristic formation of polysaccharides, with more structured arrangement at 48 h. The bacterial viability effect against S. mutans on biofilms was evaluated through exposure to the three substances by using the MBEC technique-high-throughput at concentrations of 1, 0.1, and 0.01 µg/mL and chlorhexidine as positive control. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated on keratinocytes and fibroblasts through the MTT reduction technique, using 0.5 mM H2O2 as cell-death control (negative control) and ethanol 1 % as vehicle control (positive control). The three substances evaluated had effects on the bacterial viability of S. mutans with mortality between 74 and 96 %, without significant difference among them (P > 0.393); additionally, no cytotoxicity was evident on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a 24 h treatment. The substances evaluated showed significant antimicrobial effects; hence, these should be studied further as potential co-adjuvants to prevent dental caries that cause minor adverse effects.(AU)


Subject(s)
Terpenes , Oils, Volatile , Biofilms , Dental Caries/therapy , Phytotherapy/instrumentation
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 36: 1-8, nov. 2018. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047976

ABSTRACT

Background: Osmanthus fragrans is an important ornamental tree and has been widely planted in China because of its pleasant aroma, which is mainly due to terpenes. The monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid metabolic pathways of sweet osmanthus have been well studied. However, these studies were mainly focused on volatile small molecule compounds. The molecular regulation mechanism of synthesis of large molecule compounds (triterpenoids) remains unclear. Squalene synthase (SQS), squalene epoxidase (SQE), and beta-amyrin synthase (BETA-AS) are three critical enzymes of the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Results: In this study, the full-length cDNA and gDNA sequences of OfSQS, OfSQE, and OfBETA-AS were isolated from sweet osmanthus. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that OfSQS and OfSQE had the closest relationship with Sesamum indicum, and OfBETA-AS sequence shared the highest similarity of 99% with that of Olea europaea. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the three genes were highly expressed in flowers, especially OfSQE and OfBETA-AS, which were predominantly expressed in the flowers of both "Boye" and "Rixiang" cultivars, suggesting that they might play important roles in the accumulation of triterpenoids in flowers of O. fragrans. Furthermore, the expression of OfBETA-AS in the two cultivars was significantly different during all the five flowering stages; this suggested that OfBETA-AS may be the critical gene for the differences in the accumulation of triterpenoids. Conclusion: The evidence indicates that OfBETA-AS could be the key gene in the triterpenoid synthesis pathway, and it could also be used as a critical gene resource in the synthesis of essential oils by using bioengineered bacteria.


Subject(s)
Triterpenes/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Oleaceae/genetics , Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase/metabolism , Oils, Volatile , Gene Expression , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Oleaceae/enzymology , Squalene Monooxygenase/metabolism , Odorants
17.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 28(2): 135-144, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-958851

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, Asteraceae, commonly known as Mexican sunflower, is a wide distributed invasive species encountered around the world. We proposed herein to establish the relationship between different abiotic environmental factors and the variation in the production of volatile compounds in T. diversifolia, during a period of one year. Samples of leaf and inflorescence volatile oils obtained from individuals located at two different regions of Brazil were analyzed by GC-MS and the data were submitted to chemometric analysis. Based on the main constituents, the analysis allowed us to classify the volatile oils into two chemotypes, according to their geographical origin. The influence of soil nutrients, mainly Ca and P, was also observed in the composition of the volatile oils. Climate also seems to affect the constituents of the volatile oils, mainly the contents of leaf sesquiterpenes of individuals growing in areas with higher average temperatures and solar radiation levels. We can therefore highlight that the appropriate multivariate statistical analysis allowed us to propose for the first time the existence of chemotypes for the volatile oils of T. diversifolia, as well as reporting the main abiotic environmental factors related to the accumulation of the discriminant compounds in these oils.

18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 53-60, ene. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915115

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Pinus dalatensis Ferré, Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex. Tsiang and Pinus armandii subsp. xuannhaensis L.K. Phan. The oils were studied by gas chromatograpgy (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of P. dalatensis were the terpene hydrocarbons namely α-pinene (38.2%), ß- pinene (25.3%), ß-myrcene (11.0%) and ß-caryophyllene (10.5%), while α-cedrol (19.2%) was the only significant compound of P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis. P. kwangtungensis showed ß-pinene (26.3%), α-pinene (18.0%), limonene (16.1%) and ß-myrcene (10.4%) as the dominant compounds. The volatile constituents of P. dalatensis and P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis are being reported for the first time.


En este artículo se reportan los constituyentes químicos de los aceites esenciales de Pinus dalatensis Ferré, Pinus kwangtungensis Chun ex. Tsiang y Pinus armandii subsp. Xuannhaensis L.K. Phan que se analizaron mediante cromatografía de Gases (GC) y por Cromatografía de Gases acoplada a la Espectrometría de Masas (GC-EM). Los principales constituyentes de P. dalatensis fueron los hidrocarburos terpénicos, a saber, α-pineno (38.2%), ß-pineno (25.3%), ß-mirceno (11.0%) y ß-cariofileno (10.5%). Por otro lado, α- cedrol (19.2%) fue el único compuesto significativo de P. armandi subsp. Xuannhaensis mientras que el aceite de P. kwangtungensis estuvo dominado por ß-pineno (26.3%), α-pineno (18.0%), limoneno (16.1%) y ß-mirceno (10.4%). Los constituyentes volátiles de P. dalatensis y P. armandi subsp. xuannhaensis se informa por primera vez.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pinus/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Vietnam , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852194

ABSTRACT

Ipomoea pes-caprae, the plant of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae), is the marine medicine growing in the intertidal zone of coasts. It is not only the Jing nationality medicine in the southern coastal areas of China, but also the folk medicine in the tropical and subtropical countries such as Australia, Mexico, Thailand, Brazil, and Pakistan. It is resource-rich and widely used. The main compounds contain resin glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic acid, flavonoids, volatile oils, and steroids. Pharmacological studies have been reported that I. pes-caprae has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, antibiosis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, anticollagenase, anti-oxidation, immun regulation, and other activities. The recent study on chemical composition and pharmacological activities of I. pes-caprae are summarized in this paper to provide reference for the clinical application, quality control and product development of the marine medicine.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852161

ABSTRACT

Melastoma dodecandrum is commonly used in the folk. It has been widely used in China by She, Yao, Miao, and other ethnic minorities, which has the effects of blood activating and hemostasis, elimination of swelling and stasis, and heat-clearing and detoxifying. In this review, the relevant researches about M. dodecandrum were summarized from the textual research, resource distribution, standards, pharmacological activity, chemical composition and clinical application aspects, which provides a theoretical basis for the further study and clinical application of M. dodecandrum.

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