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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 53-60, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999160

ABSTRACT

Danggui Sinitang is first recorded in the Treatise on Cold Damage written by ZHANG Zhongjing in the Han dynasty. It is composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Asari Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Tetrapanacis Medulla, and Jujubae Fructus and serves as a classic formula for treating the syndrome of blood deficiency and cold reversal. This study systematically reviews the records of Danggui Sinitang in ancient Chinese medicine books of various dynasties and the modern clinical applications to probe into the composition, plant species, processing, dosage, decocting method, and indications of Danggui Sinitang, aiming to provide a reference for the development and clinical application of this classic formula. The review of the records showed that there were a variety of records of Danggui Sinitang with different composition, and the composition of this formula listed in the Treatise on Cold Damage has a significant impact on later generations and has been used by medical practitioners throughout history. Although the dosage of some drugs decreased during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the medical practitioners continued to use the original formula. In terms of processing, although there were slight changes in the processing of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Tetrapanacis Medulla, the original processing method was inherited. In terms of indications, Danggui Sinitang was designed to treat cold reversal due to blood deficiency and dysentery. Furthermore, it was used to treat headache, convulsive disease, infantile convulsion, and private part adduction in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Nowadays, this formula is mostly used to treat diabetes peripheral neuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, dysmenorrhea, Raynaud's disease and other diseases. In terms of precautions, ancient physicians believed that Danggui Sinitang should not be taken by pregnant women and should only be used for limb chills caused by blood deficiency and cold coagulation. For limb chills caused by other reasons, this formula should not be used indiscriminately. Modern research has not reported any serious adverse reactions related to this formula. Danggui Sinitang has a definite therapeutic effect. In subsequent research and development, quality control standards of Danggui Sinitang should be established while its safety is ensured, and the related preparations should be developed and applied.

2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 179-189, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006569

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient and modern literature, the textual research of Pharbitidis Semen has been conducted to clarify the name, origin, distribution of production areas, quality specification, harvesting, processing and so on, so as to provide reference for the development and utilization of the relevant famous classical formulas. Through textual research, it can be seen that Pharbitidis Semen was first published in Mingyi Bielu(《名医别录》), and all dynasties have taken Qianniuzi as the correct name. Based on the original research, the main source of Pharbitidis Semen used in previous dynasties is the dried mature seeds of Pharbitis nil, which is consistent in ancient and modern times. The white Pharbitidis Semen appearing in Compendium of Materia Medica(《本草纲目》) from Ming dynasty is similar to the present P. purpurea. It is produced all over the country, and the quality is better if the particles are full and free of impurities. In ancient times, the harvesting time was mostly in the September. Now it is autumn. The fruits are ripe and harvested, dried to remove impurities for standby. In ancient times, the processing methods of Pharbitidis Semen were mainly wine steaming, steaming and frying until half cooked and grinding the head and end. In modern times, they have been simplified to stir-frying method. The nature, taste, meridian tropism and their effects also change supplements with the deepening of practice. Before the Ming dynasty, they were all bitter, cold and toxic. In the Ming dynasty, there appeared the characteristics of pungent, hot and small poisonous. The efficacy has evolved from controlling low Qi, curing foot edema, removing wind toxin, and facilitating urination to facilitating water and defecation, eliminating phlegm and drinking, and eliminating accumulated insects. The main clinical contraindications are those with weak spleen and kidney, those with weak spleen and stomach, pregnant women, and should not be used with croton and croton cream. Based on the textual research, it is suggested that when developing the classic famous formula with Pharbitidis Semen as the main raw material in the future, it is clear that the source should be the dried mature seeds of Pharbitis nil(black product is its black-brown seeds, white product is its beige seeds). The processing requirements indicated in the original formula are all processed according to the requirements, and the raw product is recommended to be used as medicine if not specified.

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 159-169, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006281

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore the clinical application law and provide literature support and development ideas for the modern application of fresh Plantaginis Herba. MethodThe literature about the application of fresh Plantaginis Herba was retrieved from the fifth edition of Chinese medical dictionary, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang data, and Chinese medical journals and analyzed. ResultFresh Plantaginis Herba appeared frequently in ancient books, with the effects of clearing heat, cooling blood, promoting urination, and relieving stranguria. It was used for the treatment of stranguria, urine retention, bloody urine, sore and carbuncle, epistaxis, red and swelling eye, suppurative inflammation in the throat, and gynecological and pediatric diseases. According to modern medical publications, fresh Plantaginis Herba is mainly used to treated diseases in the kidney, five sense organs, spleen, stomach, lung, liver, gallbladder, and skin and gynecological and pediatric diseases. Specifically, it is mainly used to treat the syndrome of dampness and heat in kidney and skin diseases caused by the accumulation of dampness and heat toxin, with the effects of clearing heat, removing toxin, promoting urination, and relieving stranguria. Since ancient times, there have been reports of using fresh Plantaginis Herbausing for food and health care. ConclusionFresh Plantaginis Herba is widely used in clinical practice and has a high medical value and economic value. However, its modern application lags behind, so it is necessary to promote the development of fresh Plantaginis Herba from the aspects of medicinal material production, storage, transportation, preparation research and development, and clinical application.

4.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 35-45, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006266

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo sort out the historical evolution, prescription evolution and modern clinical application of Huagaisan. MethodHuagaisan and its synonym Huagaitang are used as keywords to search the databases of Traditional Chinese Medicine Think Tank, Chinese Medical Dictionary, Airusheng Chinese Medical Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI). According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we obtained the information of ancient books and modern clinical research literature related to Huagaisan, and systematically reviewed and analyzed the historical origin, prescription composition, preparation method, dosage, efficacy, medicinal material origin, processing method and modern clinical application of Huagaisan. ResultA total of 198 pieces of ancient book information were included, involving 93 ancient Chinese medicine books. Huagaisan was composed of fried Perillae Fructus, red Poria, fried Mori Cortex, Citri Eoxcarpium Rubrum, stir-fried Armeniacae Semen Amarum, Ephedrae Herba and fried Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which had the efficacy of promoting the lungs and relieving epidemiological symptoms, expelling phlegm and relieving cough, and treating cough with wind-cold bundled epidemiological symptoms and stagnation of phlegm and Qi. The preparation method was suggested as boiling powder, crushing the seven herbs into coarse particles, the dosage of each drug was fried Perillae Fructus of 1.27 g, red Poria of 1.27 g, fried Mori Cortex of 1.27 g, Citri Eoxcarpium Rubrum of 1.27 g, stir-fried Armeniacae Semen Amarum of 1.27 g, Ephedrae Herba of 1.27 g and fried Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma of 0.64 g, taking 8.26 g when decocting, adding 300 mL of water, decocting to 210 mL, removing the dregs, and taking it warmly after meals. Twenty-one clinical research papers were included to analyze the modern clinical application of Huagaisan, which was mainly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and so on. ConclusionThis paper has verified and summarized the key information of the famous classical formula Huagaisan, which can provide a detailed reference basis for the development and clinical application of its compound preparation.

5.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 89-99, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005257

ABSTRACT

This article systematically analyzes the historical evolution of the origin, scientific name, medicinal parts, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing and other aspects of Tsaoko Fructus by consulting ancient materia medica, medical books, prescription books in the past dynasties and combining with the modern literature, so as to provide a basis for the development and utilization of famous classical formulas containing Tsaoko Fructus. According to the research, the name of Caoguo(草果) was first used in the Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang(《太平惠民和剂局方》) in the Northern Song dynasty, Tsaoko Fructus is the correct name of the herbal medicine in all dynasties, and there are also aliases such as Caokou, Doukou, Loukou, Laokou and Caodoukou. The mainstream source of Tsaoko Fructus used in the past dynasties is the dried mature fruit of Amomum tsaoko of Zingiberaceae, but Tsaoko Fructus was often used as a nickname for Amomi Fructus Rotundus or Alpiniae Katsumadai Semen during the Song dynasty. Bencao Pinhui Jingyao(《本草品汇精要》) in the Ming dynasty was the earliest materia medica that recorded Tsaoko Fructus as a separate medicinal herb in sections. Under the influence of early ancient books, there were some books that confused Tsaoko Fructus with other Zingiberaceae plants during the Qing dynasty, it was not until modern times that Tsaoko Fructus was distinguished from other plants. The origin of Tsaoko Fructus is Yunnan and Guangxi, and then gradually expanded to Guizhou and other places. Now Yunnan is the province with the largest planting area of Tsaoko Fructus, and has become the main producing area. Since modern times, it has been recorded in the literature that the quality of Tsaoko Fructus is mainly characterized by large, full, red-brown and strong in smell. According to ancient records, the harvest time of Tsaoko Fructus was in the eighth month of the lunar calendar, and they were mostly used for peeling or simmering. Currently, the harvest period of Tsaoko Fructus is October to November, and then sun-dried or dried after harvesting. The records of the properties and functional indications of Tsaoko Fructus are basically consistent with the ancient and modern documents, which is warm in nature, pungent in flavor, belonging to the spleen and stomach meridians, moderate in dryness and dampness, intercepting malaria and eliminating phlegm, used for internal resistance of cold and dampness, abdominal distension and pain, fullness and vomiting, malaria cold and fever, and plague fever. Based on the research results, it is suggested that A. tsaoko should be used as the medicinal base for the development of famous classical formulas containing Tsaoko Fructus, processing method can be according to the requirements of the prescription, and if the requirements of concoction are not indicated, it can be used in the form of raw products.

6.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 77-88, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005256

ABSTRACT

In order to provide basic information for the utilization and development of famous classical formulas containing Bletillae Rhizoma, this article systematically analyzes the historical evolution of the name, origin, harvesting and processing of Bletillae Rhizoma by reviewing the ancient materia medica, prescription books, medical books and modern literature. The research results showed that Baiji(白及) was the main name, some scholars took Baiji(白芨) as its main name, and there were many other names such as Baiji(白给), Baigen(白根), Baiji(白苙). The mainstream source of Bletillae Rhizoma was the tubers of Bletilla striata, and drying, large, white, solid, root-free and skin removed completely were the good quality standards. With the promotion of wild to cultivated medicinal materials, there were certain differences between their traits, and the quality evaluation indexes should be adjusted accordingly. The origin of records in the past dynasties was widely distributed, with Guizhou and Sichuan having high production and good quality in modern times. The harvesting period is mostly in spring and autumn, and harvested in autumn was better. The processing and processing technology is relatively simple, and it was used fresh or powdered in past dynasties, while it is mainly sliced for raw use in modern times. Based on the results, it is suggested that the tubers of Bletilla striata of Orchidaceae should be used in the famous classical formulas, and it should be uniformly written as Baiji(白及). And if the original formula indicates the requirement of processing, it should be operated according to the requirement, if the requirement of processing is not indicated, it can be used in raw form as medicine.

7.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 67-76, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005255

ABSTRACT

By consulting ancient and modern literature, the herbal textual research of Farfarae Flos has been conducted to verify the name, origin, producing area, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods, so as to provide reference for the development and utilization of the famous classical formulas containing Farfarae Flos. According to the research, the results showed that Farfarae Flos was first described as a medicinal material by the name of Kuandonghua in Shennong Bencaojing(《神农本草经》), and the name was used and justified by later generations. The main origin was the folwer buds of Tussilago farfara, in addition, the flower buds of Petasites japonicus were used as medicine in ancient times. The ancient harvesting time of Farfarae Flos was mostly in the twelfth month of the lunar calendar, and the modern harvesting time is in December or before the ground freeze when the flower buds have not been excavated. Hebei, Gansu, Shaanxi are the authentic producing areas with the good quality products. Since modern times, its quality is summarized as big, fat, purple-red color, no pedicel is better. Processing method from soaking with licorice water in the Northern and Southern dynasties to stir-frying with honey water followed by micro-fire in the Ming dynasty, and gradually evolved to the modern mainstream processing method of honey processing. Based on the research results, it is suggested that the dried flower buds of T. farfara, a Compositae plant, should be selected for the development of famous classical formulas containing Farfarae Flos, and the corresponding processed products should be selected according to the specific processing requirements of the formulas, and raw products are recommended for medicinal use without indicating processing requirements.

8.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 55-66, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005254

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient and moderm literature, this paper makes a textual research on the name, origin, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing of Olibanum, so as to provide a basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this medicinal material. According to the herbal textual research, the results showed that Olibanum was first described as a medicinal material by the name of Xunluxiang in Mingyi Bielu(《名医别录》), until Ruxiang had been used as the correct name since Bencao Shiyi(《本草拾遗》) in Tang dynasty. The main origin was Boswellia carterii from Burseraceae family. The mainly producing areas in ancient description were ancient India and Arabia, while the modern producing areas are Somalia, Ethiopia and the southern Arabian Peninsula. The medicinal part of Olibanum in ancient and modern times is the resin exuded from the bark, which has been mainly harvested in spring and summer. It is concluded that the better Olibanum has light yellow, granular, translucent, no impurities such as sand and bark, sticky powder and aromatic smell. There were many processing methods in ancient times, including cleansing(water flying, removing impurities), grinding(wine grinding, rush grinding), frying(stir-frying, rush frying, wine frying), degreasing, vinegar processing, decoction. In modern times, the main processing methods are simplified to cleansing, stir-frying and vinegar processing. Nowadays, the commonly used specifications include raw, fried and vinegar-processed products. Among the three specifications, raw products is the Olibanum after cleansing, fried products is a kind of Olibanum processed by frying method, vinegar-processed products is the processed products of pure frankincense mixed with vinegar. Based on the research results, it is recommended to select the resin exuded from the bark of B. carterii for the famous classical formulas such as Juanbitang containing Olibanum, processing method should be carried out in accordance with the processing requirements of the formulas, otherwise used the raw products if the formulas without clear processing requirements.

9.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 196-202, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016479

ABSTRACT

Due to the difference between the system of weights and measures, and the dosage of clinical prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine in various historical periods, the dosage and conversion standard of prescriptions in past dynasties are different. Therefore, when discounting the dosage of famous classical formulas, the principles of inheriting the essence, making the past serve the present, linking the past and the present, and forming a consensus should be followed, firstly, the dosage of the prescription was converted according to the weights and measures system of the past dynasties. If the converted dosage significantly exceeds the provisions of the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, then on the premise of ensuring that the proportion of the original prescription drug dosage remains unchanged, the conversion shall be based on expert consensus and drug safety evaluation. For drugs measured in non-standard units, a conversion range is provided based on comprehensive literature analysis and physical measurements. For the conversion of service volume, the original text was used as the basis for the conversion with reference to the measurement standards of different eras. If the original dosage is not clear, the converted dosage will be determined based on the historical evolution of the formula, referring to relevant ancient books, and combining modern applications. Eventually, the converting standard for famous classical formulas was determined as follows:during the Han and Tang dynasties, one Liang(两) was equivalent to 13.8 g and one Sheng(升) was equivalent to 200 mL, in the Tang dynasty, one Fen(分) was equivalent to 3.45 g, during the Song, Jin and Yuan dynasties, one Qian(钱) was equivalent to 4.13 g and one Zhan(盏) was equivalent to 300 mL, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, one Qian(钱) was equivalent to 3.73 g, and one Bei(杯) and one Zhong(盅) were equivalent to 200 mL. For drugs recorded in non-standard units of measurement, it is necessary to conduct actual measurements to determine their conversion standards based on comprehensive analysis to determine their origin. If necessary, different records of the dosage of drugs with the same or similar efficacy and indications in medical books of similar ages can be used to assist in determining the conversion standards. The analysis of the principle of dosage conversion for Chinese medicine is helpful for the clinical application and development of famous classical formulas.

10.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 205-214, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011460

ABSTRACT

Yigongsan is derived from Xiaoer Yaozheng Zhijue written by QIAN Yi in the Northern Song dynasty, which is the No. 3 formula in the Catalogue of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas(The Second Batch of Pediatrics) released by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) in September 2022, and it can be developed as a class 3.1 new TCM drug. By referring to ancient medical books and modern literature, this study conducted herbal textual research on Yigongsan from five aspects, including historical evolution, origin and processing, dosage conversion, usage and preparation methods, and functional application, then formed the key information table of this formula, in order to provide reference for the development of reference samples and preparations of Yigongsan. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that Panax ginseng should be removed the basal part of stem(rhizoma), Poria cocos should be removed the peel, Citrus reticulata should be cut into shreds and Glycyrrhiza uralensis should be used. According to 4.13 g/Qian(钱), 1 g/slice for ginger, 3 g for each jujube and 300 mL/Zhan(盏), the doses of Ginseng Radix, Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Jujubae Fructus were 1.652, 1.652, 1.652, 1.652, 1.652, 5, 6 g, and the total amount was 19.26 g. The decocting method was to crush the medicinal materials into fine powder with 50-80 mesh, add 300 mL of water and decoct to 210 mL for each dose, then remove the dregs and take it warmly. This formula was recorded in ancient books as the main treatment for the cold-deficiency of spleen and stomach, and Qi stagnation in children with vomiting and diarrhea and lack of appetite. It has been flexibly applied by later generations of physicians, and is often used to treat anorexia, inflammation of the digestive tract, diarrhea and other diseases in children.

11.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 31-39, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011440

ABSTRACT

By consulting the ancient Chinese herbal books, medical books and formularies of the past dynasties, and combining with modern research data, this paper makes a systematic textual research on the name, origin, place of origin, traditional quality evaluation, harvesting and processing of Selaginellae Herba, so as to provide a basis for the development and utilization of the relevant famous classical formulas. According to the textual research, Juanbai is the correct name of the herbal medicine in all dynasties, and there are also aliases such as Baozu, Qiugu, Jiaoshi and Jiusi Huanhuncao. The origin of Selaginellae Herba in the ancient herbal books was Selaginella tamariscina in all dynasties. Since the Republic of China, S. pulvinata has been gradually used as another origin of Selaginellae Herba. In ancient times, the producing area of S. tamariscina was mainly in Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi, Jiangsu and Sichuan, etc. Nowadays, it is produced all over the country. S. pulvinata is mainly produced in Guangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hebei and so on. Since the recent times, it is concluded that the quality of the green color, complete and unbroken is good. Before the Qing dynasty, it was recorded that the harvesting time of Selaginellae Herba was generally from April to July, and it was expanded to all year round since the Qing dynasty. After harvesting, remove the sediment(sand and mud), cut off the fibrous roots and dry in the shade or in the sun. The processing methods in all dynasties were mainly carbonizing by stir-frying and stir-bake to brown, and some ancient books contained the processing method of brine boiling, which was rarely used in modern times. Based on the results, it is recommended that S. tamariscina should be used as the base material of Selaginellae Herba. Because of more impurities, it should be fully purified to ensure the cleanliness of the herb, and the processing method can be based on the prescription requirements, if the processing requirements are not specified, the raw products can be used, charcoal products is recommended for use as an hemostatic.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 20-30, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011439

ABSTRACT

By reviewing the ancient and modern literature, the name, origin, scientific name evolution, place of origin, quality, harvesting, processing, efficacy and toxicity of Asteris Radix et Rhizoma(ARR) were systematically sorted out, so as to provide reference for the development and utilization of the relevant famous classical formulas. According to textual research, ARR was first contained in Shennong Bencaojing, all generations are Ziwan for its proper name, and there are still aliases such as Ziyuan, Ziqian and Xiaobianer. Its mainstream origin in successive generations was Aster tataricus, and there are also Ligularia fischeri and others in local area of use. The medicinal parts of ARR are root and rhizome, but in modern times, the rhizome is mostly used for propagation and cultivation, so some of ARR medicinal materials only have the root without the rhizome. The earliest recorded ancient origin of ARR was now Fangxian(Hubei), Zhengding and Handan(Heibei), then the range of production areas gradually expanded, the mainstream production areas from the Song dynasty to the Ming and Qing dynasties included Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan and other places, since modern times, two major producing areas have been formed in Anguo, Hebei province and Bozhou, Anhui province. From the quality evaluation, it is clear that from ancient times, flexible roots and purple color are the best. The ancient harvesting was mainly in lunar February or March, and then dried in the shade, and the modern harvesting is mostly in spring and autumn, and the roots are braided into pigtails and then dried in the sun or dried in the sun after 1-2 d. The ancient and modern processing method of ARR are basically the same, mainly honey processing, there are still methods of frying, steaming, vinegar sizzling, etc. Based on the results, it is recommended that the dried roots and rhizomes of A. tataricus should be used in clinical and the development of related famous classical formulas, and those whose original formulas specify the processing requirements can be processed according to the relevant requirements, while whose processing requirements are not specified should be used in the form of raw products.

13.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 11-19, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011438

ABSTRACT

Through consulting the ancient herbal books and modern literature, this paper has carried out the textual research on the name, origin, place of origin, harvesting and processing, and other contents of Bruceae Fructus, combed its ancient and modern medicinal history, so as to provide reference for the development of famous classical formulas containing Bruceae Fructus. Through the herbal textual research, It can be verified that, since the Qing dynasty, Bruceae Fructus has been recorded in the materia medica, most of the materia medica in previous dynasties took Bruceae Fructus as its proper name, and Laoyadan, Kushenzi and Yadanzi as the aliases. The main origin of Bruceae Fructus is Brucea javanica, its medicinal part is the fruit, which is harvested from August to October every year, the fruit can be harvested when it is ripe. Bruceae Fructus was first distributed in Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, and gradually expanded to the south of China with the change of time. The traditional processing method of Bruceae Fructus is mainly to remove the shell and kernel, and remove the oil by frosting. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates that its processing method is to remove the shell and impurities. Based on the research results, it is suggested that the dried mature fruit of B. javanica should be selected for the development of famous classical formulas containing this herb, and the raw products can be used if the original formula does not specify the processing requirements.

14.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 97-107, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984587

ABSTRACT

Through reviewing ancient and modern literature, the textual research of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma(AR) has been conducted to verify the name, origin, changes in production areas, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing methods, so as to provide reference for the development and utilization of the famous classical formulas containing AR. Through the herbal textual research, AR was first published in Shennong Bencaojing, and has been used as the proper name for this herb for generations, and the mainstream source of AR used for generations is the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. The high-quality production areas that have been revered throughout the ages are Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and Fangshan district of Beijing, etc. In recent times, AR produced in Yixian county of Hebei province(Xiling Zhimu), is better known and is regarded as a very good source. At present, cultivated AR is mainly produced in Yixian county and Anguo of Hebei province, Bozhou of Anhui province and other places. The medicinal parts of AR in ancient and modern times are all rhizomes, and the quality is better if it has thick flesh, hard wood, yellow outer color and white section color. The harvesting time recorded in ancient medical books is usually in lunar February and August, with exposure to dryness, while modern harvesting is spring and autumn. The processing methods of the past dynasties were mainly to remove the hair when using, avoid iron when cutting, process with wine or salt water, while the two main specifications in modern times are raw and salted products. Based on the systematic research, it is recommended that the dried rhizome of A. asphodeloides in the famous classical formulas be used for AR. If the original formula specifies processing requirements, it should be operated according to the requirements, if the processing requirements are not indicated, the raw products can be used as medicine.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 88-96, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984586

ABSTRACT

In order to provide the basis for the development of famous classical formulas, the name, origin, quality evaluation, harvesting and processing of Eucommiae Cortex were systematically researched by consulting the ancient herbal and medical books, combining with the modern literature. According to the textual research, materia medica in the past dynasties used Eucommiae Cortex as the correct name. Combined with characteristics, origin and efficacy, Eucommiae Cortex in ancient times to the present is the dry bark of Eucommia ulmoides from family Eucommiaceae. The earliest producing areas of Eucommiae Cortex are Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Sichuan. Since the Ming dynasty, the producing areas have expanded to most of the regions in the country, and Sichuan, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Guizhou and Hubei are regarded as the authentic producing areas. It has been concluded that the quality of Eucommiae Cortex is best if the bark has thick body, large block, scraped rough skin, multi silk section and dark purple internal surface. In ancient times, the processing methods of Eucommiae Cortex were mainly included removing rough bark and cutting for raw use, processing with auxiliary materials such as honey, ginger juice, salt water, wine, and so on. While in modern times, the processing methods have become increasingly simplified which are mainly cutting raw materials after cleansing and salt processing. It is need to excavate the connotation of different processed products and restore the traditional main processing methods through standards. Based on the requirement of Eucommiae Cortex in Sanbitang, it is suggested to use ginger-processed products according to the research results, which is used ginger juice as auxiliary material and processed with stir frying method according to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 72-87, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984585

ABSTRACT

This article systematically sorted out and researched the name, origin, harvesting and other aspects of Rhapontici Radix by referring to ancient materia medica, medical books and prescription books, combined with modern literature, in order to provide a reference basis for the development of the famous classical formulas containing this herb. According to the results of the herbal textual research, it can be seen that all the generations of the materia medica have taken Loulu as the proper name, and there are also aliases such as Luligen, Laowenghua and Jiahao. The mainstream base of Rhapontici Radix recorded in the past dynasties was the present Compositae plant Rhaponticum uniflorum, which is mostly used as medicine with roots. Since the Tang dynasty, the stems and leaves of Siphonostegia chinensis have been used as Rhapontici Radix in the northern region. Until modern times, Qizhou Pharmacognosy began to differentiate it into two categories, Qizhou Loulu and Yuzhou Loulu, according to the commodity circulation at that time, producing area and origin, of which Yuzhou Loulu is the roots of Echinops latifolius, a plant of Compositae family. In ancient times, the quality of Loulu was based on "the one that comes out of Shanzhou is the best". However, in modern times, the quality of Qizhou Loulu is better if the surface is black, neat, sturdy, firm, not broken, and without a withered heart, while the quality of Yuzhou Loulu is better if the branches are thick and long with an earthy-brown surface, solid texture and neat in length. In ancient times, most of the harvesting and processing of Loulu was "harvesting the roots in lunar August and drying them in the shade", while in modern times, the roots are mostly excavated in the spring and autumn, and dried in the sun. Its ancient method of processing is to mix and steam with licorice, nowadays, it is prepared by removing impurities, washing, moistening thoroughly, cutting into thick slices and drying in the sun, and then taking the raw products as medicine. Based on the research conclusion, it is suggested that when developing and utilizing the famous classical formulas containing Loulu, the background of the formula should be verified, and if the original formula indicated the requirement of processing, it should be processed according to the requirement, but if not, it is recommended to use raw products as medicine.

17.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 60-71, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984584

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo summarize the history and modern clinical application of Renshen Baidusan. MethodThe bibliometric method was used to retrieve the relevant publications of Renshen Baidusan from the ancient book database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The publications were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The information of dynasty, book title, function, dosage and so on was extracted, on the basis of which the history, composition, dosage, decocting method, original medicinal plants, processing, and modern clinical application of this prescription were analyzed. ResultRenshen Baidusan was first recorded in the Formulary of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy, consisting of Bupleuri Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Platycodonis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Poria, Aurantii Fructus, Peucedani Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, and Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and with the effect of dispersing cold, removing dampness, reinforcing Qi, and relieving exterior. Later generations of physicians used this prescription on the basis of the record in Formulary of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy to treat cold (frequency of 112, 22.63%) and seasonal cold (frequency of 83, 16.77%). Renshen Baidusan is widely used in modern clinical practice to treat respiratory diseases (frequency of 42, 17.65%), skin diseases (frequency of 34, 14.29%), and infectious diseases (frequency of 33, 13.87%). This prescription is often modified to treat the syndrome of internal deficiency and external contraction, or external contraction of wind, cold and damp pathogens without deficiency of healthy Qi, which fully embodies the concept of treating different diseases with the same method in traditional Chinese medicine. ConclusionThe textual research reveals the key information of the classical prescription Renshen Baidusan, providing a basis for the subsequent development and application of compound preparations.

18.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 273-282, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998188

ABSTRACT

Tinosporae Radix, as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is the dried root tuber of Tinospora sagittata or T. capillipes. It was first recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica Supplement in the Qing Dynasty and included in the previous edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Tinosporae Radix is excavated in autumn and winter and used after removing fibrous roots, washing, and drying. It is indicated for sore throat, carbuncle boils poison, waist and abdominal pain, and various heat syndromes and is commonly used to treat chronic inflammation. Its efficacy is significantly known as “broad-spectrum antibiotics in Zhuang medicine”. Tinosporae Radix is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb often taken by Zhuang and Yao nationalities in Guangxi province and has a wide range of application and development values and research significance. Modern studies have shown that Tinosporae Radix contains diterpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, anthraquinones, glycosides, fatty acids, volatile oils, and other compounds, which have many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antibacterial and antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor and anti-cancer effects, and it has achieved good efficacy in inhibiting inflammation and treating sore throat and other diseases. In recent years, there have been many research reports on the status, chemical constituents, pharmacological action, clinical application, and quality evaluation of Tinosporae Radix resources, but there is no systematic review and introduction at present. By consulting the literature and combining it with modern research, this paper systematically summarizes and collates Tinosporae Radix resources to provide guidance for the comprehensive development and utilization of Tinosporae Radix resources and subsequent in-depth study.

19.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 2678-2683, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-997806

ABSTRACT

Flos Trollii is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb in China. The 2020 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (part 1) did not include the medicinal herb, its source is not clear, and there is a lack of relevantly systematic and comprehensive research. By consulting ancient Chinese herbal medicines, medical books and related literature, the textual research of Flos Trollii was conducted to verify the name, origin and producing area, so as to provide a reference for the clinical application and resource development of Flos Trollii. Through textual research, it could be seen that the name “Jinlianhua” was used as the correct name in the mainstream origin of the past dynasties, and there were still multiple synonyms such as Hanjinlian, Jinmeicao and so on, most of which originated from its growth environment and appearance. According to the distribution of varieties, it could be inferred that the mainstream origin of Flos Trollii in the Qing Dynasty and before was Trollius chinensis Bge. According to historical records, Flos Trollii were mostly produced in northern regions such as Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, etc., which was related to the fact that Flos Trollii liked cloudy, humid and cold environments. Based on the textual research results, the author suggested that the mainstream origin of the past dynasties T. chinensis Bge. should be selected for subsequent collection of Flos Trollii.

20.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 164-172, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-975169

ABSTRACT

Lamiophlomis Herba, one of the medicinal herbs commonly used by the Tibetan ethnic minority, has the effect of activating blood, stopping bleeding, dispelling wind, and relieving pain and is frequently used to treat trauma, traumatic bleeding, rheumatic arthralgia, and dampness and dampness-heat. By a review of ancient Tibetan medicine classics, materia medica classics, and modern literature, this paper systematically analyzed the name, nature, taste, original plant, medicinal part, harvest, processing, efficacy, and indications of Lamiophlomis Herba. The textual research showed that Lamiophlomis Herba was first recorded in the Somaratsa (《月王药诊》) in the middle of the eighth century. This medicinal herb was mainly recorded with a plain and warm nature and a sweet, bitter, and astringent taste. The herb was recorded as non-toxic in other books except the Tibetan Medicinal Plants in Gannan of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (《青藏高原甘南藏药植物志》). In the books of the past dynasties, the aboveground part of Lomiophlomis rotatd was used as medicine. In addition, there were also records of using the whole herbs of Ajuga ovalifolia, A. ovalifolia var. calantha, and Oreosolen wattii as the medicine. In ancient times, the herb was mainly harvested before Frost's Descent in the 8th-9th months of the lunar calendar, while it was mainly harvested during the flowering-fruiting stage in autumn in modern times. Due to the decreased reserve of Lamiophlomis Herba, the medicinal part evolved from whole herb or fresh leaves to the aboveground part. According to the ancient and modern records, this herb mainly has the functions of nourishing bone and marrow, eliminating dampness and dampness-heat, stopping bleeding, and relieving pain. In ancient times, it was used for treating parasitic diseases, menostaxis, spermatorrhea, diarrhea, and nourishing the body. This paper aims to provide a basis for further development and study of Lamiophlomis Herba through the textual research.

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