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Tropical Biomedicine ; : 191-196, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936514


@#Birds are known to be the most mobile hosts and are therefore considered to be hosts with potential to contribute to the long-distance spread and transmission of tick-borne pathogens. In the present study, ticks were collected from a hornbill nest at Chaiyaphum Province, Thailand. They were screened for the presence of Coxiella bacteria using conventional PCR. The evolutionary relationships of positive Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) were analysed based on the gene sequences of 16S rRNA, groEL and rpoB. Among all 22 tested ticks, CLB infections were found in 2 Haemaphysalis wellingtoni individuals. In a phylogenetic analysis, the Coxiella 16S rRNA gene detected in this study formed a separate clade from sequences found in ticks of the same genus. In contrast, the phylogenetic relationships based on groEL and rpoB revealed that these two genes from H. wellingtoni ticks grouped with CLB from the same tick genus (Haemaphysalis). This study is the first to report the presence of CLB in H. wellingtoni ticks associated with the Great Hornbill, Buceros bicornis in Thailand. Three genes of CLB studied herein were grouped separately with Coxiella burnetii (pathogenic strain). The effects of CLB in the ticks and Buceros bicornis require further investigation.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 55-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936397


@#Ticks are important vectors of arthropod-borne diseases and they can transmit a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens to humans, domestic and wild animals. Rickettsia japonica is a member of SFG rickettsiae causing Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and can transmit to humans via infected ticks. In this study, we report the first case of Rickettsia japonica in Haemaphysalis hystricis tick collected from a roadkill Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata) in Loei province, northeastern Thailand. According to the DNA sequences and phylogenetic analyses of the outer membrane protein A and B genes (ompA and ompB), the detected R. japonica was identical to those found in JSF patients in Korea, Japan, and China, and closely related to Rickettsia detected by ompA in a tick from Thailand. Further study on the prevalence of R. japonica and diversity of mammalian reservoir hosts will be useful to gain a better understanding of JSF epidemiology.

Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201131, 2022. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286053


Ticks are significant parasites of dogs in the tropics, where tick-borne pathogens are highly prevalent, especially in areas where tick control measures are frequently neglected. This study investigated the seroprevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital in Central-western Brazil. Out of 264 dogs tested for anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), 59.1% (156/264) were positive. Seropositivity was significantly associated to anemia and thrombocytopenia, alone or in combination, and to leukopenia. Conversely, there were no differences in terms of seroprevalence according to sex, breed and age. This study demonstrated that dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital in Central-western Brazil are highly exposed to E. canis and that seropositive dogs are more likely to present hematological abnormalities, particularly anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. To our knowledge, this is the first study on detection of anti-E. canis antibodies by means of IFA among dogs in the state of Goiás. These findings highlighted the need for increasing awareness among dog owners regarding tick control measures in Central-western Brazil, ultimately to reduce the risk of exposure to E. canis and other tick-borne pathogens.

Carrapatos são importantes parasitos de cães nos trópicos, onde patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos são altamente prevalentes, especialmente em áreas onde as medidas de controle de carrapatos são frequentemente negligenciadas. O estudo investigou a soroprevalência e as anormalidades hematológicas associadas à Ehrlichia canis em cães encaminhados para um hospital veterinário-escola no Centro-oeste do Brasil. Dos 264 cães testados para anticorpos anti-Ehrlichia canis por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), 59.1% (156/264) foram positivos. A soropositividade foi associada significativamente à anemia e trombocitopenia, isoladamente ou em combinação, e à leucopenia. Por outro lado, não houve diferenças quanto à soroprevalência segundo sexo, raça e idade. Este estudo demonstrou que cães encaminhados a um hospital veterinário-escola na região Centro-oeste do Brasil são altamente expostos à E. canis, e que cães soropositivos têm maior probabilidade de apresentar alterações hematológicas, principalmente anemia, trombocitopenia e leucopenia. Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo sobre a detecção de anticorpos anti-E. canis por meio da RIFI em cães do estado de Goiás. Essas descobertas destacam a necessidade de aumentar a conscientização entre os proprietários de cães em relação às medidas de controle do carrapato no Centro-oeste do Brasil, em última análise, para reduzir o risco de exposição ao E. canis e outros patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos.

Animals , Dogs , Ticks , Ehrlichiosis/blood , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology , Ehrlichia canis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(2): e001322, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1376799


Abstract Tick-borne pathogens belong to one of the two main groups of occupational biohazards, and occupational exposure to such agents puts soldiers at risk of zoonotic infections, such as those caused by rickettsiae. There are few studies on acarological fauna and occupational risk in military areas in Brazil. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the diversity of ticks present in the military training areas of municipalities in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The ticks were collected from the selected areas using the dragging and flagging techniques as well as by visual detection on the operators' clothing, and environmental information was also recorded. A total of ten species were collected from the 66 surveyed areas, belonging to five genera and nine species: Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma aureolatum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus spp., Ixodes spp. and Haemaphysalis spp. The frequent presence of tick species in military training areas along with traces and sightings of wild animals, most commonly capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), in most of the studied areas, indicates high levels of exposure of the military to tick vectors of spotted fever group rickettsiae and the possible occurrence of infections among the troops.

Resumo As doenças transmitidas por carrapatos estão entre os dois principais grupos de riscos biológicos ocupacionais. Tal exposição ocupacional de militares os colocam sob maior risco de adquirirem doenças zoonóticas, como infecções rickettsiais, entre outras. No Brasil, há raros estudos sobre fauna acarológica e o risco ocupacional em áreas militares. Neste sentido, o presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a diversidade de carrapatos presentes em áreas de treinamento militar de municípios da região Sudeste do Brasil. Os carrapatos foram coletados nas áreas através de arrasto de flanela, bandeiramento e/ou coleta nas vestimentas do operador, sendo registradas também informações ambientais. Das 66 áreas pesquisadas, foram coletados 9.374 carrapatos, com uma diversidade de cinco gêneros, distribuídos em dez espécies: Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus spp., Ixodes spp. e Haemaphysalis spp. A presença frequente de espécies de carrapatos nas áreas de instrução militar, associada aos vestígios e à presença de animais silvestres, mais comumente de capivaras na maioria das áreas estudadas, evidencia uma grande exposição dos militares a carrapatos vetores de rickettsias do Grupo da Febre Maculosa e a possível ocorrência de casos humanos nas tropas.

Humans , Animals , Rickettsia , Ticks , Ixodidae , Military Personnel , Rodentia , Brazil/epidemiology , Amblyomma
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940047


ObjectiveTo understand the epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and the association with seasonal fluctuation in tick density, so as to provide scientific evidence for better control and prevention measures. MethodsDescriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the SFTS epidemic situation in Chongyang County from 2013 to 2021. The cloth flag method was used to investigate the seasonal fluctuation in tick density and determine the association with the SFTS. ResultsA total of 71 SFTS cases were reported in Chongyang County from 2013 to 2021 including 8 deaths, with the annual morbidity rate of 1.88/10-5. The majority were mainly from June to August, accounting for 61.97% of the total reported cases. The cases were geographically distributed in 41 administrative villages and 4 urban areas in 11 towns. The highest incidence was in Lukou town (n=26) and Baini town (n=12), which accounted for 53.52% of the total reported cases. Furthermore, the cases were mainly 50‒69 years old, accounting for 57.75% of the total reported cases. The ratio of male to female was 1.84∶1, and most were farmers. Blood samples during acute phase in 41 cases were collected for examination of SFTS virus, of which 25 cases tested positive (60.98%). There was a positive association between tick density and the number of reported SFTS cases (r=0.78, P=0.003). ConclusionSeasonal density of free adult ticks and nymphs is associated with the number of reported SFTS cases in Chongyang County.

Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1001-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1345278


The goal of this research was to compare the effect of the following products on dairy cattle, parasitized by Rhipicephalus microplus: organosynthetics - Clorfenvinfós and Ivermectina (OG); phytotherapics - Eucalyptus oil (EG) and Neem cake (NG); Homeopathy (HG); The control group (CG) received no treatment. Infestation was by R. microplus (MIC) and weight gain (GP) were evaluated. The study included 60 animals (5 groups) from ­ Dutch / Zebu, aged between 25-44 months and initial weight between 211-477kg. EG and NG showed MIC 84.9% and 14.0% greater than CG, respectively (P <0.05; P = 0). HG and OG had MIC less than CG 24.4% and 16.9%, respectively (P<0.05; P <0.05). EG, NG and OG obtained GP lower than CG in 7.9%, 8.9% and 8.06% (P <0.05) respectively. The HG GP was 4.9% higher (P <0.05) than CG. This was the first research to prove parasitism control by R. microplus in a field test, using homeopathy. The methodology for choosing Homeopathy for the control of enzooties, developed and tested for the first time in this study, proved to be adequate and efficient, opening the possibility for establishing a new methodology for strategic control of parasitism by R. microplus.(AU)

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar o efeito dos seguintes produtos sobre bovinos leiteiros, parasitados por Rhipicephalus microplus: organossintéticos - clorfenvinfós e ivermectina (OG); fitoterápicos - óleo de eucalipto (EG) e torta de Neem (NG) e homeopatia (HG). O grupo controle (CG) não recebeu tratamento. Foram avaliados infestação por R. microplus (MIC) e ganho de peso/grupo (GP) em 60 animais (5 grupos), a partir de ­ holandês/zebu, com idade entre 25 e 44 meses e peso inicial entre 211 e 477kg. EG e NG apresentaram MIC 84,9% e 14,0% maior que CG, respectivamente (P<0,05; P=0). HG e OG apresentaram MIC menor que CG 24,4% e 16,9%, respectivamente (P<0,05; P<0,05). EG, NG e OG obtiveram GP menor que CG em 7,9%, 8,9% e 8,06% (P<0,05), respectivamente. O GP do HG foi 4,9% maior (P<0,05) que o CG. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa a comprovar controle do parasitismo por R. microplus em teste a campo, usando homeopatia. A metodologia para escolha de medicamentos homeopáticos para controle de enzootias, desenvolvida e testada pela primeira vez neste estudo, mostrou-se adequada e eficiente, abrindo a possibilidade para estabelecimento de nova metodologia para controle estratégico do parasitismo por R. microplus.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cattle , Ticks , Homeopathic Remedy , Tick Control/methods , Acaricides
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 503-514, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369017


The present study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil from Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi leaves and fruits, and to determine its acaricidal activity on Rhipicephalus microplusy larval packet test and larvicidal action on Aedes aegyptiby larval immersion test. The chemical analysis of the essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes in bacupari leaves and fruits, and α-cedrene, α-chamigrene, α-trans-bergamotene, and ß-curcumene as major compounds. Essential oil from leaves of G. gardneriana presented acaricidal activity on R. microplus (LC50= 4.8 mg/mL; LC99= 10.8 mg/mL) and larvicidal effect on A. aegypti (LC50= 5.4 mg/mL; LC99 = 11.6 mg/mL), where as essential oil from the fruits of G. gardneriana showed LC50= 4.6 mg/mL and LC99= 8.9 mg/mL against R. microplus and LC50= 6.4 mg/mL and LC99= 13.9 mg/mL against A. aegypti. These results thus demonstrate the potential acaricidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of G. gardneriana, offering new perspectives for the realization of bioassays from this essential oil.

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición química del aceite esencial de las hojas y frutos de Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi, y determinar su actividad acaricida en Rhipicephalus microplus y larvicida en Aedes aegypti empleando la prueba de inmersión de larvas. El análisis químico del aceite esencial por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas identificó hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos y sesquiterpenos oxigenados en hojas y frutos de bacupari, y α-cedreno, α-chamigreno, α-trans-bergamoteno y ß-curcumeno como compuestos principales. El aceite esencial obtenido de las hojas de G. gardneriana presentó actividad acaricida en la garrapata del ganado (LC50= 4,8 mg/mL; LC99= 10,8 mg/mL) y actividad larvicida en A. aegypti (LC50= 5,4 mg/mL; LC99= 11,6 mg/mL), así como, el aceite esencial obtenido de los frutos de G. gardneriana mostró LC50= 4,6 mg/mL y LC99= 8,9 mg/mL contra las larvas de garrapatas de ganado y LC50= 6,4 mg/mL y LC99= 13,9 mg/mL en las larvas de A. aegypti. Por lo tanto, estos resultados demuestran la actividad acaricida y larvicida del aceite essencial de G. gardneriana, ofreciendo nuevas perspectivas para la realización de bioensayos a partir de este aceite esencial.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Garcinia/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Aedes/drug effects , Rhipicephalus/drug effects , Acaricides , Insecticides/chemistry , Larva , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4)ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388270


Resumen Introducción: Las rickettsiosis son enfermedades emergentes transmitidas por vectores artrópodos cuyos agentes etiológicos corresponden a bacterias patógenas del género Rickettsia y Orientia . Bacterias de este género han sido descritas en el norte y sur de Chile. Objetivo: Determinar presencia de Rickettsia spp. en garrapatas colectadas a partir de perros domésticos en Rapa Nui-Isla de Pascua, Región de Valparaíso. Métodos: Fueron muestreados 20 perros callejeros durante octubre del año 2018. Se colectaron ocho garrapatas adultas desde siete animales (prevalencia: 35%); luego de su identificación taxonómica fueron sometidas a amplificación y secuenciación del gen ADNm 16S para garrapata y gltA (citrato sintetasa) para Rickettsia . Resultados: Todos los ejemplares de garrapatas adultas correspondieron genéticamente a Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto lo cual fue confirmado mediante un análisis filogenético. En dos garrapatas (25%) se encontraron secuencias idénticas de gltA compatibles con " Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae", que formaron un clado monofilético con aislados obtenidos en Brasil, Chile y Perú. Conclusión: Se documenta la presencia de " Ca. R. andeanae" s. s. en Rapa Nui-Isla de Pascua, asociado por primera vez a garrapatas del complejo R. sanguineus en Chile.

Abstract Background: Rickettsioses are vector-borne emerging diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia . Bacteria of these genera have been described in northern and southern Chile, respectively. Aim: To determine the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from domestic dog in Rapa Nui-Easter Island, Valparaíso Region. Methods: 20 stray dogs were sampled during October 2018. Overall, eight adult ticks were collected from seven animals (prevalence: 35%); after morphological identification, were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification and sequencing of the tick mitochondrial 16S DNA gene. The screening for Rickettsia was performed targeting the gltA (citrate synthetase) gene. Results: A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the identity of the ticks as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto. In two ticks (25%), we retrieved identical sequences of gltA compatible with " Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae", which formed a monophyletic group with conspecific isolates obtained in Brazil, Chile and Peru. Conclusion: This study proves the presence of " Ca . R. andeanae" in R. sanguineus s. s. at Rapa Nui-Easter Island, which also corresponds to the first report of this Rickettsia spp. in R. sanguineus complex for Chile.

Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 55-61, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153051


The number of domestic animals living with human beings is rapidly increasing in parallel with an enhanced risk of transmission of their parasites and the pathogens they might carry. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of hematophagous arthropods infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil and to remark the implications of their occurrence on the epidemiology and control of selected veterinary and human diseases. From January 2017 to April 2019, ectoparasites infesting domestic cats, dogs and horses were collected for their respective hosts and identified. Overall, ectoparasites were sampled from 86 domestic animals, living in different anthropic settings. A total of 401 specimens (344 ticks and 57 fleas) were collected from different hosts [i.e., 10 (2.49%), 96 (23.94%) and 295 (73.57%) from cats, dogs and horses, respectively]. Two flea (i.e., Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis) and 5 tick species (i.e., Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) were identified. This study provides data on the ectoparasite fauna infesting domestic animals from Northeastern Brazil. The diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should not be underestimated, considering the role that hematophagous arthropods display as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern.(AU)

O número de animais domésticos infestados por ectoparasitos vivendo em estreito contato com seres humanos está aumentando, elevando o risco de infecção pelos patógenos transmitidos por vetores. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a ocorrência de ectoparasitos infestando animais do nordeste do Brasil e discutir as implicações desse parasitismo na epidemiologia e no controle de doenças de importância médico-veterinária. De janeiro de 2017 a abril de 2019, artrópodes foram coletados de gatos, cães e cavalos, e identificados morfologicamente. Ectoparasitos foram removidos de 86 animais infestados provenientes de áreas urbanas e rurais. Foram identificados 401 espécimes (344 carrapatos e 57 pulgas) coletados de diferentes hospedeiros (10 (2,49%), 96 (23,94%) e 295 (73,57%) de gatos, cães e cavalos, respectivamente. Duas espécies de pulgas (Ctenocephalides canis e Ctenocephalides felis) e cinco espécies de carrapatos (Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma sculptum, Dermacentornitens, Rhipicephalus microplus e Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) foram identificadas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ectofauna de animais domésticos do nordeste do Brasil. Portanto, o diagnóstico e o tratamento desses parasitos não devem ser subestimados, considerando que os artrópodes aqui relatados podem veicular patógenos de importância médico-veterinária.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ticks , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Siphonaptera , Horses/parasitology , Brazil , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Rhipicephalus , Ctenocephalides , One Health , Amblyomma
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887733


Pathogens like bacteria and protozoa, which affect human and animal health worldwide, can be transmitted by vectors like ticks. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of bacteria and protozoans carried by ticks in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China, 285 adult hard ticks belonging to two species [

Anaplasmataceae/isolation & purification , Animals , Chaperonin 60/genetics , China , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coxiellaceae/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/microbiology , Islands , Ixodidae/microbiology , Phylogeny , Piroplasmia/isolation & purification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886760


Objective To investigate the current distribution of ticks and predict the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2017, so as to provide insights into tick control and management of tick-borne diseases in these areas. Methods All publications pertaining to tick and pathogen distribution in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration were retrieved, and the geographical location of tick distribution was extracted. The effects of 19 climatic factors on the distribution of ticks were examined using the jackknife method, including the mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation of the coldest quarter, mean temperature of the driest quarter, maximum temperature of the warmest month, precipitation of the driest month, minimal temperature of the coldest month, annual precipitation, mean daily temperature range, precipitation seasonality, annual temperature range, temperature seasonality, annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the warmest quarter, precipitation of the wettest quarter, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, precipitation of the wettest month, precipitation of the driest quarter and precipitation of the warmest quarter. The distribution of ticks was analyzed in 2020 using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, and the potential suitable habitats of ticks were predicted in 2070 using the MaxEnt model based on climatic data. Results A total of 380 Chinese and English literatures were retrieved, and 148 tick distribution sites were extracted, with 135 sites included in the subsequent analysis. There were 7 genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Boophilus, Hyalomma and Amblyomma) and 27 species of ticks detected in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The climatic factors affecting the distribution of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration mainly included the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and the precipitation of the coldest quarter, with 26.1% and 23.6% contributions to tick distributions. The high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were 20 337.08, 40 017.38 km2 and 74 931.43 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2020, respectively. The climate changes led to south expansion of the suitable habitats of ticks in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, and the total areas of suitable habitats of ticks was predicted to increase by 18 100 km2. In addition, the high-, medium- and low-suitable habitats of ticks were predicted to increase to 24 317.84, 45 283.02 km2 and 83 766.38 km2 in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration in 2070, respectively. Conclusions Multiple tick species are widespread in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, and the future climate changes may lead to expansion of tick distribution in these areas.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 145-149, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886315


@#Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are increasingly becoming a cause for global concern because of their high morbidity and mortality rates in dogs. However, information on their occurrence in Malaysia is still scanty. In this study, a total of 103 dog blood samples were collected from two animal shelters in central Peninsular Malaysia and tested for the antibodies against Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the antigen of Dirofilaria immitis. Of the 103 tested dogs, 44.7% (46) were found to be seropositive for Ehrlichia spp., 30.1% (31) for Anaplasma spp. and 13.6% (14) for D. immitis. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp. + Ehrlichia spp. (18.5%, 19) were most prevalent, followed by Anaplasma spp. + D. immitis (1.9%; two) and D. immitis + Ehrlichia spp. (1.0%; one). Furthermore, three dogs (2.9%) were also found to have triple infection, testing seropositive for Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and D. immitis. The dogs which were found to be seropositive with at least one pathogen were 66.7% (32/51) at shelter A, and 55.8% (29/52) at shelter B. Serological evidence showed that the exposure of major vector-borne diseases in dogs in shelters was relatively high in the surveyed areas. Routine detection and control of vector-borne diseases are of paramount importance for reducing the risk of CVBDs transmission in dogs and humans.

Tropical Biomedicine ; : 102-105, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886260


@#Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly known as brown dog tick is a widespread species with considerable public health and economic importance. Tremendous efforts were performed to control the tick populations with the concern of resistance build-up and environmental issues. Alternative towards microbial control thus emerged as one option to reduce tick populations. In this study, the ovicidal efficacy of a native isolate entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae strain HSAH5 was evaluated against eggs of R. sanguineus. Spray applications with three different conidial concentrations of 105, 106 and 107 conidia mL-1; 40 ppm of Flumethrin and a negative control. The M. anisopliae strain was found highly virulent to R. sanguineus eggs by reducing the hatching percentages to ≈30% compared with 8.9% in Flumethrin eggs. The result showed a significantly higher mortality in M. anisopliae group than those of the control groups (F = 42.08, df = 32, P < 0.001) at 30 days post-infection. However, there are no significant differences within the M. anisopliae group, in which the mortality between different conidial concentrations is almost the same. The estimated LC50 of M. anisopliae against eggs of R. sanguineus is 1.36 × 103 conidia ml-1. Thus, these results suggest M. anisopliae strain HSAH5 could be a potential biocontrol agent of R. sanguineus in the integrated approach to managing ticks in the residential landscape by targeting on the eggs.

Acta sci. vet. (Impr.) ; 49: Pub. 1824, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363821


Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne disease highly prevalent in Brazil, and is relevant in canine clinical practice due to its high morbidity and mortality. Its clinical signs are nonspecific and its phases are acute, lasting 2 to 4 weeks; subclinical, i.e., asymptomatic; and chronic, resembling an autoimmune disease. The purpose of this study was to identify the occurrence of reactivity to Ehrlichia canis of bitches treated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) - Niterói, RJ, Brazil, based on serological examination by iELISA, and to compare the hematological, biochemical, urinary protein-creatinine and urinary density profiles of reactive and non-reactive animals. This study involved solely bitches, regardless of breed, starting at 1 year of age. One hundred and thirty bitches, 1 to 16 year-old (mean age 7.02 ± 4.00), weighing 1.5 to 50 kg (mean weight 12.12 ± 10.65) were subjected to clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound. Complete blood count, biochemical measurements, urinalysis and serology for E. canis were also performed. The serum was used in the iELISA to identify immunoglobulin G (IgG), using a canine Ehrlichia Imunotest® diagnostic kit (Imunodot®, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sixty animals (46.20%) were reactive to E. canis. According to their owners, only 5 (8.3%) of the 60 seroreactive animals had a history of tick-borne disease. The most common profile was that of mixed breed animals living with their owners, older than 7 years, who had not been treated preventatively with specific drugs against ectoparasites. Laboratory tests showed significant differences between groups in terms of total protein (TP), and calcium and urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UPC). TP and UPC were elevated in the non-reactive group, while the only significant change in the reactive group was mild hypocalcemia. In this study, 30% (18/60) of the bitches were seroreactive to E. canis and had hypocalcemia. Of these, 50% (9/18) had a UPC above 0.5. Furthermore, 66.7% (12/18) of this group with hypocalcemia also showed urine density (UD) of less than 1024. Among these 18 bitches, 5 had both alterations, i.e., UPC > 0.5 and UD < 1024. In this study, a high prevalence of bitches seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis was observed, despite the absence of clinical and/or laboratory signs indicative of the disease. In the investigation of IgG class antibodies, it is not possible to determine the exact time of infection, and titers may remain high for a period of more than 11 months, even after treatment and elimination of the bacterium. The fact that most seroreactive bitches showed no symptoms compatible with the disease either before or during the study suggests that they were in the subclinical phase of ehrlichiosis. The main reason for calcium metabolism disorders is a phosphorus imbalance, a condition that occurs in kidney diseases. Isosthenuria reflects the kidney's inability to concentrate urine. This finding may be one of the first clinical manifestations of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in dogs. On the other hand, the UPC ratio may increase with the progression of CKD. The presence of hypocalcemia, isosthenuria and increased UPC associated with seroreactivity suggests that infection by E. canis may be associated with the onset of CKD. Veterinarians should keep in mind the complexity of the pathophysiology of ehrlichiosis to ensure the disease is not underdiagnosed in any of its phases, thereby ensuring the correct treatment is provided. Such awareness is expected to reduce the chronicity of the disease and underlying sequelae among dogs.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Ehrlichiosis/blood , Ehrlichiosis/veterinary , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Prevalence , Dogs
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1341182


Abstract This study aimed to chemically characterize the essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) and evaluate their acaricidal activity, together with that of their major compounds and cinnamyl acetate derivative, against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oil compounds were identified through gas chromatography. The larval packet test (LPT) at concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 10.0 mg/mL and the adult immersion test (AIT) at concentrations between 2.5 and 60.0 mg/mL were performed. (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol were the major compounds in cinnamon (86.93%) and candeia (78.41%) EOs, respectively. In the LPT, the EOs of cinnamon and candeia and the compounds (E)-cinnamaldehyde, α-bisabolol and cinnamyl acetate resulted in 100% mortality at concentrations of 2.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 10.0 mg/mL respectively. In the AIT, percentage control values > 95% were observed for cinnamon and candeia EOs, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol at the concentrations of 5.0, 60.0, 20.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, whereas cinnamyl acetate showed low activity. We conclude that EOs and their compounds showed high acaricidal activity, whereas the acetylated derivative of (E)-cinnamaldehyde presented less acaricidal activity on R. microplus engorged females.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar quimicamente os óleos essenciais (OE) de Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela) e Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) e avaliar sua atividade acaricida, juntamente com a de seus principais compostos e do derivado de acetato de cinamila, sobre Rhipicephalus microplus. Os compostos do óleo essencial foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa. Foram realizados o Teste de Pacote de Larvas (TPL), em concentrações variando de 0,31 a 10,0 mg/mL, e o Teste de Imersão de Adultos (TIA), em concentrações entre 2,5 e 60,0 mg/mL. (E)-cinnamaldeído e α-bisabolol foram os principais compostos nos OE da canela (86,93%) e da candeia (78,41%), respectivamente. No TPL, os OEs de canela e candeia, e os compostos (E)-cinnamaldeído, α-bisabolol e acetato de cinamila resultaram em 100% de mortalidade nas concentrações de 2,5, 2,5, 5,0, 10,0 e 10,0 mg/mL, respectivamente. No TIA, valores percentuais de controle >95% foram observados para OE de canela e candeia, (E)-cinnamaldeído e α-bisabolol nas concentrações de 5,0, 60,0, 20,0 e 20,0 mg/mL, respectivamente, enquanto o acetato de cinamila apresentou baixa atividade. Conclui-se que os OEs e seus compostos apresentaram alta atividade acaricida, enquanto o derivado acetilado do (E)-cinnamaldeído apresentou menor atividade acaricida em fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Rhipicephalus , Acaricides/pharmacology , Cinnamates , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Larva
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e005721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288700


Abstract Two lineages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus are known in Brazil: the temperate or southern and the tropical or northern populations. The distribution patterns of both lineages of R. sanguineus have epidemiological implications that can affect vectorial competence concerning Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Intending to identify the microbiomes of both lineages and compare microorganisms in R. sanguineus, we used the 16S rRNA (V4-V5 region) gene-based metataxonomic approach, through NGS sequencing on the MiSeq Illumina platform. We selected specimens of females from the environment and samples of primary embryonic cell cultures, from both lineages, and this was the first study to investigate the prokaryotic microbiome in tick cell cultures. The results showed that many bacterial taxa detected in the samples were typical members of the host environment. A significant diversity of microorganisms in R. sanguineus females and in embryonic cell cultures from both lineages was found, with emphasis on the presence of Coxiella in all samples, albeit in different proportions. The Coxiella species present in the two lineages of ticks may be different and may have co-evolved with them, thus driving different patterns of interactions between ticks and the pathogens that they can harbor or transmit to vertebrate hosts.

Resumo Duas linhagens de Rhipicephalus sanguineus são conhecidas no Brasil: populações da linhagem temperada ou do sul, e tropical ou do norte. Os padrões de distribuição de ambas as linhagens de R. sanguineus têm implicações epidemiológicas, podendo afetar a competência vetorial de Ehrlichia canis, o agente etiológico da erliquiose monocítica canina. Com a intenção de identificar os microbiomas de ambas as linhagens e comparar microrganismos de R. sanguineus, foi utilizada a metataxonomia, baseada no gene 16S rRNA (região V4-V5), por meio do sequenciamento de nova geração na plataforma MiSeq Illumina. Foram selecionadas amostras de fêmeas do ambiente e cultivo primário de células embrionárias, considerando-se as duas linhagens conhecidas do Brasil. Este é o primeiro estudo que investiga o microbioma procariótico de células de cultura de carrapato. Os resultados mostram que muitos grupos de bactérias detectadas nas amostras são membros típicos do ambiente do hospedeiro. Uma diversidade significativa de microrganismos em fêmeas e cultura de células embrionárias nas duas linhagens de R. sanguineus foi encontrada, com ênfase na presença de Coxiella em todas as amostras, ainda que em diferentes proporções. Possivelmente, as espécies de Coxiella presentes nas duas linhagens de carrapatos são diferentes e co-evoluíram com essas linhagens, conduzindo a diferentes padrões de interação entre carrapatos e patógenos que podem abrigar ou transmitir aos hospedeiros vertebrados.

Animals , Female , Dogs , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Dog Diseases , Microbiota , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e002921, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251395


Abstract The present study reports on patterns of parasitism by Amblyomma humerale on yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulatus, in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. The tortoises were sampled occasionally, from July 2005 to January 2020. We collected 81 adult ticks from seven tortoises (mean = 11.57 ± 6.90 ticks/host), of which 72 were males (88.9%) and nine females (11.1%), resulting in an 8:1 sex ratio (males:females). Males were found in clusters, attached to the carapace. Females occurred mainly isolated, attached to coriaceous integumental areas (n = 7; 77.8%), especially the engorged females (100%). We suggest that the difference between attachment sites is a strategy used by fertilized females to avoid mechanical removal from their host through friction with elements of the environment. Because they undergo a considerable increase of volume when engorged, they move to more sheltered places on their host's surface. The parasitism patterns by A. humerale on C. denticulatus were compatible with those observed in the Amazon region and in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition. The present work provides information about the life history and host-parasite interface of the two species and contributes to understanding the parasitism patterns by A. humerale on C. denticulatus in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil.

Resumo O presente estudo relata os padrões de parasitismo de Amblyomma humerale em jabuti-tinga, Chelonoidis denticulatus, na Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil. Os jabutis foram amostrados de forma ocasional, entre julho de 2005 e janeiro de 2020. Foram amostrados sete jabutis e coletados 81 carrapatos adultos (media = 11,57 ± 6,90 carrapatos/hospedeiro), sendo 72 machos (88,9%) e nove fêmeas (11,1%), resultando em uma razão sexual de 8:1 (machos:fêmeas). Os machos encontravam-se agrupados e aderidos à carapaça. As fêmeas ocorreram principalmente isoladas e fixadas a áreas de tegumento coriáceo (n = 7; 77,8%), especialmente as fêmeas ingurgitadas (100%). Sugere-se que a diferença entre os locais de fixação seja uma estratégia das fêmeas fecundadas, para evitar a remoção mecânica por atrito com o ambiente, uma vez que aumentam consideravelmente seu volume quando ingurgitadas, deslocando-se para locais mais abrigados na superfície do hospedeiro. Os padrões de parasitismo de C. denticulatus por A. humerale foram compatíveis com aqueles observados na Amazônia e na transição Amazônia-Cerrado. O presente trabalho contribui com informações acerca da história de vida e da relação parasito-hospedeiro entre as duas espécies, contribuindo para o entendimento dos padrões de parasitismo de A. humerale em C. denticulatus na Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil.

Animals , Male , Female , Turtles , Ixodidae , Brazil , Forests , Amblyomma
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e000421, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251386


Abstract Anaplasma marginale is a vector-borne pathogen that causes a disease known as anaplasmosis. No sequenced genomes of Brazilian strains are yet available. The aim of this work was to compare whole genomes of Brazilian strains of A. marginale (Palmeira and Jaboticabal) with genomes of strains from other regions (USA and Australia strains). Genome sequencing of Brazilian strains was performed by means of next-generation sequencing. Reads were mapped using the genome of the Florida strain of A. marginale as a reference sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (INDELs) were identified. The data showed that two Brazilian strains grouped together in one particular clade, which grouped in a larger American group together with North American strains. Moreover, some important differences in surface proteins between the two Brazilian isolates can be discerned. These results shed light on the evolutionary history of A. marginale and provide the first genome information on South American isolates. Assessing the genome sequences of strains from different regions is essential for increasing knowledge of the pan-genome of this bacteria.

Resumo Anaplasma marginale é um patógeno transmitido por vetores que causam uma doença conhecida como anaplasmose. Até a presente data, não há genomas sequenciados de cepas brasileiras. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o genoma completo das cepas brasileiras de A. marginale (Palmeira e Jaboticabal) com os genomas de cepas de outras regiões (cepas dos EUA e Austrália). As sequências dos genomas das cepas brasileiras foram obtidas mediante sequenciamento de nova geração. As "reads" foram mapeadas usando-se como referência o genoma de A. marginale da cepa Florida. Foram identificados polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) e analisadas inserções/deleções (INDELs). As duas linhagens brasileiras se agruparam em um clado particular que, por sua vez, agrupou-se em um grupo maior junto com as linhagens norte-americanas. Além disso, foram identificadas diferenças significativas nas proteínas de superfície entre os dois isolados brasileiros. Esses resultados lançam luz sobre a história evolutiva de A. marginale e fornecem as primeiras informações de genomas de isolados sul-americanos. Avaliar as sequências de genomas de cepas de diferentes regiões é essencial para aumentar o conhecimento do pan-genoma dessa bactéria.

Animals , Cattle Diseases , Anaplasma marginale/genetics , Anaplasmosis , Phylogeny , Brazil , Cattle , Amino Acid Sequence , Genomics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251367


Abstract This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.

Resumo Este estudo relata a ação de óleos essenciais de cinco plantas na atividade de acetilcolinesterases (AChE) nativas e recombinantes de Rhipicephalus microplus. A atividade enzimática do extrato de acetilcolinesterase nativa suscetível (S.AChE) e resistente (R.AChE) e da enzima recombinante (rBmAChE1) foi determinada. Um teste de inibição da AChE foi utilizado, para verificar o efeito dos óleos essenciais sobre a atividade enzimática. Óleos essenciais de Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var. dulcis inibiram a atividade de S.AChE e R.AChE. Os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus inibiram S.AChE e R.AChE de maneira semelhante, mas mostraram maior inibição sobre R.AChE. O óleo de E. globulus inibiu a AChE nativa, mas sem diferença entre a S.AChE e a R.AChE; no entanto, 71% de inibição para rBmAChE1 foi observada. O óleo de Mentha piperita também inibiu S.AChE e R.AChE, mas houve inibição significativa apenas nas concentrações mais altas testadas. O óleo de Cymbopogon winterianus não inibiu a AChE. Estudos adicionais são necessários com os óleos das duas espécies de Citrus que inibiram a R.AchE, devido ao problema de R. microplus resistente aos organofosforados ter como alvo AChE. O óleo de C. winterianus pode ser usado contra populações de R. microplus, que são resistentes a organofosforados, porque suas propriedades acaricidas agem por mecanismos diferentes.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus/enzymology , Acaricides/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase , Larva
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939480


Objective: Different studies have been performed on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in different areas of Iran; however, as far as our knowledge, there is no regional meta-analysis available for consideration and estimation of tick species infected with different pathogens in Iran. Methods: In this review, among different databases, a total of 95 publications were included, and the infection of different tick species to different tick-borne pathogens was determined; furthermore, presence of pathogens (with 95% confidence intervals) in tick vectors was calculated separately for each province, using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat, USA). Results: Totally, among all 95 studies, 5 673 out of 33 521 investigated ticks were positive according to different detection methods. Overall estimated presence of pathogens in tick vectors in Iran was 8.6% (95% CI 7.0%-10.6%, P 0.001). Of all 46 species of ticks in 10 genera in Iran, 28 species in 9 genera, including Alveonasus, Argas, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus were infected with at least 20 pathogens in 10 genera including Aegyptianella, Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Brucella, Orthonairovirus [CrimeanCongo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)], Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Theileria in 26 provinces of Iran. The presence of pathogens in ticks collected in western Iran was more than other regions. Hyalomma anatolicum (20.35%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (15.00%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (14.08%) were the most prevalent infected ticks for different pathogens. In addition, most literatures were related to CCHFV and Theileria/Babesia spp. Conclusions: Public health and veterinary professionals should be aware of diagnosing possible diseases or outbreaks in vertebrates.