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1.
MedUNAB ; 25(1): 79-82, 202205.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372495

ABSTRACT

Figura 1. Tomografía Computarizada de tórax (corte coronal). Se observan ambos campos pulmonares y las cavidades cardiacas. La flecha roja señala el área hipodensa ovalada correspondiente al aire dentro de un asa de colon interpuesta entre el hemidiafragma derecho (línea hiperdensa arriba) y el borde superior del hígado (abajo), causando una depresión del borde superior del hígado. Fuente: tomada de la historia clínica, previa autorización del paciente.


Figure 1. Chest Computed Tomography Scan (coronal plane) Both lung fields and cardiac chambers are observed. The red arrow indicates the oval hypodense area corresponding to the air inside the loop of colon interposed between the right hemidiaphragm (hyperdense line up) and superior border of the liver (down), causing a depression of the superior border of the liver. Source: taken with authorization from the patient's medical record.


Figura 1. Tomografia Computadorizada de tórax (corte coronal). Observam-se ambos os campos pulmonares e as cavidades cardíacas. A seta vermelha aponta para a área hipodensa oval correspondente ao ar dentro de uma alça do cólon interposta entre o hemidiafragma direito (linha hiperdensa acima) e a borda superior do fígado (abaixo), causando uma depressão da borda superior do fígado. Fonte: obtida com permissão do histórico clínico do paciente.


Subject(s)
Chilaiditi Syndrome , Pneumoperitoneum , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Abdominal Pain
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(5): 894-902, maio 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374375

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A angiotomografia coronária (ATC) tem sido usada para avaliação de dor torácica principalmente em pacientes de baixo risco, e poucos dados existem com pacientes em risco intermediário. Objetivo Avaliar o desempenho de medidas seriadas de troponinas sensíveis e de ATC em pacientes de risco intermediário. Métodos Um total de 100 pacientes com dor torácica, TIMI score 3 ou 4 e troponina negativa foram prospectivamente incluídos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à ATC, e aqueles com obstruções ≥ 50% foram encaminhados à cineangiocoronariografia. Pacientes com lesões < 50% recebiam alta hospitalar, receberam alta e foram contatados 30 dias depois por telefonema para avaliação dos desfechos clínicos. Os desfechos foram hospitalização, morte, e infarto agudo do miocárdio em 30 dias. A comparação entre os métodos foi realizada pelo teste de concordância kappa. O desempenho das medidas de troponina e da ATC na detecção de lesões coronárias significativas e desfechos clínicos foi calculado. Os resultados foram considerados estatisticamente significativos quando p <0,05. Resultados Estenose coronária ≥ 50% na ATC foi encontrada em 38% dos pacientes e lesões coronárias significativas na angiografia coronária foram encontradas em 31 pacientes. Dois eventos clínicos foram observados. A análise de concordância Kappa mostrou baixa concordância entre as medidas de troponina e ATC na detecção de lesões coronárias significativas (kappa = 0,022, p = 0,78). O desempenho da ATC para detectar lesões coronárias significativas na angiografia coronária ou para prever eventos clínicos em 30 dias foi melhor que as medidas de troponina sensível (acurácia de 91% versus 60%). Conclusão ATC teve melhor desempenho que as medidas seriadas de troponina na detecção de doença coronariana significativa em pacientes com dor torácica e risco intermediário para eventos cardiovasculares.


Abstract Background Coronary tomography angiography (CTA) has been mainly used for chest pain evaluation in low-risk patients, and few data exist regarding patients at intermediate risk. Objective To evaluate the performance of serial measures of sensitive troponin and CTA in intermediate-risk patients. Methods A total of 100 patients with chest pain, TIMI risk scores of 3 or 4, and negative troponin were prospectively included. All patients underwent CTA and those with coronary stenosis ≥ 50% were referred to invasive coronary angiography. Patients with coronary lesions <50% were discharged and contacted 30 days later by a telephone call to assess clinical outcomes. Outcomes were hospitalization, death, and myocardial infarction at 30 days. The comparison between methods was performed by Kappa agreement test. The performance of troponin measures and CTA for detecting significant coronary lesions and clinical outcomes was calculated. Results were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results Coronary stenosis ≥ 50% on CTA was found in 38% of patients and significant coronary lesions on coronary angiography were found in 31 patients. Two clinical events were observed. Kappa agreement analysis showed low agreement between troponin measures and CTA in the detection of significant coronary lesions (kappa = 0.022, p = 0.78). The performance of CTA for detecting significant coronary lesions on coronary angiography or for predicting clinical events at 30 days was better than sensitive troponin measures (accuracy of 91% versus 60%). Conclusion CTA performed better than sensitive troponin measures in the detection of significant coronary disease in patients with chest pain and intermediate risk for cardiovascular events.

5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 170-183, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374516

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a significant public health problem worldwide. In this context, CT-scan automatic analysis has emerged as a COVID-19 complementary diagnosis tool allowing for radiological finding characterization, patient categorization, and disease follow-up. However, this analysis depends on the radiologist's expertise, which may result in subjective evaluations. Objective: To explore deep learning representations, trained from thoracic CT-slices, to automatically distinguish COVID-19 disease from control samples. Materials and methods: Two datasets were used: SARS-CoV-2 CT Scan (Set-1) and FOSCAL clinic's dataset (Set-2). The deep representations took advantage of supervised learning models previously trained on the natural image domain, which were adjusted following a transfer learning scheme. The deep classification was carried out: (a) via an end-to-end deep learning approach and (b) via random forest and support vector machine classifiers by feeding the deep representation embedding vectors into these classifiers. Results: The end-to-end classification achieved an average accuracy of 92.33% (89.70% precision) for Set-1 and 96.99% (96.62% precision) for Set-2. The deep feature embedding with a support vector machine achieved an average accuracy of 91.40% (95.77% precision) and 96.00% (94.74% precision) for Set-1 and Set-2, respectively. Conclusion: Deep representations have achieved outstanding performance in the identification of COVID-19 cases on CT scans demonstrating good characterization of the COVID-19 radiological patterns. These representations could potentially support the COVID-19 diagnosis in clinical settings.


Abstract Introducción. La enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) es actualmente el principal problema de salud pública en el mundo. En este contexto, el análisis automático de tomografías computarizadas (TC) surge como una herramienta diagnóstica complementaria que permite caracterizar hallazgos radiológicos, y categorizar y hacer el seguimiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Sin embargo, este análisis depende de la experiencia de los radiólogos, por lo que las valoraciones pueden ser subjetivas. Objetivo. Explorar representaciones de aprendizaje profundo entrenadas con cortes de TC torácica para diferenciar automáticamente entre los casos de COVID-19 y personas no infectadas. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron dos conjuntos de datos de TC: de SARS-CoV-2 CT (conjunto 1) y de la clínica FOSCAL (conjunto 2). Los modelos de aprendizaje supervisados y previamente entrenados en imágenes naturales, se ajustaron usando aprendizaje por transferencia. La clasificación se llevó a cabo mediante aprendizaje de extremo a extremo y clasificadores tales como los árboles de decisiones y las máquinas de soporte vectorial, alimentados por la representación profunda previamente aprendida. Resultados. El enfoque de extremo a extremo alcanzó una exactitud promedio de 92,33 % (89,70 % de precisión) para el conjunto 1 y de 96,99 % (96,62 % de precisión) para el conjunto-2. La máquina de soporte vectorial alcanzó una exactitud promedio de 91,40 % (precisión del 95,77 %) para el conjunto-1 y del 96,00 % (precisión del 94,74 %) para el conjunto 2. Conclusión. Las representaciones profundas lograron resultados sobresalientes al caracterizar patrones radiológicos usados en la detección de casos de COVID-19 a partir de estudios de TC y demostraron ser una potencial herramienta de apoyo del diagnóstico.

6.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis during the current pandemic, as well as to describe the main computed tomography (CT) findings in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study of the chest CT scans of 360 patients with COVID-19, as confirmed by RT-PCR. Results: In four (1.1%) of the patients, changes suggestive of COVID-19 and tuberculosis were observed on the initial CT scan of the chest. On chest CT scans performed for the follow-up of COVID-19, cavitary lesions with bronchogenic spread were observed in two of the four patients, whereas alterations consistent with the progression of fibrous scarring related to previous tuberculosis were observed in the two other patients. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion: Albeit rare, concomitant COVID-19 and tuberculosis can be suggested on the basis of the CT aspects. Radiologists should be aware of this possibility, because initial studies indicate that mortality rates are higher in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pulmonar durante a pandemia atual e descrever os principais achados tomográficos. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo transversal e observacional de tomografias computadorizadas de tórax realizadas em 360 pacientes com COVID-19 confirmada por RT-PCR. Resultados: Em quatro pacientes (1,1%) foram encontradas alterações tomográficas sugestivas de associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose. Em dois pacientes observaram-se escavações com disseminação broncogênica e em outros dois, alterações compatíveis com progressão de lesões fibrocicatriciais relacionadas a tuberculose prévia, em exames de controle para COVID-19. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo isolamento do Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusão: Apesar de incomum, a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pode ser sugerida com base em aspectos tomográficos, devendo os radiologistas estar atentos a esta possibilidade, pois estudos iniciais indicam aumento da mortalidade nesses pacientes.

7.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 54-61, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360668

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon condition that is potentially reversible if properly diagnosed and promptly treated. Although CVT can occur at any age, it most commonly affects neonates and young adults. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because the clinical manifestations of CVT are nonspecific, including headache, seizures, decreased level of consciousness, and focal neurologic deficits. Therefore, imaging is crucial for the diagnosis. Radiologists should be able to identify the findings of CVT and to recognize potential imaging pitfalls that may lead to misdiagnosis. Thus, the appropriate treatment (anticoagulation therapy) can be started early, thereby avoiding complications and unfavorable outcomes.


RESUMO A trombose venosa cerebral (TVC) é uma condição incomum que é potencialmente reversível se diagnosticada corretamente e prontamente tratada. Embora a TVC possa ocorrer em qualquer idade, ela afeta mais comumente neonatos e adultos jovens. O diagnóstico clínico é difícil porque as manifestações clínicas da TVC são inespecíficas, como cefaleia, convulsões, diminuição do nível de consciência e déficits neurológicos focais. Nesse contexto, a imagem é crucial para o diagnóstico e os radiologistas devem ser capazes de identificar os achados de TVC e reconhecer potenciais armadilhas de imagem que podem levar a diagnósticos incorretos. Portanto, o tratamento adequado (terapia anticoagulante) deve ser iniciado precocemente para evitar complicações e desfechos desfavoráveis.

8.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 13-18, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare 68Ga-DOTA-DPhe1,Tyr3-octreotate (68Ga-DOTATATE) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) findings with those of conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Materials and Methods: This was a single-center prospective study including 41 patients (25 males; mean age, 55.4 years) with biopsy-proven NETs who underwent whole-body 111In-octreotide scintigraphy and whole-body 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. The patients had been referred for tumor staging (34.1%), tumor restaging (61.0%), or response evaluation (4.9%). Images were compared in a patient-by-patient analysis to identify additional lesions, and we attempted to determine the impact that discordant findings had on treatment planning. Results: Compared with 111In-octreotide scintigraphy, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT revealed more lesions, the additional lesions typically being in the liver or bowel. Changes in management owing to the additional information provided by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT occurred in five patients (12.2%), including intermodal changes in three (7.3%) and intramodal changes in two (4.9%). In addition, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT yielded incidental findings unrelated to the primary NET in three patients (7.3%): Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid, bowel non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and a suspicious breast lesion. Conclusion: We conclude that 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT is superior to conventional 111In-octreotide scintigraphy for the management of NETs because of its ability to determine the extent of the disease more accurately, which, in some cases, translates to changes in the treatment plan.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os achados da PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE em relação aos da cintilografia com 111In-octreotide em pacientes com tumores neuroendócrinos (TNEs). Materiais e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo unicêntrico incluindo 41 pacientes (25 homens; média de idade: 55,4 anos) com TNEs comprovados por biópsia submetidos a cintilografia de corpo inteiro com 111In-octreotide e PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE. Os pacientes incluídos foram encaminhados para estadiamento do tumor (34,1%), reestadiamento (61,0%) ou avaliação da resposta (4,9%). As imagens foram comparadas para identificar lesões adicionais e o impacto dos achados discordantes no planejamento terapêutico. Resultados: Na comparação com a cintilografia com 111In-octreotide, a PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE revelou mais lesões, mais frequentemente localizadas no fígado e intestino. Mudanças no tratamento devidas às informações adicionais reveladas pela PET/ CT ocorreram em 5/41 pacientes (12,2%), incluindo mudanças intermodalidade em três casos (7,3%) e intramodalidade em dois casos (4,9%). A PET/CT também identificou achados incidentais não relacionados ao TNE em 3/41 pacientes (7,3%), incluindo um carcinoma de células de Hürthle da tireoide, um linfoma não Hodgkin de intestino e uma lesão mamária suspeita. Conclusão: A PET/CT com 68Ga-DOTATATE é superior à cintilografia convencional com 111In-octreotide para o manejo de pacientes com TNEs, em virtude da sua capacidade de detectar a extensão da doença com mais precisão, o que se traduz, em alguns casos, em alterações terapêuticas.

9.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365744

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The approachability of the cervicothoracic region anteriorly based on age and gender, and the possibility of anatomic variances in different geographic populations have not been previously investigated. The aim of the present work was to perform a radiographic analysis of Brazilian patients to assess anterior approachability of the cervicothoracic junction based on age and gender. Methods Retrospective radiographic analysis of 300 computed tomography scans. Patients were separated based on age and gender. The radiographic parameters studied were: horizontal level above the sternum (HLS), vertebral body angle (VBA), intervertebral disc line (IDL), and intervertebral disc line angulation (IDLA). Results The most frequent HLS and IDL were T2 (34.3%) and C7-T1 (46%) respectively. Vertebral body angleand IDLA had average values of 18 ± 8.94 and 19 ± 7.9 degrees, respectively. Males had higher values in both IDLA (p= 0.003) and VBA (p= 0.02). Older groups had higher values in both IDLA (p= 0.01) and VBA (p= 0.001). No differences were observed in HLS between gender (p= 0.3) or age groups (p= 0.79). No differences were seen in IDL between gender groups (p= 0.3); however, the older group had a more caudal level than the younger groups (p= 0.12). ConclusionsCompared to other populations, our sample had a more cephalad IDL and HLS. Vertebral body angle and IDLA were higher in males and higher angles for VBA and IDLA were shown for older groups. Intervertebral disc line was more caudal with aging.


Resumo Objetivo A capacidade de acesso anterior à região cervicotorácica com base na idade e gênero do paciente e a possibilidade de variações anatômicas em diferentes populações geográficas ainda não foram investigadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise radiográfica de pacientes brasileiros para avaliar a acessibilidade anterior da junção cervicotorácica conforme idade e gênero. Métodos Análise radiográfica retrospectiva de 300 tomografias computadorizadas. Os pacientes foram separados por idade e gênero. Os parâmetros radiográficos estudados foram: nível horizontal acima do esterno (HLS, na sigla em inglês), angulação do corpo vertebral (VBA, na sigla em inglês), linha do disco intervertebral (IDL, na sigla em inglês) e angulação da linha do disco intervertebral (IDLA, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Os HLS e IDL mais frequentes foram T2 (34,3%) e C7-T1 (46%), respectivamente. Os valores médios de VBA e IDLA foram de 18 ± 8,94 e 19 ± 7,9 graus, respectivamente. Os homens apresentaram valores maiores de IDLA (p= 0,003) e VBA (p= 0,02). Os grupos de maior idade apresentaram valores maiores de IDLA (p= 0,01) e VBA (p= 0,001). Não houve diferenças de HLS entre os gêneros masculino e feminino (p= 0,3) ou faixas etárias (p= 0,79). Não foram observadas diferenças na IDL entre os gêneros masculino e feminino (p= 0,3); entretanto, o grupo mais velho apresentou nível mais caudal do que os grupos mais jovens (p= 0,12). ConclusõesEm comparação a outras populações, nossa amostra apresentou IDL e HLS mais cefálicos. AVBA e a IDLA foram maiores no gênero masculino, enquanto VBA e IDLA foram maiores em grupos mais velhos. A IDL era mais caudal em pacientes idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Spinal Diseases , Spinal Fusion , Thoracic Vertebrae , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Gender Identity , Intervertebral Disc
10.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(1): 82-88, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a body coil with computed tomography (CT) in measuring the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TT-TG) and the patellar tendon-cartilaginous trochlear groove (PT-CTG) distances, and evaluate interrater reliability. Methods The study group consisted of 34 knees from 17 asymptomatic subjects with no history of knee pathology, trauma or surgery. A low-dose CT scan and an axial T1-weighted MRI sequence of the knees were performed with rigorous standardization of the positioning with full extension of the knees and parallel feet. Two musculoskeletal radiologists performed the measurements independently. The reliability of the TT-TG and PT-CTG distances on CT (17.1 ± 4.2 mm and 17.3 ± 4.2 mm) and of MRI (16.2 ± 3.7 mm and 16.5 ± 4.1 mm) was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC [2,1]) and Bland-Altman graphs, as well as the interrater reliability for both methods. Results Good reliability and agreement was observed between CT and MRI measurements for TT-TG and PT-CTG, with an ICC of 0.774 (p< 0.001) and 0.743 (p< 0.001), respectively, and no systematic bias was observed. The interrater reliability was excellent for all measurements on both imaging methods. Conclusion This was the first study that compared MRI using a body coil with CT in measuring the TT-TG distance, with the potential clinical implication that the CT in this clinical setting could be avoided.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar a ressonância magnética (RM) usando uma bobina corporal e tomografia computadorizada (TC) na medição da distância tubérculo tibial-sulco troclear (TT-ST) e as distâncias tendão patelar-sulco troclear cartilaginoso (TP-STC), e avaliar a confiabilidade interavaliador. Métodos O grupo de estudo consistiu em 34 joelhos de 17 indivíduos assintomáticos sem história de patologia, trauma ou cirurgia no joelho. Uma tomografia computadorizada (TC) de baixa dose e uma sequência axial de RM ponderada em T1 dos joelhos foram realizadas com padronização rigorosa do posicionamento com extensão total dos joelhos e pés paralelos. Dois radiologistas musculoesqueléticos realizaram as medidas de forma independente. A confiabilidade das distâncias TT-ST e TP-STC na TC (17,1 ± 4,2 mm e 17,3 ± 4,2 mm) e RM (16,2 ± 3,7 mm e 16,5 ± 4,1 mm), foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI [2,1)]) e gráficos Bland-Altman, bem como a confiabilidade entre avaliadores para ambos os métodos. Resultados Boa confiabilidade e concordância foram observadas entre as medidas de TC e RM para TT-ST e TP-STC com um CCI de 0,774 (p< 0,001) e 0,743 (p< 0,001), respectivamente, e nenhum viés sistemático foi observado. A confiabilidade entre avaliadores foi excelente para todas as medições em ambos os métodos de imagem. Conclusão Este foi o primeiro estudo que comparou a RM usando bobina de corpo com a TC na medição da distância TT-ST, com a implicação clínica potencial de que a TC neste cenário clínico poderia ser evitada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Patellar Ligament , Patellar Dislocation , Knee
11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the standard staging modality for patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC). Involvement of lymph nodes (LN) determines prognosis of patients with bladder cancer. The detection of LN metastasis by CT scan is still insufficient. Therefore, we investigated various CT scan characteristics to predict lymph node ratio (LNR) and its impact on survival. Also, pre-operative CT scan characteristics might hold potential to risk stratify cN+ patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed preoperative CT scans of patients undergoing RC in a tertiary high volume center. Retrospectively, local tumor stage and LN characteristics such as size, morphology (MLN) and number of loco-regional LN (NLN) were investigated and correlation to LNR and survival was analyzed. CT scan characteristics were used to develop a risk stratification using Kaplan-Maier and multivariate analysis. Results: 764 cN0 and 166 cN+ patients with complete follow-up and imaging data were included in the study. Accuracy to detect LN metastasis and locally advanced tumor stage in CT scan was 72% and 62%. LN larger than 15mm in diameter were significantly associated with higher LNR (p=0.002). Increased NLN correlated with decreased CSS and OS (p=0.001: p=0.002). Furthermore, CT scan based scoring system precisely differentiates low-risk and high-risk profiles to predict oncological outcome (p <0.001). Conclusion: In our study, solely LN size >15mm significantly correlated with higher LNR. Identification of increased loco-regional LN was associated with worse survival. For the first time, precise risk stratification based on computed-tomography findings was developed to predict oncological outcome for clinical lymph node-positive patients undergoing RC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Cystectomy , Prognosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210492, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365011

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic periodontal status of impacted permanent maxillary central incisors (Mx.1) after a long term of orthodontic traction. Methodology This split-mouth study evaluated a sample of 11 patients (five females, six males) treated with Mx.1 unilateral traction one to 28 years after the removal of orthodontic appliances. The traction Group (TG) consisted of 11 Mx.1 and the Comparison Group (CG) comprised 11 spontaneously erupted contralateral Mx.1. High-resolution CBCT exams of central incisors were performed using Accuitomo (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan). Cross-section imagens passing through the center of maxillary central incisors were used to measure buccal and lingual alveolar bone level. Presence of fenestration, root dilacerations, root coverage, and position of the root apex were also assessed in the same images. Clinical parameters included periodontal probing depth, attachment level, gingival bleeding index, plaque index, degree of gingival recession, amount of gingival mucosa, and evaluation of interproximal papilla and black triangle. Digital model analysis included an assessment of clinical crown height and width. Intergroup comparisons were performed using paired t-, McNemar's, and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Results Compared to CG, we found a significantly thinner labial bone plate thickness in TG at the middle (p=0.000) and apical (p=0.009) root level. We also observed an apical displaced labial bone crest level in TG (p=0.000). The Traction Group showed a greater frequency of root dilacerations and gingival recessions, a decreased amount of keratinized mucosa, and a decreased clinical attachment level at the labial aspect compared to contralateral teeth. Conclusions A decreased thickness and height of labial alveolar bone and gingival recessions were found in maxillary central incisors 15 years after orthodontic traction. Though incisor traction might cause some periodontal impact, differences are acceptable under a clinical point of view considering the cost-benefit ratio.

13.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219912, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254429

ABSTRACT

Aim: Evaluation of the reliability of 3D computed tomography (3D-CT) in the diagnosis of mandibular fractures. Methods: A cross-sectional, quantitative and qualitative study was carried out, through the application of a questionnaire for 70 professionals in the area of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology. 3D-CT images of mandibular fractures were delivered to the interviewees along with a questionnaire. Participants answered about the number of traces, the region and the type of fracture. The correct diagnosis, that is, the expected answer, was based on the reports of a specialist in oral and maxillofacial radiology after viewing the images in the axial, sagittal and coronal sections. The resulting data from the interviewees was compared with the expected answer and then, the data was analyzed statistically. Results: In the sample 56.9% were between 22 and 30 years old, 52.8% were oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMF), 34.7% were residents in OMF surgery and 12.5% OMF radiologists. Each professional answered 15 questions (related to five patients) and 50.8% of the total of these was answered correctly. Specialists in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology correctly answered 53.9%. Interviewees with experience between 6 and 10 years correctly answered 58.2%. In identifying fracture traces, 46.1% of the questions were answered correctly. In terms of location, 5.6% of interviewees answered wrongly while 14.2% answered wrongly regarding classification. Conclusion: 3D computed tomography did not prove to be a reliable image for diagnosing mandibular fractures when used alone. This made necessary an association with axial, sagittal and coronal tomographic sections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Surveys and Questionnaires , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Mandibular Fractures
14.
Dent. press endod ; 11(3): 58-65, Sept-Dec.2021. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379391

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A periodontite apical assintomática (PAA) é caracterizada pela inflamação e destruição dos tecidos periapicais, e sua progressão promove reabsorção óssea, podendo ser agravada pelo uso contínuo de isotretinoína. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi relatar a resolução de uma PAA com rompimento de cortical óssea mandibular em um paciente sob tratamento contínuo com isotretinoína (Roacutan®), por meio de procedimentos químicos-mecânicos convencionais e controle com tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). Descrição: Um paciente com 21 anos de idade, ASA I, em tratamento contínuo com isotretinoína, procurou atendimento odontológico com moderada dor na região do elemento dental #38. Após exames clínicos, radiográficos e tomográficos, verificou-se a necessidade de tratamento endodôntico do dente #36. A TCFC mostrou uma imagem apical extensa e hipodensa entre os dentes #36 e #37, compatível com lesão cística óssea, com dimensões de 25,59 mm (largura) x 14,37 mm (altura) x 8,40 mm (profundidade). Também foram observados reabsorção apical da raiz distal, halo hipodenso sob a restauração coronal do #36 e ruptura da cortical externa vestibular e lingual. O tratamento endodôntico foi realizado em três sessões, com auxílio de um microscópio operatório e protocolos químicos-mecânicos, como Easy Clean e terapia fotodinâmica. Resultado: A resolução da PAA foi observada após acompanhamento por três anos. Conclusão: O tratamento endodôntico permitiu o reparo de uma lesão periapical extensa, evitando a cirurgia parendodôntica imediata, e o uso contínuo de isotretinoína não afetou a resolução da PAA(AU).


Introduction: Asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AAP) is characterized by inflammation and destruction of the periapical tissues and its progression leads to bone resorption, which may be aggravated by continuous use of Isotretinoin. The objective of this study was to report the resolution of AAP with mandibular cortical disruption in a patient under continuous treatment with isotretinoin (Roacutan®) and kickboxing practitioner, by conventional chemical-mechanical procedures and cone-bean computed tomography (CBCT) follow-up. Description: A 21-year-old Caucasoid individual, ASA I, under continuous use of isotretinoin and kickboxing practitioner sought dental care with moderate pain at the region of tooth #38. After clinical, radiographic and tomographic examination, the need for endodontic treatment of tooth #36 was verified. The CBCT showed an extensive and hypodense apical image between teeth #36 and #37, compatible with cystic bone lesion, with dimensions of 25.59 mm wide x 14.37 mm high x 8.40 mm deep. Apical resorption of the distal root, hypodense halo under a coronal restoration at #36, and rupture of the external buccal and lingual cortical bone were also observed. The endodontic treatment was performed in three sessions with the aid of a microscope and chemical-mechanical protocols, such as Easy Clean and photodynamic therapy. Result: Resolution of AAP was observed after follow-up for three years. Conclusion: Endodontic treatment allowed healing of an extensive periapical lesion, avoiding immediate parendodontic surgery and the continuous use of isotretinoin did not affect the AAP resolution. (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Isotretinoin , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Cortical Bone , Research Report
15.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 37(4): 203-209, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349892

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La leucoencefalopatia tóxica es una afección que compromete la sustancia blanca por exposición a sustancias tóxicas. La heroina es una de las implicadas en el desarrollo de la leucoencefalopatia con diferencias exclusivas que suceden con la inhalación según las diversas técnicas en comparación al uso intravenoso, bien sea de la heroína o de otras sustancias psicoactivas. En esta serie describimos cinco casos, de sexo masculino, que desarrollaron leucoencefalopatia espongiforme por heroína (LEH) posterior a la inhalación de vapores, en un hospital del sistema de salud público en la ciudad de Armenia, Colombia. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características demográficas, clínicas, hallazgos de laboratorio e imágenes diagnósticas, así como la mortalidad asociada a LEH en la muestra estudiada. MÉTODOS: Recolección de datos de historias clinicas y búsqueda de imágenes registradas en el Hospital San Juan de Dios de Armenia durante el periodo 2017-2018. RESULTADOS: Se obtienen cinco casos clínicos de pacientes usuarios de vapores inhalados de heroina, quienes ingresan con signos neurológicos de predominio motores y extrapiramidales, con el signo radiológico clásico de "Chasing the Dragon" en estudios de TC cerebral simple en todos los casos. De los cinco casos se presenta un deceso, determinando una mortalidad de 20% comparado con un 25% de mortalidad reportado en la literatura. CONCLUSIONES: La LEH suele estar subdiagnosticada dado que suele confundirse con un trastorno neuropsiquiatríco o de la conducta asociada al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA), el diagnóstico se realizó con los hallazgos típicos en las imágenes de TC cerebral simple. Se debe tener en cuenta las estadísticas sobre consumo de heroína a la hora de realizar el abordaje de un paciente con historial de consumo de SPA y los signos neurológicos para relacionarlos con esta etiologia y dar un manejo integral a estos pacientes.


ABSTRACT IlNTRODUCTION: Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a condition that compromises the encephalic white matter due to exposure to toxic substances. Heroin is one of those involved in the development of leukoencephalopathy and there are certain differences that occur with its inhalation with the different techniques compared to intravenous use, either heroin or other psychoactive substances. In this serie, we describe five cases of male sex who developed heroin spongiform leukoencephalopathy (HSLE) after inhalation of vapors, in a Hospital of the public health system in the city of Armenia, Colombia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and diagnostic images, as well as the mortality associated with HSLE in the sample studied. METHODS: Collection of data from medical records and search of images registered at the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Armenia during the period 2017-2018. RESULTS: Five clinical cases were obtained of patients who were users of inhaled heroin vapors and were admitted to the hospital with predominantly motor and extrapyramidal neurological signs, with simple brain CT studies showing the classic radiological sign of "Chasing the Dragon" in all five cases. One death was presented, with a mortality of 20% compared to the 25% mortality that has been reported in the scientific literature. CONCLUSIONS: HSLE is usually underdiagnosed since it is often confused with a neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorder associated with the consumption of psychoactive substances (PAS). The diagnosis was made with the typical findings in simple brain CT images. Statistics on heroin use must be considered when approaching a patient with a history of PAS use and neurological signs, to relate them to this etiology and provide comprehensive management to these patients.


Subject(s)
Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Hypoxia, Brain , Inhalation , Heroin , Leukoencephalopathies
16.
Acta ortop. bras ; 29(5): 258-262, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339063

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze reformatted sagittal sternal tomography images and classify sternal body curvature types, and compare different types of pectus populations with one another and with normal individuals. Methods: In total, 50 controls and 167 pectus patients were selected for chest CT to analyze the median sagittal plane, of whom 89 had pectus carinatum (mean age, 12 ± 10 years) and 78 pectus excavatum (mean age, 14 ± 10 years). Clinical types of pectus were classified as inferior, superior, or lateral pectus carinatum, and localized or broad pectus excavatum. The following types of sternal patterns were defined: gradual vertical curve, gradual posterior curve, gradual anterior curve, proximal third curve, middle third curve, distal third curve, anterior rectilinear, vertical rectilinear, and posterior rectilinear. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the different types of pectus with one another and with the control group. Results: Patients with different thoracic deformities, but with similar sternal curvature patterns, were observed. Some types of sternal curvature were significantly more frequent in certain types of pectus (p < 0,05). The gradual vertical curve and anterior rectilinear types prevailed in controls (p < 0,05). Conclusion: Some sternal curvature patterns were more frequent than the others in certain types of pectus and the controls. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic studies - investigating the effect of a patient characteristic on the outcome of disease.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a reformatação sagital tomográfica do esterno por meio da análise de uma classificação do tipo de curvatura do corpo esternal nos diferentes tipos de pectus, comparando-os entre si e com indivíduos normais. Métodos: 50 controles e 167 pacientes submetidos à TC do tórax para análise da reconstrução sagital no plano mediano, sendo 89 com pectus carinatum (idade média, 12 ± 10 anos) e 78 com pectus excavatum (idade média, 14 ± 10 years). Os tipos clínicos de pectus foram classificados em: pectus carinatum superior, inferior e lateral, e pectus excavatum amplo ou localizado. Foram definidos os seguintes tipos de padrões esternais: curvo gradativo vertical; curvo gradativo posterior; curvo gradativo anterior; curvo terço proximal; curvo terço médio; curvo terço distal; retilíneo anterior; retilíneo vertical; e retilíneo posterior. Foi realizada análise estatística entre o grupo pectus e controle, e entre diferentes tipos de pectus. Resultados: Observamos pacientes com deformidades torácicas diferentes, mas com esternos com padrão de curvatura semelhante. Alguns tipos de curvatura esternal são significativamente mais frequentes em alguns tipos de pectus (p < 0,05). Em controles prevaleceram os tipos curvo gradativo vertical e retilíneo anterior (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Alguns tipos de curvatura esternal são mais frequentes que outras em determinados tipos de pectus e controles. Nível de Evidência II, Estudos prognósticos - investigação do efeito de característica de um paciente sobre o desfecho da doença.

17.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 295-302, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340573

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the technique, efficacy, and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsies of head and neck masses. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study of CT-guided percutaneous core-needle biopsies of head and neck masses. For the analysis of diagnostic accuracy, biopsy results were compared with the final diagnosis, which was determined by histological examination and clinical follow-up. Results: We evaluated 74 biopsies performed in 68 patients. The mean age of the patients was 55.6 years. Most of the lesions (79.7%) were located in the suprahyoid region, and the maximum diameter ranged from 11 mm to 128 mm. The most common approaches were paramaxillary (in 32.4%), retromandibular (in 21.6%), and periorbital (in 14.9%). Five patients (6.8%) developed minor complications. The presence of a complication did not show a statistically significant association with any clinical, radiological, or procedure-related factor. Sufficient material for histological analysis was obtained in all procedures. Thirty-eight biopsies (51.4%) yielded a histological diagnosis of malignancy. There was a false-negative result in three cases (8.3%), and there were no false-positive results. The procedure had a sensitivity of 92.7%, a specificity of 100%, and an accuracy of 96.0%. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that CT-guided percutaneous core-needle biopsy of head and neck lesions is a safe, effective procedure for obtaining biological material for histological analysis.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a técnica, eficácia e segurança das biópsias percutâneas guiadas por tomografia computadorizada (TC) de lesões de cabeça e pescoço. Materiais e Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo e unicêntrico incluiu pacientes submetidos a biópsia percutânea guiada por TC de lesões de cabeça e pescoço. Para avaliação da acurácia diagnóstica, os resultados da biópsia foram comparados com o diagnóstico final determinado por avaliação histológica ou acompanhamento clínico. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 74 biópsias realizadas em 68 pacientes. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 55,6 anos. A maioria das lesões (79,7%) estava localizada na região supra-hioide e o maior diâmetro variou de 11 a 128 mm. Os acessos mais comuns utilizados foram paramaxilar (32,4%), retromandibular (21,6%) e periorbital (14,9%). Cinco pacientes (6,8%) desenvolveram complicações menores e não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre a presença de complicações e fatores clínicos, radiológicos ou relacionados ao procedimento. Foi obtido material suficiente para análise histológica em todos os casos. Trinta e oito biópsias (51,4%) tiveram diagnóstico histológico de malignidade. Houve três (8,3%) resultados falso-negativos e nenhum falso-positivo, demonstrando sensibilidade de 92,7%, especificidade de 100% e acurácia de 96,0%. Conclusão: Nossos resultados demonstram que a biópsia percutânea guiada por TC de lesões de cabeça e pescoço é um procedimento seguro e efetivo para obter material para análise histológica.

18.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 341-347, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340575

ABSTRACT

Abstract The diseases that affect the thalamus are heterogeneous in their etiologies, including infectious, inflammatory, vascular, toxic-metabolic, and neoplastic causes. It is often difficult to make the clinical differentiation between different entities. Within this context, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have come to be of fundamental importance for defining the etiology and planning the treatment. In this pictorial essay, we will illustrate the main causes of diseases affecting the thalamus, discussing the possible differential diagnoses, as well as the most relevant imaging aspects.


Resumo As doenças que envolvem os tálamos incluem um grupo heterogêneo, englobando causas infecciosas, inflamatórias, vasculares, tóxico-metabólicas e neoplásicas. Muitas vezes a diferenciação clínica entre as diversas entidades é difícil, e dentro desse contexto, a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética assumiram fundamental importância na busca da definição etiológica e para guiar a conduta terapêutica. Neste ensaio iconográfico ilustraremos as principais causas de acometimento talâmico, discutindo seus possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais, bem como seus aspectos de imagem mais relevantes.

19.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 336-340, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340576

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vanishing bone metastasis (pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement) is a pitfall in the interpretation of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with thoracic vein obstruction, mainly in the superior vena cava and brachiocephalic veins, typically being related to thrombosis due to malignant tumors. On the basis of the CT findings, pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement can be misdiagnosed as sclerotic bone metastasis, leading to unnecessary treatment. Although not rare, pseudopathological vertebral body enhancement is usually underdiagnosed by radiologists. The aim of this study is to review the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, illustrating the most common collateral venous pathways in thoracic vein obstruction and making the correlation with the CT findings.


Resumo Vanishing bone metastasis é um pitfall na tomografia computadorizada (TC) com contraste em pacientes com obstrução das veias torácicas, principalmente das veias cava superior e braquiocefálica, geralmente ocasionada por tumores malignos. Na TC, aparece como um realce pseudopatológico do corpo vertebral e pode ser erroneamente interpretado como metástase óssea esclerótica, levando a tratamento desnecessário. Embora não seja raro, esse achado geralmente é subdiagnosticado pelos radiologistas. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar a fisiopatologia desse fenômeno, ilustrando as vias venosas colaterais mais comuns na obstrução da veia torácica e correlacionar com os achados da TC.

20.
Radiol. bras ; 54(5): 289-294, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340578

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine whether the whole-body tumor burden, as quantified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), is a prognostic indicator in advanced (stage III or IV) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which we evaluated 18F-FDG PET/CT staging parameters to quantify tumor burdens in patients with stage III or IV NSCLC. The following parameters were evaluated for the whole body (including the primary tumor) and for the primary tumor alone, respectively: maximum standardized uptake volume (wbSUVmax and tuSUVmax); metabolic tumor volume (wbMTV and tuMTV); and total lesion glycolysis (wbTLG and tuTLG). To determine whether the 18F-FDG PET/CT parameters were associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), we evaluated the wbSUVmax/tuSUVmax, wbMTV/tuMTV, and wbTLG/tuTLG ratios. Results: 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed for staging in 52 patients who were followed for a median of 11.0 months (mean, 11.7 months). The estimated median PFS and OS were 9.6 months and 11.6 months, respectively. In the univariate analysis, OS was found to correlate significantly with wbTLG (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.001; 95% confidence interval [95 CI]: 1.000-1.001; p = 0.0361) and with the wbTLG/tuTLG ratio (HR = 1.705; 95% CI: 1.232-2.362; p = 0.0013). In the multivariate analysis, only the wbTLG/tuTLG ratio was independently associated with OS (HR = 1.660; 95% CI: 1.193-2.310; p = 0.0027). Conclusion: The wbTLG/tuTLG ratio is an independent prognostic indicator of OS in advanced-stage NSCLC.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar se a carga metabólica tumoral do corpo inteiro medida na tomografia por emissão de pósitrons/tomografia computadorizada com 18F-fluordesoxiglicose (18F-FDG PET/CT) é um indicador prognóstico em pacientes com câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas (CPCNP) em estágio avançado (estágio III ou IV). Materiais e Métodos: Avaliamos, prospectivamente, a carga tumoral na 18F-FDG-PET/CT de estadiamento em pacientes com CPCNP avançado. Os parâmetros avaliados do tumor primário (tu) e do corpo inteiro (wb) (incluindo o primário) foram: SUV máximo (wbSUVmax e tuSUVmax), volume metabólico tumoral (wbMTV e tuMTV), glicólise total da(s) lesão(ões) (wbTLG e tuTLG), além das seguintes razões: wbSUVmax/tuSUVmax, wbMTV/tuMTV e wbTLG/tuTLG. Os parâmetros medidos na 18F-FDG-PET/CT, variáveis clínicas e patológicas foram correlacionados com a sobrevida global (SG) e a sobrevida livre de progressão (SLP). Resultados: 18F-FDG-PET/CT foi realizada em 52 pacientes (tempos mediano/médio de sobrevida = 11,0/11,7 meses). A SLP mediana foi de 9,6 meses e a SG foi de 11,6 meses. Houve correlação significativa da wbTLG (hazard ratio [HR] = 1,001; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%]: 1,000-1,001; p = 0,0361) e wbTLG/tuTLG (HR = 1,705; IC 95%: 1,232-2.362; p = 0,0013) com a SG. Na análise multivariada, a razão wbTLG/tuTLG associou-se independentemente com a SG (HR = 1,660; IC 95%: 1,193-2,310; p = 0,0027). Conclusão: A razão wbTLG/tuTLG é um indicador prognóstico independente de SG em CPCNP avançado.

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