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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 203-212, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate a new noninvasive diagnostic model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on features of tongue images.@*METHODS@#Healthy controls and volunteers confirmed to have NAFLD by liver ultrasound were recruited from China-Japan Friendship Hospital between September 2018 and May 2019, then the anthropometric indexes and sampled tongue images were measured. The tongue images were labeled by features, based on a brief protocol, without knowing any other clinical data, after a series of corrections and data cleaning. The algorithm was trained on images using labels and several anthropometric indexes for inputs, utilizing machine learning technology. Finally, a logistic regression algorithm and a decision tree model were constructed as 2 diagnostic models for NAFLD.@*RESULTS@#A total of 720 subjects were enrolled in this study, including 432 patients with NAFLD and 288 healthy volunteers. Of them, 482 were randomly allocated into the training set and 238 into the validation set. The diagnostic model based on logistic regression exhibited excellent performance: in validation set, it achieved an accuracy of 86.98%, sensitivity of 91.43%, and specificity of 80.61%; with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.98]. The decision tree model achieved an accuracy of 81.09%, sensitivity of 91.43%, and specificity of 66.33%; with an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI 0.66-0.92) in validation set.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The features of tongue images were associated with NAFLD. Both the 2 diagnostic models, which would be convenient, noninvasive, lightweight, rapid, and inexpensive technical references for early screening, can accurately distinguish NAFLD and are worth further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Anthropometry , Algorithms , China
2.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 604-612, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007945

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine entered a significant period from foundation to maturity between Han and Tang dynasties when the Chinese traditional stomatology was a key stage. Sorting and analysis of existing literature and research outcomes have showed that current research on stomatology between Han and Tang dynasties focuses on oral physiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment, and health care. It also involves stomatology history and explanation of termino-logies related to mouth and teeth recorded in medical books, use of simple methods, and thinking with citation and analysis of literature simply listed and reasoning preliminarily deducted. From the macro perspective, current research has not unveiled the whole picture of stomatology between the two dynasties and left a series of key issues unresolved. Thus, new methods should be developed and employed to carry out medical research on stomatology between Han and Tang dynasties given that is has a prosperous future.


Subject(s)
Mouth , Oral Medicine , Cognition , China , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Journal of the Japan Society of Acupuncture and Moxibustion ; : 112-120, 2023.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007111

ABSTRACT

Tongue diagnosis in Kampo medicine is considered to be a diagnostic method that can provide information about a patient's constitution and medical condition. We have identified the following problems in tongue diagnosis: the influence of external environmental factors such as light source, room temperature, and dryness, as well as subjective factors that depend on the knowledge and experience of medical doctors. To overcome these problems and to support Kampo diagnosis, we developed the Tongue Image Analyzing System (TIAS). Regarding color, objective numerical values L*a*b* were measured and standardization and objectification were promoted. We introduce some of the progress that has been made over the past 15 years since the development of TIAS.

4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 89-92, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971310

ABSTRACT

This study briefly introduces the tongue diagnostic equipment of traditional Chinese medicine. It analyzes and discusses the key points of technical evaluation of tongue diagnostic equipment from the aspects of product name, performance parameters, image processing functions, product use methods, clinical evaluation, etc. It analyzes the safety risks and effectiveness indicators of tongue diagnostic equipment, hoping to bring some help to the gradual standardization of tongue diagnostic equipment and the registration of enterprises.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Diagnostic Equipment , Reference Standards
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 28-35, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the circular pathological changes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients according to the tongue diagnosis.@*METHODS@#Totally 41 CHB patients with typical white tongue coating (WTC) or yellow tongue coating (YTC) were enrolled and 14 healthy volunteers with normal tongue manifestation served as controls. The mRNA expression of peripheral leukocytes was detected by GeneChips, and 9 genes were randomly selected for expression validation. Circular metabolites were detected by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Biological information was analyzed based on ingenuity pathways analysis or metabolomics database and the integrated networks were constructed by ClueGO.@*RESULTS@#A total of 945 and 716 differentially expressed genes were found in patients with WTC and YTC relative to healthy volunteers respectively. The biological information analysis indicated that CHB patients had obviously increased functions in cell death, apoptosis and necrosis (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05) and decreased activation in T lymphocytes (Z-score ⩽-2, P<0.05), regardless of the tongue manifestation. Compared to patients with WTC, the YTC patients were predicted to be more active in functions related to virus replication (Z-score ⩾2, P<0.05), and the content of circular fatty acids, such as oleic acid (P=0.098) and lauric acid (P=0.035), and citric acid cycle-related metabolites were higher in the YTC patients (P<0.1). The integrated analysis based on differential genes and metabolites indicated that the most difference in the biological function network between the WTC and YTC patients was tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 mediated-nuclear factor kappa-B activation process.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CHB patients with YTC had more severe inflammation and fatty acids metabolism aberrant than patients with WTC. The results facilitate the modern pathological annotation of Chinese medicine tongue diagnosis theory and provide a reference for the interpretation of pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese medicine treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fatty Acids , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Metabolomics , T-Lymphocytes , Tongue
6.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 1077-1081, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-954428

ABSTRACT

Tongue diagnosis is one of the diagnostic methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), but its development has always been restricted by the lack of objective quantitative indicators. With the rapid development of computer technology and the advent of the algorithm era, the modernization of TCM tongue diagnosis has gradually become a hot research spot. This paper annalyses the literature and related patents of the modernization of tongue diagnosis and summarizes the R&D progress and application of tongue diagnosis as well as related instruments. It is found that domestic and foreign scholars focus on tongue diagnosis related research and attach importance to the formulation of relevant international standards. Tongue collection and analysis technology continues to develop; tongue diagnostic instruments are also gradually enriched. At present, their applications are extended to family self-use, but they are still mainly used in teaching, scientific research and other fields, involving the clinical efficacy evaluation of TCM, clinical case classification and health management, and there is still much room for development. In the future, we should strengthen the communication between multi-regional research centers, promote the communication among talents in different fields, constantly make up for the deficiencies and promote the development of tongue diagnosis research.

7.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 379-383, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880505

ABSTRACT

Upon his untimely death, Michal Boym (1612-1659) left behind an enormous written legacy; covering a diverse range of interests in fields such as Chinese linguistics, cartography, botany, zoology, philosophy and medicine. This article attempts to examine Boym's De indiciis morborum ex linguae coloribus & affectionibus (The signs of disease on the tongue, colors and affections), a translation of a previously unidentified Chinese text. The text specifically deals with the subject of tongue diagnosis, in relation to contagious diseases that were still raging in the 17th century China. Arriving to China at the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), Boym was able to personally witness the early development of tongue examination as an independent specialty; he recognized its significance and tried to incorporate it into his ultimately unfinished Chinese medical corpus. Boym's work eventually facilitated the assimilation of tongue observation in European medicine during the 19th century.

8.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 130-134, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707179

ABSTRACT

Tongue diagnosis is one of unique techniques of TCM diagnosis. Its subjective and empirical description of written words, spoken language and pictures have been used until now, however, which cannot express the complete information of tongue image comprehensively and objectively. The development of modern technology provides new ideas and methods for the study of tongue diagnosis in TCM. For example, the application of spectroscopy is of great significance for restoring tongue image information. This article briefly introduced the spectroscopy method, summarized its research and application in the field of TCM tongue diagnosis, and put forward the problems and prospects to provide references for further research.

9.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 141-146, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691073

ABSTRACT

Chinese tongue diagnosis was initially developed to quickly and efficiently diagnose and prescribe medicine, while at the same time allowing the doctor to have minimal contact with the patient. At the time of its compiling, the spread of Yersinia pestis, often causing septicaemia and gangrene of the extremities, may have discouraged doctors to come in direct contact with their patients and take the pulse. However, in recent decades, modern developments in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as the spread of antibiotics in conjunction with the advancements of microbiology, have overshadowed the original purpose of this methodology. Nevertheless, the fast approaching post-antibiotic era and the development of artificial intelligence may hold new applications for tongue diagnosis. This article focuses on the historical development of what is the world's earliest tongue diagnosis monograph, and discusses the directions that such knowledge may be used in future clinical research.


Subject(s)
Humans , China , Diagnosis, Differential , History, Ancient , Medicine in Literature , History , Plague , Diagnosis , History , Microbiology , Therapeutics , Tongue , Chemistry , Yersinia pestis , Physiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 119-122, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490001

ABSTRACT

Traditional tongue diagnosis is a vital basis of syndrome differentiation in TCM. The development of computer technology has opened up a new path to the tongue diagnosis modernization. The purpose of applying modernized tongue diagnosis into clinical research is for providing objective basis for diagnosis, TCM syndrome differentiation, evaluation of illness condition and efficacy evaluation. This article analyzed the application of modernized tongue diagnosis in clinical research in recent years, summarized the application status and existing problems of applying tongue color, texture, shape, indentation, sublingual veins, microcirculation, and spectrum analytical techniques into the clinical research, with a purpose to provide references for further research on modernized tongue diagnosis.

11.
World Science and Technology-Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 2020-2023, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483926

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to discuss the diagnosis significance of the diseased tongue demonstration in Shanghuo (heatiness) people. Based on 303Shanghuo cases, the relevance of diseased tongue demonstration and inquiry data were analyzed. The results showed that 53.14%Shanghuo cases had at least more than 2Shanghuo inducing causes. The most common inducing cause combinations were pathogenic factors neither endogenous nor exogenous (unbalanced diet, overworked) and internal factors (over stressed, emotional). When there were several Shanghuo causes occurred at the same time, the probability of appearing diseased tongue demonstration increased significantly. There were 29.95%Shanghuo cases occurredShanghuo experience frequently. And in these cases, the probability of appearing diseased tongue demonstration increased significantly. It was concluded that when Shanghuo people had diseased tongue demonstration appeared, it was not merely just“is going to get ill”, but was already suffering from heat syndrome. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physical examination, to effectively differentiate“is going to get ill” and“being ill” was initially important. And the diseased tongue demonstration was a crucial diagnostic basis.

12.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (12): 18-21, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-460672

ABSTRACT

Objective To measure the chromatic differences of the tongue tip and tongue side and provide quantitative evidence for tongue color diagnosis. Methods Totally 683 healthy people were recruited, and their tongue photos were taken. Then ICC specific documents were used for the correction of all tongue photos, and chromatic values (L*, a*, b*, C*and h°) of tongue tip and tongue side were obtained for further statistical analysis. CIEDE2000 was used for calculating the color differences. Results The average color difference of tongue tip and tongue side in normal pink tongue was 5.4. When pink tongue has abnormal red tongue tip, the average color difference of tongue tip and tongue side was 10.85. Compared with normal tongue tip, the average color difference of tongue tip and tongue side in abnormal color tongue with abnormal red tongue tip increased from 5.4-7.0 to 11.23. Conclusion Red tongue tip is a sensitive sign indicating abnormal heat in the body. Tongue tip quantitative diagnosis is valuable in the determination of heat sign in TCM preventive treatment of disease, and reveal the diagnosis meaning and scientific connotation of red tongue tip.

13.
International Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 336-339,356,后插9, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-686535

ABSTRACT

Objective To quantify the changes of tongue color with the development of the disease according to the characteristics of human vision.Methods Psychological scales of tongue color perception were obtained from thc psychophysical experiments.Polynomial regression and support vector regression (SVR) were used to establish the mathematical model between the physical values and the psychological scales of tongue color.Results The psychological scales exported from the model could correspond to the visual perception of tongue color change, and SVR has higher accuracy.Conclusions The psychological scale, can not only quantitatively evaluate the tongue color in the development of the disease, but also quantify the degree of disease, to assist the doctors for disease diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Kampo Medicine ; : 344-351, 2013.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-375414

ABSTRACT

Standardizing Kampo medical findings is a significant challenge in Kampo medical circles. These findings are fundamental to Kampo diagnosis. This paper introduces our attempt to standardize these findings in a specialized Kampo medical service facility.<br>We started our project with verbal standardization. Nine medical doctors, all of whom were Kampo advisors or Kampo specialists, discussed issues such as subjective and objective findings, including those of the tongue, pulse, and abdomen, as well as the selection of target items, criteria for judgments on each item, and associated issues. When discussing the above issues, descriptions in prominent traditional Kampo texts were given most importance, and the wisdom of famous Kampo doctors since the Showa period was also given weight. In addition, we focused attention on clarifying the criteria for making judgments.<br>One hundred and twenty items were selected as subjective Kampo findings. We selected 12, 6 and 10 items as objective Kampo findings in the tongue, pulse, and abdomen, respectively, and provided criteria for judgments with each.<br>Our next challenge is to spread these standardizations in Kampo medical circles.

15.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 279-280, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-390122

ABSTRACT

This paper overviewed the studies of the current situation of tongue diagnosis in psychiatric diseases (schizophrenia,depression,nervous disorders,sleep disorders and psychotropic drug-induced side-effects),summed up the importance of tongue diagnosis for the diagnosis and prognosis of mental illnesses.

16.
Kampo Medicine ; : 793-797, 2006.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-368536

ABSTRACT

In order to maintain objective tongue diagnosis, we have researched a photographic standard and the repeatability of tongue photography, using a Compact Digital Camera (i. e. digital camera).<br>We photographed the tongues of subjects who held a small color chart on the end of a chopstick.<br>We were able to reduce the level of reflected camera flash when the camera was held vertically by its upper grip, in such a way that camera flash came from the subjects' upper left. We examined various focal distances, and white balance (W. B.) settings in the camera's Close-up Mode, and obtained well-adjusted photographs with minimal reflection when the focal distance was about 10cm, and the camera's W. B. was set to Flash Mode. Photographs taken under these conditions were highly consistent regardless of place, time, and who the subject or photographer were. We report this photographic standard as recommended for objective tongue photography.

17.
China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12)2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-562963

ABSTRACT

Objective:Methods:To observe 213 cases of thick tongues in shape systematically by 30 kinds of thick tongues proposed in the Tongue Diagnostics and clinical observation.Results:After contrasting 213 patients with 200 cases of correlative disease,it has found that thick tongue is closely related to some syndromes and diseases,thus revealed that some diseases will cause blood stasis of superior vena cava,suffocating of the tongue lymph return-flow,increased power of the blood in the tongue tissue.Blood stasis in the tongue tissue,tissue edema and local exuded inflammatory pathological change in the tongue induced by the motion and sensory disturbance of the tongue muscle and nerve will lead to increased size and thickness of the tongue.Conclusion:The methods and data adopted in this paper provide significant reference in future study of tongue shape.

18.
Kampo Medicine ; : 35-50, 1998.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-368253

ABSTRACT

To clarify the correlation between pulse, appearance of the tongue and abdominal palpation signs as measured by Kampo medicine diagnostic techniques, we investigated 488 cases who received health screening. In addition we investigated the effects of smoking and drinking alcohol on pulse, tongue and abdominal palpation signs, and also the correlation between the findings of blood biochemical tests, and the pulse and appearance of the tongue, and obtained the following results.<br>1) In normal pulse the abdominal power and the tension of lower abdominal wall elevate, and the subjective palpitations of the upper umbilicus and the fluid sound in the stomach upon palpation were faint.<br>2) In elevated pulse abdominal power increased and the subjective palpitations of the lower umbilicus were faint.<br>3) As the oppressive pain on bilateral area near the umbilicus increased, the petechia often occurred.<br>4) The epigastric throbbing pulsation over epigastric region showed the positive correlation with transverse dehiscence.<br>5) Positive correlation was shown between the oppressive pain on the left area near the umbilicus and the purple tongue coating.<br>6) Smokers are apt to have red or purple tongue and tend to show yellow, thick, or ? residue-like (_??__??_) tongue coating. During abdominal palpation the positive correlation was shown between the frequency of smoking and the tonus of the left rectus abdominis muscle.<br>7) The amount of drinking alcohol and the abdominal power show positive correlation, and negative correlation with the subjective palpitations of the upper umbilicus.<br>8) The value of hemoglobin and hematocrit were often increased when a red tongue coating, purple tongue coating, petechia or a thick tongue coating were shown, and were decreased in ? emaciation (_??__??_).<br>9) The value of amylase showed a negative correlation with the red, thick, ??_??__??_, ? residue-like (_??__??_) tongue coating.

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