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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Rifampin/pharmacology
2.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(3): 385-393, May-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376541

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Tuberculous aortic aneurysm (TBAA) is an exceedingly rare but severe manifestation of tuberculosis, with a high risk of sudden rupture of the aorta in absence of medical or surgical intervention. This review aimed to provide a detailed understanding of TBAA, including its associated complications, affected population, treatment measures, and outcomes. Methods: Case studies and relevant research articles were analyzed to understand the recent advances in medical scientific knowledge on TBAA. Recent clinical case reports on TBAA were searched from the year 2010 to 2020. Results: Case reports indicated a higher prevalence of TBAA in the male population. The most affected age group was 15 to 79 years. The most common treatment for TBAA included surgery followed by antituberculous medication. The case reports discussed in this review reflected open surgery, endovascular repair, coil embolization, laparotomy, aortic valve and root replacement as some of the surgical procedures used depending on the complication and type of aneurysm. The treatment outcome was considered effective in most cases. Conclusion: Postoperative chemotherapy and medications reduce the risk of severity. Early diagnosis of TBAA is imperative, followed by surgical resection and postoperative antituberculous medication with careful follow-up to prevent relapse.

3.
Infectio ; 26(2): 121-127, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356257

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La tuberculosis es un problema de salud pública; su control requiere diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno. Xpert MTB/RIF® es una tecno logía diagnóstica basada en PCR en tiempo real, detecta el Complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis y la susceptibilidad a rifampicina. Objetivo: Determinar la contribución del Xpert MTB/RIF y su costo-efectividad en la detección de tuberculosis y la resistencia a rifampicina en muestras respirato rias al compararlo con métodos de diagnóstico no moleculares Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 1.574 muestras de pacientes con sospecha de tuberculosis pulmonar que fueron procesadas para microscopía con coloración fluorescente de auramina-rodamina, Xpert MTB/RIF y cultivo en BACTEC MGIT 960. Los resultados obtenidos se compararon entre los métodos no moleculares y los moleculares para la detección de M. tuberculosis y susceptibilidad a rifampicina y se realizó un análisis comparativo de costos y costo efectividad. Resultados: 19,2% de las muestras fueron positivas por alguna de las técnicas usadas. Xpert MTB/RIF detectó M. tuberculosis en 90,4% del total de muestras positivas con un índice Kappa de 0,77 (IC95%: 0,74-0,82) comparado con el cultivo. La resistencia a rifampicina por Xpert fue 8,1%, sensibilidad 94,1% (IC95%: 73,0-99,0%), especificidad 98,4% (IC95%: 95,5-99,5%) y Kappa de 0,88 (IC95%: 0,76-1,00). La razón incremental de costo efectividad (RICE) fue menor en Xpert MTB/RIF comparada con el cultivo. Conclusión: Xpert MTB/RIF es una prueba eficiente y costo efectiva en la detección de casos de M. tuberculosis en muestras pulmonares comparado con los mé todos de diagnóstico basados en cultivo, sin embargo y a diferencia del Xpert MTB/RIF, estos pueden aportar en el diagnóstico con el aislamiento de especies de micobacterias no tuberculosas y la susceptibilidad a isoniazida y otros medicamentos.


Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis is a public health problem its control requires early diagnosis and timely treatment. Xpert MTB/RIF is a real-time PCR based diagnostic technology, detects the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistance. Objective: To determine the contribution of Xpert MTB/RIF and its cost-effectiveness in the detection of potential positive cases for tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in respiratory samples comparatively with diagnostic non molecular methods Materials and Methods: From 2013 to 2015, 1.574 clinical samples of patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated by smear microscopy using auramina-rodamina stain, Xpert and culture in liquid medium BACTEC MGIT 960®. Results: 19,2% of the samples were positive for any of the methods used, Xpert detected M. tuberculosis in 90,4% of the positive samples and the concordance between Xpert and cultures had a Kappa index of 0,71 (IC95%: 0,62-0,72). Xpert identified resistance to rifampicin in 8,1% of the clinical samples studied with a sensitivity 94.1% (IC95%: 73,0-99,0%), specificity 98,4% (IC95%: 95,5-99,5%) and Kappa index 0,88 (IC95%: 0,76-1,00). Xpert had an incremental cost effectiveness ratio lower than culture (RICE). Conclusion: Xpert MTB/Rif is efficient diagnostic technique and comparable with culture in cost effectiveness for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. However, culture based methods, in contrast to Xpert, may allow the isolation and identification of non tuberculosis mycobacterial species and the possibility to perform susceptibility for other antituberculous drugs.

4.
Infectio ; 26(2): 168-171, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356264

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the association between rifampicin resistance and the presence of at least one SNP in the rpoB and ponA1 genes and the spoligotype defined lineages. Material and Methods: This study analyzed two databases of 484 genomes of M. tuberculosis from strains isolated from patients in the cities of Lima and Callao, for which the odds ratio (OR) was calculated considering belonging to a certain spoligotype defined lineages as an exposure factor. Results: No statistically significant association (ρ value> 0.05) was found between the presence of at least one SNP in the rpoB gene and the lineages included in the study (LAM, Haarlem, T and Beijing). However, a statistically significant association was found between the presence of at least one SNP in the ponA1 gene and the LAM and Haarlem lineages (ρ value <0.05). An association was found between the P631S SNP in the ponA1 gene and the LAM and Haarlem lineages; and the A516T SNP, of this same gene, presented an association with the LAM lineage. Likewise, an association was found between rifampicin resistance and the LAM lineage. Conclusions: The presence of SNPs in the ponA1 gene is associated with the LAM and Haarlem lineages.


Resumen Objetivos: Evaluar la asociación entre la resistencia a rifampicina y la presencia de al menos un SNP en los genes rpoB y ponA1 y los linajes definidos por espoli gotipos. Material y Métodos: Este estudio analizó dos bases de datos de 484 genomas de M. tuberculosis de cepas aisladas de pacientes de las ciudades de Lima y Callao, para lo cual se calculó el odds ratio (OR) considerando la pertenencia a determinado linaje definido por espoligotipos como un factor de exposición. Resultados: No se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (valor de ρ >0.05) entre la presencia de al menos un SNP en el gen rpoB y los linajes incluidos en el estudio (LAM, Haarlem, T y Beijing). No obstante, se halló una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia de al menos un SNP en el gen ponA1 y los linajes LAM y Haarlem (valor de ρ <0.05). Se encontró una asociación entre el SNP P631S del gen ponA1 y los linajes LAM y Haarlem; y el SNP A516T, de este mismo gen, presentó una asociación con el linaje LAM. Asimismo, se halló una asociación entre la resistencia a rifampicina y el linaje LAM. Conclusiones: La presencia de SNPs en el gen ponA1 está asociada con los linajes LAM y Haarlem.

5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(2): 167-171, mayo 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375857

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 continúa causando una significativa morbi-mortalidad global. COVID-19 es una infección respiratoria aguda que puede afectar otros órganos. También la tuberculosis (TB) es una infección endémica que cursa típicamente con compromiso pulmonar y, en menor incidencia, extra-pulmonar. Hay escasa información sobre la coinfección de COVID-19 con TB extrapulmonar. El objetivo de esta comunicación fue presentar información sobre esa asociación en un hospital público de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Entre marzo 2020 y abril 2021 en nuestro Hospital se diagnosticaron 10 809 casos de COVID-19, 106 de TB y 20 de coinfección de ambas (incidencia 185 casos de TB/100 000 casos de COVID-19), superando más de seis veces su frecuencia media de TB/100 000 habitantes del país (31/100 000). De 20 casos diagnosticados de COVID-19 y TB, cinco presentaron compromiso extrapulmonar por TB (25%). La mediana de edad fue de 30 años (IC25-75, 28-31), tres (60%) eran de sexo femenino. La enfermedad asociada más fre cuentemente vinculada fue la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en tres personas (n = 3), bajo peso (n = 2), EPOC (n = 1) y adicción a drogas (n = 1). Tres presentaron compromiso extrapulmonar exclusivo del sistema nervioso central, dos pulmonar y pericárdico. Cuatro pacientes (80%) tuvo evolución favorable.


Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic continues causing significant global morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection that can affect other organs. Tuberculosis (TB) is also an endemic infection that typically occurs with pulmonary involvement and very infrequently, with extra-pulmonary involvement. There is little information on extrapulmonary TB and COVID-19 coinfection. The objective of this communication was to present information about this association in a public hospital in the city of Buenos Aires. Between March 2020 and April 2021, our Hospital diagnosed 10 809 cases of COVID-19, 106 of TB and 20 of TB-COVID-19 coinfection (incidence 185 cases of TB/100 000 cases of COVID-19), exceeding more than six times the average frequency of TB/100 000 inhabitants of the country (31/100 000). Of these 20 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 and TB, five presented extrapulmonary involvement due to TB (25%). The median age was 30 years (CI25-75, 28-31), three (60%) of them were female. The most frequently associated infection was due to human immunodeficiency virus, (n = 3), underweight (n = 2), COPD (n = 1) and drug addiction (n = 1). Three presented exclusive extrapulmonary in volvement of the central nervous system, two pulmonary and pericardial. Four patients (80%) had a favorable evolution.

6.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 15(2): e10604, abr./jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371406

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a cobertura da Atenção Básica, em seus diferentes modelos de atenção, interferiu no número de casos notificados por tuberculose pulmonar, óbitos e cura da doença, no estado de São Paulo, no período de 2008 a 2016. Estudo do tipo ecológico, com dados secundários, analisados estatisticamente por Regressão de Poisson. Percebeu-se maior prevalência da doença em municípios com maior população, maior taxa de pobreza e menor cobertura de Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Verificou-se mais óbitos em municípios com maior população, melhores indicadores econômicos, menor cobertura de agentes comunitários e que possuem Atenção Básica do tipo tradicional. Maiores taxas de cura foram observadas nos municípios com piores indicadores econômicos e de desenvolvimento humano, com maiores coberturas de agentes comunitários e de Atenção Básica. Conclui-se que a cobertura de Atenção Básica, principalmente nos modelos de atenção que possuem Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, está associada a melhores indicadores de tuberculose pulmonar.


The objective of this study was to assess whether the Primary Health Care coverage, in different models, interfered with the number of reported cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, deaths and cure of the disease, in the state of São Paulo, from 2008 to 2016. This was an ecological study, with secondary data, statistically analyzed by Poisson regression. A higher prevalence of the disease was found in municipalities with a larger population, higher poverty rate and lower coverage of the Family Health Strategy. There were more deaths in municipalities with a larger population, better economic indicators, lower coverage of community health agents and with traditional Primary Health Care. Higher cure rates were observed in municipalities with worse economic and human development indicators, with higher coverage of community health agents and the Primary Health Care. The coverage of Primary Health Care, especially in models composed with community health agents, is associated with better indicators of pulmonary tuberculosis.

7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(2): 129-144, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is certainly one of the diseases considered to be ancient on planet Earth. The etiological agent of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This terrible bacterial infection still results in severe socioeconomic consequences to date, and its complete eradication represents a great challenge. It constitutes one of the most important public health problems in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, this infection results in more than 4,000 deaths daily worldwide, with 10.4 million being affected annually and 1.5 million deaths from TB every year. With the emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the disease became the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare infection that represents 1% to 1.5% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, whose etiological agents are Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and the attenuated form of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine). Cutaneous tuberculosis can be exogenous; endogenous: caused by contiguity or autoinoculation and by hematogenous spread; induced by the Calmette-Guérin bacillus and manifest as a tuberculid. The diagnosis of the infection is carried out through the direct test, culture, histopathology, tuberculin skin test, polymerase chain reaction, interferon-gamma release assay, and genotyping. Drugs used comprise isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol.x

8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 159-169, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374515

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La población privada de la libertad se encuentra afectada por la tuberculosis debido al hacinamiento carcelario. Esta situación refleja una inequidad en salud, entendida esta como una diferencia injusta y evitable. Objetivo. Estimar las condiciones de hacinamiento carcelario como inequidad en salud de la población privada de la libertad que padece tuberculosis en Colombia durante el 2018. Materiales y métodos. Estudio ecológico para estimar las inequidades a nivel nacional en la población privada de la libertad, utilizando la guía metodológica de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para la medición de desigualdades. A partir de los datos del sistema de vigilancia en salud pública, la incidencia de tuberculosis sirvió como indicador y el porcentaje de hacinamiento se usó para estratificar la equidad. Resultados. La desigualdad relativa entre los quintiles de menor y mayor hacinamiento evidenció que la incidencia de la tuberculosis en la población privada de la libertad con mayor hacinamiento es 1,92 veces la del grupo con menor hacinamiento. El índice de desigualdad demostró un exceso de 724 casos de tuberculosis por cada 100.000 internos entre la población con mayor concentración de hacinamiento. El índice de concentración en salud fue de -0,121, lo que refleja que la incidencia se concentró en el grupo con más sobrepoblación. Conclusión. En Colombia, la población privada de la libertad en condiciones de hacinamiento y que padece tuberculosis, enfrenta desigualdades injustas y evitables, comparada con quienes no están en esas condiciones. Se requieren políticas que reduzcan el hacinamiento y mejoren las condiciones de vida en las cárceles.


Abstract Introduction: Prison population is affected by tuberculosis (TB) due to prison overcrowding. This situation reflects an inequity in health, understood as an unfair and avoidable difference between individuals and populations. Objective: To estimate the conditions of prison overcrowding as health inequity in prison population suffering from TB in Colombia during 2018. Materials and methods: This is an ecological study to estimate inequities at the national level in prison population through the use of the World Health Organization methodology for the measurement of inequalities. Based on data from the public health surveillance system, the incidence of TB was taken as an indicator and the percentage of overcrowding as an equity stratifier. Simple and complex measures of inequality were calculated. Results: The relative inequality between the lowest and highest quintiles of crowding showed that TB incidence among prison population with the highest crowding was 1.92 times that of the group with the lowest crowding. The inequality index identified an excess of 724 TB cases per 100,000 among those with the highest concentration of overcrowding. The health concentration index was -0.121, which shows that the incidence was concentrated in the group with the most overpopulation. Conclusion: In Colombia, prison population in overcrowded conditions and suffering from TB has to face unfair and avoidable inequalities as compared with those not living in these conditions. Policies are required to reduce overcrowding and improve living conditions in prisons.

9.
J. bras. nefrol ; 44(1): 126-129, Jan-Mar. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365029

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a possible serious complication of solid organ transplantation, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Post-transplant TB has varied pathogenesis with many approaches to its prevention, which is the most important way to reduce its incidence. Treatment of TB in organ recipients is challenging because of drug toxicity and interaction with immunosuppressants. Case report: an 18-year-old woman that underwent kidney transplantation from a deceased donor and was discharged with fair renal function was readmitted at 37th postoperative day with fever. CT showed signs of miliary TB and fluid collection besides graft fistulization through the skin. The patient presented positive BAAR in the drained fluid and Koch's bacillus in the urine. She was treated with a four-drug regimen (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and etambutol), with great response and preserved graft function. We were informed that the recipient of the contralateral kidney also presented post-transplant TB, implying in a donor-derived origin. Conclusion: TB is an important differential diagnosis for infectious complications in patients after solid-organ transplantation, especially in endemic regions. Its initial clinical presentation can be unspecific and it should be suspected in the presence of fever or formation of fluid collections. The suspicion of TB is the key to early diagnosis and satisfactory outcomes in post-transplant TB.


Resumo Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) é uma possível complicação grave do transplante de órgãos sólidos, associada à alta mortalidade e morbidade. A TB pós-transplante tem patogênese variada com muitas abordagens para sua prevenção, que é a forma mais importante de reduzir sua incidência. O tratamento da TB em receptores de órgãos é um desafio devido à toxicidade dos medicamentos e à interação com imunossupressores. Relato de caso: uma mulher de 18 anos que foi submetida a transplante renal de um doador falecido e recebeu alta com função renal adequada foi readmitida no 37º dia de pós-operatório com febre. A TC mostrou sinais de TB miliar e coleção de fluidos além de fistulização do enxerto através da pele. A paciente apresentou BAAR positivo no fluido drenado e bacilo de Koch na urina. Ela foi tratada com um esquema de quatro medicamentos (rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol), com ótima resposta e função de enxerto preservada. Fomos informados de que o receptor do rim contralateral também apresentou TB pós-transplante, implicando em uma origem derivada do doador. Conclusão: A TB é um importante diagnóstico diferencial para complicações infecciosas em pacientes após transplante de órgãos sólidos, especialmente em regiões endêmicas. Sua apresentação clínica inicial pode não ser específica e deve ser suspeitada na presença de febre ou formação de coleções de fluidos. A suspeita de TB é a chave para o diagnóstico precoce e desfechos satisfatórios na TB pós-transplante.

10.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 24(1): 57-62, 20220322.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362862

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tuberculosis is a disease that has affected the population for more than centuries, it is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with high incidence and prevalence in the population. In Brazil, active tuberculosis is the condition with the greatest impact on mortality in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus, since this part of the population is more likely to develop the disease. In this sense, in order to elucidate the epidemiological profile of patients coinfected with Tuberculosis/HIV, a retrospective study was carried out with a quantitative approach in a referral hospital in the care of these patients in the State of Alagoas. 956 cases of tuberculosis and HIV co-infection were reported, with a higher incidence in males (63.49%), in mixed race (82.42%) and in the age group corresponding to the economically active population, between 21 and 50 years (84,.08%). In addition, the pulmonary clinical form (73.95%) is predominant among the cases, with the peripheral lymph node (32.12%) being the most frequent among the extrapulmonary forms (19.87%). Regarding the clinical outcome of these patients, it was observed that there was a higher rate of treatment drop-out in patients reported with alcoholism, consequently reducing the cure rate of these patients. Therefore, it is evident that socioeconomic variables directly influence the incidence and outcome of patients co-infected with Tuberculosis/HIV and that despite the therapeutic advances and the existing support network, it is still a disease that generates negative impacts on the social development of the country. (AU)


Resumo A tuberculose é uma enfermidade que afeta a população há mais de séculos, é causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis apresentando elevada incidência e prevalência na população. No Brasil, a tuberculose ativa é a condição de maior impacto na mortalidade em pessoas que vivem com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, já que essa parcela da população apresenta uma maior probabilidade de desenvolver a doença. Nesse sentindo, a fim de elucidar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes coinfectados com Tuberculose/HIV, realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo com abordagem quantitativa em um hospital de referência no atendimento destes pacientes no Estado de Alagoas. Foram notificados 956 casos de coinfecção tuberculose e HIV, apresentando maior incidência no sexo masculino (63,49%), na cor parda (82,42%) e na faixa etária correspondente a população economicamente ativa, entre 21 e 50 anos (84,08%). Além disso, a forma clínica pulmonar (73,95%) é predominante dentre os casos, sendo a ganglionar periférica (32,12%) a mais incidente entre as formas extrapulmonares (19,87%). Em relação ao desfecho clínico desses pacientes, observou-se que houve uma maior taxa de abandono do tratamento em pacientes notificados com agravo por alcoolismo, reduzindo consequentemente a taxa de cura destes pacientes. Portanto, fica evidente que variáveis socioeconômicas influenciam diretamente na incidência e no desfecho de pacientes coinfectados com Tuberculose/HIV e que apesar dos avanços terapêuticos e da rede de suporte já existente, ainda é uma doença que gera impactos negativos para o desenvolvimento social do país. (AU)

11.
Acta méd. colomb ; 47(1): 15-21, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374098

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades infecciosas de mayor distribución mundial y la tuberculosis meníngea es una de sus manifestaciones más devastadoras. Su diagnóstico y confirmación microbiológica no siempre es fácil. Objetivo: describir la experiencia en el diagnóstico de tuberculosis meníngea por pruebas moleculares comparado con cultivo, caracterizando las principales manifestaciones clínicas y determinar los factores asociados a mortalidad. Métodos: identificamos retrospectivamente a los pacientes adultos con diagnóstico de tuberculosis meníngea, mediante técnicas de pruebas moleculares y/o cultivo para M. tuberculosis, que ingresaron en nuestra institución entre enero de 2018 y marzo de 2020, se realizó un análisis estadístico descriptivo. Se excluyeron mujeres gestantes, pacientes que no contaran con prueba molecular para M. tuberculosis. Resultados: se obtuvo una muestra de 33 pacientes, los hallazgos más relevantes en el citoquímico de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) fue la presencia de hipoglucorraquia, con una mediana de 34.2 mg/dL (RIQ 2.0-95.0 mg/dL) y de hiperproteinorraquia, con mediana de 265 mg/dL (RIQ 24.0-600 mg/dL). El resultado más significativo fue la presencia de proteína C reactiva elevada en suero en todos los casos, con una mediana de 53.3 mg/L (RIQ 22.9-89.6 mg/L) y neutrofilia en 75.8% (25). La mortalidad fue de 54.5% (18), la sensibilidad de la prueba molecular en LCR fue del 38.46% y el valor predictivo positivo de 58.82%. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico de TB meníngea sigue siendo todo un reto, aunque las pruebas moleculares pueden ayudar en el diagnóstico temprano, su sensibilidad es baja en formas extrapul-monares. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2115).


Abstract Introduction: tuberculosis is one of the most widely disseminated infectious diseases worldwide, and meningeal tuberculosis is one of its most devastating manifestations. Its diagnosis and microbiological confirmation is not always easy. Objective: to describe the experience in diagnosing meningeal tuberculosis through molecular tests compared to a culture, characterize the main clinical manifestations, and determine factors associated with mortality. Methods: we retrospectively identified adult patients diagnosed with meningeal tuberculosis through molecular and/or culture tests for M. tuberculosis who were admitted to our institution between January 2018 and March 2020. A descriptive analysis was performed. Pregnant women and patients who did not have a molecular test for M. tuberculosis were excluded. Results: a sample of 33 patients was obtained. The most relevant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytochemical analysis findings were low glucose, with a median of 34.2 mg/dL (IQR 2.0-95.0 mg/ dL) and high protein, with a median of 265 mg/dL (IQR 24.0-600 mg/dL). The most significant result was elevated serum C-reactive protein in all cases, with a median of 53.3 mg/L (IQR 22.9 -89.6 mg/L) and neutrophilia in 75.8% (25). Mortality was 54.5% (18), the sensitivity of the CSF molecular test was 38.46% and the positive predictive value was 58.82%. Conclusions: the diagnosis of meningeal TB continues to be a challenge. While molecular tests can help provide an early diagnosis, their sensitivity is low in extrapulmonary forms. (Acta Med Colomb 2022; 47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.36104/amc.2022.2115).

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(3): 825-836, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364701

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudo ecológico que analisa a tendência e a distribuição espaço-temporal dos casos novos de tuberculose (TB) que abandonaram o tratamento no Brasil, notificados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no período de 2012 a 2018. Para o estudo da tendência, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten, e para a análise espacial os índices global e local de Moran. A média e a mediana da proporção de abandono do tratamento da TB no Brasil foram de 10,4%. As maiores médias do indicador se concentraram nas regiões Sudeste (10,78 ± 1,38), Sul (10,70 ± 2,94) e Norte (10,35 ± 1,13), e nos estados de Rondônia (14,35 ± 2,34), Rio Grande do Sul (13,60 ± 4,23) e Rio de Janeiro (12,64 ± 1,73). Apenas Acre e Piauí apresentaram esse indicador abaixo de 5%. No Brasil, houve tendência de estabilidade na proporção do abandono do tratamento da TB, decréscimo nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Sul, e somente no Distrito Federal houve crescimento. Verificou-se distribuição heterogênea e não aleatória, com cinco capitais compondo o cluster de alto-risco. Concluímos que a proporção de abandono do tratamento da TB no Brasil encontra-se acima do aceitável e que a identificação de áreas de alto risco pode contribuir para a elaboração e fortalecimento de ações de controle mais específicas.


Abstract Ecological study that analyzes the trend and the spatiotemporal distribution of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) that abandoned treatment in Brazil, notified in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, in the period from 2012 to 2018. For the study of the trend used the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression model was used and the Moran Global and Local indices for spatial analysis. The mean and median proportion of TB treatment dropout in Brazil was 10.4%. The highest averages of the indicator were concentrated in the Southeast (10.78 ± 1.38), South (10.70 ± 2.94) and North (10.35 ± 1.13), and; in the states of Rondônia (14.35 ± 2.34), Rio Grande do Sul (13.60 ± 4.23) and Rio de Janeiro (12.64 ± 1.73), only Acre and Piauí showed this indicator below 5%. In Brazil, there was a tendency towards stability in the proportion of abandonment of TB treatment, a decrease in the North, Northeast and South regions and only in the Federal District there was growth. There was a heterogeneous and non-random distribution, with five capitals comprising the High-Risk cluster. We conclude that the proportion of TB treatment abandonment in Brazil is above what is acceptable and that the identification of high-risk areas can contribute to the elaboration and strengthening of more specific control actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spatial Analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Linear Models
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 82(1): 117-129, feb. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365136

ABSTRACT

Resumen Desde 2018 han surgido a la luz de la evidencia importantes cambios en el tratamiento de la tuberculosis drogorresistente. El descubrimiento de nuevas drogas antituberculosis, como la bedaquilina y los derivados de nitroimidazopiranos, así como la utilización de drogas repropuestas, llevó a la recomendación de organismos internacionales de nuevos esquemas de tratamiento de la tuberculosis monorresistente y multidro gorresistente que son totalmente orales y así dejan de lado el uso prolongado de inyectables, con su inherente toxicidad e incomodidad. Algunas de las definiciones de tuberculosis drogorresistente han cambiado. También está en revisión el tiempo de su tratamiento y con algunos nuevos esquemas en estudio, como el BpaL (bedaquilina, pretomanid y linezolid), se ha logrado una duración similar a la del tratamiento de la tuberculosis pansensible. En esta revisión bibliográfica narrativa describimos las nuevas definiciones, algunos aspectos diagnósticos básicos, los aspectos farmacológicos y la nueva clasificación de las drogas a utilizar en el tratamiento de la tuberculosis drogorresistente, así como los esquemas actualmente propuestos para tratarla, contextualizados con la realidad nacional. Finalizamos con una breve reseña de los estudios clínicos en curso de nuevos esquemas acortados de tratamiento.


Abstract Since 2018, important changes in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis have been produced in the light of new evidence. The discovery of new anti-tuberculosis drugs, such as bedaquiline and nitroimidazopirane derivatives, as well as the use of repurposed drugs, led to international organizations to recommend new, totally oral, treatment regimens for mono-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, leaving aside the prolonged use of injectables, with their inherent toxicity and discomfort. Some definitions of drug-resistant tuberculosis have changed. The duration of treatment is also under review, leading some new regimens under study, such as BPaL (bedaquiline, pretomanid and linezolid), to a duration similar to that for treating susceptible tuberculosis. In this narrative review, we describe the new definitions, some basic diagnostic aspects, the pharmacological aspects, and the new classification of drugs to be used in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis as well as the cur rently proposed schemes to treat it available within the Argentinean context. Finally, we include a brief review of ongoing clinical trials on new shortened treatments.

14.
Radiol. bras ; 55(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360665

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pulmonary tuberculosis during the current pandemic, as well as to describe the main computed tomography (CT) findings in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study of the chest CT scans of 360 patients with COVID-19, as confirmed by RT-PCR. Results: In four (1.1%) of the patients, changes suggestive of COVID-19 and tuberculosis were observed on the initial CT scan of the chest. On chest CT scans performed for the follow-up of COVID-19, cavitary lesions with bronchogenic spread were observed in two of the four patients, whereas alterations consistent with the progression of fibrous scarring related to previous tuberculosis were observed in the two other patients. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion: Albeit rare, concomitant COVID-19 and tuberculosis can be suggested on the basis of the CT aspects. Radiologists should be aware of this possibility, because initial studies indicate that mortality rates are higher in patients suffering from both diseases simultaneously.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pulmonar durante a pandemia atual e descrever os principais achados tomográficos. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo transversal e observacional de tomografias computadorizadas de tórax realizadas em 360 pacientes com COVID-19 confirmada por RT-PCR. Resultados: Em quatro pacientes (1,1%) foram encontradas alterações tomográficas sugestivas de associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose. Em dois pacientes observaram-se escavações com disseminação broncogênica e em outros dois, alterações compatíveis com progressão de lesões fibrocicatriciais relacionadas a tuberculose prévia, em exames de controle para COVID-19. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo isolamento do Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusão: Apesar de incomum, a associação entre COVID-19 e tuberculose pode ser sugerida com base em aspectos tomográficos, devendo os radiologistas estar atentos a esta possibilidade, pois estudos iniciais indicam aumento da mortalidade nesses pacientes.

15.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(1): e1715, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375615

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la injuria hepática inducida por antituberculosos (IHIA) en pacientes con tuberculosis multirresistente (MDR-TB). Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes hospitalizados con TB-MDR e IHIA. Se utilizó los criterios de la DILI-Expert Working Group, y el instrumento de análisis de causalidad fue el RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). La asociación específica de la IHIA con un antituberculoso fue por un proceso de reexposición o suspensión y recuperación. Resultados: Reportamos 7 casos de MDR-TB e IHIA; la edad media (desviación estándar) fue de 39,1 (3,3) años. La media de la IHIA apareció después de 30,4 (27,70) días de iniciar el tratamiento. Tres (43,00 %) pacientes presentaron ictericia. En cuanto al patrón, en 4 (57,00 %) fue hepatocelular y en 3 (43,00 %), colestásico. En 4 pacientes, la IHIA fue leve, y moderada en 3. En todos los casos estuvo involucrada la pirazinamida (pirazinamida sola, 4; pirazinamida y etionamida, 1; pirazinamida, rifampicina e isoniazida, 1; pirazinamida y rifampicina, 1). La estancia hospitalaria media fue de 48,10 (48,70) días. Los promedios de fosfatasa alcalina (FA), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y gamma-glutamiltranspeptidasa (GGT) sérica fueron 2,40 (1,10), 7,9 (7,10) y 5,60 (3,70) veces el límite superior normal (NUL), respectivamente. La bilirrubina total media fue 2,30 (2,10), rango de 0,50 a 6,40 mg/dl. Como parte del esquema de alta del paciente, se administraron quinolonas a 7 pacientes (levofloxacino, 6; ofloxacino, 1), y en un paciente se agregó ácido amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico. Conclusiones: La IHIA en pacientes con TB-MDR puede aparecer después del primer mes de tratamiento. El patrón de lesión común fue hepatocelular, y la pirazinamida fue el antimicobacteriano involucrado con mayor frecuencia.


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. Materials and methods: A retrospective study conducted in hospitalized patients with MDR-TB and DILI. The criteria of the DILI Expert Working Group were used for the diagnosis of DILI, and the RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) for the causality analysis. The specific association between DILI and antitubercular drugs was established by drug rechallenge or discontinuation and recovery. Results: Seven cases of MDR-TB and DILI are described in this research. The mean age (standard deviation) was 39.10 (3.30) years. Mean DILI occurred 30.40 (27.70) days after starting the treatment. Three (43.00 %) patients presented jaundice. Regarding the type of injury, four (57.00 %) had hepatocellular injury and three (43.00 %) cholestatic injury. Four patients showed mild DILI and three moderate DILI. All the patients had taken pyrazinamide (pyrazinamide alone: four patients; pyrazinamide and ethionamide: one patient; pyrazinamide, rifampin and isoniazid: one patient; pyrazinamide and rifampicin: one patient). The mean hospital stay was 48.10 (48.70) days. The mean serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl- transpeptidase (GGT) were 2.40 (1.10), 7.90 (7.10) and 5.60 (3.70) times the upper limit of normal (ULN), respectively. The mean total bilirubin was 2.30 (2.00), with a range of 0.50 to 6.40 mg/dl. As part of the discharge plan, quinolones were given to seven patients (levofloxacin: six patients; ofloxacin: one patient) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was added to one patient. Conclusions: MDR-TB patients may develop DILI after the first month of treatment. Hepatocellular injury was the most common type of liver injury, and pyrazinamide was the most frequently used antimycobacterial.

16.
Horiz. meÌüd. (Impresa) ; 22(1): e1551, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375620

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La tuberculosis espinal representa el 50 % de los casos de tuberculosis osteoarticular y, sin un tratamiento oportuno, puede ocasionar discapacidad (por complicaciones neurológicas) y deformidad. Se sospecha de esta enfermedad con base en los antecedentes del paciente, la clínica y los hallazgos radiológicos. El diagnóstico se establece con la identificación de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, las características histopatológicas y/o hallazgo de bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes (BAAR) en el frotis. El diagnóstico diferencial más importante de la tuberculosis espinal es la espondilodiscitis piógena. La resonancia magnética es la prueba de imagen indicada para la valoración del compromiso neurológico y el estudio diagnóstico diferencial. El tratamiento principal es la quimioterapia antituberculosa, y la cirugía puede ser coadyuvante en los casos de tuberculosis espinal complicada, luego de evaluar el déficit neurológico y la deformidad resultante. Está contraindicado realizar solamente una laminectomía, y los implantes para la artrodesis se pueden utilizar en la infección activa. El 8 % de los pacientes con déficit neurológico no logra recuperarse, aun con el tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Spinal tuberculosis accounts for 50 % of all cases of osteoarticular tuberculosis, causing disability (due to neurological complications) and deformity if left untreated. This disease is suspected based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations and radiological findings. It is diagnosed by positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the histopathological characteristics of the condition and/or acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive smear tests. The main differential diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis is pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging is the appropriate imaging test to assess the neurological involvement and study the differential diagnosis of the disease. The main treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, but surgery can be adjunctive in cases of complicated spinal tuberculosis. The decision of which treatment to implement depends on the neurological deficit and the resulting deformity. Laminectomy alone is contraindicated and arthrodesis implants can be used during the active infection. Despite treatment, 8 % of the patients with neurological deficit do not recover.

17.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 71-80, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353012

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema de salud pública. Al respecto, se realizó un estudio no experimental de corte transversal, con el objetivo de caracterizar clínica y epidemiológica-mente el estado de la TB resistente a medicamentos de primera línea en la ciudad de Durán, desde enero 2015 hasta diciembre 2019. Los datos incluidos en los documentos de la matriz del programa de tuberculosis resistente. De 1111 casos nuevos de tuberculosis reportados en el cantón Durán durante el período estudiado, 45 de estos presentaron resistencia a medicamentos de primera línea. El 88,89% tuvo resistencia a rifampicina, el 33,33% de los pacientes se dispen-sarizaron en 2019. Los valores de chi cuadrado de Pearson no mostraron asociación estadística-mente significativa entre las variables investigadas (p>0,05). Entre los involucrados predominó el grupo de edades de 20 a 39 años, el sexo masculino, la tuberculosis pulmonar, infectados con VIH/sida, resistencia clasificada como primaria, los que abandonaron el seguimiento al trata-miento y la no manifestación de reacciones adversas a los medicamentos. No se observó mortali-dad entre los casos nuevos, predominando entre aquellos con recaída, el género masculino y los que tuvieron tuberculosis extrapulmonar.


Tuberculosis is a disease that continues to be a public health problem. In this regard, a non-expe-rimental cross-sectional study was carried out to characterize clinically and epidemiologically the status of TB resistant to first-line drugs in the city of Durán, from January 2015 to December 2019. The data included in the resistant tuberculosis program matrix documents. 1111 new cases of tuberculosis were reported in the Duran canton during the study period, 45 of these ones presented resistance to first-line drugs. 88.89% had rifampicin resistance, 33.33% of the patients were dispensed in 2019. Pearson's chi-square values did not show a statistically significant asso-ciation between the investigated variables (p> 0.05). Among the study population, it was predo-minated the age group between 20 and 39, male sex, pulmonary tuberculosis, infected with HIV / AIDS, resistance classified as primary, those who abandoned the follow-up to treatment and the non-manifestation of adverse drug reactions. No mortality was observed among new cases, predominantly among those ones with relapse, the male gender and those ones who had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Patients , Tuberculosis , Drug Resistance , Therapeutics , Epidemiologic Factors , HIV
18.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 58: e4302022, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375696

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Female patient, 29 years old, with systemic lupus erythematosus in current use of prednisone and azathioprine, presents with bulging in the forearms, lumbar region and left thigh for 15 days. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of serous collections in these locations. The material was punctured and the samples were sent to the laboratory. The microbiological examination revealed the presence of acid-resistant bacilli and blood culture in a specific medium was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Molecular and immunochromatographic tests were positive for M. tuberculosis, and the diagnosis of Tuberculous Piomyositis was closed.


RESUMO Paciente do sexo feminino, 29 anos de idade, com diagnóstico de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em uso atual de prednisona e azatioprina, se apresenta com abaulamentos em antebraços, região lombar e coxa esquerda há 15 dias. A ultrassonografia e a ressonância magnética evidenciaram presença de coleções nesses locais cuja punção do material revelou presença de bacilos álcool ácido resistentes e a hemocultura, em meio específico, foi positiva para Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O teste molecular e imunocromatográfico também foram positivos para M. tuberculosis, com diagnóstico final de Piomiosite Tuberculosa.

19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20210384, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375730

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease. Treatment requires multiple antimicrobial agents used for extended periods of time. The present study sought to evaluate the treatment success rate of bedaquiline-based regimens in MDR-TB patients. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published up to March 15, 2021. The pooled treatment success rates and 95% CIs were assessed with the fixed-effect model or the random-effects model. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant for publication bias. Results: A total of 2,679 articles were retrieved by database searching. Of those, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 25 were observational studies (including a total of 3,536 patients) and 4 were experimental studies (including a total of 440 patients). The pooled treatment success rate was 74.7% (95% CI, 69.8-79.0) in the observational studies and 86.1% (95% CI, 76.8-92.1; p = 0.00; I2 = 75%) in the experimental studies. There was no evidence of publication bias (p > 0.05). Conclusions: In patients with MDR-TB receiving bedaquiline, culture conversion and treatment success rates are high even in cases of extensive resistance.


RESUMO Objetivo: A tuberculose multirresistente (MDR-TB, do inglês multidrug-resistant tuberculosis) é uma doença infecciosa potencialmente fatal. O tratamento exige múltiplos agentes antimicrobianos usados durante longos períodos. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a taxa de sucesso de esquemas terapêuticos com bedaquilina em pacientes com MDR-TB. Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise de estudos publicados até 15 de março de 2021. As taxas combinadas de sucesso do tratamento e os IC95% foram avaliados por meio do modelo de efeito fixo ou do modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos para viés de publicação. Resultados: Por meio de buscas eletrônicas em bancos de dados, foram recuperados 2.679 artigos. Destes, 29 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Destes, 25 eram estudos observacionais (com um total de 3.536 pacientes) e 4 eram estudos experimentais (com um total de 440 pacientes). A taxa combinada de sucesso do tratamento foi de 74,7% (IC95%: 69,8-79,0) nos estudos observacionais e de 86,1% (IC95%: 76,8-92,1; p = 0,00; I2 = 75%) nos estudos experimentais. Não foram encontradas evidências de viés de publicação (p > 0,05). Conclusões: Em pacientes com MDR-TB tratados com bedaquilina, as taxas de conversão da cultura e sucesso do tratamento são altas mesmo em casos de resistência extensa.

20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375735

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as medidas de confinamento específicas de cada país e os indicadores de tuberculose coletados durante o primeiro ano da pandemia de COVID-19. Dados referentes a confinamento/restrições sociais (uso obrigatório de máscaras faciais e higiene obrigatória das mãos; restrições a viagens internacionais e locais; restrições a visitas familiares e fechamento das escolas) foram coletados de 24 países em cinco continentes. A maioria dos países implantou múltiplos confinamentos, com reabertura parcial ou total. Houve uma redução geral dos casos de tuberculose ativa, tuberculose resistente e tuberculose latente. Embora os confinamentos nacionais tenham sido eficazes na contenção dos casos de COVID-19, vários indicadores de tuberculose foram afetados durante a pandemia.

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