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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 161-175, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376515


Abstract Introduction: The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is commonly used as a marker of aortic stenosis (AS) disease severity and to indicate surgical intervention. However, an LVEF <50% identifies mainly advanced disease. Hence, earlier detection of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction may improve clinical decision-making. The global longitudinal strain (GLS) can identify subclinical systolic dysfunction at earlier stages of AS progression even in the presence of preserved LVEF. To this end, we evaluated the preoperative prognostic significance of the LVGLS to identify patients who will undergo a more extensive postoperative LV reverse remodeling as a surrogate marker for clinical recovery. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study based on detailed pre- and postoperative 2D transthoracic echocardiographic examinations, including strain analysis with speckle tracking. We screened 60 consecutive patients with severe AS and a preoperative LVEF ≥50% indicated for surgery; 39 patients met the study entry criteria and consented to their participation. Results: The median age was 67 (range 30-79) years; 56.4% were female. At baseline, the GLS was 61.64±7.22%. Surgery led to an improvement in the GLS; the mean difference was 3.23% [95% CI=1.96 to 4.49%] during a median follow up time of 5 (interquartile range 4-6) months. The preoperative GLS correlated with the postoperative LV mass index (LVMI) r=0.526, P=0.001 and the intraventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) r=0.462, P=0.003. Furthermore, patients with a normal GLS (≤-18.9%) at baseline experienced a better recovery of their LV morphology and systolic function during the postoperative course compared to those with an abnormal GLS (>-18.9%). The effect size, hedges g, was at least >0.75 for the LVMI, IVSd, intraventricular septal thickness in systole (IVSs), left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWd) and LVEF, suggesting a clinically significant difference between subgroups at follow-up. Conclusion: A normal preoperative left ventricular global longitudinal strain is associated with an improved left ventricular reverse remodeling and systolic function following surgery to resolve aortic stenosis.

Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 37(2): 153-160, Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376521


ABSTRACT Introduction: Aortic stenosis is the most common heart valve disease in the world, and patients that present with symptoms have a high mortality rate. Aortic valve replacement has the objective of promote left ventricular remodeling, reduce symptoms, and increase overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate reverse remodeling of the left ventricle in patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent surgical or percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods: This is a longitudinal, prospective, non-concurrent, non-randomized unicentric study with patients who underwent aortic valve replacement. Echocardiogram was performed before and after replacement procedure to evaluate several remodeling indexes. Results: Of 91 patients, 77 (84.6%) underwent surgical aortic valve replacement, and 14 (15.4%) underwent percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Mean age was 68,96±11,98 years, and most patients were male. Remodeling evaluation revealed that patients who decreased left ventricular index mass (53% vs. 38.9%; P=0,019) and those who reduced the mass/volume ratio (30.4% vs. 68.9%; P<0,001) presented with positive left ventricular remodeling. No endpoint difference was found in those with positive remodeling. Conclusion: Regarding the left ventricular remodeling in patients with severe and symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who underwent percutaneous transcatheter or surgical valve replacement, there is a positive increment in remodeling, however it remains in concentric hypertrophic shape. Implication of these findings remains uncertain and to be studied in large dedicated trials with clinical endpoints.

Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 29(2): 139-144, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376870


Abstract Introduction: Hyperglycemia has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of chronic hyperglycemia on in-hospital and short-term outcome in patients with acute anterior MI treated with streptokinase as thrombolytic therapy. Materials and methods: A total of 100 patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction received streptokinase as thrombolytic therapy were enrolled. They were classified according to the admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level into two groups: Chronic hyperglycemic group (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) (36 patients) and non-chronic hyperglycemic group (HbA1c <6.5%) (64 patients). Laboratory investigation, conventional echocardiography, and speckle tracking were performed. Results: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was significantly lower in patients with chronic hyperglycemia group compared to non-chronic hyperglycemia group (−13.52 ± 4.83 vs. −15.27 ± 1.87%, p = 0.009). In-hospital outcome: Heart failure and reinfarction were significantly increased in patients with chronic hyperglycemia (45.5 vs. 16.7% and 18.2 vs. 3.3%, respectively, p < 0.05). Six months outcome: Heart failure, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, arrhythmias, and bleeding rates were significantly increased in patients with chronic hyperglycemia (41.9 vs. 12.1%, 51.6 vs. 13.8%, 6.5 vs. 1.7%, and 6.5 vs. 1.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). GLS cutoff value ≥ −13.5 has the best diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV remodeling (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 93%, positive predictive value: 94%, negative predictive value: 100%, accuracy: 97%, and area under curve: 0.99). Conclusion: Chronic hyperglycemia had higher incidence of heart failure and LV remodeling following acute MI. GLS can be used as a predictor of LV remodeling.

Resumen Introducción: La hiperglucemia tiene un impacto negativo sobre la morbimortalidad en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la hiperglucemia crónica sobre el desenlace hospitalario y a corto plazo en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) anterior, tratados con estreptoquinasa como terapia trombolítica. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron un total de 100 pacientes con IAM anterior, quienes recibieron estreptoquinasa como terapia trombolítica. Se clasificaron en dos grupos de acuerdo con el nivel de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c) al ingreso: el grupo con hiperglucemia crónica (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) (36 pacientes) y el grupo sin hiperglucemia crónica (HbA1c <6.5%) (64 pacientes). Se practicaron estudios de laboratorio, y ecocardiografía convencional y con rastreo de marcas. Resultados: El strain longitudinal global (SLG) fue significativamente menor en pacientes del grupo con hiperglucemia crónica comparados con los del grupo sin hiperglucemia crónica (−13.52 ± 4.83 vs. −15.27 ± 1.87%, p = 0.009). Desenlace hospitalario: La falla cardíaca y el reinfarto aumentaron significativamente en los pacientes con hiperglucemia crónica (45.5 vs. 16.7% y 18.2 vs. 3.3%, respectivamente, p < 0.05). Desenlace a los seis meses: Las tasas de falla cardíaca, remodelación del ventrículo izquierdo (VI), arritmia, y sangrado aumentaron significativamente en pacientes con hiperglucemia crónica (41.9 vs. 12.1%, 51.6 vs. 13.8%, 6.5 vs. 1.7% y 6.5 vs. 1.7%, respectivamente, p < 0.05). El punto de corte de SLG ≥ −13.5 tiene la mejor precisión diagnóstica para predecir la remodelación del VI (sensibilidad: 100%, especificidad: 93%, VPP: 94%, VPN: 100%, precisión: 97% y área bajo la curva -AUC-: 0.99). Conclusión: La hiperglucemia crónica tuvo una mayor frecuencia de falla cardíaca y remodelación del VI luego de un infarto agudo de miocardio. El SLG se puede utilizar como predictor de la remodelación del VI.

Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 113-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356305


Abstract ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide. Reperfusion therapy is strongly associated with the prognosis of STEMI and must be performed with a high standard of quality and without delay. A systematic review of different reperfusion strategies for STEMI was conducted, including randomized controlled trials that included major cardiovascular events (MACE), and systematic reviews in the last 5 years through the PRISMA ( Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology. The research was done in the PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, in addition to a few manual searches. After the exclusion criteria were applied, 90 articles were selected for this review. Despite the reestablishment of IRA patency in PCI for STEMI, microvascular lesions occur in a significant proportion of these patients, which can compromise ventricular function and clinical course. Several therapeutic strategies - intracoronary administration of nicorandil, nitrates, melatonin, antioxidant drugs (quercetin, glutathione), anti-inflammatory substances (tocilizumab [an inhibitor of interleukin 6], inclacumab, P-selectin inhibitor), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), erythropoietin and ischemic pre- and post-conditioning and stem cell therapy - have been tested to reduce reperfusion injury, ventricular remodeling and serious cardiovascular events, with heterogeneous results: These therapies need confirmation in larger studies to be implemented in clinical practice

Prognosis , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion Injury , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Health Strategies , Thrombectomy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Electrocardiography/methods , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Ischemic Postconditioning , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Myocardial Revascularization
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931204


Objective:To study the effect of sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets on serum tenascin-C (TN-C) level and myocardial remodeling in patients of chronic left heart failure (CHF) complicated with renal failure.Methods:A total of 84 patients with chronic left heart failure complicated with renal failure admitted to Qinhuangdao Jungong Hospital from October 2020 to October 2021 were included and divided into the observation group (treated with sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets) and the control group (treated with valsartan), with 42 cases in each group according to the random number table method. The clinical efficacy of the two groups was compared after 3 months of treatment. The TN-C level and cardiac function index left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), troponin T (cTnT) and other index before the treatment and after 3 months of treatment were compared between the two groups.Results:After 3 months of treatment, the total effective rate between the two groups had no significant difference ( P>0.05). After 3 months of treatment, the TN-C level in the observation group was lower than that in the control group: (32.42 ± 4.22) μg/L vs. (37.32 ± 4.86) μg/L; and the LVEF in the observation group was higher than that in the control group: (41.21 ± 5.39)% vs. (37.76 ± 5.45)%, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The LVEDD and cTnT in the two groups had no significant differences ( P>0.05). After 3 months of treatment, neuroendocrine factors norepinephrine, aldosterone, angiotensin Ⅱlevels in the in the observation group were lower than those in the control group: (1 668.60 ± 251.19) pmol/L vs. (2 005.86 ± 280.91) pmol/L, (246.97 ± 13.99) ng/L vs. (275.41 ± 19.38) ng/L, (99.68 ± 8.57) ng/L vs. (112.20 ± 9.52) ng/L, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Sacubitril valsartan sodium tablets have a good effect in the treatment of CHF complicated with renal failure, which can improve the cardiac function and inhibit the over-activation of neuroendocrine hormones.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931198


Objective:To analyze the application value of sakubatril valsartan in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) based on cardiopulmonary test system.Methods:One hundred and thirty-five CHF patients admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical Collegefrom January 2019 to August 2020 were divided into the observation group (67 cases) and the control group (68cases) by random number table method. Both groups were treated with bisoprolol. The observation group was treated with the combination of sakubatril valsartan, and the control group was treated with the combination of benapril. The efficacy and cardiac function indicators of the two groups were compared. The cardiopulmonary exercise test system was used to measure the patient′s maximum exercise time (Tmax), maximum exercise Watt (Wmax), peak volume oxygen (Peak VO 2) and volume of anaerobic threshold oxygen (VO 2AT), and the incidence of adverse reactions were calculated. Results:The total effective rate in the observation group was higher than that in the control group: 92.54% (62/67) vs. 77.94%(53/68), the difference was statistically significant ( χ2 = 5.70, P<0.05). After the treatment, the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and soluble ST2 (sST2) in the observation group were lower than those in the control group: (2 000.47 ± 517.85) ng/L vs. (2 777.39 ± 812.49) ng/L, (0.33 ± 0.10) μg/L vs. (0.37 ± 0.09) μg/L, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was higher than that in the control group: (8.12 ± 6.44)% vs. (41.93 ± 6.73)%, the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). After the treatment, the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVEDs), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left atrial volume index (LAVI) in the observation group were lower than those in the control group: (55.47 ± 6.93) mm vs. (62.00 ± 7.18) mm, (37.14 ± 6.36) mm vs. (41.35 ± 6.43) mm, (136.76 ± 7.13) mg/m 2 vs. (140.98 ± 7.47) mg/m 2, (28.23 ± 2.59) ml/m 2 vs. (31.98 ± 2.17) ml/m 2; the Tmax, Wmax, PeakVO 2 and VO 2AT in the observation group were higher than those in the control group: (619.08 ± 65.36) s vs. (58.70 ± 52.44) s, (142.96 ± 16.05) W vs. (124.19 ± 13.38) W, (20.00 ± 5.74) ml/(min·kg) vs. (18.13 ± 3.58) ml/(min·kg), (13.89 ± 3.69) ml/(min·kg) vs. (11.23 ± 2.36) ml/(min·kg), the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusions:Sakubatril valsartan in the treatment of CHF can not only optimize the efficacy and improve cardiac function, but also benefit cardiac exercise rehabilitation of patients, and not increase the safety risk.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931143


Objective:To investigate the effect of gene polymorphism of β1 adrenergic receptor (β1-AR) G1165C and A145G locus on myocardial hypertrophy and the efficacy in patients with hypertension.Methods:Two hundred and twenty-seven cases of patients with hypertension admitted to Binhai County People′s Hospital from January to December 2019 were enrolled. Among them, there were 113 cases of hypertension with myocardial hypertrophy and 114 cases of hypertension without myocardial hypertrophy. In addition, 115 patients with normal physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. DNA in the peripheral blood leukocytes was extracted, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to detect β1-AR G1165C and A145G locus gene polymorphism, and the differences in the efficacy of β blockers in hypertensive patients with different genotypes were compared.Results:There was no statistically significant differences in the distribution of β1-AR A145G genotypes among the three groups ( P>0.05). Compared with the healthy control group, the frequency of Gly/Gly genotype carrying β1-AR G1165C locus was higher in hypertension with myocardial hypertrophy group, and the frequency of Gly/Arg and Arg/Arg gene were lower; compared with hypertension without myocardial hypertrophy group, the frequency of Gly/Arg+Gly/Gly gene in hypertension with myocardial hypertrophy group was higher; taking Arg/Arg genotype as the control group, carrying Gly/Gly genotype could increase the risk of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive patients by 3.159 times ( OR = 3.159, 95% CI 1.240 - 7.412, P<0.05).The frequency of G1165C allele Arg in the hypertension with myocardial hypertrophy group was significantly lower than that in the control group and the hypertension without myocardial hypertrophy group ( P<0.05); the frequency of G1165C allele Gly was significantly higher than that in the control group and the hypertension without myocardial hypertrophy group ( P<0.05); taking Arg/Arg genotype as the control, carrying Gly/Gly genotype could increase the risk of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive ( OR = 3.417, 95% CI 1.357 - 7.965, P<0.05). The left ventricular mass index of Gly/Gly genotype patients was (120.38 ± 28.41) g/m 2, which was significantly higher than (99.76 ± 25.16) g/m 2 and (90.30 ± 19.54) g/m 2 of Gly/Arg and Arg/Arg, with statistically significant differences ( F = 10.89, P<0.01). After the treatment, the resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure of patients with G1165C allele Arg hypertension with myocardial hypertrophy were lower than those with G1165C allele Gly, with statistically significant differences ( P<0.05). Conclusions:β1-AR G1165C gene polymorphism is related to the risk of myocardial hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Carrying the G1165C allele Gly may increase the risk of susceptibility to cardiac hypertrophy, and β-blockers are more effective in hypertensive patients with myocardial hypertrophy who carry the G1165C allele Arg.

Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(5): 970-978, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248893


Resumo Fundamento: A vitamina D (VD) tem um importante papel na função cardíaca. No entanto, a vitamina exerce uma curva "dose-resposta" bifásica na fisiopatologia cardiovascular e pode causar efeitos deletérios, mesmo em doses não tóxicas. A VD exerce suas funções celulares ligando-se ao seu receptor. Ainda, a expressão da proteína de interação com a tiorredoxina (TXNIP) é positivamente regulada pela VD. A TXNIP modula diferentes visa de sinalização celular que podem ser importantes para a remodelação cardíaca. Objetivos: Avaliar se a suplementação com VD leva à remodelação cardíaca, e se a TXNIP e a tiorredoxina (Trx) estão associadas com esse processo. Métodos: Duzentos e cinquenta ratos Wistar machos foram alocados em três grupos: controle (C, n=21), sem suplementação com VD; VD3 (n = 22) e VD10 (n=21), suplementados com 3,000 e 10,000 UI de VD/ kg de ração, respectivamente, por dois meses. Os grupos foram comparados por análise de variância (ANOVA) com um fator e teste post hoc de Holm-Sidak (variáveis com distribuição normal), ou pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e análise post-hoc de Dunn. O nível de significância para todos os testes foi de 5%. Resultados: A expressão de TXNIP foi mais alta e a atividade do Trx foi mais baixa no grupo VD10. Os animais que receberam suplementação com VD apresentaram aumento de hidroperóxido lipídico e diminuição de superóxido dismutase e glutationa peroxidase. A proteína Bcl-2 foi mais baixa no grupo VD10. Observou-se uma diminuição na β-oxidação de ácidos graxos, no ciclo do ácido tricarboxílico, na cadeia transportadora de elétrons, e um aumento na via glicolítica. Conclusão: A suplementação com VD levou à remodelação cardíaca e esse processo pode ser modulado por TXNIP e Trx, e consequentemente por estresse oxidativo.

Abstract Background: Vitamin D (VD) has been shown to play an important role in cardiac function. However, this vitamin exerts a biphasic "dose response" curve in cardiovascular pathophysiology and may cause deleterious effects, even in non-toxic doses. VD exerts its cellular functions by binding to VD receptor. Additionally, it was identified that the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression is positively regulated by VD. TXNIP modulate different cell signaling pathways that may be important for cardiac remodeling. Objective: To evaluate whether VD supplementation lead to cardiac remodeling and if TXNIP and thioredoxin (Trx) proteins are associated with the process. Methods: A total of 250 Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control (C, n=21), with no VD supplementation; VD3 (n = 22) and VD10 (n=21), supplemented with 3,000 and 10,000 IU of VD/ kg of chow respectively, for two months. The groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Holm-Sidak post hoc analysis, (variables with normal distribution), or by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's test post hoc analysis. The significance level for all tests was 5%. Results: TXNIP protein expression was higher and Trx activity was lower in VD10. The animals supplemented with VD showed increased lipid hydroperoxide and decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The protein Bcl-2 was lower in VD10. There was a decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain with shift to increase in glycolytic pathway. Conclusion: VD supplementation led to cardiac remodeling and this process may be modulated by TXNIP and Trx proteins and consequently oxidative stress.

Animals , Male , Rats , Thioredoxins/metabolism , Ventricular Remodeling , Vitamin D , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Cell Cycle Proteins , Dietary Supplements
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1127-1136, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278317


Resumo Fundamento O suco de laranja (SL) é rico em polifenóis com propriedades anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes. Após o infarto do miocárdio (IM), mudanças complexas ocorrem na estrutura e na função cardíacas, processo conhecido como remodelação cardíaca (RC). O estresse oxidativo e a inflamação podem modular esse processo. Nossa hipótese foi a de que o consumo de SL atenua a RC após o IM. Objetivos Avaliar a influência do SL sobre a RC após IM pela análise de variáveis funcionais, morfológicas, de estresse oxidativo, de inflação, e de metabolismo energético. Métodos Um total de 242 ratos machos pesando entre 200 e 250g foram submetidos a um procedimento cirúrgico (ligação da artéria coronária ou cirurgia simulada). Sete dia após a cirurgia, os animais sobreviventes foram divididos para um dos quatro grupos: 1) SM, animais sham que receberam água e maltodextrina (n= 20); 2) SSL, animais sham que receberam SL (n= 20); 3) IM, animais infartados que receberam água e maltodextrina (n= 40); e 4) ISL, animais infartados que receberam SL (n = 40). A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de ANOVA com dois fatores com o teste de Holm-Sidak. Os resultados foram apresentados em média ± desvio padrão, e o nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Três meses depois, o IM levou à hipertrofia do ventrículo esquerdo (VE), com disfunção sistólica e diastólica, e aumento nos mediadores inflamatórios e de estresse oxidativo. Os animais que consumiram SL apresentaram menor atividade da glutationa peroxidase e maior expressão da heme-oxigenase-1 (HO-1). Conclusão O SL atenuou a RC, e a HO-1 pode exercer um importante papel nesse processo.

Abstract Background Orange juice (OJ) is rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. After myocardial infarction (MI), complex changes occur in cardiac structure and function, which is known as cardiac remodeling (CR). Oxidative stress and inflammation can modulate this process. We hypothesized that the consumption of OJ attenuates the CR after MI. Objectives To evaluate the influence of OJ on CR after MI by analysis of functional, morphological, oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy metabolism variables. Methods A total of 242 male rats weighing 200-250 g were submitted to a surgical procedure (coronary artery ligation or simulated surgery). Seven days after surgery, survivors were assigned to one of the four groups 1) SM, sham animals with water and maltodextrin (n= 20); 2) SOJ, sham animals with OJ (n= 20); 3) IM, infarcted animals with water and maltodextrin (n= 40); and 4) IOJ, infarcted animals with OJ (n = 40). Statistical analysis was performed by the two-way ANOVA supplemented by Holm-Sidak. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation, the level of significance adopted was 5%. Results After 3 months, MI led to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and increased oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. OJ intake reduced LV cavity and improved systolic and diastolic function. The OJ animals presented lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and higher expression of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Conclusion OJ attenuated CR in infarcted rats and HO-1 may be play an important role in this process.

Animals , Male , Rats , Citrus sinensis , Myocardial Infarction , Systole , Ventricular Remodeling , Heart
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 784-792, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285193


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico tem sido considerado uma importante terapia não farmacológica para a prevenção e tratamento das doenças cardiovasculares. No entanto, seus efeitos na remodelação cardíaca leve não são claros. Objetivo: Avaliar a influência do exercício aeróbico sobre a capacidade funcional, estrutura cardíaca, função ventricular esquerda (VE) e expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno (IM). Métodos: Três meses após a indução do IM, ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: Sham; IM sedentário (IM-SED); e IM exercício aeróbico (IM-EA). Os ratos se exercitaram em uma esteira três vezes por semana durante 12 semanas. Um ecocardiograma foi realizado antes e após o treinamento. O tamanho do infarto foi avaliado por histologia e a expressão gênica por RT-PCR. O nível de significância para análise estatística foi estabelecido em 5%. Resultados: Ratos com IM menor que 30% da área total do VE foram incluídos no estudo. A capacidade funcional foi maior no IM-EA do que nos ratos Sham e IM-SED. O tamanho do infarto não diferiu entre os grupos. Ratos infartados apresentaram aumento do diâmetro diastólico e sistólico do VE, diâmetro do átrio esquerdo e massa do VE, com disfunção sistólica. A espessura relativa da parede foi menor no grupo IM-SED do que nos grupos IM-EA e Sham. A expressão gênica das subunidades NADPH oxidase NOX2, NOX4, p22phox e p47phox não diferiu entre os grupos. Conclusão: Infarto do miocárdio pequeno altera a estrutura cardíaca e a função sistólica do VE. O exercício aeróbico tardio pode melhorar a capacidade funcional e a remodelação cardíaca por meio da preservação da geometria ventricular esquerda. A expressão gênica das subunidades da NADPH oxidase não está envolvida na remodelação cardíaca, nem é modulada pelo exercício aeróbico em ratos com infarto do miocárdio pequeno.

Abstract Background: Physical exercise has been considered an important non-pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its effects on minor cardiac remodeling are not clear. Objective: To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on the functional capacity, cardiac structure, left ventricular (LV) function, and gene expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in rats with small-sized myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Three months after MI induction, Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Sham; sedentary MI (MI-SED); and aerobic exercised MI (MI-AE). The rats exercised on a treadmill three times a week for 12 weeks. An echocardiogram was performed before and after training. The infarction size was evaluated by histology, and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The significance level for statistical analysis was set at 5%. Results: Rats with MI lower than 30% of the LV total area were included in the study. Functional capacity was higher in MI-AE than in Sham and MI-SED rats. The infarction size did not differ between groups. Infarcted rats had increased LV diastolic and systolic diameter, left atrial diameter, and LV mass, with systolic dysfunction. Relative wall thickness was lower in MI-SED than in the MI-AE and Sham groups. Gene expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits NOX2, NOX4, p22phox, and p47phox did not differ between groups. Conclusion: Small-sized MI changes cardiac structure and LV systolic function. Late aerobic exercise is able to improve functional capacity and cardiac remodeling by preserving the left ventricular geometry. NADPH oxidase subunits gene expression is not involved in cardiac remodeling or modulated by aerobic exercise in rats with small-sized MI.

Animals , Rats , Ventricular Remodeling , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Exercise , Rats, Wistar , Heart
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905075


Objective:To discuss clinical effect of Shexiang Tongxin pills to syndrome of Qi deficiency and blood stasis in ischemic heart failure (IHF) and to study the mechanism to myocardial fibrosis and vascular regeneration. Method:One hundred and forty patients were randomly divided into observation group (70 cases) and control group (70 cases) with the same cases. 66 patients in control group finish the therapy (3 patients fall off or lost visit, 1 were eliminated). 65 patients in observation group completed the therapy (4 patients were falling off, 1 were eliminated). Both groups patients got combined treatment according to the guiding. Patients in control group got simulated medicine of Shexiang Tongxin pills, 2 pills/time, 3 times/day. Patients in observation group got Shexiang Tongxin pills, 2 pills/time, 3 times/day. The treatment was continued for 24 weeks. Before and after treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), end diastolic diameter (LVEDd), left posterior wall thickness (LVPW), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular remodeling index (LVRI) were measured by echocardiography. And scores of six minute walking test (6 MWT), Lee's heart failure score, Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome score and Minnesota Heart Failure Quality of life questionnaire (MLHFQ) were graded. And levels of N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), soluble ST2 (sST2), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor-2 (TIMP-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin1 (Ang1) and angiopoietin2 (Ang2), and the safety was evaluated. Result:The total clinical effect in observation group was 90.77% (59/65) higher than 74.24% (49/66) in control group (χ2=6.179, P<0.05). Levels of LVEF, CO, LVRI, 6 MWT, TIMP-2, IGF-1, VEGF and Ang1 were higher than those in control group (P<0.01). And levels of LVEDd, LVPW and LVMI were lower than those in control group (P<0.05), levels of NT-proBNP, TGF-β1, sST2, MMP-2 and Ang2 were lower than those in control group (P<0.01), scores of Lee's heart failure score, Qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome score and MLHFQ were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Besides, there was no adverse reactions caused by Shexiang Tongxin dropping pills. Conclusion:On the basis of conventional western medicine treatment, Shexiang Tongxin drop pills can improve the ventricular remodeling, improve the heart function, reduce the clinical symptoms, increase the exercise tolerance and quality of life of the patients by affecting the myocardial fibrosis and vascular regeneration factor, which has better clinical efficacy and safety.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911249


Objective:To evaluate the relationship between edaravone-induced inhibition of pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling and angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1R)/mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) signaling pathway in rats.Methods:Thirty-six clean-grade healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 2 months, weighing 200-220 g, were divided into 3 groups ( n=12 each) using a random number table method: sham operation group (S group), pressure overload group (POL group) and edaravone group (E group). The cardiac pressure overload was induced by ligation of thoracic aorta for 8 weeks.After the model preparation, 0.9% sodium chloride 10 ml/kg was intraperitoneally injected daily in group POL, and edaravone 10 mg/kg was given instead in group E for 8 consecutive weeks.After the model was successfully established, the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular shortening fraction (FS) were measured by two-dimensional ultrasound.The animals were sacrificed by bloodletting, and the heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW ratio) was calculated.Myocardial tissues were obtained for determination of the cross-sectional area (MSA) after HE staining, the collagen volume fraction (CVF) (using Masson′s staining), the expression of AT1R and StAR (by immunohistochemistry), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK phosphorylation levels (p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio) (by Western blot) and the aldosterone content (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Results:Compared with group S, the HW/BW ratio, MSA and CVF were significantly increased, EF and FS were decreased, AT1R and StAR expression was up-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio and aldosterone content were increased in group POL ( P<0.05). Compared with POL group, the HW/BW ratio, MSA and CVF were significantly decreased, EF and FS were increased, AT1R and StAR expression was down-regulated, and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2 ratio, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio and aldosterone content were decreased in group E ( P<0.05). Conclusion:The mechanism of edaravone-induced inhibition of pressure overload-induced myocardial remodeling is probably associated with inhibiting the activation of AT1R/MAPKs/StAR signaling pathway in rats.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910096


Objective:To compare the left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) between patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) stenosis and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) stenosis.Methods:The data of patients who underwent TAVR procedure from March 2013 to December 2018 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into BAV group and TAV group according to cardiac computed tomography. Echocardiographic parameters, including aortic valve peak velocity (Vmax), mean gradient (PGmean), effective orifice area(EOA), interventricular septum diastolic thickness (IVSd), left ventricular posterior wall diastolic thickness (LVPWd), left ventricular end diastolic diameter( LVEDd), LV mass index (LVMI), ΔLVMI%, left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF) of the two groups at baseline, 1 week, 1 month and 1 year post TAVR procedure were obtained and compared.Results:①Compared with preoperative measurements, both groups showed decreases in Vmax, PGmean and increase in EOA at 1 week, 1 month, 1 year follow-ups(all P<0.05). No significant differences were found in Vmax, PGmean, EOA, moderate/sever perivalvular leakage(PVL), moderate/sever prosthetic-patient mismatch(PPM) between BAV group and TAV group at 1 year. ②Both groups showed decreases in IVSd, LVPWd, LVEDd at 1 month, 1 year post TAVR compared with those before the procedure (all P<0.05), as well as increases in LVEF at 1 week, 1 month, 1 year (all P<0.05). Downward trends of LVMI were detected in both groups within 1 year follow-up( P<0.05). ③Compared to TAV group, BAV group showed smaller baseline LVMI( P<0.05), while there were no significant differences in ΔLVMI% post TAVR for all follow-up times of the two groups(all P>0.05). Repeated measures analysis of variance also showed no significant differences in downward trend of LVMI between the two groups after TAVR within 1 year( P>0.05). Conclusions:Left ventricular reverse remodeling can be detected in both BAV and TAV patients after TAVR, which starts from 1 week and can be lasted for 1 year post procedure. Patients with bicuspid morphology might experience similar reverse LV remodeling post TAVR versus patients with tricuspid morphology.

Clinics ; 76: e3020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350621


OBJECTIVES: Acute cellular rejection (ACR) remains a major complication of heart transplant (HT). The gold standard for its diagnosis is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), whereas the role of non-invasive biomarkers for detecting ACR is unclear. This study aimed to identify non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of ACR in patients undergoing HT and presenting with normal left ventricular function. METHODS: We evaluated patients who underwent HT at a single center between January 2010 and June 2019. Patients were enrolled after HT, and those with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction before EMB were excluded. We included only the results of the first EMB performed at least 30 days after HT (median, 90 days). Troponin, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured and echocardiography was performed up to 7 days before EMB. ACR was defined as International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade 2R or 3R on EMB. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify the non-invasive predictors of ACR (2R or 3R) and evaluated the accuracy of each using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 72 patients after HT (51.31±13.63 years; 25 [34.7%] women); of them, 9 (12.5%) developed ACR. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, we performed forward stepwise selection (entry criteria, p<0.05). The only independent predictors that remained in the model were CRP level and LV mass index. The optimal cut-off point for CRP level was ≥15.9 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 11.7; p=0.007) and that for LV mass index was ≥111 g/m2 (OR, 13.6; p=0.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve derived from this model was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.99), with sensitivity of 85.7% (95% CI, 42.1%-99.6%), specificity of 78.4% (95% CI, 64.7%-88.7%), positive predictive value of 35.3% (95% CI, 14.3%-61.7%), and negative predictive value of 97.6% (95% CI, 87.1%-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing HT, CRP level and LV mass were directly associated with ACR, but troponin and BNP levels were not.

Humans , Male , Female , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Troponin , C-Reactive Protein , Biomarkers , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/pathology
Clinics ; 76: e2732, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278936


OBJECTIVES: Coronary artery disease is the primary cause of death and is responsible for a high number of hospitalizations worldwide. Ventricular remodeling is associated with worse prognosis following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is a risk factor for ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. This study aimed to identify the predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI. Additionally, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with anterior wall STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention in the acute phase and at 6 months after the infarction. METHODS: This prospective, observational, and longitudinal study included 50 patients with anterior wall STEMI who were admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) of a tertiary hospital in Brazil between July 2017 and August 2018. During the CCU stay, patients were evaluated daily and underwent echocardiogram within the first three days following STEMI. After six months, the patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiogram according to the local protocol. RESULTS: Differences were noted between those who developed ventricular remodeling and those who did not in the mean±standard deviation levels of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (CKMB) peak (no remodeling group: 323.7±228.2 U/L; remodeling group: 522.4±201.6 U/L; p=0.008) and the median and interquartile range of E/E' ratio (no remodeling group: 9.20 [8.50-11.25] and remodeling group: 12.60 [10.74-14.40]; p=0.004). This difference was also observed in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction and CKMB peak in the acute phase of STEMI can be predictors of ventricular remodeling following STEMI.

Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Echocardiography , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Remodeling