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Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 45-48, mar. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551689


El tumor neuroectodérmico maligno del tracto gastrointestinal es una neoplasia rara con pocos casos reportados en la literatura, especialmente en América Latina. Descrito por primera vez en 2003, se trata de una entidad sin tratamiento estandarizado y de pobre pronóstico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 22 años de edad que acude a la consulta por dolor abdominal, anemia y masa abdominal palpable. Luego de estudios pertinentes se decide la conducta resectiva y el posterior tratamiento oncológico. (AU)

Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET), formerly known as clear cell sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, is an extremely rare tumor of mesenchymal origin, which presents great microscopic and molecular similarity to clear cell sarcoma found in other parts of the body, such as tendons and aponeurosis. It is characterized by its rapid evolution, high recurrence rate and frequent diagnosis as metastatic disease.1,2 (AU)

Humans , Female , Young Adult , Sarcoma, Clear Cell/pathology , Neuroectodermal Tumors/pathology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Immunohistochemistry , S100 Proteins/analysis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/surgery , Ileum/surgery
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814


SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.

Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 83: e0003, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1529931


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar o perfil dos doadores de tecidos oculares humanos na área de atuação do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba, destacando o impacto da sorologia positiva para hepatite B no descarte dos tecidos para transplante. Métodos: O estudo é transversal e utilizou dados do Banco de Olhos da Paraíba entre janeiro de 2013 e dezembro de 2022. Dados sobre procedência, idade, sexo, causa do óbito, tempo entre óbito e enucleação, resultados sorológicos e motivo de descarte das córneas dos doadores foram coletados. Resultados: O maior motivo de descarte foi por sorologia positiva (56,5%), sendo positivadas as sorologias positivas para hepatite B e HBsAg em 11,1% e 4,75% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Conclusão: A sorologia positiva para hepatite B como um critério de descarte absoluto é responsável por grande parcela de descartes, apesar da pouca informação sobre suas repercussões e representação de infectividade nos receptores do transplante.

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the profile of human ocular tissue donors in the area covered by the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB), highlighting the impact of positive serology for hepatitis B (anti-HBc) in the disposal of tissues for transplantation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional that uses data from the Eye Bank of Paraíba (PB) between January 2013 and December 2022. Data on origin, age, sex, cause of death, time between death and enucleation, serological results, and reason for discarded donor corneas were collected. Results: The main reason for discarding was due to positive serology (56.5%), with positive anti-HBc and HBsAg serology in 11.1% and 4.75% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Anti-HBc positive serology as an absolute disposal criterion is responsible for great part of disposals, despite little information about its repercussions and representation of infectivity in transplant recipients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Corneal Transplantation/standards , Corneal Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Donor Selection/standards , Eye Banks/standards , Hepatitis B Antibodies/analysis , Serologic Tests/standards , Hepatitis B virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/legislation & jurisprudence , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/transmission , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/analysis
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 30: e20230046, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1528980


Tityus serrulatus scorpion is responsible for a significant number of envenomings in Brazil, ranging from mild to severe, and in some cases, leading to fatalities. While supportive care is the primary treatment modality, moderate and severe cases require antivenom administration despite potential limitations and adverse effects. The remarkable proliferation of T. serrulatus scorpions, attributed to their biology and asexual reproduction, contributes to a high incidence of envenomation. T. serrulatus scorpion venom predominantly consists of short proteins acting as neurotoxins (α and ß), that primarily target ion channels. Nevertheless, high molecular weight compounds, including metalloproteases, serine proteases, phospholipases, and hyaluronidases, are also present in the venom. These compounds play a crucial role in envenomation, influencing the severity of symptoms and the spread of venom. This review endeavors to comprehensively understand the T. serrulatus scorpion venom by elucidating the primary high molecular weight compounds and exploring their potential contributions to envenomation. Understanding these compounds' mechanisms of action can aid in developing more effective treatments and prevention strategies, ultimately mitigating the impact of scorpion envenomation on public health in Brazil.

Animals , Scorpion Venoms/analysis , Scorpion Venoms/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases , Phospholipases , Glycoproteins , Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e243355, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1551649


Aim: This study aimed to perform an in vitro comparative analysis of the antifungal activity of different calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers against three fungal species. Methods: The antifungal properties of three calcium silicate-based sealers were tested: Bio-C Sealer, Cambiar a Sealer Plus BC, and MTA-Fillapex. Two commonly used sealers were used as controls: AH Plus and Endomethasone. An agar diffusion test was performed to analyze the antifungal activity of the sealers against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and a mixed microbial culture medium. The results were analyzed using ANOVA (p <0.05). Results: Endomethasone exhibited the highest inhibition against all strains examined, maintaining a consistent level of inhibition throughout 7 days. MTA-Fillapex demonstrated the best performance among the calcium silicate-based sealers for the three fungal species (p < 0.05), maintaining stable values over the 7 days, surpassing that of Endomethasone. Nevertheless, MTA-Fillapex only exhibited antimicrobial effect against the mixed culture for the first 24 hours, and no antimicrobial activity was observed at 48 hours, being surpassed by all tested sealers (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Of all silicate-based sealers tested, only MTA-Fillapex exhibited promising antifungal activity. Nevertheless, care must be taken when extrapolating these results, as MTA-Fillapex exhibited poor antimicrobial activity when tested in mixed microbial cultures

Root Canal Filling Materials , Silicate Cement , Bacteria , Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candida tropicalis , Endodontics , Antifungal Agents/analysis
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1535003


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the fluoride concentration of bottled waters from municipalities in northeastern Brazil. Material and Methods: Bottled mineral waters were purchased in two periods at different commercial places of four large municipalities (João Pessoa, Campina Grande, Patos, and Cajazeiras) in the Paraíba state. The municipalities selected to present the following annual average temperature: João Pessoa 26.5 °C, Campina Grande 23.3 °C, Patos and Cajazeiras 27.5 °C. Fluoride concentration was determined using a combined ion-specific electrode. Readings (in mV) were conducted in triplicates for each standard solution and converted into fluoride concentration (mg F/L) using the Excel® software. Results: A total of 72 samples from six brands of bottled water were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations of all samples were low (0.11-0.21mg/L) but higher than those reported on the label and varied among different batches of the same brand. Conclusion: The fluoride levels in bottled water vary among brands, and these actual values are not stated in the labels.

Drinking Water/analysis , Health Surveillance , Fluorides/analysis , Mineral Waters/analysis , Fluorosis, Dental , Brazil/epidemiology
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541


Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.

Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.

Animals , Fishes , Animal Feed/analysis , Pakistan , Body Composition , Ponds , Diet
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animals , Carps , Cyprinidae , Soybeans , Seafood , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250916, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345552


Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. The control diet was devoid of M. olifera leaves. The 10 weeks feeding trial was carried out on 60 fish in aquaria. Fish was fed @ 3% of body weight twice a day. Diet with the high level of inclusion of M. olifera leaves significantly increased the growth rate, Survival Rate (SR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and Feed Conversion Efficiency (FCE) in all treatment groups compared to the control group. Similarly, Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) gradually decreased and found highly-significant. To check the gut health of the Tilapia, random samples were selected and dissected. Nutrient agar was used as culture media to check the growth of bacteria. Pour Plate Method was used for viable colonies count by colony counter. Through staining method, the different bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identify abundantly in the intestine of control diet fish but less number present in treatment diets groups. These results showed that M. olifera leaves up to 10% of dietary protein can be used for Nile tilapia for significant growth and healthy gut microbiota of fish.

Resumo O estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da Moringa olifera no crescimento e saúde intestinal da tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus). A ração com 30% de proteína bruta foi preparada como dieta experimental com 4%, 8% e 10% de suplementação de folhas de M. olifera, respectivamente. A dieta controle foi desprovida de folhas de M. olifera. O ensaio de alimentação de 10 semanas foi realizado em 60 peixes em aquários. O peixe pesava 3% do peso corporal duas vezes ao dia. A dieta com alto nível de inclusão de folhas de M. olifera aumentou significativamente a taxa de crescimento, taxa de sobrevivência (SR), taxa de crescimento de sobrevivência (SGR) e eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) em todos os grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo de controle. Da mesma forma, a taxa de conversão de alimentação (FCR) diminuiu gradualmente e foi considerada altamente significativa. Para verificar a saúde intestinal da tilápia, amostras aleatórias foram selecionadas e dissecadas. O ágar nutriente foi usado como meio de cultura para verificar o crescimento das bactérias. O método da placa de Verter foi usado para a contagem de colônias viáveis ​​por contador de colônias. Através do método de coloração, diferentes como Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella e Pseudomonas aeruginosa foram identificados abundantemente no intestino de peixes da dieta controle, mas em menor número nos grupos de dieta de tratamento. Esses resultados mostraram que M. olifera deixa até 10% da proteína dietética e pode ser usado para tilápia do Nilo para um crescimento significativo e microbiota intestinal saudável de peixes.

Animals , Cichlids , Moringa , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Leaves , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250517, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355859


Abstract Lactobacilli are probiotics with Aflatoxin (AF) detoxification ability, found in fermented products, GIT of animals and environment. Purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of broiler isolates of Lactobacillus against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). For this purpose, 5 isolates of Lactobacillus from broiler gut were incubated with 100 ppb AFB1 in aqueous environment and effect of different parameters (cell fractions, time, temperature, pH) on detoxification was determined by HPLC. The ameliorative effect of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) against AFB1 was studied in broiler. The results revealed that LS (CR. 4) showed the best results (in vitro) as compared to other isolates (L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR, 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) and L. crispatus (CE. 28). Cell debris of CR. 4 showed significantly higher detoxification (P<0.05). Maximum amount of AFB1 was detoxified at 30°C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) and 6 h (99.97%). In vivo study showed that AFB1 decreased weight gain (1,269 ± 0.04 gm/ bird), feed consumed (2,161 ± 0.08 gm/ bird), serum total protein (2.42 ± 0.34 gm/ dl), serum albumin (0.5 ± 0.2 2 gm/dl) and antibody titer (4.2 ± 0.83). Liver function enzymes were found (alanine transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U/L) elevated in AFB1 fed broilers. Treatment with 1% LS not only decreased the toxic effects of AFB1 (group D) but also improved the overall health of broilers due to its probiotic effects (p<0.05) as compared to control negative (group A). The detoxification ability of LS was better than commercial binder (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). It was concluded that detoxification of AFB1 by Lactobacillus was strain, temperature, pH and time dependent. LS has detoxification ability against AFB1 in vivo.

Resumo Os lactobacilos são probióticos com capacidade de desintoxicação da Aflatoxina (AF), encontrados em produtos fermentados, TGI de animais e meio ambiente. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a capacidade de isolados de frango de corte de Lactobacillus contra a Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1). Para tanto, 5 isolados de Lactobacillus de intestino de frango foram incubados com 100 ppb AFB1 em meio aquoso, e o efeito de diferentes parâmetros (frações celulares, tempo, temperatura, pH) na desintoxicação foi determinado por CLAE. O efeito melhorador de Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) contra AFB1 foi estudado em frangos de corte. Os resultados revelaram que LS (CR. 4) apresentou os melhores resultados (in vitro) em comparação com outros isolados [L. salivarius (CR. 3, CR. 4), L. agilis (CE. 2.1, CE. 3.1) e L. crispatus (CE. 28)]. Detritos celulares de CR. 4 mostraram desintoxicação significativamente maior (P < 0.05). A quantidade máxima de AFB1 foi desintoxicada a 30 °C (97%), pH 4.0 (99%) e 6 h (99,97%). O estudo in vivo mostrou que AFB1 diminuiu o ganho de peso (1,269 ± 0.04 g / ave), alimento consumido (2,161 ± 0.08 g / ave), proteína total sérica (2.42 ± 0.34 g / dl), albumina sérica (0.5 ± 0.22 gm / dl) e título de anticorpo (4.2 ± 0.83). As enzimas da função hepática foram encontradas (alanina transaminase (ALT): 32 ± 10.7 U / L) e aspartato transaminase (AST): 314.8 ± 27 U / L) elevadas em AFB1 alimentados com frangos. O tratamento com 1% LS não só diminuiu os efeitos tóxicos de AFB1 (grupo D), mas também melhorou a saúde geral dos frangos devido aos seus efeitos probióticos (p < 0.05) em comparação com o controle negativo (grupo A). A capacidade de desintoxicação do LS foi melhor do que o aglutinante comercial (CB) (0.2% Protmyc). Concluiu-se que a desintoxicação de AFB1 por Lactobacillus foi dependente da cepa, temperatura, pH e tempo. LS tem capacidade de desintoxicação contra AFB1 in vivo.

Animals , Aflatoxin B1/analysis , Aflatoxin B1/toxicity , Probiotics , Chickens , Lactobacillus , Animal Feed/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868


Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.

Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.

Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254252, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355876


Abstract Indian major carps are the widely consumed fish species of Pakistan, being a cheap source of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids, they are good for cardiovascular health. Water pollution due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water into water bodies contaminates this precious source of nutrients. The present study therefore, was aimed to assess deterioration of fatty acid profile of three Indian major carp species due to different concentrations of industrial wastes. The water samples were collected from the river Chenab at the site where it receives industrial wastewater via Chakbandi drain. After exposure to 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% dilutions of collected water in different aquaria it was observed that proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in selected fish species were decreased significantly as the intensity of the dose increased (P < 0.05). Conversely the level of saturated fatty acids increased with the increasing dose of treatment (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that untreated wastewater not only deteriorate the fatty acid profile of aquatic animals but also these toxic substances can reach human body through fish meat and pose further health hazards. Therefore, it is highly recommended that industrial effluents should be treated before they are dumped into water bodies.

Resumo As carpas indianas são as espécies de peixes mais consumidas no Paquistão, sendo uma fonte barata de proteínas e de ácidos graxos insaturados e boa para a saúde cardiovascular. A poluição da água por causa do descarte de resíduos industriais não tratados em corpos d'água contamina essa preciosa fonte de nutrientes. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a deterioração do perfil de ácidos graxos de três principais espécies de carpas indianas em diferentes concentrações de resíduos industriais. As amostras de água foram coletadas do rio Chenab no local onde recebe esgoto industrial via dreno de Chakbandi. Após a exposição a diluições de 1,5%, 3% e 4,5% da água coletada em diferentes aquários, foi observado que a proporção de ácidos graxos insaturados em espécies de peixes selecionadas diminuiu significativamente com o aumento da intensidade da dose (P < 0,05). Por outro lado, o nível de ácidos graxos saturados aumentou com a elevação da dose de tratamento (P < 0,05). Essas descobertas sugerem que águas residuais não tratadas não apenas deterioram o perfil de ácidos graxos dos animais aquáticos, mas também essas substâncias tóxicas podem atingir o corpo humano por meio da carne de peixe e representar mais riscos à saúde. Portanto, é recomendável que os efluentes industriais sejam tratados antes de serem despejados em corpos d'água.

Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Carps , Textile Industry , Rivers , Fatty Acids
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253599, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355891


Abstract The antioxidant activity of Tetragonisca angustula honey (TAH) and its ethanolic extract (TAEE) were investigated. The total levels of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) were also evaluated. The results for TPC were 19.91 ± 0.38 and 29.37 ± 1.82 mg GAE g-1 and for TFC 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg QE g-1 of TAH and TAEE, respectively. Antioxidant activities were 73.29 ± 0.49% and 93.36 ± 0.27% in the DPPH● assay and 71.73 ± 4.07% and 97.86 ± 0.35% in ABTS●+ for TAH and TAEE, respectively. The total reducing activity was determined by the method of reducing power (PR) and iron ion (Fe III) and the results varied in PR from 151.7 ± 25.7 and 230.7 ± 25.2 mg GAE L-1, for TAH and TAEE respectively and for (Fe III) in EC50 0.284 in TAEE and 0.687 in TAH. Chemical analysis by HPLC-DAD of the ethanolic extract (TAEE) revealed the presence of ferulic acid as majority phenolic component in the extract. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed this structure and showed the also presence of glucose, citric acid, succinic acid, proline and hydrocarbon derivatives. In addition, the botanical origin was also investigated and showed a multifloral characteristic, having found 19 pollen types with a botanical predominance of the Anacardiaceae family, with Tapirira pollen occurring as predominant (42.6%) and Schinus as secondary (25.7%). The results showed that T. angustula honey is an interesting source of antioxidant phenolic compounds due to its floral origin and can act as a protector of human health when consumed.

Resumo A atividade antioxidante do mel de Tetragonisca angustula (TAH) e seu extrato etanólico (TAEE) foram investigados. Os níveis totais de fenólicos (TPC) e flavonóides (TFC) também foram avaliados. Os resultados para TPC foram 19,91 ± 0,38 e 29,37 ± 1,82 mg GAE g-1 e para TFC 0,20 ± 0,02 e 0,14 ± 0,01 mg QE g-1 de TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. As atividades antioxidantes foram 73,29 ± 0,49% e 93,36 ± 0,27% no ensaio DPPH● e 71,73 ± 4,07% e 97,86 ± 0,35% no ABTS●+ para TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. A atividade redutora total foi determinada pelo método de poder redutor (PR) e íon ferrico (Fe III) e os resultados variaram em PR de 151,7 ± 25,7 e 230,7 ± 25,2 mg GAE L-1, para TAH e TAEE respectivamente e para (Fe III) em EC50 0,284 em TAEE e 0,687 em TAH. A análise química por HPLC-DAD do extrato etanólico (TAEE) revelou a presença de ácido ferúlico como componente majoritário no extrato. A análise de RMN 1H confirmou esta estrutura e mostrou a presença de glicose, ácido cítrico, ácido succínico, prolina e derivados de hidrocarbonetos no TAEE. Além disso, a origem botânica também foi investigada e apresentou característica multifloral, tendo encontrado 19 tipos polínicos com predomínio botânico da família Anacardiaceae, sendo o pólen Tapirira predominante (42,6%) e o Schinus secundário (25,7%). Os resultados mostraram que o mel de T. angustula é uma interessante fonte de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes devido à sua origem floral e pode atuar como protetor da saúde humana quando consumido.

Humans , Animals , Honey/analysis , Antioxidants , Phenols/analysis , Brazil , Coumaric Acids
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900


Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.

Animals , Nanoparticles , Helianthus , Nutrients , Dietary Supplements , Diet , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250723, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355902


Abstract This study assessed the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole effect on the main indicators of the quality of sheep meat obtained from infected and deworming animals. A total of 20 heads of Akzhaik meat and wool sheep (i.e. 2 years of age, of different sex) were used in a 20-day experiment and 2 groups of 10 heads were formed (n = 4). The sheep were fed with the basic diet (i.e. control, group CON), without adding anything, and the second group was fed the basic diet orally with the addition of a dose of 1.2 g / head (an experimental group). At the end of the experiment, a control slaughter was carried out from each group in order to study the biochemical composition of meat and its quality. The anthelmintic feed additive albendazole did not have a significant effect on the indicators (organoleptic and physicochemical) of meat quality (P> 0.04). However, the ratio of fat and ash in the meat of the control group has differences in indicators and is reduced by 24.81% and 0.03%, respectively. The drug had a significant effect on the biological value of meat in the experimental group, where there is a higher content of essential amino acids (P = 0.06), nonessential (P = 0.05) concentrations in comparison with the CON groups. The results obtained show that the meat of the experimental groups of sheep, when using the anthelminthic feed additive albendazole, did not have a significant effect on organoleptic parameters, but significantly positively influenced the metabolism, live weight gain and biological value of meat.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol sobre os principais indicadores de qualidade da carne ovina obtida de animais infectados e desparasitados. Um total de 20 cabeças de carne Akzhaik e ovelhas de lã (ou seja, 2 anos de idade, de sexo diferente) foi usado em um experimento de 20 dias e dois grupos de 10 cabeças foram formados (n = 4). As ovelhas foram alimentadas com dieta básica (ou seja, controle, grupo CON), sem adicionar nada, e o segundo grupo foi alimentado com dieta básica por via oral com a adição de uma dose de 1,2 g / cabeça (um grupo experimental). Ao final do experimento, foi realizado um abate controle de cada grupo para estudar a composição bioquímica da carne e sua qualidade. O aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol não teve efeito significativo sobre os indicadores (organolépticos e físico-químicos) de qualidade da carne (P > 0,04). No entanto, a proporção de gordura e cinzas na carne do grupo de controle tem diferenças nos indicadores e é reduzida em 24,81% e 0,03%, respectivamente. A droga teve efeito significativo sobre o valor biológico da carne no grupo experimental, onde há maior teor de aminoácidos essenciais (P = 0,06), concentrações não essenciais (P = 0,05) em comparação com os grupos CON. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a carne dos grupos experimentais de ovinos, ao utilizar o aditivo anti-helmíntico albendazol, não teve efeito significativo nos parâmetros organolépticos, mas influenciou positivamente de forma significativa no metabolismo, ganho de peso vivo e valor biológico da carne.

Animals , Animal Feed/analysis , Anthelmintics , Sheep , Albendazole , Diet/veterinary , Meat/analysis
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 556-573, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419200


Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia da Ivermectina e do Atazanavir em comparação com placebo no tempo de resolução dos sintomas e no tempo de duração da doença por COVID-19. Método: estudo observacional, de coorte prospectivo, longitudinal, descritivo e analítico com pacientes sintomáticos ambulatoriais, acompanhados por 06 meses em duas Unidades Básicas de Saúde para atendimento de COVID-19 em Teresina- Piauí, Brasil, no período de novembro a abril de 2021 identificados por amostragem aleatória 1:1:1. Foram realizados exames Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) para confirmação laboratorial da suspeita de infecção pelo novo coronavírus e avaliação sociodemográfica e clínica. Resultados: dos 87 pacientes randomizados, 62,1% (n=54) eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 35,1 anos, possuíam companheira (53,9%), baixa renda (50,6%), eutróficos (40,7%) e sem comorbidades de saúde (78,2%). Não houve diferença entre o tempo médio para resolução dos sintomas, que foi de 21 dias (IQR, 8-30) no grupo atazanavir, 30 dias (IQR, 5-90) no grupo ivermectina em comparação com 14 dias (IQR, 9-21) no grupo controle. No dia 180, houve resolução dos sintomas em 100% no grupo placebo, 93,9% no grupo atazanavir e 95% no grupo ivermectina. A duração mediana da doença foi de 08 dias em todos os braços do estudo. Conclusão: o tratamento com atazanavir (6 dias) e ivermectina (3 dias) não reduziu o tempo de resolução dos sintomas e nem o tempo de duração da doença entre os pacientes ambulatoriais com COVID-19 leve em comparação com o grupo placebo. Os resultados não suportam o uso de ivermectina e atazanavir para tratamento de COVID-19 leve a moderado.

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of Ivermectin and Atazanavir compared to placebo in the time to resolution of symptoms and duration of illness due to COVID-19. Method: observational, prospective, longitudinal, descriptive and analytical cohort study with symptomatic outpatients, followed for 06 months in two Basic Health Units for COVID-19 care in Teresina-Piauí, Brazil, from November to April 2021 identified by 1:1:1 random sampling. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were performed for laboratory confirmation of suspected infection with the new coronavirus and sociodemographic and clinical evaluation. Results: of the 87 randomized patients, 62.1% (n=54) were male, with a mean age of 35.1 years, had a partner (53.9%), low income (50.6%), eutrophic (40.7%) and without health comorbidities (78.2%). There was no difference between the median time to resolution of symptoms, which was 21 days (IQR, 8-30) in the atazanavir group, 30 days (IQR, 5- 90) in the ivermectin group compared with 14 days (IQR, 9- 21) in the control group. At day 180, there was resolution of symptoms in 100% in the placebo group, 93.9% in the atazanavir group, and 95% in the ivermectin group. The median duration of illness was 8 days in all study arms. Conclusion: Treatment with atazanavir (6 days) and ivermectin (3 days) did not reduce the time to symptom resolution or the duration of illness among outpatients with mild COVID-19 compared to the placebo group. The results do not support the use of ivermectin and atazanavir for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19.

Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad de Ivermectina y Atazanavir en comparación con placebo en el tiempo de resolución de los síntomas y duración de la enfermedad por COVID-19. Método: estudio de cohorte observacional, prospectivo, longitudinal, descriptivo y analítico con pacientes ambulatorios sintomáticos, seguidos durante 06 meses en dos Unidades Básicas de Salud para atención de COVID-19 en Teresina-Piauí, Brasil, de noviembre a abril de 2021 identificados por 1:1:1 muestreo aleatorio. Se realizaron pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) para confirmación de laboratorio de sospecha de infección por el nuevo coronavirus y evaluación sociodemográfica y clínica. Resultados: de los 87 pacientes aleatorizados, 62,1% (n=54) eran del sexo masculino, con una edad media de 35,1 años, tenían pareja (53,9%), bajos ingresos (50,6%), eutróficos (40,7%) y sin comorbilidades de salud (78,2%). No hubo diferencia entre la mediana de tiempo hasta la resolución de los síntomas, que fue de 21 días (RIC, 8-30) en el grupo de atazanavir, 30 días (RIC, 5- 90) en el grupo de ivermectina en comparación con 14 días (RIC, 9 - 21) en el grupo control. En el día 180, hubo una resolución de los síntomas del 100 % en el grupo de placebo, del 93,9 % en el grupo de atazanavir y del 95 % en el grupo de ivermectina. La mediana de duración de la enfermedad fue de 8 días en todos los brazos del estudio. Conclusión: El tratamiento con atazanavir (6 días) e ivermectina (3 días) no redujo el tiempo de resolución de los síntomas ni la duración de la enfermedad entre los pacientes ambulatorios con COVID-19 leve en comparación con el grupo placebo. Los resultados no respaldan el uso de ivermectina y atazanavir para el tratamiento de la COVID-19 de leve a moderada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Ivermectin/analysis , Efficacy , Atazanavir Sulfate/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Observational Studies as Topic/methods
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 740-794, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424949


A imaturidade do sistema imunológico, associado a Determinantes Sociais de Saúde (DSS), promove doenças na infância. Especificamente, na cavidade oral, os DSS, representados pelo consumo elevado de açúcar, limitado acesso aos serviços de saúde e deficiência na higiene bucal, favorecem transtornos locais e sistêmicos. Assim, o estudo objetivou associar os DSS, no contexto das condições socioeconômicas, do acompanhamento pelo serviço de saúde e dos aspectos relacionados à saúde bucal de crianças atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) de um município cearense. Trata-se de estudo observacional, analítico, transversal e de abordagem quantitativa, conduzido com crianças e suas mães em Acarape - CE. Após consentimento, essas preencheram um questionário. Os dados foram analisados. Das 70 mães, 87,14% e 90,00% tinham idade inferior ou igual a 30 anos e renda de até um salário mínimo, respectivamente. Das 70 crianças, 87,14% tinham seus dentes/gengiva higienizados por seus pais ou responsável. Do total, 94,29% nunca se submeteram a atendimento odontológico. Observou-se associação significativa entre a mãe ter escolaridade superior ao ensino fundamental incompleto e higienizar os dentes/gengiva do filho com escova dental e dentifrício. Constatou-se associação significativa entre a criança ingerir bolacha doce/recheada, não consumir refrigerante e usar escova dental e dentifrício na higienização oral. Conclui-se que as crianças eram acompanhadas nas UBS regularmente; no entanto, esse serviço não esteve relacionado ao atendimento odontológico. Apesar da ausência desse tipo de acompanhamento e do consumo de alimentos cariogênicos, as mães se preocupavam com a saúde bucal das crianças, higienizando a cavidade oral diariamente, com meios adequados.

The immaturity of the immune system, associated with Social Determi- nants of Health (SDH), promotes diseases in childhood. Specifically, in the oral cavity, SDH, represented by high sugar consumption, limited access to health services, and poor oral hygiene, favors local and systemic disorders. Thus, the study aimed to associate the SDH, in the context of socioeconomic conditions, monitoring by the health service and aspects related to children's oral health assisted in Basic Health Units (BHU) of a muni- cipality in Ceará. This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study with a quan- titative approach conducted with children and their mothers in Acarape - CE. After con- sent, they filled out a questionnaire. Data were analyzed. Of the 70 mothers, 87.14% and 90.00% were aged less than or equal to 30 years and had income up to one minimum wage, respectively. Of the 70 children, 87.14% had their teeth/gums cleaned by their pa- rents or guardian. Of the total, 94.29% never underwent dental care. There was a signifi- cant association between the mother having higher education than incomplete elementary school and cleaning the child's teeth/gums with a toothbrush and toothpaste. A significant association was found between the child eating sweet/stuffed biscuits, not consuming soft drink, and using a toothbrush and dentifrice for oral hygiene. It is concluded that the chil- dren were regularly monitored at the BHU; however, this service was not related to dental care. Despite the absence of this type of follow-up and the consumption of cariogenic foods, the mothers were concerned about their children's oral health, cleaning the oral cavity daily with adequate means.

La inmadurez del sistema inmunológico, asociada a los Determinantes So- ciales de la Salud (DSS), promueve enfermedades en la infancia. Específicamente, en la cavidad bucal, los DSS, representados por el alto consumo de azúcar, el acceso limitado a los servicios de salud y la mala higiene bucal, favorecen los trastornos locales y sisté- micos. Así, el estudio tuvo como objetivo asociar el DSS, en el contexto de las condicio- nes socioeconómicas, el seguimiento por el servicio de salud y los aspectos relacionados con la salud bucal de los niños atendidos en las Unidades Básicas de Salud (UBS) de un municipio de Ceará. Se trata de un estudio observacional, analítico, transversal con enfo- que cuantitativo, realizado con niños y sus madres en Acarape ­ CE. Después del consen- timiento, completaron un cuestionario. Los datos fueron analizados. De las 70 madres, 87,14% y 90,00% tenían edad menor o igual a 30 años e ingresos hasta un salario mínimo, respectivamente. De los 70 niños, al 87,14% se les limpió los dientes/encías por sus pa- dres o tutores. Del total, el 94,29% nunca realizó atención odontológica. Hubo una aso- ciación significativa entre la madre con educación superior a la primaria incompleta y la limpieza de los dientes/encías del niño con cepillo y pasta dental. Se encontró una asoci- ación significativa entre el niño que come galletas dulces/rellenas, no consume gaseosas y usa cepillo de dientes y dentífrico para la higiene bucal. Se concluyó que los niños eran monitoreados periódicamente en la UBS; sin embargo, este servicio no estaba relacionado con el cuidado dental. A pesar de la ausencia de este tipo de seguimiento y del consumo de alimentos cariogénicos, las madres se preocupan por la salud bucal de sus hijos, reali- zando la limpieza de la cavidad bucal diariamente, con medios adecuados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Oral Hygiene/instrumentation , Cariogenic Agents/analysis , Child Care/supply & distribution , Unified Health System , Candy , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Dental Care/instrumentation , Health Services Accessibility , Mothers
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1): e55913, dic. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY-Enf | ID: biblio-1550732


Abstract Introduction: Chemical pollution represents a great concern to aquatic organisms, especially fish. Metals enter the aquatic environment from a variety of sources, including natural biogeochemical cycles and anthropogenic sources such as industrial and residential effluents, mining and atmospheric sources. Objective: To describe the Eustrongylides sp. larvae and the interaction with their fish hosts as indicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Brazilian Amazon, and the distribution of Hg in the internal organs of fish species Hoplias malabaricus and Pygocentrus nattereri collected in oxbow lakes on the Tapajós River, in the municipality of Santarém, in the state of Pará. Methods: Total Hg was analyzed using the Direct Hg Analyzer - DMA-80. Concentrations of Hg in Eustrongylides sp. were compared with those found in the tissues/organs of the hosts H. malabaricus and P. nattereri. Hg concentrations in the host/parasite system were statistically compared using Principal Component Analysis. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to assess the bioaccumulation capacity of metals in Eustrongylides sp. larvae, comparing the concentration of Hg in the parasite with that accumulated in the musculature of infected hosts. Results: Hg concentrations in all tissues/organs analyzed were higher in the parasitic species Eustrongylides sp. larvae when compared with those found in tissues/organs of H. malabaricus and P. nattereri. There was an inversely proportional relationship, showing that when Eustrongylides sp. larvae are present, the concentration in the parasite is higher than in the musculature of host fish H. malabaricus and P. nattereri. The BCF of Hg was found by comparing Eustrongylides sp. larvae/H. malabaricus muscle and was observed during a flood (BCF Hg = 15 364). Conclusions: The results confirm the greater bioaccumulative capacity of Eustrongylides sp. compared to its host. The data indicated the viability of using Eustrongylides sp. larvae in biomonitoring programs. It is worth mentioning that fish samples for Hg analysis must be free of parasites since their presence can alter the results.

Resumen Introducción: La contaminación química del hábitat acuático representa un gran peligro para organismos acuáticos, especialmente para peces. Los metales ingresan al ambiente acuático desde una variedad de fuentes, incluidos los ciclos biogeoquímicos naturales y fuentes antropogénicas, como efluentes industriales y residenciales, minería y fuentes atmosféricas. Objetivo: Describir las especies de Eustrongylides sp. y la interacción con sus peces hospederos como indicadores de contaminación por mercurio en la Amazonía brasileña, y la distribución en los órganos internos de las especies de peces Hoplias malabaricus y Pygocentrus nattereri recolectadas en cochas del Río Tapajós, en el municipio de Santarém, del estado de Pará. Métodos: El Hg total se analizó utilizando el Direct Hg Analyzer - DMA-80. Las concentraciones de Eustrongylides sp. se compararon con las encontrados en los tejidos/órganos de los hospederos H. malabaricus y P. nattereri. Las concentraciones en el sistema hospedero/parásito se compararon estadísticamente utilizando el análisis de componentes principales. Se calculó el factor de bioconcentración (BCF) para evaluar la capacidad de bioacumulación de metales en larvas de Eustrongylides sp., comparando la concentración en el parásito con la acumulada en la musculatura de los hospederos infectados. Resultados: Las concentraciones de Hg en todos los tejidos/órganos analizados fueron mayores en las larvas de la especie parasitaria Eustrongylides sp. en comparación con las encontradas en los tejidos/órganos de H. malabaricus y P. nattereri. Hubo una relación inversamente proporcional, mostrando que cuando las larvas de Eustrongylides sp. están presentes, la concentración en el parásito es mayor que en la musculatura de los peces hospederos H. malabaricus y P. nattereri. El BCF de Hg se encontró comparando Eustrongylides sp. larvas/ músculo H. malabaricus y se observó durante una inundación (BCF Hg = 15 364). Conclusiones: Los resultados confirman la mayor capacidad bioacumulativa de Eustrongylides sp. en comparación con su hospedero. Los datos indicaron la viabilidad de utilizar larvas de Eustrongylides sp. en programas de biomonitoreo. Cabe mencionar que las muestras de pescado para análisis de Hg deben estar libres de parásitos ya que su presencia puede alterar los resultados.

Animals , Mercury/analysis , Nematoda/microbiology , Brazil , River Pollution , Amazonian Ecosystem , Fishes/microbiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in English | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514966


Introduction: The litterfall production, foliar nutrient dynamics and decomposition are essential to maintain nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and carbon regulation in terrestrial ecosystems. With several studies addressing the variation of these processes, their dynamics in tropical dry forests (TDFs) remain unclear, due to its complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors. Objective: To evaluate litterfall, nutrient potential return and use efficiency, and decomposition variation in a TDF successional gradient in Tolima, Colombia. Methods: We quantified litterfall from November 2017 to October 2019 in 12 plots distributed in four successional stages: initial, early, intermediate, and late forests. We identified key tree species in foliar litter production and characterized the foliar decomposition of these species. At the community level, we quantified the C, N and P potential return, the N and P use efficiency, and the C:N and N:P ratio. Subsequently, we analyze relationships between vegetation characteristics and some soil chemical properties with these ecological processes. Results: We found that total litterfall in late forests (8.46 Mg ha-1 y-1) was double that found in initial forests (4.45 Mg ha-1 y-1). Decomposition was higher in initial (k = 1.28) compared to intermediate (k = 0.97) and late forests (k = 0.87). The nutrient potential return didn't change along succession, but it did show differences between study sites. The structural development and species richness favored litterfall, while soil chemical conditions influenced nutrient returns and decomposition. Conclusions: TDFs could recover key ecosystem function related to litterfall and nutrient dynamics after disturbances cessation; however, the soil quality is fundamental in return and release of nutrients.

Introducción: La producción de hojarasca, la dinámica de nutrientes foliares y la descomposición son esenciales para mantener el ciclo de nutrientes, la fertilidad del suelo y la regulación del carbono en ecosistemas terrestres. Con diversos estudios que abordan estos procesos, su variación en los bosques secos tropicales (BSTs) permanece incierta, por su compleja interacción de factores bióticos y abióticos. Objetivo: Evaluar la caída de hojarasca, el retorno potencial de nutrientes y eficiencia de uso, y la variación en descomposición en un gradiente sucesional de un BST en Tolima, Colombia. Métodos: Cuantificamos la caída de hojarasca entre noviembre 2017 y octubre 2019 en 12 parcelas distribuidas en cuatro estados sucesionales: bosque inicial, temprano, intermedio y tardío. Identificamos las especies arbóreas clave en la producción de hojarasca y caracterizamos la descomposición foliar de estas especies. A nivel comunitario, cuantificamos el retorno potencial de C, N y P, la eficiencia de uso de N y P y la relación C:N y N:P. Posteriormente, analizamos las relaciones entre las características de la vegetación y algunas propiedades químicas del suelo con estos procesos ecológicos. Resultados: Encontramos que la caída total de hojarasca en los bosques tardíos (8.46 Mg ha-1 año-1) fue el doble de la hallada en bosques iniciales (4.45 Mg ha-1 año-1). La descomposición fue mayor en bosques iniciales (k = 1.28) en comparación con bosques intermedios (k = 0.97) y tardíos (k = 0.87). El retorno potencial de nutrientes no cambió con el avance de la sucesión vegetal, pero exhibió diferencias entre los sitios de estudio. El desarrollo estructural y la riqueza de especies favorecieron la caída de hojarasca, mientras que las condiciones químicas del suelo influyeron en el retorno de nutrientes y descomposición. Conclusiones: Los BSTs tienen la capacidad de recuperar la función ecosistémica de aporte de hojarasca fina, retorno y liberación de nutrientes después del cese de alteraciones antrópicas; sin embargo, la calidad del suelo es fundamental en el retorno y liberación de nutrientes.

Soil Analysis , Nutrients/analysis , Tropical Ecosystem , Leaf Litter , Forests , Colombia , Humic Substances/analysis
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | SaludCR, LILACS | ID: biblio-1514965


Introducción: La gran diversidad de especies maderables tropicales demanda el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de identificación con base en sus patrones o características anatómicas. La aplicación de redes neuronales convolucionales (CNN) para el reconocimiento de especies maderables tropicales se ha incrementado en los últimos años por sus resultados prometedores. Objetivo: Evaluamos la calidad de las imágenes macroscópicas con tres herramientas de corte para mejorar la visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento del modelo CNN. Métodos: Recolectamos las muestras entre el 2020 y 2021 en áreas de explotación forestal y aserraderos de Selva Central, Perú. Luego, las dimensionamos y, previo a la identificación botánica y anatómica, las cortamos en secciones transversales. Generamos una base de datos de imágenes macroscópicas de la sección transversal de la madera, a través del corte, con tres herramientas para ver su rendimiento en el laboratorio, campo y puesto de control. Resultados: Usamos tres herramientas de corte para obtener una alta calidad de imágenes transversales de la madera; obtuvimos 3 750 imágenes macroscópicas con un microscopio portátil que corresponden a 25 especies maderables. El cuchillo ''Tramontina'' es duradero, pero pierde el filo con facilidad y se necesita una herramienta para afilar, el cúter retráctil ''Pretul'' es adecuado para madera suave y dura en muestras pequeñas de laboratorio; el cuchillo ''Ubermann'' es apropiado para el campo, laboratorio y puesto de control, porque tiene una envoltura duradera y láminas intercambiables en caso de pérdida de filo. Conclusiones: La calidad de las imágenes es decisiva en la clasificación de especies maderables, porque permite una mejor visualización y distinción de las características anatómicas en el entrenamiento con los modelos de red neuronal convolucional EfficientNet B0 y Custom Vision, lo cual se evidenció en las métricas de precisión.

Introduction: The great diversity of tropical timber species demands the development of new technologies capable of identifying them based on their patterns or anatomical characteristics. The application of convolutional neural networks (CNN) for the recognition of tropical timber species has increased in recent years due to the promising results of CNNs. Objective: To evaluate the quality of macroscopic images with three cutting tools to improve the visualization and distinction of anatomical features in the CNN model training. Methods: Samples were collected from 2020 to 2021 in areas of logging and sawmills in the Central Jungle, Peru. They were later sized and, after botanical and anatomical identification, cut in cross sections. A database of macroscopic images of the cross-section of wood was generated through cutting with three different tools and observing its performance in the laboratory, field, and checkpoint. Results: Using three cutting tools, we obtained high quality images of the cross section of wood; 3 750 macroscopic images were obtained with a portable microscope and correspond to 25 timber species. We found the ''Tramontina'' knife to be durable, however, it loses its edge easily and requires a sharpening tool, the ''Pretul'' retractable cutter is suitable for cutting soft and hard wood in small laboratory samples and finally the ''Ubermann'' knife is suitable for use in the field, laboratory, and checkpoint, because it has a durable sheath and interchangeable blades in case of dullness. Conclusion: The quality of the images is decisive in the classification of timber species, because it allows a better visualization and distinction of the anatomical characteristics in training with the EfficientNet B0 and Custom Vision convolutional neural network models, which was evidenced in the precision metrics.

Wood/analysis , Microscopy, Electron , Tropical Ecosystem , Peru , Machine Learning