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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.

Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202


Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.

As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.

Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530


Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.

A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.

Agricultural Cultivation , Lettuce/growth & development , Lettuce/drug effects , Fertilizers
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306


SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.

La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 539-547, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440313


SUMMARY: A great deal of attention of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing, particularly in relation to haze days. It is that exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants, thereby increasing the complexity of respiratory diseases. Although there are various mechanisms involved to respiratory diseases caused or worsen by cigarette smoking, in which the role of AQPs in the lung with regard to fluid homeostasis still remains elusive. In this paper, we copied the rat models based on smoke generator, and investigated the morphological changes of mucosa and related functions depending on the balance of lining liquid of alveoli via AQPs expression. Compared with normal group, weak labelling of AQP1 and AQP5 protein abundance were clearly detected in the corresponding part of smoke exposure groups compared with normal group. Hence, it is suggested that the contribution of AQPs in the lung is diminished, thereby causing perturbed balancing between resorptive and secretory fluid homeostasis under cigarette smoking.

Cada vez se presta más atención a la contaminación del aire en la salud respiratoria, particularmente, en relación con los días de neblina. En consecuencia la exposición al humo del cigarrillo aumenta la toxicidad de los contaminantes comunes del aire, lo que además aumenta la complejidad de las enfermedades respiratorias. Aunque existen varios mecanismos involucrados en las enfermedades respiratorias causadas o empeoradas por el tabaquismo, en las que el papel de las AQP en el pulmón respecto a la homeostasis de líquidos sigue siendo difícil de alcanzar. En este artículo, copiamos los modelos de rata basados en el generador de humo e investigamos los cambios morfológicos de la mucosa y las funciones relacionadas según el equilibrio del líquido de revestimiento de los alvéolos a través de la expresión de AQP. En comparación con el grupo normal, se detectó claramente un etiquetado débil de la abundancia de proteínas AQP1 y AQP5 en la parte correspondiente de los grupos de exposición al humo en comparación con el grupo control. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la contribución de las AQP en el pulmón está disminuida, provocando así un equilibrio perturbado entre la homeostasis del líquido secretor y de reabsorción bajo el hábito de fumar cigarrillos.

Animals , Rats , Respiratory System/pathology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Body Fluids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 654-659, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440321


SUMMARY: Cadmium (Cd) is the industrial and environmental toxic heavy metal which is found in air, water and soil. Cd, adversely affects many organs in humans such as kidney, intestine, liver, testis and lungs. L-carnitine (LC) is an important agent that plays essential role in energy metabolism. In our study, we aimed to work out whether LC application has any protective effect on intestinal contractility and morphologic damage of prepubertal rat duodenum on Cd-induced toxicity. Twenty eight prepubertal female Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is control (C), second group; Cd group; Cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg 28 days with a one-day break by i.p. The third group; Cd+LC, which cadmium chloride was given 2 mg/kg i.p. and LC was given orally by gastric lavage. The LC dose was given as 75 mg/kg. The fourth group; LC, which only LC was given orally. The intestinal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. Also the segments were examined for histological changes by light microscopy. Ach-induced contractions were higher in Cd+LC, LC, and control group compared to the Cd group in duodenal segments. The phenylephrine-induced relaxations were lower in Cd groups as compared with Control, Cd+LC and LC group in duodenal segments. In Cd group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in Cd+LC group the damage was noticeably lower. Cd administration caused severe cellular damage and decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the LC has affected the gastrointestinal contractility and reduced the damage in intestinal morphology, which occured after Cd application.

El cadmio (Cd) es el metal pesado tóxico industrial y ambiental que se encuentra en el aire, el agua y el suelo. El Cd afecta negativamente a muchos órganos humanos, como los riñones, los intestinos, el hígado, los testículos y los pulmones. La L-carnitina (LC) es un agente importante que juega un rol esencial en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la aplicación de LC tiene algún efecto protector sobre la contractilidad intestinal y el daño morfológico del duodeno de rata prepuberal sobre la toxicidad inducida por Cd. Veintiocho ratas Wistar hembras prepúberes se dividieron en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo control (C), segundo grupo; grupo cd; Se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg durante 28 días con un descanso de un día por vía i.p. El tercer grupo; Cd+LC, al que se administró cloruro de cadmio 2 mg/kg i.p. y LC se administró por vía oral mediante lavado gástrico. La dosis de LC se administró como 75 mg/kg. El cuarto grupo; LC, al cual solo LC se administraba por vía oral. Los segmentos intestinales fueron aislados y suspendieron en baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (ACh) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. También se examinaron los segmentos en busca de cambios histológicos mediante microscopía óptica. Las contracciones inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en Cd+LC, LC y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo Cd en los segmentos duodenales. Las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron menores en los grupos Cd en comparación con el grupo Control, Cd+LC y LC en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo Cd se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba severamente dañada mientras que en el grupo Cd+LC el daño fue notablemente menor. La administración de Cd causó daño celular severo y disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con LC afectó la contractilidad gastrointestinal y redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal, que ocurría después de la aplicación de Cd.

Animals , Female , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 362-367, abr. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440327


SUMMARY: Liver transplantation is the only available method to treat liver failure induced by chronic liver injury. We sought to determine whether the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, can inhibit the development of chronic liver injury induced by the hepatotoxic agent thioacetamide (TAA) in association with the suppression of inflammation (hsCRP, TNF-α, and IL-6) / hypoxia- inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9, and α-SMA) axis that mediates liver injury. Therefore, the model group of rats was injected for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg TAA starting at week two. The protective group was pretreated with 150 mg/ kg captopril daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both capropril and TAA agents until being humanely scrificed at week 10. We observed a substantial damage to liver tissue in the model group as demonstrated by a significant (p<0.0001) increase in blood and hepatic tissue levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin- 6 (L-6), HIF-1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). All these parameters were significantly (p<0.0244) protected by captopril. Also, a significant (p<0.0001) positive correlation was observed between a-SMA (profibrosis) and the serum and tissue levels of hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP-1, MMP-9, and ALT. Thus, these findings suggest that the induction of chronic liver injury by the hepatotoxic compound, TAA is associated with the upregulation of inflammation/HIF-1α/profibrosis, with captopril exhibiting beneficial hepatic pleotropic effects.

El trasplante de hígado es el único método disponible para tratar la insuficiencia hepática inducida por una lesión hepática crónica. Buscamos determinar si el inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina, captopril, puede inhibir el desarrollo de lesión hepática crónica inducida por el agente hepatotóxico tioacetamida (TAA) en asociación con la supresión de la inflamación (hsCRP, TNF-α e IL-6) / factor inducible por hipoxia 1-alfa (HIF-1α) / profibrosis (TIMP-1, MMP-9 y α- SMA) eje que media la lesión hepática. Por lo tanto, al grupo modelo de ratas se le inyectó durante ocho semanas 200 mg/kg de TAA a partir de la semana dos. El grupo protector fue pretratado con 150 mg/kg de captopril al día durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo capropril y agentes TAA hasta que fue sacrificado en la semana 10. Observamos un daño sustancial en el tejido hepático en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestra un aumento significativo (p<0,0001) de los niveles en sangre y tejido hepático de proteína C reactiva de alta sensibilidad (hsCRP), factor de necrosis tumoral-α (TNF-a), interleucina-6 (L-6), HIF-1α, inhibidor tisular de metaloproteinasas-1 (TIMP-1), metaloproteinasa de matriz-9 (MMP-9), actina de músculo liso alfa (α-SMA), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Todos estos parámetros estaban significativamente (p<0,0244) protegidos por captopril. Además, se observó una correlación positiva significativa (p<0,0001) entre α-SMA (profibrosis) y los niveles séricos y tisulares de hsCRP, TNF-α, HIF-1α, TIMP- 1, MMP-9 y ALT. Por lo tanto, estos hallazgos sugieren que la inducción de daño hepático crónico por el compuesto hepatotóxico, TAA, está asociada con la regulación al alza de la inflamación/HIF-1α/profibrosis, con captopril exhibiendo efectos pleotrópicos hepáticos beneficiosos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Captopril/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Actins , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors , Inflammation , Liver/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 368-373, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440329


SUMMARY: To investigate if the administration of boric acid (BA) would exert any protective effect against possible nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by the exposure to acrylamide (ACR) in rats. In our study, we used a total of 28 rats that were divided into four equal groups. Group 1: the control group which was not treated with any procedure. Group 2: the ACR group that was administered ACR 50 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal (i.p) route for 14 days. Group 3: the BA group that was administered BA 200 mg/kg/ day via gavage via peroral (p.o) route for 14 days. Group 4: the ACR+BA group that was administered BA simultaneously with ACR. Total antioxidant and oxidant (TAS/TOS) capacities were measured in all groups at the end of the experiment. In addition, the specimens obtained were evaluated with histopathological examination. Studies showed that the ACR and ACr+BA groups were not significantly different in terms of hepatic TAS level while the TOS level was higher in the ACR group than the ACR+BA group. The groups did not show any significant difference regarding renal TAS and TOS levels. In the histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue, the histopathological injury score of the ACR group was significantly higher than those of the other groups whereas it was significantly lower in the ACR+BA group than the ACR group. Our study concluded that Boric acid had a protective effect against acrylamide- induced hepatotoxicity, but not against nephrotoxicity.

El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar si la administración de ácido bórico (BA) ejercería algún efecto protector frente a la posible nefrotoxicidad y hepatotoxicidad inducida por la exposición a acrilamida (ACR) en ratas. En nuestro estudio, utilizamos un total de 28 ratas que se dividieron en cuatro grupos iguales. Grupo 1: grupo control que no fue tratado. Grupo 2: grupo ACR al que se le administró ACR 50 mg/kg/día por vía intraperitoneal (i.p) durante 14 días. Grupo 3: grupo BA al que se le administró BA 200 mg/kg/día por sonda por vía peroral (p.o) durante 14 días. Grupo 4: grupo ACR+BA al que se administró BA simultáneamente con ACR. Las capacidades antioxidantes y oxidantes totales (TAS/TOS) se midieron en todos los grupos al final del experimento. Además, los especímenes obtenidos fueron evaluados con examen histopatológico. Los estudios demostraron que los grupos ACR y ACr+BA no fueron significativamente diferentes en términos del nivel hepático de TAS, mientras que el nivel de TOS fue mayor en el grupo ACR que en el grupo ACR+BA. Los grupos no mostraron ninguna diferencia significativa con respecto a los niveles renales de TAS y TOS. En el examen histopatológico del tejido hepático, la puntuación de lesión histopatológica del grupo ACR fue significativamente mayor que la de los otros grupos, mientras que fue significativamente menor en el grupo ACR+BA que en el grupo ACR. Nuestro estudio concluyó que el ácido bórico tiene un efecto protector contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por acrilamida, pero no contra la nefrotoxicidad.

Animals , Rats , Boric Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylamide/toxicity , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Biochemistry , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/physiopathology
Odovtos (En linea) ; 25(1)abr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1422191


The aim of this study was to observed the anesthetic efficacy of the alveolar nerve block on nine patients that CBCT diagnosed unilateral retromolar canal on a double-blind, split-mouth approach. The assessments of patient response to thermal (pulp vitality test) and pressure (compression of soft tissue) stimuli were carried out before and 5 minutes after the inferior alveolar nerve block procedure, using both visual analog scale (VAS) and Mc Gill pain questionnaires (McG). The mean percentage of patient response decreased after alveolar nerve block, according to both VAS and McG, and was statistically similar among hemi mandibles with and without retromolar canal (Wilcoxon>0.05); however, those without retromolar canal presented greater reduction in patient response in 6 out of 9 cases. Therefore, the retromolar canal is not a determinant factor of inferior alveolar nerve block failure.

El objetivo de este estudio fue observar la eficacia anestésica del bloqueo del nervio alveolar en nueve pacientes que CBCT diagnosticó canal retromolar unilateral en un abordaje de boca dividida doble ciego. Las evaluaciones de la respuesta del paciente a los estímulos térmicos (prueba de vitalidad pulpar) y de presión (compresión de los tejidos blandos) se realizaron antes y 5 minutos después del procedimiento de bloqueo del nervio alveolar inferior, utilizando tanto la escala analógica visual (VAS) como los cuestionarios de dolor de Mc Gill ( McG). El porcentaje medio de respuesta de los pacientes disminuyó tras el bloqueo del nervio alveolar, según EVA y McG, y fue estadísticamente similar entre hemimandíbulas con y sin canal retromolar (Wilcoxon>0,05); sin embargo, aquellos sin canal retromolar presentaron mayor reducción en la respuesta del paciente en 6 de 9 casos. Por lo tanto, el canal retromolar no es un factor determinante del fracaso del bloqueo del nervio alveolar inferior.

Humans , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandibular Canal/drug effects , Anesthesia , Brazil
Semina ciênc. agrar ; 44(2): 585-600, mar.-abr. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1427460


The objective of this study is to examine the saturation process in a column containing Brazil nuts and possible changes in the quality of the product. Brazil nut samples were initially placed in a cylindrical PVC column 15 cm in diameter and 110 cm in height. The ozone gas concentrations of 2.5, 4.5, 9.0, and 14.0 mg L-1 and a flow rate of 3.0 L min-1 were applied at a temperature of 25 ºC. Ozone gas was injected at the base of the cylindrical column, and the seed column height values adopted were 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 m. Saturation concentration and time were determined. To measure possible changes in the quality of ozonized Brazil nuts, moisture and color, as well as qualitative variables of the crude oil were evaluated at the exposure times of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. To evaluate the quality of the crude oil extracted from ozonized nuts, the free fatty acid content, peroxide value, and iodine value were analyzed. Increasing ozonation times increased ozone concentration at all inlet gas concentrations. Saturation time decreased as the inlet gas concentration was increased, at the different product column heights. There was no change in product moisture in response to ozonation. Ozonation did not induce significant changes in color or in the crude oil, due to the triple interaction between column height, ozone concentration, and exposure time. In conclusion, the height of the product's column influences saturation time and concentration during the ozonation process. Considering the color of the product and characteristics of its crude oil, the use of ozone under the conditions adopted in the present study does not affect the quality of Brazil nuts to the point of rendering them unmarketable.

O objetivo do presente trabalho é estudar o processo de saturação em coluna contendo castanha-do-Brasil e possíveis alterações na qualidade do produto. Inicialmente as amostras de castanha-do-Brasil foram acondicionadas em coluna cilíndrica de PVC de 15 cm de diâmetro e 110 cm de altura. Foram adotadas as concentrações do gás ozônio de 2,5, 4,5, 9,0 e 14,0 mg L-1 e vazão de 3,0 L min-1, na temperatura de 25 ºC. O gás ozônio foi injetado na base da coluna cilíndrica e os valores adotados de altura da coluna de grãos foram de 0,25, 0,50, e 0,75 m. Determinaram-se o tempo e a concentração de saturação. Na avaliação de possíveis alterações na qualidade de castanhas-do-Brasil ozonizadas foram determinados a umidade, coloração e variáveis qualitativas do óleo bruto, com tempos de exposição de 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 h. Para avaliação da qualidade do óleo bruto extraído de castanhas ozonizadas foram analisadas o teor de ácidos graxos livres, o índice de peróxido e o índice de iodo. A elevação do período de ozonização promoveu aumento da concentração do ozônio para todas as concentrações de entrada do gás. No que se refere aos valores de tempo de saturação, à medida que se elevou a concentração de entrada do gás, houve redução do tempo de saturação, nas diferentes alturas de coluna do produto. Não houve variação da umidade do produto em decorrência da ozonização. A ozonização não provocou alterações significativas na cor e no óleo bruto, em decorrência da interação tripla entre altura da coluna do produto, concentração do ozônio e tempo de exposição. É possível concluir que a altura da coluna do produto influencia o tempo e a concentração de saturação, durante o processo de ozonização. O uso do ozônio nas condições adotadas no presente estudo não afeta a qualidade da castanhado-Brasil, considerando-se a cor do produto e características do óleo bruto, de tal forma a inviabilizar a comercialização.

Ozone/administration & dosage , Ozonation , Bertholletia/growth & development , Bertholletia/drug effects
Femina ; 51(2): 114-119, 20230228. Ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428710


As pílulas anticoncepcionais consistem na formulação combinada de um estrogênio e um progestagênio ou em apresentações simples de progestagênio isolado com a finalidade de bloquear a ovulação e alterar as condições do útero e das tubas uterinas, bloqueando parcialmente a foliculogênese e a inibição do pico de gonadotrofinas. Desse modo, no que concerne à temática, diversas publicações na mídia de ampla divulgação afirmam que os anticoncepcionais orais têm papel importante na sarcopenia e na hipotrofia, incluindo perda de força muscular e redução do desempenho físico. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar, por meio de pesquisas de artigos, a correlação entre anticoncepcionais hormonais orais e hipotrofia muscular. Foi concluído que os artigos científicos especializados no tema são ainda bastante inconclusivos, sugerindo que há indicações de que usuárias de anticoncepcional oral sejam mais suscetíveis ao dano muscular induzido por exercícios, contudo ainda não há consenso.

Anticonception pills consist of a combined formulation of an estrogen and a progestogen or simple presentations of progestogen alone with the purpose of blocking ovulation and altering the conditions of the uterus and uterine tubes, partially blocking folliculogenesis and inhibiting the gonadotropin peak. Thus, with regard to the subject, several widely publicized media publications claim that oral contraceptives play an important role in sarcopenia and hypotrophy, including loss of muscle strength and reduced physical performance. So, the present work aims to evaluate through article searches the correlation between oral hormonal contraceptives and muscle hypotrophy. It was concluded that scientific articles specialized on the subject are still quite inconclusive, suggesting that there are indications that oral contraceptive users are more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage, however there is still no consensus.

Humans , Female , Contraceptives, Oral/adverse effects , Progestins/adverse effects , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Ovulation Inhibition/drug effects , Physical Functional Performance
Homeopatia Méx ; (n.esp): 129-136, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1416729


La valoración crítica de la seguridad de los medicamentos homeopáticos se ha desarrollado recientemente. Esta cuestión es relevante para la toma de decisiones de los médicos, pacientes y dependencias regulatorias de fármacos. A pesar de la aparente inverosimilitud de la acción de los medicamentos homeopáticos debido a los procesos farmacotécnicos de la dilución y agitación empleados para su preparación, existen reportes en la literatura médica convencional sobre la toxicidad de los medicamentos homeopáticos, incluyendo eventos que aparentemente ponen en riesgo la vida. Las revisiones sistemáticas de estudios clínicos controlados aleatorizados muestran que los medicamentos homeopáticos provocan más efectos adversos que el placebo, aunque leves y transitorios. El establecimiento de un sistema de monitoreo en línea para la recolección de datos sobre los efectos adversos de los medicamentos homeopáticos, herbolarios o convencionales, es relevante para una evaluación no sesgada de la información reunida a partir de los consumidores y proveedores de atención médica.

Critical appraisal of the safety of homeopathic medicines developed recently. This matter is relevant for decision making by doctors, patients and drug regulatory agencies. Despite the apparent implausibility of the action of homeopathic medicines due to the pharmacotechnical processes of dilution and agitation used for their preparation, there are reports in the conventional medical literature on the toxicity of homeopathic medicines, including apparently life-threatening events. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials show that homeopathic medicines cause more adverse effects than placebo, albeit mild and transient. Establishing an online monitoring terapéusystem for collection of data on the adverse effects of homeopathic, herbal or conventional medicines is relevant for non-biased assessment of the information gathered from consumers and health care providers.

Aggravation in Homeopathy/drug effects , Homeopathic Remedy , Patient Safety
Homeopatia Méx ; (n.esp): 88-100, feb. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1416732


Entre los supuestos no convencionales de la homeopatía, el uso de medicamentos en diluciones altas (HD, por sus siglas en inglés) es una causa de objeciones y escepticismo entre la comunidad científica, formada dentro del paradigma de la dependencia de la dosis de la farmacología clásica. La investigación que busca evidenciar los efectos de las HD homeopáticas recurre a varios modelos experimentales (in vitro, plantas y animales). Objetivo: Describir los resultados de estudios con alta calidad metodológica que han demostrado los efectos positivos de las HD homeopáticas sobre las plantas. Métodos: Tomando como fuente de referencia las revisiones publicadas hasta 2015, actualizamos la información añadiendo datos de estudios recientes incluidos en la base de datos PubMed. Resultados: De los 167 estudios experimentales analizados, 48 cumplieron los criterios mínimos de calidad metodológica, de los cuales 29 detectaron efectos específicos de las diluciones homeopáticas altas sobre las plantas mediante la comparación con controles adecuados. Conclusiones: A pesar de que la mayor parte de los experimentos presentaba una calidad metodológica por debajo del estándar, los estudios que emplearon sistemáticamente reproducibilidad y controles negativos demostraron indiscutibles efectos significativos de las HD homeopáticas sobre las plantas.

Among the non-conventional assumptions of homeopathy, the use of medicines in high dilutions (HD) is a cause for objections and skepticism among the scientific community, trained within the dose-dependency paradigm of classic pharmacology. Research aiming at evidencing the effects of homeopathic HD has resource to several experimental models (in vitro, plants and animals). Aim: To describe the results of studies with high methodological quality that demonstrated positive effects of homeopathic HD on plants. Methods: Taking reviews published until 2015 as reference source, we updated the information through addition of data from recent studies included in database PubMed. Results: From 167 experimental studies analyzed, 48 met the minimum criteria of methodological quality, from which 29 detected specific effects of homeopathic high dilutions on plants through comparison to adequate controls. Conclusions: Despite the substandard methodological quality of most experiments, studies with systematic use of negative controls and reproducibility demonstrated significant indisputable effects of homeopathic HD on plants.

Plants/drug effects , Dynamization , Homeopathic Remedy
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 231-236, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430516


SUMMARY: Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the drugs necessary for the treatment of the 10 most common types of cancer. The leading adverse effect limiting clinical use of DOX is cardiotoxicity. Given that literature data indicate a protective role of carotenoids in doxorubicin-induced toxicity, in our study we compared the cardioprotective effect of a mixture of pumpkin carotenoids and a commercially available antioxidant preparation. Animals were distributed in 8 groups (Control - S; NADES - N; Doxorubicin - Dox; Carotenoids - Car; CardiofortIN - CF; NADES-Doxorubicin - N-Dox; Carotenoids-Doxorubicin - Car-Dox; CardiofortIN-Doxorubicin - CF-Dox). Histological sections were stained with the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and analyzed for the presence of myocardial damage by doxorubicin damage score (DDS). From the heart tissue homogenate were determined the intensity of lipid peroxidation and specific antioxidative enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase; catalase; glutathione S-transferase; glutathione peroxidase). In Car-DOX and CF-DOX groups, lipid peroxidation is significantly reduced compared to DOX group. Pretreatment of animals with carotenoids and in lesser extent with CardiofortIN led to higher antioxidative enzymes activity, compared to DOX group. Pretreated with carotenoids, only 50 % of animals had some degree of myocardial damage, and no animals had extensive damage. CardiofortIN pretreatment showed less protective effect. Pretreatment with carotenoid extract, reduced DDS significantly, so Car-DOX group has changes equivalent to mild myocardial damage. Although CardiofortIN pretreatment lowered DDS score values, animals still had moderate level of myocardium damage. This in vivo study and its findings indicate that carotenoids extracted from pumpkin may be a promising cardioprotective agent against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part mediated through inhibition of DOX-induced oxidative stress.

La doxorrubicina (DOX) es uno de los fármacos necesarios para el tratamiento de los 10 tipos más comunes de cáncer. El principal efecto adverso que limita el uso clínico de DOX es la cardiotoxicidad. Debido a que los datos de la literatura indican un papel protector de los carotenoides en la toxicidad inducida por doxorrubicina, en nuestro estudio comparamos el efecto cardioprotector de una mezcla de carotenoides de calabaza y una preparación antioxidante disponible comercialmente. Los animales se distribuyeron en 8 grupos (Control - S; NADES - N; Doxorrubicina - Dox; Carotenoides - Car; CardiofortIN - CF; NADES-Doxorrubicina - N-Dox; Carotenoides-Doxorrubicina - Car-Dox; CardiofortIN- Doxorrubicina - CF-Dox). Las secciones histológicas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina (HE) y se analizaron para detectar la presencia de daño miocárdico mediante la puntuación de daño por doxorrubicina (DDS). A partir del homogeneizado de tejido cardíaco se determinó la intensidad de la peroxidación lipídica y la actividad enzimática antioxidante específica (superóxido dismutasa, catalasa, glutatión S-transferasa, glutatión peroxidasa). En los grupos Car-DOX y CF-DOX, la peroxidación lipídica se redujo significativamente en comparación con el grupo DOX. El pre tratamiento de los animales con carotenoides y, en menor medida, con CardiofortlN condujo a una mayor actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes, en comparación con el grupo DOX. Al ser pre tratados con carotenoides, solo el 50 % de los animales tenían algún grado de daño miocárdico y ningún animal tenía daño extenso. El pre tratamiento con CardiofortIN mostró un efecto protector menor. El pre tratamiento con extracto de carotenoides redujo significativamente el DDS, por lo que el grupo Car-DOX mostró cambios equivalentes a un daño miocárdico leve. Aunque el pre tratamiento con CardiofortIN redujo los valores de la puntuación DDS, los animales aún tenían un nivel moderado de daño al miocardio. Este estudio in vivo y sus hallazgos indican que los carotenoides extraídos de la calabaza pueden ser un agente cardioprotector prometedor contra la cardiotoxicidad inducida por doxorrubicina, al menos en parte mediada por la inhibición del estrés oxidativo inducido por DOX.

Animals , Rats , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Doxorubicin/toxicity , Cucurbita/chemistry , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Cardiotonic Agents , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase , Glutathione Transferase , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/toxicity , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antioxidants
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 237-245, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430520


SUMMARY: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of linoleic acid on liver toxicity induced by methotrexate. The study was carried out in partnership with the Department of Anatomy and Department of Medical Pharmacology of Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, using the laboratory facilities of the Department of Medical Pharmacology. Human hepatocyte cell line (CRL- 11233) cells obtained from the American Type Culture Collection Organization (ATCC) were used. Expressions of apoptotic pathway markers, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and CASPASE-3 were evaluated. All analyzes were examined in four groups (Group 1; control, Group 2; linoleic acid given, Group 3; methotrexate given and Group 4; linoleic acid and methotrexate given). The mean ± standard error values of the obtained results as nanogram / milliliter (ng / ml) are in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV, respectively; AIF values, 0.4150 ± 0.1208, 0.3633 ± 0.2389, 1.792 ± 0.3611 and 1.077 ± 0.1646, BAX values, 0.900 ± 0.1864, 1.002 ± 0.2098, 8.352 ± 1.467 and 4.295 ± 1.522, BCL 2 values, 13.93 ± 1.198, 13.92 ± 1.739, 2.938 ± 1.059 and 9.250 ± 1.492, GADD 153, 0.7333 ± 0.1751, 0.7067 ± 0.2115, 1.650 ± 0.2950 and 1.237 ± 0.1805, GRP78, 0.4767 ± 0.1804, 0.5233 ± 0.1590, 2.183 ± 0.2639 and 1.112 ± 0.2693, CASPASE-3 values , 1.127 ± 0.2033, 0.8317 ± 0.3392, 13.50 ± 1.871 and 8.183 ± 1.030. It was determined that linoleic acid has a protective effect on methotrexate-induced liver toxicity.

Nuestro objetivo fue investigar el efecto protector del ácido linoleico sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato. El estudio se llevó a cabo en colaboración con el Departamento de Anatomía y el Departamento de Farmacología Médica de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Çukurova, utilizando las instalaciones del laboratorio del Departamento de Farmacología Médica. Se usaron células de la línea celular de hepatocitos humanos (CRL-11233) obtenidas de la American Type Culture Collection Organisation (ATCC). Se evaluaron las expresiones de marcadores de vías apoptóticas, factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF), BAX, BCL 2, GADD 153, proteína regulada por glucosa de 78 kDa (GRP78) y CASPASE-3. Todos los análisis se examinaron en cuatro grupos (Grupo 1; control, Grupo 2; se administró ácido linoleico, Grupo 3; se administró metotrexato y Grupo 4; se administró ácido linoleico y metotrexato). Los valores medios ± error estándar de los resultados obtenidos como nanogramo/mililitro (ng/ml) se encuentran en el Grupo I, Grupo II, Grupo III y Grupo IV, respectivamente; Valores de AIF, 0,4150 ± 0,1208, 0,3633 ± 0,2389, 1,792 ± 0,3611 y 1,077 ± 0,1646, valores de Bax, 0,900 ± 0,1864, 1,002 ± 0,2098, 8,352 ± 1,467 y 4,295 ± 1,522, BCL 2 valores, 13,93 ± 1,199. 2,938 ± 1,059 y 9,250 ± 1,492, GADD 153, 0,7333 ± 0,1751, 0,7067 ± 0,2115, 1,650 ± 0,2950 y 1,237 ± 0,1805, Grp78, 0,4767 ± 0,1804, 0,5233 ± 0,1590, 2,183, ± 1,263. 1,127 ± 0,2033, 0,8317 ± 0,3392, 13,50 ± 1,871 y 8,183 ± 1,030. Se determinó que el ácido linoleico tiene un efecto protector sobre la toxicidad hepática inducida por metotrexato.

Humans , Methotrexate/toxicity , Linoleic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Protective Agents , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Caspase 3 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/toxicity
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 167-174, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430531


SUMMARY: The present study investigated the possible protective effects of melatonin on Bleomycin, Cisplatin and etoposide (BEP) chemotherapy regimens using immunohistochemistry. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of ten as; group 1 as untreated control; group 2 as BEP group which received the three cycles of 21 days' regimen each of 0.5¥ dose levels ofBEP (bleomycin 0.75 mg/kg, etoposide 7.5 mg/kg and cisplatin 1.5 mg/kg). Rats in the group 3 (MEL group) received 10 mg/kg/day melatonin once daily. Group 4 received the melatonin (30 min before the BEP injections) and BEP as in groups 2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was used to detect cell proliferation and caspase-3, caspase-9 and Caspase-8 were detected to investigate apoptosis. PCNA immunostaining in alveolar epithelium, alveolar macrophages and bronchus was weak to moderate in BEP group. However, diffuse and strong caspase immunoreactions for caspase-3, caspase 8- and caspase-9 were detected in the bronchioles epithelium, vascular endothelium, alveolar luminal macrophages in the BEP group. PCNA and caspase immunoreactivities in MEL and Mel + BEP groups were close to the control one. The surface are in the BEP group was significantly reduced as compared to the control one ((P0.05). It can be concluded that BEP regimen can affects negatively on lung tissue and melatonin inhibits lung tissue injuries during BEP chemotherapy.

El presente estudio investigó los posibles efectos protectores de la melatonina en los regímenes de quimioterapia con bleomicina, etopósido y cisplatino (BEP) mediante inmunohistoquímica. Cuarenta ratas Wistar macho se dividieron en cuatro grupos de diez: grupo 1, control sin tratar; grupo 2, quimioterapia con una dosis de 0,5x de BEP (0,75 mg/kg de bleomicina, 7,5 mg/ kg de etopósido y 1,5 mg/kg de cisplatino) con tres ciclos de 21 días cada uno. Las ratas del grupo 3 (grupo MEL) recibieron 10 mg/kg/día de melatonina una vez al día. El grupo 4 (Mel + BEP) recibió melatonina (30 minutos antes de las inyecciones de BEP) y BEP, como en los grupos 2. Se usó la tinción del antígeno nuclear de células en proliferación (PCNA) para detectar la proliferación celular y, caspasa- 3, caspasa-9 y caspasa-8 para investigar apoptosis. La inmunotinción de PCNA en el epitelio alveolar, los macrófagos alveolares y los bronquios varió de débil a moderada en el grupo BEP. Sin embargo, se detectaron inmunorreacciones difusas y fuertes para caspasa-3, caspasa 8- y caspasa-9 en el epitelio de los bronquiolos, endotelio vascular y macrófagos luminales alveolares. Las inmunorreactividades de PCNA y caspasa en los grupos MEL y Mel + BEP fueron similares a las del control. El área de superficie en el grupo BEP se redujo significativamente en comparación con el control (P0,05). Se puede concluir que la quimioterapia con BEP puede afectar negativamente al tejido pulmonar y la melatonina inhibe las lesiones durante la quimioterapia.

Animals , Male , Rats , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protective Agents , Etoposide/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 85-89, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430538


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la existencia de variaciones morfológicas en el tejido conectivo de la glándula submandibular de ratas obesas expuestas a glutamato monosódico (GMS). Se utilizaron 12 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (6 ratas para el grupo 1, control; 6 ratas para el grupo 2 (GMS), 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico de peso (5 dosis) mantenidas por 16 semanas respectivamente con una dieta y agua ad libitum. En el estudio se realizó un análisis estereológico e histológico, demostrándose una variación en el tejido conectivo presentando una disminución del volúmen glandular, mayor fibrosis, y disminución de adipocitos a nivel periférico siendo reemplazado por tejido rico en colágeno. Los vasos sanguíneos observados a nivel estereológico no presentan mayores cambios en cuanto a volumen, superficie y área.

SUMMARY: This study aims to demonstrate the existence of morphological variations in the connective tissue of the submandibular gland of obese rats exposed to MSG. Twelve male newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used (6 rats for group 1, control; 6 rats for group 2 (MSG), 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate of weight (5 doses) maintained for 16 weeks respectively with a diet and water ad libitum. In the study, a stereological and histological analysis was carried out, demonstrating a variation in the connective tissue, presenting a decrease in the glandular volume, greater fibrosis, and a decrease in adipocytes at the peripheral level, being replaced by tissue rich in collagen. Blood cells observed at the stereological level do not present major changes in terms of volume, surface and area, but in the histological study greater vascularization is observed.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Submandibular Gland/drug effects , Obesity , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Body Weight , Fibrosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 286-296, feb. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430539


SUMMARY: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and colorectal cancer is the only cancer that has shown a sustained increase in mortality in the last decade. In the search for new chemotherapeutic agents against cancer, extremophilic microorganisms have shown to be a potential source to obtain molecules of natural origin and with selective cytotoxic action towards cancer cells. In this work we analyzed the ability of a collection of Antarctic soil bacteria, isolated on Collins Glacier from the rhizosphere of Deschampsia antarctica Desv plant, to secrete molecules capable of inhibiting cell proliferation of a colorectal cancer tumor line. Our results demonstrated that culture supernatants from the Antarctic bacteria K2I17 and MI12 decreased the viability of LoVo cells, a colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the Antarctic bacteria showed that they were taxonomically related and nucleotide identity analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium K2I17 as a species belonging to the genus Bacillus.

El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y el cáncer colorrectal es el único que presenta un aumento sostenido de la mortalidad en la última década. En la búsqueda de nuevos agentes quimioterapeúticos contra el cáncer, se ha propuesto a los microorganismos extremófilos como una fuente potencial para obtener moléculas de origen natural y con acción citotóxica selectiva hacia las células cancerígenas. En este trabajo analizamos la capacidad de una colección de bacterias de suelo antártico, aisladas en el glaciar Collins desde rizosfera de la planta de Deschampsia antarctica Desv, de secretar moléculas capaces de inhibir la proliferación celular de una línea tumoral de cáncer colorrectal. Nuestros resultados demostraron que los sobrenadantes de cultivo de las bacterias antárticas K2I17 y MI12 disminuyeron la viabilidad de la línea celular de adenocarcinoma colorrectal LoVo, en un ensayo de reducción metabólica de MTT. La caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de las bacterias antárticas, demostró que estaban relacionadas taxonómicamente y el análisis de la identidad nucleotídica en base a la secuencia del gen ARNr 16S identificó a la bacteria K2I17 como una especie perteneciente al género Bacillus.

Humans , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/physiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Phenotype , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/genetics , In Vitro Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Genotype , Antarctic Regions
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 188-194, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430540


SUMMARY: Microsurgical procedures are the treatment of choice of peripheral nerve injuries, but often fail to reach full functional recovery. Melatonin has neuroprotective actions and might be used as a possible proregenerative pharmacological support. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the time-dependence of the neuroprotective effect of melatonin on the overall fascicular structures of both ends of the transected nerve. Sciatic nerve transection was performed in 34 adult male Wistar rats divided in four groups: two vehicle groups (N=7) treated intraperitoneally for 7 (V7) or 21 (V21) consecutive days with vehicle (5 % ethanol in Ringer solution) and two melatonin groups (N=10) administered intraperitoneally 30 mg/kg of melatonin for 7 (M7) or 21 (M21) consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, proximal stump neuroma and distal stump fibroma were excised and processed for qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Intrafascicular neural structures were better preserved and the collagen deposition was reduced in the melatonin treated groups than in the vehicle groups. Myelin sheath regeneration observed through its thickness measurement was statistically significantly (p<0,05) more pronounced in the M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs. V21 group (0,98±0,13 µm). The mean volume density of the endoneurium was lower in both melatonin treated groups in comparison to the matching vehicle treated groups. Although not statistically different, the endoneural tube diameter was larger in both melatonin groups vs. vehicle groups, and the effect of melatonin was more pronounced after 21 days (24,97 % increase) vs. 7 days of melatonin treatment (18,8 % increase). Melatonin exerts a time-dependent proregenerative effect on nerve fibers in the proximal stump and an anti-scarring effect in both stumps.

Los procedimientos microquirúrgicos son el tratamiento de elección de las lesiones de los nervios periféricos, pero a menudo no logran una recuperación funcional completa. La melatonina tiene acciones neuroprotectoras y podría ser utilizada como un posible apoyo farmacológico proregenerativo. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la dependencia del tiempo del efecto neuroprotector de la melatonina sobre las estructuras fasciculares generales de ambos extremos del nervio seccionado. La sección del nervio ciático se realizó en 34 ratas Wistar macho adultas divididas en cuatro grupos: dos grupos de vehículo (N=7) tratados por vía intraperitoneal durante 7 (V7) o 21 (V21) días consecutivos con vehículo (5 % de etanol en solución Ringer) y dos grupos grupos de melatonina (N=10) a los que se les administró por vía intraperitoneal 30 mg/kg de melatonina durante 7 (M7) o 21 (M21) días consecutivos. Al final del experimento, se extirparon y procesaron el neuroma del muñón proximal y el fibroma del muñón distal del nervio para un análisis histológico cualitativo y cuantitativo. Las estructuras neurales intrafasciculares se conservaron mejor y el depósito de colágeno se redujo en los grupos tratados con melatonina respecto a los grupos con vehículo. La regeneración de la vaina de mielina observada a través de la medición de su espesor fue estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05) más pronunciada en el grupo M21 (1,23±0,18 µm) vs V21 (0,98±0,13 µm). La densidad de volumen media del endoneuro fue menor en ambos grupos tratados con melatonina en comparación con los grupos tratados con vehículo equivalente. Aunque no fue estadísticamente diferente, el diámetro del tubo endoneural fue mayor en ambos grupos de melatonina frente a los grupos de vehículo, y el efecto de la melatonina fue más pronunciado después de 21 días (aumento del 24,97 %) frente a los 7 días de tratamiento con melatonina (18,8 % de aumento). La melatonina ejerce un efecto proregenerativo dependiente del tiempo sobre las fibras nerviosas del muñón proximal y un efecto anticicatricial en ambos muñones.

Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Melatonin/pharmacology , Nerve Regeneration/drug effects , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Time Factors , Rats, Wistar , Myelin Sheath/drug effects , Nerve Regeneration/physiology
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 195-209, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430542


SUMMARY: The aim of the present in vitro study is to visualize dentin to get an in-depth knowledge of the nature of dentin that could provide useful information regarding conditioning dentinal substrate when treating dentinal lesions. Forty-nine extracted human third molars were obtained and prepared to produce artificial dentinal lesions through demineralizing with acetic acid for 7 and 14 days, or lactic acid for 7 days. The teeth were divided into groups and treated with either NaOCl, pepsin, trypsin, or phosphoric acid. To obtain information on the morphology of the treated dentinal surfaces, all samples were visualized under high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. With high magnification reaching x50000 dentin was clearly visualized together with its constitutes. The effect of various demineralization approaches and various treatment protocols were demonstrated clearly. The relationship between the conditioning procedure steps and the subsequent bond strength was discussed. To our best knowledge, there is no previous clear highly magnified scanning electron microscope images for dentin, and dentinal components and constitutes with and without various treatments. The current in vitro study suggests the complexity nature of dentin as a substrate that should be treated carefully especially with technique sensitive procedures such as adhesive restorations.

El objetivo del presente estudio in vitro fue visualizar la dentina para obtener un conocimiento completo de la naturaleza de ella lo que podría proporcionar información útil sobre el acondicionamiento del sustrato dentinario en el tratamiento de lesiones dentinarias. Se obtuvieron 49 terceros molares humanos extraídos y se prepararon para producir lesiones dentinales artificiales mediante desmineralización con ácido acético por 7 y 14 días, o ácido láctico por 7 días. Los dientes se dividieron en grupos y se trataron con NaOCl, pepsina, tripsina o ácido fosfórico. Para obtener información sobre la morfología de las superficies dentinarias tratadas, todas las muestras se visualizaron bajo un microscopio electrónico de barrido de emisión de campo de alta resolución. Con un gran aumento que alcanzó x50000, la dentina se visualizó claramente junto con sus componentes. Se demostró el efecto de varios enfoques de desmineralización y varios protocolos de tratamiento. Se discutió la relación entre los pasos del procedimiento de acondicionamiento y la subsiguiente fuerza de unión. Hasta donde sabemos, no hay imágenes claras previas de microscopio electrónico de barrido altamente ampliadas para la dentina y los componentes y constituyentes de la dentina con y sin diferentes tratamientos. El estudio in vitro actual sugiere la naturaleza compleja de la dentina como sustrato que debe tratarse con cuidado, especialmente en los procedimientos sensibles a la técnica, tal como las restauraciones adhesivas.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/ultrastructure , Sodium Hypochlorite , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Trypsin , Pepsin A , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology