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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 516-522, jul. 2024. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538029

ABSTRACT

This article aimed to discuss the protection of trans - nerolidol on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) injured by lipopolysac charides. ECs were divided into four groups: normal, model, low and high dose trans - nerolidol treatment groups. The cell survival rate and the contents of NO in the cell culture supernatant were determined. The protein expression and transcript level of pe roxisome proliferator - activated receptor - γ (PPARγ), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined by western blotting and RT - PCR respectively. Compared with the normal group, cell livability, protein e xpression and mRNA transcript level of PPARγ and eNOS decreased, NO contents, protein expression and mRNA transcript tlevel of iNOS increased in model group significantly. Compared with model group, all the changes recovered in different degree in treatmen t groups. Hence, it was concluded that trans - nerolidol can alleviate the ECs injuryby the regulation of iNOS/eNOS through activating PPARγ in a dose - dependent manner


Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir la protección del trans - nerolidol en las células endoteliales vasculares (CE) dañadas por lipopolisacáridos. Las CE se di vidieron en cuatro grupos: normal, modelo, grupos de tratamiento con trans - nerolidol de baja y alta dosis. Se determinó la tasa de supervivencia de las células y los contenidos de óxido nítrico (NO) en el sobrenadante del cultivo celular. La expresión de p roteínas y el nivel de transcripción del receptor activado por proliferadores de peroxisomas - γ (PPARγ), el óxido nítrico sint et asa endotelial (eNOS) y el óxido nítrico sint et asa inducible (iNOS) se determinaron mediante western blot y RT - PCR, respectivamen te. En comparación con el grupo normal, la viabilidad celular, la expresión de proteínas y el nivel de transcripción de PPARγ y eNOS disminuyeron, los contenidos de NO, la expresión de proteínas y el nivel de transcripción de iNOS aumentaron significativam ente en el grupo modelo. En comparación con el grupo modelo, todos los cambios se recuperaron en diferentes grados en los grupos de tratamiento. Por lo tanto, se concluyó que el trans - nerolidol puede aliviar el daño en las CE regulando iNOS/eNOS a través d e la activación de PPARγ de manera dependiente de la dosis.


Subject(s)
Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 568-576, jul. 2024. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538065

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the repellent and insecticidal activity of four essential oils (EOs) from plants collected in the Chocó rain forest, Colombia, against T. castaneum . Conventional hydrodistillation was used to obtain the EOs. The repellent and insecticidal activities were evaluated by the preference area and gas dispersion methods, espectively. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were determined by applying a student's t-test. EOs of Siparuna guianensis, S. conica, Piper marginatum, and Nectandra acutifolia showed excellent repellent properties as the main findings, highlighting S. conicaEO with 84% repellency (1-hµL/cm2), while P. marginatum showed to be bioactive to the dose of 500 µL/mL (72 h), inducing mortality of 100% of the exposed population. In conclusion, the results evidenced the repellent properties of the EOs evaluated against T. castaneum , which allows us to conclude that these plant species are potential natural sources producing bio-repellents that contribute to the integrated control of T. castaneum.


Se evaluaron cuatro aceites esenciales (AEs) de plantas recolectadas en la selva pluvial del Chocó, Colombia, para determinar su actividad repelente e insecticida contra T. castaneum. Los AEs fueron obtenidos por hidrodestilación convencional. Las actividades repelentes e insecticidas se evaluaron por los métodos de área de preferencia y dispersión de gas, respectivamente. Las diferencias significativas (p<0,05) fueron determinadas aplicando una prueba t de student. Los AEs de Siparuna guianensis, S. conica, Piper marginatum y Nectandra acutifolia mostraron excelentes propiedades repelentes, destacando el AE de S. conicacon un 84% de repelencia (1µL/cm2), mientras que el AE de P. marginatummostró ser bioactivo a la dosis de 500 µL/mL (72 h) al inducir la mortalidad del 100% de la población expuesta. Se concluye que estas especies de plantas son fuentes naturales potencialmente viables para la producción de biorepelentes que contribuyan en el control integrado de T. castaneum.


Subject(s)
Tribolium/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Insecticides/pharmacology , Colombia , Insect Repellents/pharmacology
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 199-213, mar. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552114

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of 50% ethanol extract of Bougainvillea xbuttiana on the enzymatic activity, cell via bility and cytokine production provoked by the venom of Bothrops jararaca in macro - phages. Three assays were used to study the effects of B. xbuttiana extract on the damage pro - duced by B. jararaca : Enzymatic activity was detected by measuring the proteoly tic and phos - pholipase A2; macrophages cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method; levels of cytokine were evaluated using ELISA and a biological assay. After treatment with 300 µg/mL B. xbuttiana extract for 30 min, the proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities of the venom were reduced to 95 and 61%, respectively. In macrophages cultures treated with B. xbuttiana extract combined with venom, the production of TNF - α, IL - 6 and IFN - γ was reduced, whereas IL - 10 was potenti - ated. Our results support the potential effect of the B. xbuttiana extract as a complementary therapy against the toxicity caused by the venom of B . jararaca snakes


Estudiar el efecto del extracto etanólico al 50% de Bougainvillea xbuttiana sobre la actividad enzimática viabilidad celular y producci ón de citoquinas provocada por el veneno de Bothrops jararaca en macrófagos Se utilizaron tres ensayos para estudiar los efectos del extracto de B. xbuttiana sobre el daño producido por B. jararaca : Se detectó actividad enzimática mediante la medición del proteolítico y fosfolipasa A2; la citotoxicidad de los macrófagos se determinó por el método MTT; Los niveles de citoquinas se evaluaron utilizando ELISA y un ensayo biológico. Después del tratamiento con 300 µg/mL de extracto de B. xbuttiana durante 30 mi n, las actividades proteolíticas y de fosfolipasa A2 del veneno se redujeron a 95 y 61%, respectivamente. En cultivos de macrófagos tratados con extracto de B. xbuttiana combinado con veneno, la producción de TNF - α, IL - 6 e IFN - γ se redujeron, mientras que IL - 10 se potenció. Nuestros resultados apoyan el efecto potencial del extracto de B. xbuttiana como terapia complementaria frente a la toxicidad provocada por el veneno de B. jararaca .


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/chemistry , Crotalid Venoms/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cytokines/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(2): 290-303, mar. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552588

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the effect of the total macerate (TM) and seed oil (SO) of mature Carica candamarcensis fruits, on the release of Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and the phosphorylation of MAPK in neutrophils. The antioxidant capacity of these extracts was evaluated by ABTS assay. Neutrophils stimulated with different dilutions of TM or SO were analyzed for cytotoxicity, MMP9 release, and MAPK phosphorylation, using trypan blue exclusion assays, zymography, and immunoblotting, respectively. Both extracts show antioxidant activity, being higher in TM; none presented cytotoxic effect. The 5% and 2.5% dilutions of TM significantly reduced MMP9 release, and all decreased MAPK phosphorylation. SO significantly increased the release o f MMP9 and MAPK phosphorylation, the effect being greater when they were prestimulated with lipopolysaccharide.TM may have anti - inflammatory potential, while SO could have a priming effect that needs to be confirmed


Evaluamos el efecto del macerado total (MT) y aceite de semillas (AV) de frutos maduros de Carica candamarcensis , en la liberación de Matriz metaloproteinasa 9 (MMP9) y la fosfor ilación de MAPK en neutrófilos. La capacidad antioxidante de estos extractos se evaluó por ensayo ABTS. En neutrófilos estimulados con diferentes diluciones de MT o AV se analizó la citotoxicidad, liberación de MMP9 y fosforilación de MAPK, mediante ensayo s de exclusión con azul de tripano, zimografía e inmunotransferencia, respectivamente. Ambos extractos muestran actividad antioxidante, siendo mayor en MT; ninguno presentó efecto citotóxico. Las diluciones 5% y 2,5% de MT redujeron significativamente la l iberación de MMP9, y todas disminuyeron la fosforilación de MAPK. El AV incrementó significativamente la liberación de MMP9 y la fosforilación de MAPK, el efecto fue mayor cuando se preestimularon con lipopolisacárido. El MT puede tener potencial antiinfla matorio, mientras que el AV podría tener un efecto "priming" que necesita ser corroborado.


Subject(s)
Fruit/enzymology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Latex/analysis
5.
Brasília; CONITEC; fev. 2024.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS | ID: biblio-1551263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes com fatores de risco como idade avançada, imunodepressão, obesidade e doenças cardiovasculares têm risco aumentado de internação, intubação e morte. De acordo com dados brasileiros, o risco de morte por covid-19 aumenta com o número de fatores de risco que o paciente apresenta, sendo igual a 17% em pacientes com 2 fatores de risco e 76% na presença de 8 fatores de risco. Além disso, mesmo aqueles pacientes que sobrevivem a uma internação em terapia intensiva frequentemente enfrentam sequelas e representam alto custo para o sistema público. O medicamento nirmatrelvir associado ao ritonavir têm o objetivo de prevenir internações, complicações e morte. Ele é indicado para pacientes com Covid-19 leve a moderada, não hospitalizados, até 5 dias do início dos sintomas. Apesar dos avanços da vacinação no Brasil, evidências sobre a falha vacinal em idosos e imunodeprimidos destacam a importância da disponibilidade de alternativas terapêuticas para essas populações. O presente relatório teve por objetivo avaliar evidências sobre a efetividade do tratamento em pacientes vacinados com alto risco de agravamento da doença. PERGUNTA: O medicamento nirmatrelvir/ritonavir é eficaz, seguro e custo-efetivo para pacientes com covid19 leve a moderada não hospitalizados vacinados que apresentam alto risco de agravamento da doença? EVIDÊNCIAS CLÍNICAS: Resultados obtidos a partir de estudos observacionais de mundo real confirmaram os resultados do ensaio clínico do medicamento nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, demonstrando que o tratamento de pacientes de grupos de risco é capaz de reduzir o risco de desfechos desfavoráveis como internação e óbito entre cerca de 50% e 70%, inclusive entre pacientes previamente vacinados. ANÁLISE DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: A análise de impacto orçamentário do relatório de recomendação do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir foi atualizada considerando-se o cenário atual da pandemia no Brasil. De acordo com a nova análise, o uso do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir por pacientes com idade ≥ 65 anos e imunossuprimidos com idade ≥ 18 anos, resultaria em uma economia de recursos de R$ 408.957.111,38 em 5 anos. Ressalta-se, no entanto, que devido à dinâmica de difícil previsão da pandemia, este montante está sujeito à incerteza. Considerando-se a análise realizada anteriormente no relatório de recomendação, pode-se concluir que o montante economizado se reduz proporcionalmente à redução do número de casos da doença na população alvo. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: De acordo com as evidências atualmente disponíveis, o uso do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir é efetivo e seguro para pacientes com covid-19 leve a moderada não hospitalizados vacinados que apresentam alto risco de agravamento da doença. O impacto orçamentário está sujeito a incertezas já que o número de casos da doença no horizonte temporal da análise é de difícil previsão. RECOMENDAÇÃO PRELIMINAR DA CONITEC: Diante do exposto, os membros do Comitê de Medicamentos da Conitec, em sua 16ª Reunião Extraordinária, realizada no dia 1º de novembro de 2023, deliberaram que a matéria fosse disponibilizada em Consulta Pública com recomendação preliminar favorável à incorporação no SUS do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir para o tratamento de pacientes com Covid-19 não hospitalizados com idade a partir de 65 anos ou pacientes imunossuprimidos a partir de 18 anos de idade. Os membros do Comitê concordaram na manutenção da indicação de uso, não havendo ampliação do público-alvo, justificada pela restrição orçamentária, considerando que há incremento de custo da aquisição da tecnologia, ainda que haja economia de recursos ao serem evitadas internações e óbitos. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: Das nove contribuições recebidas, cinco contribuições foram de cunho técnico-científico e quatro contribuições de experiência ou opinião. Todas as contribuições concordaram com a recomendação preliminar da Conitec de incorporar o nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Duas contribuições técnico-científicassugeriram ampliação da população elegível ao tratamento com o medicamento com a inclusão de indicação para pacientes com taxa de filtração glomerular menor que 30 ml/min/1,73m2 e de pacientes adultos com asma grave independentemente da faixa etária. Uma contribuição técnico-científica enviada pela empresa fabricante do medicamento expressou sua concordância com e solicitou a inclusão de informaçõea adicionais no relatório. As contribuições de experiência ou opinião ressaltaram a eficácia e segurança do medicamento para a população alvo. RECOMEDAÇÃO FINAL DA CONITEC: Diante do exposto, os membros do Comitê de Medicamentos, presentes na 126ª Reunião Ordinária da Conitec, realizada no dia 01 de fevereiro de 2024, deliberaram, por unanimidade, após reavaliação, manter a incorporação do nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, no SUS, para o tratamento da Covid-19 nos seguintes grupos de pacientes com sintomas leves a moderados, que não requerem oxigênio suplementar, independentemente do status vacinal: a) imunocomprometidos com idade ≥ 18 anos; b) com idade ≥ 65 anos. Foi assinado o registro de deliberação nº 874/2024. DECISÃO: manter a incorporação, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS, de nirmatrelvir/ritonavir para o tratamento da Covid-19 para pacientes com sintomas leves a moderados, que não requerem oxigênio suplementar, independentemente do status vacinal e com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos ou imunocomprometidos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, publicada no Diário Oficial da União nº 46, seção 1, página 54, em 07 de março de 2024.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Peptidomimetics/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment/instrumentation , Unified Health System , Brazil , Comorbidity , Efficacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
6.
Rev. ADM ; 81(1): 21-25, ene.-feb. 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556112

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el control de cavidades sin restauración (NRCC, por sus siglas en inglés), es una opción de tratamiento conservador y no invasivo para dentina cariosa, sobre todo en dentición temporal. Una de las estrategias del NRCC es la remineralización. El fluoruro de estaño (FDE) puede considerarse, como una opción viable ya que existe evidencia de su eficacia cariostática. Objetivo: valorar al FDE como remineralizante alternativo en dentina de molares temporales, asociado al NRCC. Material y métodos: se efectuó un estudio clínico, epidemiológico, y descriptivo con preescolares voluntarios de 3 a 5 años de edad con consentimiento firmado de participación en el estudio, y que presentaron molares con ICDAS 5 y 6. La aplicación del FDE a 0.8%, la evaluación de la dureza de la dentina con los criterios de Nyvad, y el diagnóstico del estado pulpar, la efectuó un operador entrenado para esta finalidad. Se aplicó un análisis estadístico descriptivo y uno no paramétrico. Resultados: el efecto cariostático producido por el FDE a 0.8%, sobre dentina afectada de molares temporales de niños mexicanos fue estadísticamente significativo durante cinco meses. Conclusiones: la aplicación de fluoruro de estaño puede considerarse como una alternativa de tratamiento cariostático asociado al NRCC para niños de 3 a 5 años de edad (AU)


Introduction: nonrestorative cavity control (NRCC), is a conservative and non-invasive treatment option for carious dentin, especially in primary dentition. One of the NRCC strategies is remineralization. Stannous Fluoride (SDF) can be considered as a viable option since there is evidence of its cariostatic efficacy. Objective: to evaluate FDE as an alternative remineralizing agent in the dentin of primary molars, associated with NRCC. Material and methods: a clinical, epidemiological, and descriptive study was carried out with preschool volunteers aged 3 to 5 years with signed consent to participate in the study, and who presented molars with ICDAS 5 and 6. The application of FDE at 0.8%, the evaluation of dentin hardness with the Nyvad criteria, and the diagnosis of pulp status, was carried out by an operator trained for this purpose. A descriptive and non-parametric statistical analysis was applied. Results: the cariostatic effect produced by 0.8% FDE on affected dentin of primary molars of Mexican children was statistically significant for five months. Conclusions: the application of stannous fluoride can be considered as an alternative cariostatic treatment associated with NRCC for children 3 to 5 years of age (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Tin Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth, Deciduous/drug effects , Dental Caries/therapy , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Conservative Treatment/methods
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.


Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 216-224, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528818

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Senile osteoporosis is mainly caused by reduced osteoblast differentiation and has become the leading cause of fractures in the elderly worldwide. Natural organics are emerging as a potential option for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. This study was designed to study the effect of resveratrol on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in osteoporosis mice. A mouse model of osteoporosis was established by subcutaneous injection of dexamethasone and treated with resveratrol administered by gavage. In vivo and in vitro, we used western blot to detect protein expression, and evaluated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by detecting the expression of osteogenic differentiation related proteins, calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content. Resveratrol treatment significantly increased the body weight of mice, the level of serum Ca2+, 25(OH)D and osteocalcin, ration of bone weight, bone volume/total volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular spacing and cortical thickness in osteoporosis mice. In BMSCs of osteoporosis mice, resveratrol treatment significantly increased the expression of Runx2, osterix (OSX) and osteocalcin (OCN) protein, the level of calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content. In addition, resveratrol treatment also significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, p-PI3K / PI3K and p-AKT / AKT in BMSCs of osteoporosis mice. In vitro, resveratrol increased the expression of SIRT1, p-PI3K / PI3K and p-AKT / AKT, Runx2, OSX and OCN protein, the level of calcium deposition, ALP activity and osteocalcin content in BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, while SIRT1 knockdown significantly reversed the effect of resveratrol. Resveratrol can attenuate osteoporosis by promoting osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of SIRT1/PI3K/AKT pathway.


La osteoporosis senil es causada principalmente por una diferenciación reducida de osteoblastos y se ha convertido en la principal causa de fracturas en las personas mayores en todo el mundo. Los productos orgánicos naturales están surgiendo como una opción potencial para la prevención y el tratamiento de la osteoporosis. Este estudio fue diseñado para estudiar el efecto del resveratrol en la diferenciación osteogénica de las células madre mesenquimales de la médula ósea (BMSC) en ratones con osteoporosis. Se estableció un modelo de osteoporosis en ratones mediante inyección subcutánea de dexametasona y se trató con resveratrol administrado por sonda. In vivo e in vitro, utilizamos Western blot para detectar la expresión de proteínas y evaluamos la diferenciación osteogénica de BMSC detectando la expresión de proteínas relacionadas con la diferenciación osteogénica, la deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina. El tratamiento con resveratrol aumentó significativamente el peso corporal de los ratones, el nivel sérico de Ca2+, 25(OH)D y osteocalcina, la proporción de peso óseo, el volumen óseo/ volumen total, el espesor trabecular, el número trabecular, el espaciado trabecular y el espesor cortical en ratones con osteoporosis. En BMSC de ratones con osteoporosis, el tratamiento con resveratrol aumentó significativamente la expresión de las proteínas Runx2, osterix (OSX) y osteocalcina (OCN), el nivel de deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina. Además, el tratamiento con resveratrol también aumentó significativamente la expresión de SIRT1, p-PI3K/PI3K y p-AKT/AKT en BMSC de ratones con osteoporosis. In vitro, el resveratrol aumentó la expresión de las proteínas SIRT1, p-PI3K/PI3K y p- AKT/AKT, Runx2, OSX y OCN, el nivel de deposición de calcio, la actividad de ALP y el contenido de osteocalcina en BMSC de manera dependiente de la concentración, mientras que La caída de SIRT1 revirtió significativamente el efecto del resveratrol. El resveratrol puede atenuar la osteoporosis al promover la diferenciación osteogénica de las células madre mesenquimales de la médula ósea, y el mecanismo puede estar relacionado con la regulación de la vía SIRT1/PI3K/AKT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Disease Models, Animal , Sirtuin 1 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 127-136, feb. 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528822

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic wound healing potential and molecular mechanisms of shikonin as small molecules in vitro. A mouse burn model was used to explore the potential therapeutic effect of shikonin; we traced proliferating cells in vivo to locate the active area of skin cell proliferation. Through the results of conventional pathological staining, we found that shikonin has a good effect on the treatment of burned skin and promoted the normal distribution of skin keratin at the damaged site. At the same time, shikonin also promoted the proliferation of skin cells at the damaged site; importantly, we found a significant increase in the number of fibroblasts at the damaged site treated with shikonin. Most importantly, shikonin promotes fibroblasts to repair skin wounds by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This study shows that shikonin can effectively promote the proliferation of skin cell, and local injection of fibroblasts in burned skin can play a certain therapeutic role.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el potencial terapéutico de cicatrización de heridas y los mecanismos moleculares de la shikonina como moléculas pequeñas in vitro. Se utilizó un modelo de quemaduras en ratones para explorar el posible efecto terapéutico de la shikonina; Rastreamos las células en proliferación in vivo para localizar el área activa de proliferación de células de la piel. A través de los resultados de la tinción para patología convencional, encontramos que la shikonina tiene un buen efecto en el tratamiento de la piel quemada y promueve la distribución normal de la queratina de la piel en el sitio dañado. Al mismo tiempo, la shikonina también promovió la proliferación de células de la piel en el sitio dañado. Es importante destacar que encontramos un aumento significativo en la cantidad de fibroblastos en el sitio dañado tratado con shikonina. Lo más importante es que la shikonina promueve la función reparadora de fibroblastos en las heridas de la piel regulando la vía de señalización PI3K/ AKT. Este estudio muestra que la shikonina puede promover eficazmente la proliferación de células de la piel y que la inyección local de fibroblastos en la piel quemada puede desempeñar un cierto papel terapéutico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Wound Healing/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/administration & dosage , Skin , In Vitro Techniques , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Fibroblasts , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.


La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 111-121, ene. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554149

ABSTRACT

Anxiety and depression cause alterations in the physiology of an organism. Extracts from the leaves of several Passiflora species are traditionally use d Peru and in many countries as anxiolytic and in treatment for inflammatory problems. T his study aimed to determine the neuropharmacological effect of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm - Niels. & P. Jørg. and its an xiolytic effect on mouse ( Mus musculus var. albinus ). A nxiety was evaluated with the marble burying test and the depressant effect with the Irwin test (locomotor activity, base of support, wobbly gait, immobility, escape, ease of handling, muscular strengt h, tight rope, inclined plane, catatonia, nociceptive reflex and death). Doses of 100 mg/Kg/body weight and 200 mg/kg/body weight by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) significantly decreased anxiety levels (p<0.05) in mice, and had a non - significant depressant effect in 11 of the 12 tests, showing a similar direction of correlation between diazepam and Passiflora extract effect. A greater anxiolytic and anti - depressant effects in mice was observed with the extract dose of 200 mg/kg/body weight with neuropharmaco logical manifestations found where no death was observed at any dose used.


L a ansiedad y la depresión provocan alteraciones fisiológicas. Las especies de Pa ssiflora se utilizan tradicionalmente en Perú como ansiolíticos y para tratar problemas inflamatorios. D eterminar el efecto neurofarmacológico del extracto etanólico de Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm - Niels. & P. Jørg. y su efecto ansiol ítico en ratones. S e evaluó la ansiedad con el test de enterramiento de canicas y el efecto depresor con el test de Irwin . Las dosis de 100 mg/kg/peso corporal y 200 mg/kg/peso corporal por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) disminuyeron significativamente la ansi edad ( p <0,05) con efecto depresor no significativo en 11 de las 12 pruebas, mostrando una correlación similar entre el diazepam aplicado a dosis de 1 mg/Kg/p.c. (i.p) y el efecto de Passiflora . S e observó un mayor efecto ansiolítico y antidepresivo en rato nes con 200 mg/kg/peso corporal encontrándose manifestaciones neurofarmacológicas pero no se observó muerte a ninguna de las dosis empleadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Passiflora/drug effects , Passiflora/chemistry , Species Specificity , Anti-Anxiety Agents , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
12.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 142-151, ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554181

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents and antimic robial activity of the essential oil isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Tong & Y.M. Xia in S.Q. Tong from Vietnam was studied and reported. The techniques of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to characterize the chemical constituents of the essential oil while the microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The main compounds identified in the rhizome essential oil consist of ß - pinene (46.5%), ß - phellandrene (25.7%) and α - pinene (8.5%). The studied essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 15.32 µg/mL ± 0. 01, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The essential oil also displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) and Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), and IC 50 va lue of 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. This is the first report on the rhizome oil composition, as well as the antimicrobial of essential oils from A. menghaiensis . The paper discusses further the comparative analysis of essential oils from A. menghaiensis .


Se investigaron los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite escencial aislado de los rizomas de Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Ton g & Y. M. Xia en S.Q. Tong de Vietnam. Se usaron las técnicas de cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases con espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) para caracterizar los componentes químicos del aceite escencial, mientras que se utilizó un ensayo de microdilución para evaluar la actividad antimicrobial. Se identificaron los componentes principales en el aceite escencial del rizoma, compuesto de ß - pineno (46.5%), ß - fellandreno (25.7%) y α - pineno (8.5%). El aceite escencial estudiado inhibió el crecimie nto de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 con concentraciones de actividad mínima inhibitoria (MIC) de 15.32 µg/mL ± 0.01, y una m ediana de concentración inhibitoria (IC 50 ) de 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. El aceite escencial también mostró actividad contra Staphylococ cus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) y Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), y valor IC 50 de 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. Este es el primer reporte sobre la composición del aceite de rizoma, así como de las propiedades antimicrobianas d e los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis . El artículo discute el análisis comparativo de los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Alpinia/chemistry , Vietnam , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Alpinia/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 152-159, ene. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554187

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants are used to cure diseases, and their replacement is frequent and affects public health. The genus Baccharis has representatives within the medicinal flora of Argentina, although the replacement of the species of this genus known under the vulgar name of "carqueja" by Baccharis spicata has been detected i n herbalists or markets of herbal products. The genotoxic safety of this species has been established in previous work of our group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of an infusion made from B. spicata leaves against hepatitis B virus with the HepG2.2.15 cellular system and to determine cytotoxicity in HepG2.2,15, A549 and Vero cell lines. Infusion of B. spicata was active to inhibit HBV replication with an EC 50 of 22.54 µg/mL and a CC 50 of 190 µg/mL.


Las plantas medicinales son empleadas para la cura de enfermedades, y su sustituc ión es frecuente y afecta a la salud pública. El género Baccharis posee representantes dentro de la flora medicinal de Argentina, aunque se ha detectado la sustitución de las especies de dicho género conocidas bajo el nombre vulgar de "carqueja" por Baccha ris spicata en herboristerías o mercados de productos herb arios . Se ha establecido la seguridad genotóxica de esta especie en trabajos previos de nuestro grupo. Este estudio buscó evaluar la actividad antiviral de una infusión elaborada a partir de hojas de B. spicata frente al virus de la hepatitis B con el sistema celular HepG2.2.15 y determinar la citotoxicidad en las líneas celulares HepG2.2.15, A549 y Vero. La infusión de B. spicata fue activa para inhibir la replicación del virus con un EC 50 de 22.54 µg/mL y un CC 50 de 190 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Baccharis/drug effects , Baccharis/chemistry , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Cell Line/metabolism , Medicine, Traditional/methods
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202

ABSTRACT

Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.


As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530

ABSTRACT

Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.


A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.


Subject(s)
24444 , Lactuca/growth & development , Lactuca/drug effects , Fertilizers
18.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 23: e242836, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553439

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the bacteriological profile of oral and maxillofacial infections and the pattern of sensitivity to a specific group of antibiotics in a reference emergency hospital in Brazil. Methods: This is a prospective cohort institutional study that studied patients affected by oral and/ or maxillofacial infections in a Brazilian emergency hospital, over a 12-month period, of different etiologies, through data collection, culture and antibiogram tests, and monitoring of the process of resolution of the infectious condition. The variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, using a significance level of 5%. Results: The sample consisted of 61 patients, 62.3% male. The mean age of participants was 34.3 years. Odontogenic infection was the most frequent etiology and the submandibular space was the most affected. The bacterial species Streptococcus viridans was isolated in 21.6% of cases. Levofloxacin, vancomycin and penicillin were the antibiotics with the highest frequency of bacterial sensitivity, while clindamycin and erythromycin showed the highest percentages of resistance. Conclusions: The results suggest that, among the most used antibiotics for the treatment of these infections, penicillin remains an excellent option of choice for empirical therapy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Surgical Wound Infection , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Focal Infection, Dental , Anti-Bacterial Agents
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1527678

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir los niveles de resistencia transmitida de VIH-1 en adultos atendidos en Unidades de Atención Integral de Guatemala. El estudio incluyó registros de 185 pacientes adultos VIH-1 positivo, de reciente diagnóstico sin antecedente de uso de TAR, de noviembre del 2019 a noviembre del 2020. El análisis se realizó en el software DeepChek® v2.0, para la clasificación de la resistencia se siguió el algoritmo de Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022). Se encontró 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistencia general a alguna familia de ARVs. Se evidenció 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistencia individual a la familia de INNTR afectando principalmente a NVP y EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) de resistencia a INTR, mayormente a FTC/3TC; y 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistencia intermedia y baja los IP NFV y LPV/r. Tres casos presentaron resistencia múltiple a los INTR + INNTR. Las mutaciones más frecuentemente encontradas fueron K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) y M46I (5.9%). La elevada resistencia transmitida del VIH-1 en pacientes atendidos en distintas Unidades de Atención Integral del VIH, demuestra la importancia de analizar periódicamente la tendencia de la resistencia en personas que no han estado expuestas a ARVs, lo cual a su vez es un marcador indirecto de presencia de resistencia adquirida en el país, datos que evidencian la necesidad de acciones e intervenciones prontas y efectivas dado su impacto en la salud pública.


The objective of this study was to describe the levels of transmitted HIV-1 resistance in patients with a recent HIV diagnosis before starting ART, treated in Comprehensive Care Units in Guatemala during the years 2019 and 2020. The study included records of 185 HIV-positive adult patients, recently diagnosed with HIV without a history of ART use. The analysis was carried out in the DeepChek® v2.0 software, the Stanford HIVdb algorithm (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) was followed to classify resistance. 18.4% (95% CI 13.1 - 24.7%) of general resistance to some family of ARVs was found. There was evidence of 15.1% (95% CI 10.3 - 21.1%) of individual resistance to the NNRTI family, mainly affecting NVP and EFV; 2.2% (95% CI 0.6 - 5.4%) resistance to INTR, mostly to FTC/3TC; and 2.7% (95% CI 0.9 - 6.2%) of intermediate and low resistance IP NFV and LPV/r. Three cases presented multiple resistance to NRTIs + NNRTIs. The most frequently found mutations were K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) and M46I (5.9%). The high transmitted resistance of HIV-1 in patients treated in different Comprehensive HIV Care Units demonstrates the importance of periodically analyzing the trend of resistance in people who have not been exposed to ARVs, which in turn is an indirect marker. of the presence of acquired resistance in the country, data that demonstrate the need for prompt and effective actions and interventions given its impact on public health.


O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os níveis de resistência transmitida ao HIV-1 em adultos tratados em Unidades de Cuidados Integrais na Guatemala. O estudo incluiu prontuários de 185 pacientes adultos HIV-1 positivos, recentemente diagnosticados sem histórico de uso de TARV, no período de novembro de 2019 a novembro de 2020. A análise foi realizada no software DeepChek® v2.0, para classificação da resistência, O algoritmo Stanford HIVdb (v9.4 - 07/12/2022) foi seguido. Foi encontrada 18.4% (IC 95% 13.1 - 24.7%) de resistência geral a alguma família de ARVs. Houve evidência de 15.1% (IC 95% 10.3 - 21.1%) de resistência individual à família de NNRTI, afetando principalmente NVP e EFV; 2.2% (IC 95% 0.6 - 5.4%) resistência ao INTR, principalmente ao FTC/3TC; e 2.7% (IC 95% 0.9 - 6.2%) de resistência intermediária e baixa ao IP NFV e LPV/r. Três casos apresentaram resistência múltipla a NRTIs + NNRTIs. As mutações mais frequentemente encontradas foram K103N (41.2%), M184V/I (8.8%) e M46I (5.9%). A elevada resistência transmitida do HIV-1 em pacientes atendidos em diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Integrados ao HIV demonstra a importância de analisar periodicamente a tendência de resistência em pessoas que não foram expostas aos ARVs, o que por sua vez é um marcador indireto da presença de ARVs adquiridos. resistência no país, dados que demonstram a necessidade de ações e intervenções rápidas e eficazes dado o seu impacto na saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , HIV Infections/genetics , Population Surveillance , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV-1/genetics , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Guatemala/epidemiology , Mutation
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390124, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533360

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine the effect of gallic acid or its combination with glibenclamide on some biochemical markers and histology of the cornea of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Following induction of diabetes, 24 male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Groups 1 and 2 (control and diabetic) received rat pellets and distilled water; group 3 (gallic acid) received rat pellets and gallic acid (10 mg/kg, orally) dissolved in the distilled water; and group 4 (gallic acid + glibenclamide) received rat pellets, gallic acid (10 mg/kg, orally), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, orally) dissolved in the distilled water. The treatments were administered for three months after which the rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast. Blood and sera were collected for the determination of biochemical parameters, while their eyes were excised for histology. Results: STZ administration to the rats induced insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, microprotenuria, loss of weight, oxidative stress, inflammation, and alteration of their cornea histology, which was abolished following supplementation with gallic acid or its combination with glibenclamide. Conclusions: The study showed the potentials of gallic acid and glibenclamide in mitigating systemic complication and histological changes in the cornea of diabetic rats induced with STZ.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Glyburide/administration & dosage , Streptozocin/administration & dosage , Cornea/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Gallic Acid/administration & dosage
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