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1.
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 63-78, 20240000. fig, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552316

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis equina del oeste (WEEV, por su sigla en inglés, Western Equine Encephalitis) es una enfermedad reemergente en Argentina a partir del año 2023. La co-municación inicial fue en 1933, las últimas epizootias ocurrieron en 1983 y el último caso humano se registró en 1996. Se revisan las características del agente causal, la ecología con especial referencia a los vectores iden-tificados en el país, su competencia en la transmisión y el ciclo así como los factores de riesgo para adquirir la enfermedad. La situación epidemiológica en equinos y humanos desde noviembre 2023 hasta marzo 2024 es analizada. Se describen las formas clínicas de presen-tación de la enfermedad humana, las posibilidades evo-lutivas, los datos disponibles en los casos confirmados y el tratamiento. La metodología y algoritmo empleados para el diagnóstico etiológico en el Centro Nacional de Referencia son detallados. Las estrategias para la pre-vención y el control se basan en la vacunación de los equinos, el saneamiento ambiental y el control del foco ante la presentación de la enfermedad animal (vigilancia epidemiológica activa)


Western equine encephalitis (WEE) is a re-emerging dis-ease in Argentina starting in 2023. Since the initial notifi-cation in 1933, the last epizootics occurred in 1983, and the last human case was recorded in 1996.The charac-teristics of the causative agent, the ecology with special reference to vectors identified in the country, their compe-tence in transmission, and the cycle as well as the risks factors for acquiring the disease, are reviewed.The epidemiological situation in horses and humans from November 2023 to March 2024 is analyzed. The clinical presentation of the human disease, its evolutionary po-tential, available data in confirmed cases, and the treat-ment are described.The methodology and algorithm used for the etiological diagnosis at the National Reference Center are detailed. Strategies for prevention and control are based on vaccination of horses, environmental sani-tation and outbreak control in the presence of the animal disease (active epidemiological surveillance)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Sanitation/legislation & jurisprudence , Risk Factors , Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine/epidemiology , Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine/immunology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary
2.
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 9-15, 20240000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551750

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) constituyen la tercera causa de consulta en nuestro centro. S.aureus es el agente etiológico más frecuente en este tipo de infecciones y la meticilino resistencia es clínicamente el mecanismo de resistencia más importante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la prevalencia de los distintos agentes etiológicos en IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios, así como también estudiar su sensibilidad a los antibióticos y resistencias acompañantes más frecuentes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó todas las muestras provenientes de IPPB de pacientes ambulatorios desde octubre de 2017 a abril de 2022. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 180 cultivos positivos de muestras provenientes de IPPB durante el periodo estudiado, 12 fueron infecciones polimicrobianas. En total se obtuvieron 307 aislamientos: el microorganismo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S.aureus (111; 36,2%). Se hallaron 71 SAMR (64%) y 40 SAMS (36%). De los SAMR, 67 (95%) fueron comunitarios (SAMRC) por criterios microbiológicos, y 4 SAMR hospitalarios (5%). De las cepas SAMRC, 44 (66%) no presentaron resistencias acompañantes, 15 (22% ) fueron resistentes a eritromicina, 12 (18%) a gentamicina y 7 (10%) a clindamicina. Conclusiones: El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado en IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios fue el S.aureus y 67 aislamientos fueron categorizados como SAMRC por lo cual es necesario considerar al SAMRC como un patógeno frecuente. Debido a la baja resistencia hallada para CLI y TMS ambos podrían ser de elección en el tratamiento empírico en las IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios


Background:S. aureus is the main cause of skin and soft tissues infections (SSTIs) in immunocompetent patients. This type of infection is the third cause of medical consultation in our center. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus, as well as its sensitivity to antimicrobials, isolated from skin and soft tissue samples from outpatients at an interzonal general acute care hospital located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.Methods: Descriptive and retrospective study that included all outpatient SSTIs samples from October 2017 to April 2022.Results: We obtained 215 positive cultures of samples from SSTIs during the study period. Of a total of 276 isolates: the most frequently isolated microorganism wasS. aureus (111; 40.22%). The prevalence of S. aureuswas 51.63%. We found 71 MRSA (63.96%). Of the SAMR strains, 60.56% did not present accompanying resistance, and only 8 isolates (11.27%) showed resistance to clindamycin. All SAMRs remained sensitive to minocycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.Conclusions: The most frequently isolated microorganism in SSTIs was S. aureus and 71 isolates were categorized as SAMR, therefore it is necessary to consider SAMR as a frequent pathogen. Due to the low resistance found for CLI and TMS, they should be considered for empirical treatment in SSTIs in outpatients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Outpatients , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Prevalence , Specimen Handling
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 311-315, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559674

ABSTRACT

El alelo HLA B*57:01 es un marcador genético asociado con la hipersensibilidad al fármaco anti-retroviral abacavir (ABC) y su frecuencia en la población peruana todavía es desconocida. El objetivo fue identificar el alelo HLA B*57:01 en una población militar de Lima, Perú. Se reclutaron 43 personas viviendo con VIH (PVV) quienes aceptaron participar a través de un consentimiento informado. La detección del alelo HLA B*57:01 se realizó mediante RPC en tiempo real (RT-PCR). Asimismo, se determinó la carga viral (CV), el recuento de linfocitos CD4 y la genotipificación del VIH. Se identificaron dos casos positivos al alelo HLA B*57:01 (4,7%). Además, uno de ellos presentó múltiples mutaciones de resistencia a los anti-retrovirales (ARV), incluyendo ABC. Se demostró por primera vez en el Perú la presencia del alelo HLA B*57:01.


The HLA B*57:01 allele is a genetic marker associated with hypersensitivity to the antiretroviral Abacavir (ABC) and its frequency in the Peruvian population is still unknown. The objective was to identify the HLA B*57:01 allele in a military population from Lima, Peru. Forty three people living with HIV (PLWH) were recruited, who agreed to participate through informed consent. Detection of the HLA B*57:01 allele was performed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Likewise, viral load (VL), CD4 lymphocyte count and HIV genotyping were determined. Two cases positive for the HLA B*57:01 allele (4.7%) were identified. In addition, one of them had multiple resistance mutations to antiretrovirals (ARVs), including ABC. The presence of the HLA B*57:01 allele was demonstrated for the first time in Peru.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/genetics , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/genetics , Military Personnel , Peru , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , Genetic Markers , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV/genetics , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Cyclopropanes/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/immunology , Alleles , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 41(2): 239-247, abr. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1559679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La comprensión del comportamiento de la respuesta humoral en COVID-19 continúa siendo un desafío para la producción de vacunas que proporcionen inmunidad más duradera. OBJETIVO: Describir la respuesta humoral natural inducida por SARS- CoV-2 en personal de salud con base en el perfil epidemiológico y clínico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal en personal de salud de hospitales públicos de referencia del Departamento de Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Se incluyeron 962 participantes, mediante muestreo no probabilístico de tipo consecutivo, aplicación de cuestionario y toma de muestras sanguíneas. Se buscaron anticuerpos por ensayo inmunocromatográfico para detección de IgM e IgG contra SARS- CoV-2 y por el método ELISA de captura de IgG específicos contra la proteína spike (SARS-CoV-2) y se evaluaron factores asociados a la seropositividad. RESULTADOS: La seroprevalencia global fue 36,5% (IC 95%: 33,4 - 39,5); 59,3% (n: 571) de los encuestados refirió haber tenido síntomas compatibles al COVID-19 entre el inicio de la pandemia y la fecha de toma de muestra, de estos 44% (n: 251) resultó seropositivo; 10,4% (n: 100) manifestó no haber tenido síntomas en el periodo estudiado, pero tuvo un resultado positivo. Los factores asociados a la seropositividad fueron: presencia de síntomas (p 90 días). CONCLUSIONES: Las características clínicas fueron mayormente asociadas con la seropositividad y la seropreva- lencia en los sintomáticos varió de acuerdo con el tiempo transcurrido desde el inicio de los síntomas y la serología.


BACKGROUND: Understanding the behavior of humoral response in COVID-19 continues to be a challenge to produce vaccines that provide long-lasting immunity. AIM: To describe the natural humoral response induced by SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers based on epidemiological and clinical profiles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in healthcare workers from public hospitals in the Department of Alto Paraná, Paraguay, 962 participants were recruited through consecutive sampling, using a questionnaire and blood sampling. Antibodies were determined by immunochromatography assay for detection of IgM and IgG and by SARS-CoV-2 IgG anti-spike capture ELISA method and factors associated with seropositivity were evaluated. RESULTS: The overall seropositivity was 36.5% (95% CI: 33.4 - 39.5); 59.3% (n: 571) of respondents reported symptoms compatible with COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic and the date of blood draw, 44% (n: 251) of them tested positive; 10.4% (n: 100) who reported no history of symptoms tested positive. The factors associated with seropositivity were the presence of symptoms (p 90 days). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics were mostly associated with seropositivity and sero prevalence in symptomatic participants varied according to the time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to serology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Paraguay , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Chromatography, Affinity , Vaccination , Immunity, Humoral
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 110(1): 26-30, 20240000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552628

ABSTRACT

Nocardia es una bacteria grampositiva con amplia distribución en el medio ambiente. Puede producir variadas de infecciones. Si bien, las vías respiratorias son la principal puerta de entrada de Nocardia sp. ­y como consecuencia de lo mismo 50% de los pacientes posee compromiso pulmonar- las infecciones por Nocardia van desde infecciones de piel y partes blandas hasta abscesos cerebrales. La piel puede ser el órgano de afectación primaria y el primer signo clínico de infección o formar parte de una infección diseminada. La nocardiosis diseminada, es una grave enfermedad que involucra a dos sitios no contiguos de infección o el rescate del agente causal en hemocultivos. Afecta a pacientes debilitados con condiciones o con cierto grado de inmunodepresión; particularmente de inmunidad celular; como trasplantados de órganos sólido o hematopoyeticos, uso de corticoides, neoplasias, VIH, alcoholismo ­aunque se describen infecciones en pacientes inmunocompetentes­. El diagnóstico es dificultoso y la sospecha clínica es fundamental para el inicio de la terapéutica. Se describen dos casos de infecciones de piel y partes blandas ocasionadas por Nocardia; de evolución subaguda-cronica;. Una de ellas localizada: micetoma de pie, la segunda, una celulitis abdominal recurrente complicada con compromiso sistémico; en ambas estuvo presente la demora en el diagnóstico.


Nocardia is a gram-positive bacteria with wide distribution in the environment. It can cause a wide range of infections. Although the respiratory tract is the main entry point for Nocardia sp. ­ and as a consequence of the same, 50% of patients have lung involvement ­ nocardia infections range from skin and soft tissue infections to brain abscesses. The skin can be the primary organ of involvement and the first clinical sign of infection or be part of a disseminated infection, secondary to a primary pulmonary form. Disseminated nocardiosis is a serious disease that involves two non-contiguous sites of infection or the recovery of the causative agent in blood cultures. It commonly affects patients with weakened conditions or a certain degree of immunosuppression; particularly cellular immunity, such as solid or hematopoietic organ transplants, use of corticosteroids, neoplasms, HIV, alcoholism - although infections are described in immunocompetent patients. The diagnosis is difficult and clinical suspicion is essential for the initiation of therapy. Two cases of skin and soft tissue infections caused by Nocardia were described of subacute-chronic evolution. One of them localized: mycetoma of the foot, the second, a recurrent abdominal cellulites complicated with systemic involvement; Delay in diagnosis was present in both


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Soft Tissue Infections/therapy , Nocardia Infections/diagnosis , Delayed Diagnosis
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 173-184, feb. 2024.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528836

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) is associated with cancer progression. The expression and immunologic function of CLCA1 in stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) remain unclear. In this investigation, the expression of CLCA1 in STAD tissues and its involvement in the progression and immune response of STAD were examined using databases such as cBioPortal, TISIDB, and UALCAN. In order to validate the expression level of CLCA1 protein in gastric adenocarcinoma, thirty clinical tissue specimens were gathered for immunohistochemical staining. The findings indicated a downregulation of CLCA1 in STAD patients, which was correlated with race, age, cancer grade, Helicobacter pylori infection, and molecular subtype. Through the examination of survival analysis, it was identified that diminished levels of CLCA1 within gastric cancer cases were linked to decreased periods of post-progression survival (PPS), overall survival (OS), and first progression (FP) (P<0.05). The CLCA1 mutation rate was lower in STAD, but the survival rate was higher in the variant group. The correlation between the expression level of CLCA1 and the levels of immune infiltrating cells in STAD, as well as the immune activating molecules, immunosuppressive molecules, MHC molecules, chemokines, and their receptor molecules, was observed. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that CLCA1 may be involved in STAD progression through systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), proteasome, cell cycle, pancreatic secretion, and PPAR signaling pathways. In summary, CLCA1 is anticipated to function as a prognostic marker for patients with STAD and is linked to the immunization of STAD.


El regulador 1 del canal de cloruro activado por calcio (CLCA1) está asociado con la progresión del cáncer. La expresión y la función inmunológica de CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma de estómago (STAD) aún no están claras. En esta investigación, se examinó la expresión de CLCA1 en tejidos STAD y su participación en la progresión y respuesta inmune de STAD utilizando bases de datos como cBioPortal, TISIDB y UALCAN. Para validar el nivel de expresión de la proteína CLCA1 en el adenocarcinoma gástrico, se recolectaron treinta muestras de tejido clínico para tinción inmunohistoquímica. Los hallazgos indicaron una regulación negativa de CLCA1 en pacientes con STAD, que se correlacionó con la raza, la edad, el grado del cáncer, la infección por Helicobacter pylori y el subtipo molecular. Mediante el examen del análisis de supervivencia, se identificó que los niveles reducidos de CLCA1 en los casos de cáncer gástrico estaban relacionados con períodos reducidos de supervivencia posterior a la progresión (PPS), supervivencia general (OS) y primera progresión (FP) (P <0,05). La tasa de mutación CLCA1 fue menor en STAD, pero la tasa de supervivencia fue mayor en el grupo variante. Se observó la correlación entre el nivel de expresión de CLCA1 y los niveles de células inmunes infiltrantes en STAD, así como las moléculas activadoras inmunes, moléculas inmunosupresoras, moléculas MHC, quimiocinas y sus moléculas receptoras. El análisis de enriquecimiento genético reveló que CLCA1 puede estar involucrado en la progresión de STAD a través del lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), el proteasoma, el ciclo celular, la secreción pancreática y las vías de señalización de PPAR. En resumen, se prevé que CLCA1 funcione como un marcador de pronóstico para pacientes con STAD y está vinculado a la inmunización de STAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/metabolism , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/immunology , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/immunology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Survival Analysis , Chloride Channels/genetics , Chloride Channels/immunology , Computational Biology , Mutation
8.
Rev. Headache Med. (Online) ; 15(1): 38-40, 2024. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538167

ABSTRACT

Cervical artery dissections (CAD) can occur spontaneously or as a direct result of significant trauma. Viral infections, such as SARS-CoV2, influenza, and Epstein Barr, are risk factors for spontaneous CAD. Dengue virus infections have dramatically increased in recent decades, and Brazil is one of the endemic areas. The dengue virus can cause headache and neurological complications such as encephalitis, myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myositis. No report has yet been found in the literature of dissection of the internal carotid artery secondary to dengue infection. Our objective is to report the case of a patient with dissection of the internal carotid artery associated with acute dengue virus infection.


As dissecções da artéria cervical (DAC) podem ocorrer espontaneamente ou como resultado direto de trauma significativo. Infecções virais, como SARS-CoV2, influenza e Epstein Barr, são fatores de risco para DAC espontânea. As infecções pelo vírus da dengue aumentaram dramaticamente nas últimas décadas, e o Brasil é uma das áreas endêmicas. O vírus da dengue pode causar dor de cabeça e complicações neurológicas como encefalite, mielite, síndrome de Guillain-Barré e miosite. Ainda não foi encontrado na literatura nenhum relato de dissecção da artéria carótida interna secundária à infecção por dengue. Nosso objetivo é relatar o caso de um paciente com dissecção da artéria carótida interna associada à infecção aguda pelo vírus da dengue.


Subject(s)
Humans , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/classification , Dengue/diagnosis , Dissection/methods
9.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537808

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O SARS-CoV-2, causador da pandemia por Doença por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) gerou desafios à saúde pública, principalmente pelo conhecimento escasso de sua patogênese, e de estratégias terapêuticas e preventivas eficazes. Diversas lacunas de conhecimento sobre a doença envolvem a contribuição de fatores de risco, as doenças concomitantes, os fatores genéticos e imunogenéticos, no direcionamento da resposta imune, bem como a hiperinflamação, a imunidade antiviral e os alelos dos antígenos leucocitários humanos (HLAs) dos pacientes, que estão relacionados ao desfecho da doença. Objetivo: Esta revisão integrativa objetivou aprofundar os conhecimentos sobre os mecanismos de imunidade relacionada aos fatores de risco, da hiperinflamação e da tempestade de citocinas decorrente da infecção por SARS-CoV-2, bem como os avanços de associação dos HLAs nos agravos da doença. Metodologia: A revisão integrativa foi realizada utilizando os descritores nas bases de dados PubMed, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, MedNar, Portal periódicos CAPES e Open Journal System, sem limites de janela cronológica. Resultados: Os efeitos da pandemia e os esforços na busca do conhecimento sobre a patogênese da COVID-19 resultaram em avanço no combate da doença. Conseguiu-se relacionar fatores de risco como obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes, doenças renais crônicas, idade, gênero, e outras condições predisponentes ao agravo da doença. Sob o aspecto da patogênese, também houveram progressos no entendimento dos mecanismos celulares e humorais em resposta à doença, bem como conseguiu vincular a resposta da hiperinflamação e o perfil dos HLAs dos pacientes à evolução da doença ao óbito ou à convalescência. Conclusão: Os esforços científicos conjuntos e os avanços na compreensão dos mecanismos da doença conseguiram estabelecer estratégias de combate a COVID-19, resultando no fim da pandemia, porém ainda há avanços que devem ser alcançados para o combate das sequelas dos pacientes convalescentes e para minimização da COVID longa e seus prejuízos.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, which causes the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has generated challenges to public health, mainly due to the limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and effective therapeutic and preventive strategies. Several gaps in knowledge about the disease involve the contribution of risk factors, concomitant diseases, genetic and immunogenetic factors, in directing the immune response, as well as hyperinflammation, antiviral immunity and human leukocyte antigen (HLAs) alleles of patients, which are related to the outcome of the disease. Aim: This integrative review aimed to deepen knowledge about the mechanisms of immunity related to risk factors, hyperinflammation and the cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as advances in the association of HLAs in diseases. Methodology: The integrative review was carried out using the descriptors in the databases PubMed, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, MedNar, CAPES periodical portal and Open Journal System, without chronological window limits. Results: The effects of the pandemic and efforts to seek knowledge about the pathogenesis of COVID-19 resulted in progress in combating the disease. It was possible to relate risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, age, gender, and other conditions predisposing to the worsening of the disease. From the aspect of pathogenesis, progress has also been made in understanding the cellular and humoral mechanisms in response to the disease, as well as linking the hyperinflammation response and the patients' HLA profile to the progression of the disease to death or convalescence. Conclusion: Joint scientific efforts and advances in understanding the mechanisms of the disease managed to establish strategies to combat COVID-19, resulting in the end of the pandemic, but there are still advances that must be achieved to combat the sequelae of convalescent patients and to minimize of long COVID and its losses.


Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2, causante de la pandemia de la Enfermedad del Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), ha generado desafíos a la salud pública, principalmente por el limitado conocimiento de su patogénesis y estrategias terapéuticas y preventivas efectivas. Varios vacíos en el conocimiento sobre la enfermedad involucran la contribución de factores de riesgo, enfermedades concomitantes, factores genéticos e inmunogenéticos, en la dirección de la respuesta inmune, así como la hiperinflamación, la inmunidad antiviral y los alelos del antígeno leucocitario humano (HLA) de los pacientes, que están relacionados con el resultado de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Esta revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo profundizar el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos de inmunidad relacionados con los factores de riesgo, la hiperinflamación y la tormenta de citocinas resultante de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, así como los avances en la asociación de los HLA en las complicaciones de la enfermedad. Metodología: La revisión integradora se realizó utilizando los descriptores de las bases de datos PubMed, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, MedNar, portal periódico CAPES y Open Journal System, sin límites de ventana cronológica. Resultados: Los efectos de la pandemia y los esfuerzos por buscar conocimiento sobre la patogénesis de la COVID-19 resultaron en avances en el combate de la enfermedad. Se logró relacionar factores de riesgo como obesidad, hipertensión, diabetes, enfermedad renal crónica, edad, sexo y otras condiciones que predisponen al agravamiento de la enfermedad. Desde el punto de vista de la patogénesis, también se ha avanzado en la comprensión de los mecanismos celulares y humorales de respuesta a la enfermedad, así como en la vinculación de la respuesta de hiperinflamación y el perfil HLA de los pacientes con la progresión de la enfermedad hasta la muerte o la convalecencia. Conclusión: Los esfuerzos científicos conjuntos y los avances en la comprensión de los mecanismos de la enfermedad lograron establecer estrategias para combatir el COVID-19, teniendo como resultado el fin de la pandemia, pero aún quedan avances que se deben lograr para combatir las secuelas de los pacientes convalecientes y para Minimizar el COVID prolongado y sus pérdidas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Noxae , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , Obesity
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550864

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la inmunosenescencia está asociada con un mayor riesgo de desarrollo de cáncer. Dentro de las hemopatías malignas que afectan a este grupo de edad, está la leucemia linfoide crónica (LLC), caracterizada por trastornos en la inmunidad adaptativa que incluye las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T en los pacientes adultos mayores con leucemia linfoide crónica evaluados en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología de Cuba. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 30 adultos mayores con leucemia linfoide crónica. Se cuantificaron los linfocitos TCD3+CD4+ y TCD3+CD8+ en sangre periférica por citometría de flujo. Para la lectura y el análisis de los datos se empleó un citómetro de flujo Beckman Coulter Gallios. Se utilizaron los valores porcentuales, la media y la desviación estándar. Se consideró estadísticamente significativo si p≤0.05. Resultados: Hubo un predominio de hombres que representaron el 56,7 por ciento y del grupo de 70-79 años de edad. No se reportó ningún adulto mayor con LLC con valores altos ni normales de linfocitos TCD3+CD4+. Predominaron los hombres con valores bajos porcentuales de linfocitos TCD3+CD4+, TCD3+CD8+ e inversión del índice CD4/CD8 en relación con las mujeres. Conclusiones: Los adultos mayores con LLC presentan alteraciones en el número de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos T. La acción de estas células en relación al crecimiento de células B malignas aún es desconocido y resulta importante determinar si esto puede reflejar un intento de evasión de las células tumorales al control inmunológico(AU)


Introduction: Immunosenescence is associated with an increased risk of cancer development. Among the malignant hemopathies that affect this age group, it is chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), characterized by disorders in adaptive immunity, which include subpopulations of T lymphocytes. Objective: To determine frequency of T lymphocyte subpopulations in older adult patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology of Cuba. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 older adults with chronic lymphoid leukemia. TCD3+CD4+ and TCD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were quantified in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. A Beckman Coulter Gallios flow cytometer was used to read and analyze the data. The percentage values, the mean and the standard deviation were used. It was considered statistically significant if p≤0.05. Results: There was a predominance of men who represented 56.7 percent and the age group of 70-79 years. No older adults with CLL with high or normal values of TCD3+CD4+ lymphocytes were reported. Men predominated with low percentage values of TCD3+CD4+, TCD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio in relation to women. Conclusions: Older adult with CLL present alterations in the number of T lymphocyte subpopulations. The role of these cells in relation to the growth of malignant B cells it is unknown and it turns out important to determine if this may reflect an attempt to evade tumor cells from immune control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Leukemia, Lymphoid/complications , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533992

ABSTRACT

Abstract For places where non-sterile drug production occurs, regulatory bodies recommend monitoring of the environmental bioburden. This procedure provides information regarding possible microbiological risks to which the products may be exposed, so that subsequent action measures may be implemented. The aim of the present work was to quantify and characterize the microorganisms present in Grade D (ISO 8) cleanrooms of a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, identifying any possible seasonal climatic influences on these environments. Sampling was performed by surface and air monitoring, over 12 months during the year 2019, in rooms that were in operation. For both sampling methods, no statistically significant differences in bacteria and fungi counts were found between months or seasonal periods. Microorganisms that presented higher incidence included Staphylococcus epidermidis (15%) and Micrococcus spp. (13%), common to the human microbiota, and the fungi Cladosporium sp. (23%) and Penicillium sp. (21%), typical of the external environment. The results showed that microbial contamination in the Grade D cleanrooms was within the permissible maximum levels and remained similar throughout the year. Microbiological quality control in the clean areas of the pharmaceutical industry investigated was considered effective, with regular maintenance being necessary to keep bioburden levels controlled.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring/instrumentation , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Drug Industry/instrumentation , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Microbiota/immunology , Fungi/classification
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e23272, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533988

ABSTRACT

Abstract The last decade provided significant advances in the understanding of microbiota and its role in human health. Probiotics are live microorganisms with proven benefits for the host and were mostly studied in the context of gut health, but they can also confer significant benefits for oral health, mainly in the treatment of gingivitis. Postbiotics are cell-free extracts and metabolites of microorganisms which can provide additional preventive and therapeutic value for human health. This opens opportunities for new preventive or therapeutic formulations for oral administration. The microorganisms that colonize the oral cavity, their role in oral health and disease, as well as the probiotics and postbiotics which could have beneficial effects in this complex environment were discussed. The aim of this study was to review, analyse and discuss novel probiotic and postbiotic formulations intended for oral administration that could be of great preventive and therapeutic importance. A special attention has been put on the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage forms that are expected to provide new benefits for the patients and technological advantages relevant for industry. An adequate dosage form could significantly enhance the efficiency of these products.


Subject(s)
Oral Health/classification , Probiotics/analysis , Microbiota/immunology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Ligilactobacillus salivarius/classification , Mouth/injuries
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1551094

ABSTRACT

La urgente necesidad de desarrollar y producir vacunas seguras y efectivas para garantizar la reducción de la propagación del coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, hizo que el Centro de Inmunología Molecular y el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, desarrollaran dos vacunas y un candidato vacunal contra la COVID-19, que tienen como componente la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541) del virus. Para establecer el proceso productivo, se realizaron experimentos en los posibles pasos del proceso de purificación de la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541), con vistas a su posterior transferencia tecnológica a escala industrial. Dicha molécula está fusionada con una etiqueta de hexahistidina en su extremo C-terminal y presenta nueve residuos de cisteína en su secuencia que forman cuatro enlaces disulfuros intramoleculares, quedando una cisteína libre que permite obtener dos moléculas: dimérica y monomérica, antígenos que forman parte de las vacunas SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA®Plus y el candidato vacunal SOBERANA 01. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones de adsorción de las matrices cromatográficas de afinidad por quelatos metálicos, intercambio catiónico y exclusión molecular. Se evaluó el desempeño del proceso a escala piloto y se caracterizó la molécula de acuerdo a sus propiedades físico-químicas y biológicas. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un 60,02 ± 5,15por ciento de recuperación total de la proteína de interés, con más del 98% de pureza en ambas moléculas, una eficiente remoción de contaminantes y una antigenicidad mayor del 90por ciento referido al monómero control del dominio de unión al receptor con 99 por ciento de pureza, lo que demuestra que el proceso establecido es eficiente en la obtención de un producto con la calidad requerida(AU)


The urgent need to develop and produce safe and effective vaccines to guarantee the reduction of the spread of the type 2 coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, led the Center for Molecular Immunology and the Finlay Vaccine Institute to develop two vaccines and one candidate vaccine to combat the 2019 coronavirus pandemic. As part of the establishment of the production process, experiments were carried out on the possible steps of the purification process of the receptor binding domain molecule (aa 319-541) with a view to its subsequent technological transfer on an industrial scale. This molecule is fused with a hexahistidine tag at its C-terminal end and has nine cysteine residues in its sequence that form four intramolecular disulfide bonds; leaving a free cysteine that allows two molecules to be obtained: dimeric and monomeric, which constitute the antigens of the SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus vaccines and the SOBERANA 01 vaccine candidate. The best adsorption conditions of the chromatographic matrices of affinity for metal chelates, cationic exchange and molecular exclusion were determined. The performance of the process was evaluated on a pilot scale and the molecule was characterized according to its physical-chemical and biological properties. The results obtained showed a 60.02 ± 5.15percent total recovery of the protein of interest with more than 98% purity in both molecules, an efficient removal of contaminants and an antigenicity greater than 90percent referred to the control monomer of the domain receptor binding with 99% purity; which demonstrates that the established process is efficient in obtaining a product with the required quality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adsorption/drug effects
14.
Rev. Headache Med. (Online) ; 15(1): 7-12, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the first vaccines were approved, according to the WHO. However, speculations arose regarding their efficacy and post-vaccination adverse events (AEFV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of headache as AEFI from the SARSCoV-2 vaccine in Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: This is a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional, and prevalence study. Data were provided by the Post-Vaccination Adverse Event Information System (SI-AEFV), from reported cases from January to September 2021. Data were analyzed, and the research was approved by the UFPI Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: A total of 2,008 cases were analyzed. Headache was reported in 752 cases (27.99%) as an AEFV after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. In most cases, patients were from Teresina (67.62%), of brown race/ethnicity (52.67%), female (79.00%), and the majority were not healthcare professionals (54.27%). The most common age of patients, with the original data, was 33 years. After data correction, the most common age was 28 years. The majority of these cases were not severe (96.44%), and the majority of cases were associated with the first dose of the Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine (43.18%).CONCLUSION: Thus, it is concluded from the partial analysis of the results that headache is the most common adverse event after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The profile of patients with the most notifications was brown women aged 30 to 40 years who received the first dose of the Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Regarding the severity of events, the vast majority were considered non-severe, and no deaths were mentioned, demonstrating the safety of immunobiologicals.


FUNDAMENTO: Em 2020, foram aprovadas as primeiras vacinas, segundo a OMS. No entanto, surgiram especulações quanto à sua eficácia e eventos adversos pós-vacinais (EAPV). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de cefaleia como EAPV da vacina SARSCoV-2 no Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, observacional, transversal e de prevalência. Os dados foram fornecidos pelo Sistema de Informação de Eventos Adversos Pós-Vacinação (SI-AEFV), dos casos notificados no período de janeiro a setembro de 2021. Os dados foram analisados ​​e a pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UFPI. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados ​​2.008 casos. Cefaleia foi relatada em 752 casos (27,99%) como EAPV após vacinação contra SARS-CoV-2. Na maioria dos casos, os pacientes eram procedentes de Teresina (67,62%), de raça/etnia parda (52,67%), do sexo feminino (79,00%) e a maioria não era profissional de saúde (54,27%). A idade mais comum dos pacientes, com os dados originais, era de 33 anos. Após correção dos dados, a idade mais comum foi 28 anos. A maioria desses casos não foi grave (96,44%), e a maioria dos casos esteve associada à primeira dose da vacina Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca (43,18%).CONCLUSÃO: Assim, conclui-se a partir da análise parcial dos resultados de que cefaleia é o evento adverso mais comum após vacinação contra SARS-CoV-2. O perfil dos pacientes com mais notificações foi de mulheres pardas com idade entre 30 e 40 anos que receberam a primeira dose da vacina Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca. Quanto à gravidade dos eventos, a grande maioria foi considerada não grave e não foram mencionados óbitos, demonstrando a segurança dos imunobiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Patients/classification , Safety/standards , Health Personnel/organization & administration
15.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 1-10, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009507

ABSTRACT

Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an important immunosuppressive molecule, which inhibits the function of T cells and other immune cells by binding to the receptor programmed cell death-1. The PD-L1 expression disorder plays an important role in the occurrence, development, and treatment of sepsis or other inflammatory diseases, and has become an important target for the treatment of these diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a kind of pluripotent stem cells with multiple differentiation potential. In recent years, MSCs have been found to have a strong immunosuppressive ability and are used to treat various inflammatory insults caused by hyperimmune diseases. Moreover, PD-L1 is deeply involved in the immunosuppressive events of MSCs and plays an important role in the treatment of various diseases. In this review, we will summarize the main regulatory mechanism of PD-L1 expression, and discuss various biological functions of PD-L1 in the immune regulation of MSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Immunomodulation
16.
Hansen. int ; 49: 39344, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, HANSEN, CONASS, HANSENIASE, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1553924

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a hanseníase é uma do-ença infecciosa crônica causada pelo Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), um para-sita intracelular obrigatório. Assim, a resis-tência do hospedeiro a esse patógeno depen-de da imunidade celular. O uso de modelos experimentais tem permitido o estudo da hanseníase do ponto de vista imunológico, microbiológico e terapêutico, entretanto, as diferenças na progressão da infecção entre os modelos mais empregados (camundongos imunocompetentes, BALB/c, e camundongos congenitamente atímicos, nude) são pouco estudadas. Objetivo: comparar a evolução da infecção pelo M. leprae em camundongos BALB/c e nude quanto à multi-plicação bacilar e avaliação do perfil inflamatório sistêmico pela quantificação sérica de citocinas e óxido nítrico (NO). Métodos: os camundongos foram inoculados com M. leprae nos coxins plantares e avaliados aos 3, 5 e 8 meses após a infecção. Resultados: camundongos nude apresentaram multiplicação bacilar progressiva nos coxins plantares. Em camundongos BALB/c, o número de bacilos foi maior aos 5 meses. Em relação à quantificação de citocinas, nos camundongos BALB/c houve aumento de IL-2 e IL-17A e diminuição de IL-6 e NO aos 8 meses de inoculação. Nos camundongos nude, verificou-se o aumento do TNF aos 8 meses de inoculação e manutenção dos níveis de NO. Conclusão: os resultados encontrados sugerem que em camundongos BALB/c ocorre a ativação de uma resposta imune capaz de controlar a multiplicação do M. leprae, em contrapartida em camundongos nude a infecção é progressiva a despeito de altos níveis de TNF. (AU)


Introduction: leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), an obligate intracellular parasite. Thus, host resistance to this pathogen depends on cellular immunity. The use of experimental models has made it possible to study leprosy from an immunological, microbiological, and therapeutic point of view. However, the differences in the progression of the infection between the most used models (immunocompetent mice, BALB/c, and congenitally athymic mice, nude) have been little studied. Objective: to compare the evolution of M. leprae infection in BALB/c and nude mice in terms of bacillary multiplication and evaluation of the systemic inflammatory profile by quantifying serum cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Methods: the mice were inoculated with M. leprae in the footpads and evaluated at 3, 5, and 8 months after infection. Results: nude mice showed progressive bacillary multiplication in the footpads. In BALB/c mice, the number of bacilli was higher at 5 months. In terms of cytokine quantification, BALB/c mice showed an increase in IL-2 and IL-17A and a decrease in IL-6 and NO at 8 months of inoculation. In the nude mice, there was an increase in TNF at 8 months of inoculation and maintenance of NO levels. Conclusion: the results suggest that BALB/c mice activate an immune response capable of controlling the multiplication of M. leprae, whereas in nude mice the infection is progressive despite high levels of TNF. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Leprosy/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Animals, Laboratory
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1764-1774, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528797

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is a prevalent disease worldwide, known for its high mortality and morbidity rates. Despite this, the extent of investigation concerning the correlation between COAD's CLCA1 expression and immune cell infiltration remains insufficient. This study seeks to examine the expression and prognosis of CLCA1 in COAD, along with its relationship to the tumor immune microenvironment. These findings will offer valuable insights for clinical practitioners and contribute to the existing knowledge in the field. In order to evaluate the prognostic significance of CLCA1 in individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancers, we conducted a comprehensive analysis using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models along with receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. This study was performed on the patient data of COAD obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Nomograms were developed to anticipate CLCA1 prognostic influence. Furthermore, the CLCA1 association with tumor immune infiltration, immune checkpoints, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response, interaction network, and functional analysis of CLCA1-related genes was analyzed. We found that Colon adenocarcinoma tissues significantly had decreased CLCA1 expression compared to healthy tissues. Furthermore, the study revealed that the group with high expression of CLCA1 demonstrated a significantly higher overall survival rate (OS) as compared to the group with low expression. Multivariate and Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed the potential of CLCA1 as a standalone risk factor for COAD. These results were confirmed using nomograms and ROC curves. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and functional gene enrichment showed that CLCA1 may be associated with functional activities such as pancreatic secretion, estrogen signaling and cAMP signaling, as well as with specific immune cell infiltration. Therefor, as a new independent predictor and potential biomarker of COAD, CLCA1 plays a crucial role in the advancement of colon cancer.


El adenocarcinoma de colon (COAD) es una enfermedad prevalente a nivel mundial, conocida por sus altas tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad. Sin embargo, el alcance de la investigación sobre la correlación entre la expresión de CLCA1 de COAD y la infiltración de células inmunes sigue siendo insuficiente. Este estudio busca examinar la expresión y el pronóstico de CLCA1 en COAD, junto con su relación con el microambiente inmunológico del tumor. Estos hallazgos ofrecerán conocimientos valiosos para los profesionales clínicos y contribuirán al conocimiento existente en el campo. Para evaluar la importancia de pronóstico de CLCA1 en personas diagnosticadas con cáncer colorrectal, realizamos un análisis exhaustivo utilizando modelos de regresión de Cox univariados y multivariados junto con un análisis de la curva característica operativa del receptor (ROC). Este estudio se realizó con los datos de pacientes de COAD obtenidos de la base de datos The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Se desarrollaron nomogramas para anticipar la influencia pronóstica de CLCA1. Además, se analizó la asociación de CLCA1 con la infiltración inmunitaria tumoral, los puntos de control inmunitarios, la respuesta de bloqueo de los puntos de control inmunitarios (ICB), la red de interacción y el análisis funcional de genes relacionados con CLCA1. Descubrimos que los tejidos de adenocarcinoma de colon tenían una expresión significativamente menor de CLCA1 en comparación con los tejidos sanos. Además, el estudio reveló que el grupo con alta expresión de CLCA1 demostró una tasa de supervivencia general (SG) significativamente mayor en comparación con el grupo con baja expresión. El análisis de regresión de Cox multivariado y univariado reveló el potencial de CLCA1 como factor de riesgo independiente de COAD. Estos resultados se confirmaron mediante nomogramas y curvas ROC. Además, el análisis de la red de interacción proteína- proteína (PPI) y el enriquecimiento de genes funcionales mostraron que CLCA1 puede estar asociado con actividades funcionales como la secreción pancreática, la señalización de estrógenos y la señalización de AMPc, así como con la infiltración de células inmunes específicas. Por lo tanto, como nuevo predictor independiente y biomarcador potencial de COAD, CLCA1 desempeña un papel crucial en el avance del cáncer de colon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Adenocarcinoma/immunology , Colonic Neoplasms/immunology , Chloride Channels/immunology , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Computational Biology
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.


En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Sheep , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Horses , Immunotherapy/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure
20.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(4): 11-28, dic. 2023. graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553069

ABSTRACT

Los murciélagos son mamíferos vertebrados presentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, estimándose una población de 4 animales por habitante. Son portadores de varias enfermedades importantes y además empeoran las condiciones respiratorias de enfermos crónicos. En el campo cumplen una interesante función, ya que se alimentan de insectos perjudiciales para las siembras. El guano puede ser útil en el abono de la tierra debido al aporte de carbono y nitrógeno. En las ciudades su presencia tiene consecuencias diferentes. Se encuentran en los taparrollos de las habitaciones, así como también en todas las oquedades de muros, árboles, grietas, etc. Se exponen aquí los peligros y los cuidados que deben tenerse en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ante la invasión de estos quirópteros. (AU)


Bats are vertebrate mammals present in the City of Buenos Aires, with an estimated population of 4 animals per inhabitant. They are carriers of several important diseases and also worsen the respiratory conditions of the chronically ill. In rural areas they fulfill an interesting function, since they feed on insects harmful to crops. Guano can be useful in soil fertilization due to its contribution of carbon and nitrogen. In cities their presence has different consequences. They are found in the roll covers of the rooms as well as in all the hollows of walls, trees, cracks, etc. The dangers and precautions to be taken in the city of Buenos Aires in the face of the invasion of these chiroptera are described here. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chiroptera/immunology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/etiology , Antigens, Dermatophagoides , Dander/immunology , Argentina , Immunoassay/methods , Urban Health , Cities , Feces/chemistry
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