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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): 209-216, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368241

ABSTRACT

La laringe se localiza en la encrucijada aerodigestiva; cualquier patología que la comprometa tendrá repercusión en la respiración, la deglución y/o la voz. Se divide en tres regiones: la supraglotis (comprende la epiglotis, las bandas ventriculares y los ventrículos laríngeos), la glotis (espacio limitado por las cuerdas vocales) y la subglotis (zona más estrecha de la vía aérea pediátrica y único punto rodeado en su totalidad por cartílago: el anillo cricoides). La obstrucción laríngea se puede presentar como una condición aguda potencialmente fatal o como un proceso crónico. El síntoma principal es el estridor inspiratorio o bifásico. La etiología varía mucho según la edad y puede ser de origen congénito, inflamatorio, infeccioso, traumático, neoplásico o iatrogénico. Se describen las patologías que ocasionan obstrucción laríngea con más frecuencia o que revisten importancia por su gravedad, sus síntomas orientadores para el diagnóstico presuntivo, los estudios complementarios y el tratamiento.


The larynx is at the aerodigestive crossroads; any pathology that involves it will have an impact on breathing, swallowing and/or the voice. It`s divided into three regions: supraglottis (includes epiglottis, ventricular bands and laryngeal ventricles), glottis (space limited by the vocal cords) and subglottis (narrowest area of pediatric airway and the only point of larynx completely surrounded by cartilage: the cricoid ring). Laryngeal obstruction can present as a potentially fatal acute condition or as a chronic process. The main symptom is inspiratory or biphasic stridor. The etiology varies widely according to age and it may be of congenital, inflammatory, infectious, traumatic, neoplastic or iatrogenic origin. We describe the pathologies that cause laryngeal obstruction, either those that occur very often or those which are important for their severity, their guiding symptoms to the presumptive diagnosis, additional studies and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Laryngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Laryngeal Diseases/etiology , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Larynx/pathology , Algorithms , Laryngeal Diseases/therapy
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(3): e142-e146, junio 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1370735

ABSTRACT

La nefronoptisis es una enfermedad renal quística, de herencia autosómica recesiva, causada por mutaciones en genes que codifican proteínas involucradas en la función de cilios primarios, lo que resulta en enfermedad renal y manifestaciones extrarrenales como degeneración retiniana y fibrosis hepática. Según la edad de desarrollo de enfermedad renal crónica terminal, se describen tres formas clínicas de presentación: infantil, juvenil y adolescente. El diagnóstico se realiza por una prueba genética positiva o una biopsia de riñón que demuestre cambios tubulointersticiales crónicos con un engrosamiento de las membranas basales tubulares. No existe hasta la actualidad una terapia curativa, por lo que el trasplante renal oportuno es determinante en cuanto al pronóstico. Se presenta un paciente de 13 meses de edad con poliuria de 3 meses de evolución, insuficiencia renal, anemia y elevación de transaminasas. Con hallazgos histológicos compatibles en la biopsia renal, se arribó al diagnóstico de nefronoptisis infantil, con afectación hepática


Nephronophthisis is an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disease caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the primary cilia function, resulting in kidney disease and extrarenal manifestations such as retinal degeneration and liver fibrosis. According to the age of development of end-stage chronic kidney disease, three clinical forms of presentation are described: infantile, juvenile and adolescent. Diagnosis is made by a positive genetic test, or a kidney biopsy demonstrating chronic tubulointerstitial changes with thickening of the tubular basement membranes. At the moment there is no healing therapy, so early kidney transplant is a fundamental tool to improve prognosis.We present a 13-month old male patient with polyuria, kidney failure, anemia and elevated aminotransferases over three months. With compatible histological kidney biopsy, the diagnosis of infantile nephronophthisis with liver involvement was reached.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/genetics , Kidney Diseases, Cystic/pathology , Kidney Diseases , Kidney Failure, Chronic/genetics , Proteins , Genetic Testing
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 151-156, 20220000. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373112

ABSTRACT

El íleo biliar se define como una obstrucción intestinal mecánica secundaria a la presencia de un cálculo biliar. Menos del 1% de los casos de obstrucción intestinal se derivan de esta etiología. La causa más frecuente es la impactación del cálculo en el íleon, tras su paso por una fístula bilioentérica. Es una complicación rara y potencialmente grave de la colelitiasis. Esta patología se presenta más en adultos mayores, la edad promedio en la que se presenta es entre los 60 y 84 años, afectando principalmente al sexo femenino, atribuido a la mayor frecuencia de patología biliar en dicho sexo. Presenta una alta morbimortalidad, principalmente por la dificultad y la demora diagnóstica.


Gallstone ileus is defined as a mechanical intestinal obstruction secondary to the presence of a gallstone. Less than 1% of cases of intestinal obstruction are derived from this etiology. Te most frequent cause is the impaction of the stone in the ileum, after passing through a bilioenteric fistula. It is a rare and potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. Tis pathology occurs more in the elderly, the average age at which it occurs is between 60 and 84 years, mainly affecting the female sex, attributed to the higher frequency of biliary pathology in said sex. It presents a high morbidity and mortality, mainly due to the difficulty and the diagnostic delay


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Biliary Tract/pathology , Cholelithiasis/surgery , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Diagnosis, Differential , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Laparotomy
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(3): 165-189, 20220000. tab, fig, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373279

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los adenomas gigantes de hipófisis (AGHs) son aquellos tumores con un diámetro máximo ≥4 cm en cualquier dirección, representando del 5% al 14% del total de los adenomas que se tratan quirúrgicamente. Su manejo terapéutico es desafiante ya que, debido a su extensión hacia otras estructuras cerebrales,está asociado a un riesgo mayor de complicaciones quirúrgicas, con una menor tasa de resección total. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el impacto de la cirugía endoscópica transesfenoidal en AGHs, analizando las variables asociadas a resultados visuales, endocrinológicos y según el grado de resección. Pacientes y Métodos. Se evaluó en 44 pacientes con AGHs(diámetro ≥4 cm y/o volumen ≥10 ml) la presentación visual, endocrinológica e imágenes. Se analizaron estadísticamente resultados visuales, endocrinológicos, grado de resección y complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados. Edad promedio de 48.8 años, 24 mujeres y 20 hombres. Presentación: déficit del campo visual (93.1%), hipopituitarismo (61.3%), cefalea (54.5%). Diámetro, volumen y extensión supraselar promedios: 4.8 cm, 20.3 ml, 1.8 cm, respectivamente. Campo visual: mejoría: 83.3%, sin cambios: 9.5%, mayormente en síntomas bilaterales (p<0.0001). Desmejoríavisual: 0%. En resección total: mayor posibilidad de mejoría visual (p=0.040). Buenos resultados endocrinológicos: 85.7%. Tasa de resección total: 52.3%. Resección subtotal: más frecuente con invasión del seno cavernoso (p=0.014). Sin diferencias en el grado de resección según diámetro, volumen, extensión supraselar, forma ni aspecto. Hipopituitarismo: 4.2%. Diabetes insípida: 9.5%, asociada a mayor diámetro (p=0.038) o extensión supraselar (p=0.010) y aspecto sólido (p=0.023). Fístula de LCR: 7.1%. Conclusión. La resección total puede lograrse en la mitad de los casos, siendo la limitante principal el grado de invasión del seno cavernoso y no el aspecto morfológico del AGH per se. Aun así, los resultados visuales y endocrinológicos son muy buenos. En resecciones incompletas se logra el control de la enfermedad mediante tratamientos complementarios


Introduction. Giant pituitary adenomas (sGAs) are those tumors with a maximum diame- ter ≥4 cm in any direction, representing 5% to 14% of all adenomas that are treated surgi- cally. Its therapeutic management is challenging since, due to its extension to other brain structures, it is associated with a higher risk of surgical complications, with a lower rate of total resection. Te objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery on AGHs, analyzing the variables associated with visual and endocri- nological results and according to the degree of resection. Patients and Methods. Visual, endocrinological and imaging presentation were evaluated in 44 patients with sHAA (dia- meter ≥4 cm and/or volume ≥10 ml). Visual and endocrinological results, degree of resection and surgical complications were statistically analyzed. Results. Average age of 48.8 years, 24 women and 20 men. Presentation: visual field deficit (93.1%), hypopituitarism (61.3%), headache (54.5%). Average diameter, volume and suprasellar extension: 4.8 cm, 20.3 ml, 1.8 cm, respectively. Visual field: improvement: 83.3%, no changes: 9.5%, mostly in bilate- ral symptoms (p<0.0001). Visual impairment: 0%. In total resection: greater possibility of visual improvement (p=0.040). Good endocrinological results: 85.7%. Total resection rate: 52.3%. Subtotal resection: more frequent with invasion of the cavernous sinus (p=0.014). No differences in the degree of resection according to diameter, volume, suprasellar exten- sion, shape or appearance. Hypopituitarism: 4.2%. Diabetes insipidus: 9.5%, associated with greater diameter (p=0.038) or suprasellar extension (p=0.010) and solid appearance (p=0.023). CSF fistula: 7.1%. Conclusion. Total resection can be achieved in half of the cases, the main limitation being the degree of invasion of the cavernous sinus and not the morphological appearance of the HGA per se. Even so, the visual and endocrinological results are very good. In incomplete resections, disease control is achieved through com- plementary treatments


Subject(s)
Humans , Pituitary Gland/pathology , Postoperative Complications , Adenoma/pathology , Chi-Square Distribution , Statistical Analysis , Endoscopy/methods , Surgical Clearance , Margins of Excision , Hypophysectomy/methods
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 263-274, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364963

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common oncologic disease among men. Radical treatment with curative intent provides good oncological results for PCa survivors, although definitive therapy is associated with significant number of serious side-effects. In modern-era of medicine tissue-sparing techniques, such as focal HIFU, have been proposed for PCa patients in order to provide cancer control equivalent to the standard-of-care procedures while reducing morbidities and complications. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence about focal HIFU therapy as a primary treatment for localized PCa. Material and methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of focal HIFU therapy in the MEDLINE database (PROSPERO: CRD42021235581). Articles published in the English language between 2010 and 2020 with more than 50 patients were included. Results: Clinically significant in-field recurrence and out-of-field progression were detected to 22% and 29% PCa patients, respectively. Higher ISUP grade group, more positive cores at biopsy and bilateral disease were identified as the main risk factors for disease recurrence. The most common strategy for recurrence management was definitive therapy. Six months after focal HIFU therapy 98% of patients were totally continent and 80% of patients retained sufficient erections for sexual intercourse. The majority of complications presented in the early postoperative period and were classified as low-grade. Conclusions: This review highlights that focal HIFU therapy appears to be a safe procedure, while short-term cancer control rate is encouraging. Though, second-line treatment or active surveillance seems to be necessary in a significant number of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal/methods , Treatment Outcome , Salvage Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 367-368, March-Apr. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364961

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction and Objective: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents 5% of all urothelial malignancies (1-3). Accurate pathologic diagnosis is key and may direct treatment decisions. Current ureteroscopic biopsy techniques include cold-cup, backloaded cold-cup and stone basket (4-6). The study objective was to compare a standard cold-cup biopsy technique to a novel cold-cup biopsy technique and evaluate histopathologic results. Materials and Methods: We developed a novel UTUC biopsy technique termed the "form tackle" biopsy. Ureteroscope is passed into ureter/renal collecting system. Cold-cup forceps are opened and pressed into the lesion base (to engage the urothelial wall/submucosal tissue) then closed. Ureteroscope/forceps are advanced forward 3-10mm and then extracted from the patient. We compared standard versus novel upper tract biopsy techniques in a series of patients with lesions ≥1cm. In each procedure, two standard and two novel biopsies were obtained from the same lesion. The primary study aim was diagnosis of malignancy. IRB approved: 21-006907. Results: Fourteen procedures performed on 12 patients between June 2020 and March 2021. Twenty-eight specimens sent (14 standard, 14 novel) (Two biopsies per specimen). Ten procedures with concordant pathology. In 4 procedures the novel biopsy technique resulted in a diagnosis of UTUC (2 high-grade, 2 low-grade) in the setting of a benign standard biopsy. Significant difference in pathologic diagnoses was detected between standard and novel upper tract biopsy techniques (p=0.008). Conclusions: The "form tackle" upper tract ureteroscopic biopsy technique provides higher tissue yield which may increase diagnostic accuracy. Further study on additional patients required. Early results are encouraging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ureteral Neoplasms/pathology , Biopsy/methods , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Ureteroscopy
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 303-313, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364958

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine independent predictors of inguinal lymph node (ILN) metastasis in patients with penile cancer. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed all patients with penile cancer who underwent surgery at our medical center in the last ten years (n=157). Using univariate and multivariate logistic-regression models, we assessed associations with age, medical-history, phimosis, onset-time, number and maximum diameter of involved ILNs measured by imaging, pathological T stage, degree of tumor differentiation and/or cornification, lymphatic vascular infiltration (LVI), nerve infiltration, and ILN metastases. Interaction and stratified analyses were used to assess age, phimosis, onset time, number of ILNs, cornification, and nerve infiltration. Results: A total of 110 patients were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were significantly correlated with ILN metastasis: maximum diameter of enlarged ILNs, T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI. Among patients with a maximum ILN diameter ≥1.5cm, 50% had lymph node metastasis whereas 30.6% patients with a maximum ILN diameter <1.5cm showed LNM. Among 44 patients with stage Ta/T1, 10 showed ILN metastases, while 47.0% patients with stage T2 showed ILN metastases. Among 40 patients with highly differentiated penile-cancer, eight showed ILN metastasis, while 47.1% patients with low-to-middle differentiation showed ILN metastases. The rate of LNM was 33.3% in the LVI-free group and 64.3% in the LVI group. Conclusion: Our single-center results suggested that maximum ILN diameter, pathological T stage, pathological differentiation, and LVI were independent risk factors for ILN metastases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging
10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 294-302, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364942

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare enhancement patterns of typical adrenal adenomas, lipid-poor adenomas, and non-adenomas on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Evaluation of adrenal nodules larger than 1.0 cm, with at least 2-year follow-up, evaluated on MRI in January 2007 and December 2016. Two different protocols were included - upper abdomen MRI (delayed phase after 3 minutes) and abdomen and pelvis MRI (delayed phase after 7 minutes) - and nodules were divided in typical adenomas (characterized on out-of-phase MRI sequence), lipid-poor adenomas (based on follow-up imaging stability) and non-adenomas (based on pathological finding or follow-up imaging). T2-weighted and enhancement features were analyzed (absolute and relative washout and enhancement curve pattern), similarly to classic computed tomography equations. Results: Final cohort was composed of 123 nodules in 116 patients (mean diameter of 1.8 cm and mean follow up time of 4 years and 3 months). Of them, 98 (79%) nodules had features of typical adenomas by quantitative chemical shift imaging, and demonstrated type 3 curve pattern in 77%, mean absolute and relative washout of 29% and 16%, respectively. Size, oncologic history and T2-weighted features showed statistically significant differences among groups. Also, a threshold greater than 11.75% for absolute washout on MRI achieved sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 70.0%, in differentiating typical adenomas from non-adenomas. Conclusion: Calculating absolute washout of adrenal nodules on MRI may help identifying proportion of non-adenomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential
11.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 61-74, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368360

ABSTRACT

Se describen distintos aspectos del rinofima: historia, etiopatogenia, histopatología, epidemiologia, clínica, diagnósticos diferenciales, tratamientos y pronóstico. Se hace hincapié en que es una enfermedad localizada en la nariz asociada a desórdenes generales, y que repercute en las áreas psicológica y social. Se presenta un caso clínico operado con cirugía plástica. Los autores plantean una hipótesis sobre la etiopatogenia y la fisiopatología de la enfermedad; y consideran a los tratamientos de rinofima como paliativos y no curativos


Different aspects of rhinophyma were described: history, etiopathogeny, histopathology, epidemiology, clinical, differential diagnoses, treatments and prognosis. It is emphasized that it is a localized disease in the nose associated to general disorders, and that it brings psychological and social problems. We present a case operated with plastic surgery. The authors present a hypothesis about the etiopathogeny and pathophysiology of the disease and consider rhinophyma treatments as palliative and non-curative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Palliative Care , Rhinophyma/etiology , Rhinophyma/history , Rhinophyma/pathology , Rhinophyma/therapy , Rhinophyma/epidemiology , Nose/anatomy & histology , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Prensa méd. argent ; 108(2): 94-100, 20220000. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368454

ABSTRACT

El schwannoma es una patología rara del nervio facial. Su diagnóstico preoperatorio es dificultoso dado que no tiene síntomas ni signos patognomónico de la enfermedad. La disección del nervio facial en su tronco y sus ramas con electroestimulacion es la forma de quirúrgica de sospecharlo intraoperatoriamente. La descompresión parcial o exeresis completa deberá ser considerado de acuerdo a la experiencia del equipo quirúrgico en reconstrucción nerviosa. La reparación del nervio facial como primera opción debe el injerto inmediato o sutura termino terminal. La neurotización es un procedimiento quirúrgico que le provoca al paciente simetría facial con manejo de oclusión ocular y manejo de comisura bucal, debe ser realizado antes del año de la injuria nerviosa. La rehabilitación del nervio facial necesita de un equipo multidisciplinario y la colaboración permanente del paciente para conseguir los objetivos propuestos.


Schwannoma is a rare pathology of the facial nerve. Its preoperative diagnosis is difficult since it has no symptoms or pathognomonic signs of the disease. The dissection of the facial nerve in its trunk and its branches with electrostimulation is the surgical way to suspect it intraoperatively. Partial decompression or complete exeresis should be considered according to the experience of the surgical team in nerve reconstruction. The repair of the facial nerve as a first option should be the immediate graft or end-to-end suture. Neurotization is a surgical procedure that causes the patient facial symmetry with management of ocular occlusion and management of the corner of the mouth, it must be performed within a year of the nerve injury. The rehabilitation of the facial nerve requires a multidisciplinary team and the permanent collaboration of the patient to achieve the proposed objectives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Nerve Transfer/rehabilitation , Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases/surgery , Facial Nerve Diseases/pathology , Preoperative Period , Neurilemmoma/pathology
13.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(2): e25243, mar. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1368175

ABSTRACT

Introdução:As doenças do aparelho respiratório se configuram como o segundo principal motivo de internações hospitalares no Brasil entre 2013 e 2017. Objetivo:Analisar a morbimortalidade de doenças do aparelho respiratório da população brasileira, segundo faixa etária,no período compreendido entre os anos de 2015 a 2019. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo ecológico, retrospectivo, realizado sobre o território brasileiro. Os dados foram coletados a partir do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, nas seções de Morbidade Hospitalar, de Mortalidade e População Residente. Foram analisados os dados entre 2015 a 2019 e de todas as faixas etárias. Resultados:Ao investigar a mortalidade por doenças do sistema respiratório entre os anos de 2015 e 2019, as cinco causas mais frequentes foram: influenza e pneumonia; doenças crônicas das vias aéreas inferiores; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; outras doenças respiratórias que afetam principalmente interstício; doenças pulmonares devidas a agentes externos, nessa ordem. Enquanto as cinco causas de morbidades mais frequentes foram: pneumonia; outras doenças do aparelho respiratório; bronquite, enfisema e outras doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas; asma; bronquite aguda e bronquiolite aguda. Conclusões:Verificou-se que a pneumonia, influenza, doenças respiratórias do trato inferior e outras doenças crônicas respiratórias foram as mais prevalentes entre a população respectivamente. Dentre o público mais acometido, foi possível constatar que o público infantil e a população idosa foram os mais atingidos tanto na mortalidade quanto na morbidade (AU).


Introduction:Introduction: Respiratory diseases are the second main reason for hospital admissions in Brazil between 2013 and 2017. Objective:To analyze the morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases of the Brazilian population, according to age group, in the period from 2015 to 2019. Methodology:This is an ecological, retrospective study conducted on the Brazilian territory. Data were collected from the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System, in the Sections of Hospital Morbidity, Mortality and Resident Population. Data were analyzed between 2015 and 2019 and all age groups. Results:When investigating mortality from respiratory system diseases between 2015 and 2019, the five most frequent causes were: influenza and pneumonia; chronic diseases of the lower airways; other diseases of the respiratory system; other respiratory diseases that mainly affect interstitium; diseases due to external agents, in that order. Conclusions:It was found that pneumonia, influenza, respiratory diseases of the lower tract and other chronic respiratory diseases were the most prevalent among the population, respectively. Among the most affected public, it was possible to observe that the child's public and the elderly population were the most affected in both mortality and morbidity (AU).


Introducción: Las enfermedades respiratorias son la segunda razón principal de los ingresos hospitalarios en Brasil entre 2013 y 2017. Objetivo: Analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad de las enfermedades respiratorias de la población brasileña, según el grupo de edad, en el período comprendido entre 2015 y 2019.Metodología: Se trata de un estudio ecológico y retrospectivo realizado en territorio brasileño. Los datos fueron recogidos del Departamento de Informática del Sistema Unificado de Salud, en las Secciones de Morbilidad Hospitalaria, Mortalidad y Población Residente. Los datos se analizaron entre 2015 y 2019 y todos los grupos de edad. Resultados: Al investigar la mortalidad por enfermedades del sistema respiratorio entre 2015 y 2019, las cinco causas más frecuentes fueron: gripe y neumonía; enfermedades crónicas de las vías respiratorias inferiores; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; otras enfermedades respiratorias que afectan principalmente al intersticio; enfermedades debidas a agentes externos, en ese orden.Mientras que las cinco causas más frecuentes de morbilidad fueron: neumonía; otras enfermedades del sistema respiratorio; bronquitis, enfisema y otras enfermedades pulmonares obstructivas crónicas; asma; bronquiolitis aguda y bronquiolitis aguda. While the five most frequent causes of morbidities were: pneumonia; other diseases of the respiratory system; bronchitis, emphysema and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases; asthma; acute bronchitis and acute bronchiolitis. Conclusiones: Se encontróque la neumonía, la influenza, las enfermedades respiratorias de las vías inferiores y otras enfermedades respiratorias crónicas eran las más prevalentes entre la población, respectivamente. Entre el público más afectado, se pudo observar que el público del niño y la población de edad avanzada eran los más afectados tanto en la mortalidad como en la morbilidad (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Ecological Studies , Age Groups
14.
Medwave ; 22(2): e005919, mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366389

ABSTRACT

La transformación nodular angiomatoide esclerosante es una patología vascular benigna del bazo, desarrollada a partir de la pulpa roja, de etiología desconocida. Se postula que puede estar relacionada con la enfermedad por inmunoglobulina 4 y la infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr. La mayoría de los casos son asintomáticos, constituyendo hallazgos incidentales en estudios por imágenes. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 41 años con antecedentes de tiroidectomía por carcinoma papilar que consulta por fiebre. Recibió tratamiento sintomático y se realizó tomografía computarizada de abdomen por síntomas abdominales inespecíficos. La tomografía evidenció una imagen de aspecto sólido, con tenue realce periférico con el contraste que mide 62 por 52 por 51 milímetros en el polo inferior del bazo. Se realizó esplenectomía que midió 14 por 11 por 4 centímetros y pesó 284 gramos. Se identificó una formación nodular sólida, bien delimitada, con área central de aspecto fibroso, con tractos blanquecinos que delimitan áreas violáceas. La microscopía presentó nódulos coalescentes redondeados de aspecto angiomatoide, con proliferación vascular revestida por células endoteliales sin atipia, entremezclados con células ahusadas, infiltrado de linfocitos y macrófagos. El estroma entre los nódulos mostró proliferación miofibroblástica con linfocitos, plasmocitos y siderófagos. Inmunohistoquímica tuvo marcación positiva en los vasos para CD34 y CD31, sectores positivos para CD8 y negativos para CD34. Una célula positiva para inmunoglobulina 4 (IgG4) por campo de gran aumento. El estudio para Epstein-Barr por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa fue negativo. Para el diagnóstico los estudios de imagen son inespecíficos, por lo que la confirmación diagnóstica la da el estudio histopatológico. La esplenectomía es curativa sin casos reportados hasta la actualidad de transformación maligna o recidiva. No se conocen factores de riesgo y no se han comprobado factores desencadenantes, excepto la asociación de casos con IgG4 y virus de Ebstein-Barr. Por ser una entidad patológica recientemente descrita es necesario recopilar series grandes y revisar nuestros archivos, reevaluando algunos de sus diagnósticos diferenciales para lograr una mejor comprensión de la misma.


Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation is a benign vascular pathology of the spleen, developed from the red pulp, of unknown etiology; it is postulated that it may be related to IgG4 disease and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Most cases are asymptomatic, constituting incidental findings in imaging studies. We present a 41-year-old male patient with a history of thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma who consulted for fever, received symptomatic treatment and performed a computed tomography of the abdomen for nonspecific abdominal symptoms, the same evidence in the lower pole of the spleen a solid-looking image with faint Peripheral enhancement with contrast, measures 62x 52x51 mm. A splenectomy measuring 14x 11x4 cm and weighing 284 grams was performed, identifying a solid, well-defined nodular formation, with a central fibrous-looking area, with whitish tracts that delimited purplish areas. Microscopy: rounded angiomatoid-like coalescing nodules, with vascular proliferation lined by endothelial cells without atypia, interspersed with spindle cells, infiltrated by lymphocytes and macrophages. The stroma between the nodules shows myofibroblastic proliferation with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and siderophages. Immunohistochemistry: positive labeling in vessels for CD34 and CD31, positive sectors for CD8 and negative for CD34. One IgG4 positive cell per high power field. The study for Epstein-Barr by Polymesara Chain Reaction was negative. For the diagnosis, the imaging studies are nonspecific, so the diagnostic confirmation is given by the histopathological study. Splenectomy is curative with no reported cases of malignant transformation or recurrence to date. There are no known risk factors and no triggering factors have been proven, except the association of cases with IgG4 and Ebstein-Barr virus. As it is a recently described pathological entity, it is necessary to collect large series and review our files, reevaluating some of its differential diagnoses to achieve a better understanding of it


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/diagnosis , Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous/pathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Spleen/pathology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Abdomen/pathology
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 112-117, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364296

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the main subtype. The cribriform morular variant is a histological phenotype of PTC characterized by its relationship with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Description of the case: We report the genetic assessment of a 20-year-old female patient diagnosed with a cribriform-morular variant of PTC and FAP. We aimed to assess the genetic background of the reported patient, looking for variants that would help us explain the predisposition to tumorigenesis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and whole exome sequencing was performed. We applied an overrepresentation and gene-set enrichment analysis to look for an accumulation of effects of variants in multiple genes at the genome. We found an overrepresentation of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in extracellular matrix interactions and cell adhesion genes. Underrepresentation of SNVs in genes related to the regulation of autophagy and cell cycle control was also observed. We hypothesize that the package of alterations of our patient may help to explain why she presented colonic manifestations and thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that multiple variants with minor impact, when considered together, may be helpful to characterize one particular clinical condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/diagnosis , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/genetics , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli/pathology , Genetic Background , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 50-57, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364302

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: A primary medical relevance of thyroid nodules consists of excluding thyroid cancer, present in approximately 5% of all thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a paramount role in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules due to its availability and diagnostic performance. Nevertheless, intraoperative frozen section (iFS) is still advocated as a valuable tool for surgery planning, especially for indeterminate nodules. Subjects and methods: To compare the FNAB and iFS performances in thyroid cancer diagnosis among nodules in Bethesda Categories (BC) I to VI. The performance of FNAB and iFS tests were calculated using final histopathology results as the gold standard. Results: In total, 316 patients were included in the analysis. Both FNAB and iFS data were available for 272 patients (86.1%). The overall malignancy rate was 30.4%% (n = 96). The FNAB sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for benign (BC II) and malignant (BC V and VI) were 89.5%, 97.1%, and 94.1%, respectively. For all nodules evaluated, the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80.9%, 100%, and 94.9%, respectively. For indeterminate nodules and follicular lesions (BC III and IV), the iFS sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 25%, 100%, and 88.7%, respectively. For BC I nodules, iFS had 95.2% of accuracy. Conclusion: Our results do not support routine iFS for indeterminate nodules or follicular neoplasms (BC III and IV) due to its low sensitivity. In these categories, iFS is not sufficiently accurate to guide the intraoperative management of thyroidectomies. iFS for BC I nodules could be an option and should be specifically investigated


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Frozen Sections/methods
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 227-233, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365336

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The stroma surrounding the tumor cells is important in tumor progression and treatment resistance, besides the properties of tumor cells. Studies on the tumor stroma characteristics will contribute to the knowledge for new treatment approaches. METHODS: A total of 363 breast cancer patients were evaluated for the tumor-stroma ratio. The percentage of stroma was visually assessed on hematoxylin-eosin stained slides. The cases of tumor-stroma ratio more than 50% were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio high, and those less than 50% and below were categorized as tumor-stroma ratio low. RESULTS: Tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors had shorter overall survival (p=0.002). Disease-free survival tended to be shorter in tumor-stroma ratio-high tumors (p=0.082) compared with tumor-stroma ratio-low tumors. Tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter for the total group of patients (p=0.003) and also axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor-stroma ratio was statistically associated (p=0.004). Also, tumor-stroma ratio was an independent prognostic parameter in node-positive Luminal A and B subgroups for overall survival (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Tumor-stroma ratio is an independent prognostic parameter that can be evaluated quite easily in all molecular subtypes of all breast cancers and does not require extra cost and time to evaluate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Stromal Cells/pathology , Receptor, ErbB-2 , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 26-32, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360553

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess intra- and interobserver agreement among non-expert pathologists in identifying features of the eosinophilic esophagitis histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) in pediatric patients. Patients and methods: The authors used 50 slides from patients (aged 1-15 years; 72% male) with EoE. EoEHSS evaluates eosinophilic inflammation and other features including epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, eosinophilic abscesses, eosinophil surface layering, dilated intercellular spaces, surface epithelial alteration, dyskeratotic epithelial cells, and lamina propria fibrosis. Grade and stage of abnormalities are scored using a 4-point scale (0 normal; 3 maximum change). Four pathologists determined EoEHSS findings on two occasions. Intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed using Kappa (κ) statistics and intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophil counts ≥ 15/high power field (HPF) was excellent, however varied when assessing additional features of the EoEHSS. For the more experienced pathologist, agreement for most EoEHSS items and the composite scores was substantial to excellent. For the less experienced pathologists, intraobserver agreement ranged from absent to substantial for individual features and ranged from moderate to substantial for the composite scores. Conclusion: Most items of the EoEHSS had substantial to excellent reliability when assessed by a pathologist experienced in the diagnosis of EoE but presented lower repeatability among less experienced pathologists. These findings suggest that specific training of pathologists is required for the identification of EoEHSS characteristics beyond eosinophil count, as these features are considered useful in the evaluation of response to treatment and correlation with clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/diagnosis , Eosinophilic Esophagitis/drug therapy , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Eosinophils/pathology
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 153-160, Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364374

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Melanocytic lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) are an infrequent, broad and diverse group of entities, both benign and malignant, found in all age groups, with imaging findings ranging from well-circumscribed focal lesions to diffuse leptomeningeal involvement. On MRI, they are usually distinguished by a high signal on T1WI sequences, given the paramagnetic effect of melanin, thus making it difficult to differentiate among them. Objective: To describe the imaging and epidemiological characteristics of a retrospective series of CNS melanocytic lesions. Methods: MR images of 23 patients with CNS melanocytic lesions diagnosed between January 2012 and June 2018 were analyzed. Results: Most patients were female (14/23; 61%), with a median age of 47 years (range: 3 weeks to 72 years). The primary melanocytic lesions accounted for 8/19 cases (42.1%), which included neurocutaneous melanosis, meningeal melanocytomas and primary malignant melanomas. Secondary melanocytic lesions (metastatic) accounted for 10/19 cases (52.6%). There was one case of a tumor with secondary melanization, from a melanocytic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. There were also four cases of primary ocular melanomas. The most frequent findings were the cerebral location, high T1WI signal and marked contrast-enhancement. Conclusions: The present review describes the wide variety of melanocytic lesions that could affect the CNS, emphasizing the MRI characteristics. Knowledge of the imaging, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of CNS melanocytic lesions is essential for their correct interpretation, given the significant overlap between lesion features and the variable prognosis.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: Las lesiones melanocíticas del sistema nervioso central (SNC) corresponden a un grupo infrecuente, amplio y diverso de entidades, tanto benignas como malignas, encontradas en todos los grupos etarios, con hallazgos imagenológicos que van desde lesiones focales bien circunscritas hasta un compromiso leptomeníngeo difuso. A la RM se distinguen por la alta señal en la secuencia T1WI, dado el efecto paramagnético de la melanina, haciendo difícil la diferenciación entre ellas. Objetivo: Describir las características epidemiológicas y de de una serie retrospectiva de lesiones melanocíticas del SNC. Métodos: Revisión de imágenes de RM de 23 pacientes con lesiones melanocíticas del SNC diagnosticadas entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2018. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes fueron mujeres (14/23; 61%), con edades comprendidas entre las 3 semanas de vida hasta los 72 años. Las lesiones melanocíticas primarias representaron 8/19 (42,1%), incluyendo: melanosis neurocutáneas, melanocitomas meníngeos y melanomas malignos primarios. Las lesiones melanocíticas secundarias (metastásicas) representaron 10/19 casos (52,6%). Hubo un caso de tumor con melanización secundaria (tumor neuroectodermico melanocítico de la infancia). Se incluyeron cuatro casos de melanomas oculares primarios. Los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron la localización cerebral, el aumento de señal T1 y el acentuado realce con el gadolinio. Conclusiones: Se describe la amplia variedad de lesiones melanocíticas encontradas en el SNC, enfatizando sus características a la RM. El conocimiento de sus características imagenológicas, clínicas y epidemiológicas es fundamental para su correcta interpretación, dado la notable superposición entre las presentaciones de las lesiones y lo variable de sus pronósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Melanosis/complications , Melanosis/pathology , Nevus, Pigmented/complications , Nevus, Pigmented/pathology , Skin Neoplasms , Central Nervous System/pathology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(2): 125-128, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364367

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Language tests are important in the assessment and follow up of people with aphasia (PWA). However, language assessment in the low literacy population is still a challenge. Objective: To investigate whether a formal evaluation of aphasia is able to distinguish the neurological effect from the effect of low educational level in people with post-stroke aphasia. Methods: The sample consisted of a group of 30 aphasic subjects (AG) and a control group (CG) of 36 individuals, both with an educational level of 1-4 years. The Brazilian Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment battery was applied to all subjects. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the groups in 19 out of the 20 tasks analyzed. Conclusions: These results suggest that formal evaluation procedures are able to detect language disorders resulting from stroke, even in subjects with low educational level.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Os testes de linguagem são importantes para a avaliação e o acompanhamento de pacientes afásicos. Apesar disso, a avaliação de linguagem em indivíduos com baixa escolaridade ainda é um desafio. Objetivo: Investigar se a avaliação formal da afasia é capaz de diferenciar o efeito da lesão neurológica versus o efeito da baixa escolaridade em pacientes afásicos, acometidos por acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Métodos: A amostra foi composta de um grupo de 30 sujeitos afásicos (AG) e um grupo controle (CG) de 36 indivíduos, todos com um a quatro anos de escolaridade. A Bateria Montreal-Toulouse de Avaliação da Linguagem foi administrada a todos os participantes. Resultados: Das 20 tarefas analisadas, 19 apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que procedimentos formais de avaliação são capazes de identificar as alterações linguísticas ocasionadas por um AVC, também em pacientes com baixa escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/complications , Aphasia/diagnosis , Aphasia/etiology , Aphasia/pathology , Brazil , Educational Status , Language Tests
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