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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Periploca aphylla is used by local population and indigenous medicine practitioners as stomachic, tonic, antitumor, antiulcer, and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiabetic effect of the extract of P. aphylla and to investigate antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#The present research was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of methanol extract of P. aphylla (PAM) and subfractions n-hexane (PAH), chloroform (PAC), ethyl acetate (PAE), n-butanol (PAB), and aqueous (PAA) in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the efficacy, PAB (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) was tested for its antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced via intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) in rat. Blood glucose values were taken weekly. HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB was carried out for the presence of various polyphenols.@*RESULTS@#HPLC-DAD analysis of PAB recorded the presence of rutin, catechin, caffeic acid, and myricetin. Oral administration of PAB at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg for 21 days significantly restored (P < 0.01) body weight (%) and relative liver and relative kidney weight of diabetic rats. Diabetic control rats showed significant elevation (P < 0.01) of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, creatinine, total bilirubin, and BUN while reduced (P < 0.01) level of glucose, total protein, albumin, insulin, and HDL in serum. Count of blood cells and hematological parameters were altered in diabetic rats. Further, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and total soluble protein concentration decreased while concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and percent DNA damages increased (P < 0.01) in liver and renal tissues of diabetic rats. Histopathological damage scores increased in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Intake of PAB (400 mg/kg) resulted in significant improvement (P < 0.01) of above parameters, and results were comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide.@*CONCLUSION@#The result suggests the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of PAB treatment in STZ-compelled diabetic rat. PAB might be used as new therapeutic agent in diabetic patients to manage diabetes and decrease the complications.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/chemistry , Administration, Oral , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Male , Periploca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Streptozocin/adverse effects
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888081

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to investigate the effects of the main components(aesculin, berberine hydrochloride, and anemoside B4) in the butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO). HL60 cells were cultivated in RPMI-1640 complete medium, and transferred into a 6-well plate(2 × 10~5 per mL) with 4 mL in each well, followed by incubation with DMSO at 1.3% for five days. The morphologic changes of cells were observed under an inverted microscope. The CD11 b expression after DMSO induction was analyzed by flow cytometry. The effects of aesculin, berberine hydrochloride, and anemoside B4 on the cell proliferation and migration were detected by CCK8 assay and Transwell assay, respectively. The effects of the main components on the production and polarization of F-actin protein were also examined by flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway was checked by Western blot. As revealed by the results, neutrophil-like HL60 cells were observed after DMSO induction. The CD11 b expression in these cells increased significantly as indicated by the flow cytometry. Additionally, 100 μg·mL~(-1) aesculin, 8 μg·mL~(-1) berberine hydrochloride, and 80 μg·mL~(-1) anemoside B4 were potent in inhibiting the migration of neutrophils and reducing F-actin expression. Berberine hydrochloride was verified to be capable of diminishing phosphorylated PI3 K/Akt protein expression. The findings indicate that aesculin, anemoside B4, and especially berberine hydrochloride in the BAEB can inhibit the chemotaxis of neutrophils, which is possibly achieved by the inhibition of F-actin and PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Berberine/pharmacology , Chemotaxis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Neutrophils
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2755-2766, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878527

ABSTRACT

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a multi-step process in a bioreactor, which completes hydrolase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. It is considered to be the most promising process for the production of second-generation biofuels because of its simple steps and low cost. Due to the complexity of lignocellulose degradation and the butanol synthesis pathway, few wild microorganisms can directly utilize lignocellulose to synthesize butanol. With the development of synthetic biology, single-bacterium directly synthesizes butanol using lignocellulose by introducing a butanol synthesis pathway in the cellulolytic Clostridium. However, there are still some problems such as heavy metabolic load of single bacterium and low butanol yield. Co-culture can relieve the metabolic burden of single bacterium through the division of labor in different strains and can further improve the efficiency of butanol synthesis. This review analyzes the recent research progress in the synthesis of biobutanol using lignocellulose by consolidated bioprocessing from both the single-bacterium strategy and co-culture strategy, to provide a reference for the research of butanol and other biofuels.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Biofuels , Butanols , Fermentation , Lignin/metabolism
4.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 255-260, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760563

ABSTRACT

Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), which is a well-known food seasoning, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and anorexia in Korea, China and Japan. Methanol extract from the fruit of P. nigrum was successively partitioned as n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H₂O soluble fractions. Among those fractions the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the most potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and piperine was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. To know the antioxidant activity of piperine, we tested the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase together with oxidative stress tolerance and intracellular ROS level in Caenorhabditis elegans. To investigate whether piperine-mediated increased stress tolerance was due to regulation of stress-response gene, we quantified SOD-3 expression using transgenic strain including CF1553. Consequently, piperine enhanced SOD and catalase activities of C. elegans, and reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose–dependent manner. Moreover, piperine-treated CF1553 worms exhibited significantly higher SOD-3::GFP intensity.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Abdominal Pain , Anorexia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Catalase , China , Diarrhea , Fruit , Japan , Korea , Medicine, Traditional , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Oxidative Stress , Piper nigrum , Piper , Seasons , Superoxide Dismutase , Vomiting
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777522

ABSTRACT

The LPS-induced RAW264. 7 cells inflammation model was used as a carrier to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammation effects of Jingfang n-butanol extraction(JFNE) isolated fraction A and explore its preliminary anti-inflammation mechanism by observing the regulatory effect on PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway and NF-κB pathway. The RAW264. 7 cells inflammation model was established by stimulating with LPS for 12 h. After 3 h pre-treatment with fraction A,the contents of interleukin-6(IL-6),interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) in the supernatant of RAW264. 7 cells inflammation model were determined by ELISA and the contents of NO in supernatant were assayed by Griess. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) method was used to determine the expression of IL-6,IL-1β,TNF-α,IFN-γ,i NOS,PI3 K,AKT,CHUK,NF-κB1 and Rela mRNA in RAW264. 7 inflammatory cells,and the expression levels of phosphorylated and total PI3 K/AKT protein,NF-κB p50,p65,p-p65,p105 protein in cells were determined via Western blot. In addition,LC-MS and database were used to identify the possible chemical constituents in fraction A. The results showed that fraction A could significantly reduce the release levels of NO,IL-6,IL-1β and TNF-α in the supernatant and the expression of IL-6,IL-1β,TNF-α,IFN-γ,i NOS,PI3 K,AKT,CHUK,NF-κB1 and Rela mRNA in RAW264. 7 inflammation model cells(P<0. 05 or P<0. 01) and significantly inhibit the phosphorylation expression levels of PI3 K and AKT protein and mRNA expressions(P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). Moreover,fraction A could significantly reduce the levels of NF-κB p50,p-p65 and i NOS protein,as well as NF-κB1,Rela mRNA expressions in RAW264. 7 cells,and increase the expression of CHUK gene.A total of 196 compounds were identified from fraction A in the composition analysis,and isoobtusilactone,5-O-methyl-vismitol,emebel(embelin) and prim-O-glucosylcimifugin showed high contents. The results all above showed that fraction A had a certain antiinflammatory effect in LPS-induced RAW264. 7 inflammation model cells,and its anti-inflammatory effects may be related to its regulatory effect on the activation of PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. In addition,emblin may be its effective anti-inflammation chemical composition.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta , Metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages , Mice , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
6.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 355-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Painters in the automotive sector are routinely exposed to volatile organic solvents, and the levels vary depending on the occupational health and safety controls enforced at the companies. This study investigates the levels of exposure to organic vapors and the existence of controls in the formal economy sector in southern Colombia. METHODS: This is an exploratory study of an observational and descriptive character. An analysis of solvents is conducted via the personal sampling of painters and the analysis of samples using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1501 method. The amount of solvents analyzed varied according to the budget allocated by the companies. The person in charge of the occupational safety and health management system was interviewed to learn about the exposure controls implemented at the companies. RESULTS: A medium exposure risk for toluene was found in one company. Another presented medium risk for carbon tetrachloride, xylene, ethylbenzene, and n-butanol. The others showed low risk of exposure and that the controls implemented were not sufficient or efficient. CONCLUSION: These results shed light on the working conditions of these tradespeople. The permissible limits established by Colombian regulations for the evaluated chemical contaminants were not exceeded. However, there were contaminants that exceeded the limits of action. The analysis of findings made it possible to propose improvements in occupational safety and health management systems to allow the optimization of working conditions for painters, prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases, and reduce costs to the country's health system.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Carbon Tetrachloride , Colombia , Humans , Methods , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Health , Social Control, Formal , Solvents , Toluene , Xylenes
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774597

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction( BAEB) on Candida albicans biofilms based on pH signal pathway. The morphology of biofilms of the pH mutants was observed by scanning electron microscope. The biofilm thickness of the pH mutants was measured by CLSM. The biofilm activity of the pH mutants was analyzed by microplate reader.The biofilm damage of the pH mutants was detected by flow cytometry. The expression of pH mutant biofilm-related genes was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the deletion of PHR1 gene resulted in the defect of biofilm,but there were more substrates for PHR1 complementation. BAEB had no significant effect on the two strains. RIM101 gene deletion or complementation did not cause significant structural damage,but after BAEB treatment,the biofilms of both strains were significantly inhibited. For the biofilm thickness,PHR1 deletion or complementation caused the thickness to decrease,after BAEB treatment,the thickness of the two strains did not change significantly. However,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation had little effect on the thickness,and the thickness of the two strains became thinner after adding BAEB. For biofilm activity,PHR1 deletion or complementation and RIM101 deletion resulted in decreased activity,RIM101 complementation did not change significantly; BAEB significantly inhibited biofilm activity of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complemetation,RIM101 deletion and RIM101 complemetation strains. For the biofilm damage,PHR1 gene deletion or complementation,RIM101 gene deletion or complementation all showed different degrees of damage; after adding BAEB,the damage rate of PHR1 deletion or complementation was not significantly different,but the damage rate of RIM101 deletion or complementation was significantly increased. Except to the up-regulation of HSP90 gene expression,ALS3,SUN41,HWP1,UME6 and PGA10 genes of PHR1 deletion,PHR1 complementation,RIM101 deletion,and RIM101 complementation strains showed a downward expression trend. In a word,this study showed that mutations in PHR1 and RIM101 genes in the pH signaling pathway could enhance the sensitivity of the strains to the antifungal drug BAEB,thus inhibiting the biofilm formation and related genes expression in C. albicans.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Biofilms , Candida albicans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fungal Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of skin photoaging. Previous studies reported that ethanol extract (PET) of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers (PPF, peach flowers) and its subfractions, particularly the ethylacetate (PEA) and n-butanol extracts (PBT), have potent antioxidant activity and attenuate the UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in human skin cells. In this study, we investigated the protective activity of PPF extract against UV-induced photoaging in a mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Hairless mice were treated with PET or a mixture of PEA and PBT either topically or orally along with UV irradiation. Histological changes and biochemical alterations of mouse skin were examined. Major phenolic compounds in PPF extract were analyzed using an ACQUITY UPLC system. RESULTS: The overall effects of topical and oral treatments with PPF extract on the UV-induced skin responses exhibited similar patterns. In both experiments, the mixture of PEA and PBT significantly inhibited the UV-induced skin and epidermal thickening, while PET inhibited only the UV-induced epidermal thickening. Treatment of PET or the mixture of PEA and PBT significantly inhibited the UV-induced MMP-13 expression, but not typeⅠ collagen expression. Topical treatment of the mixture of PEA and PBT with UV irradiation significantly elevated catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities in the skin compared to those in the UV irradiated control group, while oral treatment of the mixture of PEA and PBT or PET elevated only catalase and SOD activities, but not GPx. Thirteen phytochemical compounds including 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, cimicifugic acid E and B, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol glycoside derivatives were identified in the PPF extract. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that treatment with PET or the mixture of PEA and PBT, both topically or orally, attenuates UV-induced photoaging via the cooperative interactions of phenolic components having anti-oxidative and collagen-protective activities.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Animals , Catalase , Collagen , Ethanol , Flowers , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 , Mice , Mice, Hairless , Peas , Phenol , Prunus persica , Skin , Superoxide Dismutase
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776415

ABSTRACT

Seventeen compounds were isolated from n-butanol extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera, using column chromatography over macroporous resin HP-20,Sephadex LH-20, and ODS. Their structures were identified as two carboline,tangutorid E(1) and tangutorid F(2); three phenolic glycosides,niazirin(3),benzaldehyde 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(4) and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosidebenzoic acid(5); four chlorogenic acid and derivatives,4-caffeoylquinic acid(6),methyl 4-caffeoylquinate(7),caffeoylquinic acid(8) and methyl caffeoylquinate(9); two nucleosids,uridine(10) and adenosine(11); one flavone,quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(12); five other types of compounds,phthalimidineacetic acid(13),3-pyridinecarboxamide(14),3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid(15),5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxylic acid(16) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde(17) by the spectral data of ¹H, ¹³C-NMR and MS. Among them,compounds 1-2,7,9-10,16 and 17 were isolated from M. oleifera for the first time.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Glycosides , Moringa oleifera , Chemistry , Phenols , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Acanthopanax sessiliflorum fruit (ASF; Ogaza) extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which are agents that cause dental caries, and on Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus salivarius, the microbial flora of the oral cavity. The ASF extracts obtained using 70% ethanol were fractionated in the order of ethyl acetate and n-Butanol, concentrated under reduced pressure, and lyophilized to give powdery solvent extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ASF extracts from each solvent was examined using the disk diffusion method. As a result, only those extracts obtained using an ethyl acetate solvent showed antimicrobial activity. These extracts were selected, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was measured by disk diffusion method at various extract concentrations. Results showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 32 mg/ml. The viable cell count was measured to confirm the minimum bactericidal concentration. Results showed a minimum bactericidal concentration of 64 mg/ml. In the cytotoxicity test using normal human dermal fibroblast cells, the absorbance value of the test group was similar to that of the control group at 0.64, 1.28, and 6.4 mg/ml. The bacteria and their colonies were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Boundaries between the antimicrobial activity region and non-antimicrobial activity region were observed around the paper disk, which was immersed in the extract with 32 mg/ml concentration. Bacterial colonization was not observed in the area with antimicrobial activity. This finding suggests that ASF extracts can inhibit the growth of some microorganisms in the oral cavity, in addition to the effects of these extracts known to date. In particular, ASF extracts may be used as a preparation for preventing dental caries by adding the extract to the toothpaste or oral mouthwash.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Bacteria , Cell Count , Colon , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Eleutherococcus , Ethanol , Fibroblasts , Fruit , Humans , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth , Streptococcus , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus , Toothpastes
11.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 162-168, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58161

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps bassiana has long been used as an oriental medicine and reported to possess diverse biological activities. The fruiting bodies of Cordyceps bassiana was extracted with ethanol and then further fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The butanol fraction from Cordyceps bassiana (CBBF) exhibited the most effective in anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages and the roles of CBBF on the anti-inflammation cascade in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were studied. To investigate the mechanism by which CBBF inhibits NO, iNOS and COX-2, the activation of IκB and MAPKs in LPS-activated macrophage were examined. Our present results demonstrated that CBBF inhibits NO production and iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, and these effects were mediated through the inhibition of IκB-α, JNK and p38 phosphorylation. Also, CBBF suppressed activation of MAPKs including p38 and SAPK/JNK. Furthermore, CBBF significantly suppressed LPS-induced intracellular ROS generation. Its inhibition on iNOS expression, together with its antioxidant activity, may support its anti-inflammatory activity. Thus Cordyceps bassiana can be used as a useful medicinal food or drug for further studies.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Cordyceps , Ethanol , Fruit , Inflammation , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phosphorylation , Water
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77740

ABSTRACT

The study is a pioneering effort to determine the mineral, nutritional, and phytochemical composition and phenolic content and to determine the free radical scavenging activity of Gigantochloa levis (Blanco) Merr, a native bamboo species (locally known as "bolo") in the Philippines. Proximate analysis showed that air-dried G. levis leaves contain 15.8% ash, 22.6% crude protein, 1.2% crude fat, 29.3% crude fiber, and 19.7% total sugar. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of diterpenes, triterpenes, saponins, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids in both the ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts, while phytosterols were only detected in the ethanolic extract. Folin-Ciocalteu assay determined the total phenolic content in gallic acid equivalents (GAE) to be 85.86 ± 3.71 and 32.32 ± 1.01 mg GAE/100 g dried sample for the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total phenolic content in quercetin equivalents (QE) was 74.44 ± 3.11 and 29.43 ± 0.85 mg QE/100g dried sample for the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of the different solvent fractions containing varying concentrations of the extract was determined using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The ethyl acetate and 1-butanol fractions were found to have the highest radical scavenging activity. Mineral analysis via Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) of the ash of G. levis leaves showed that Si is the major component, followed by K and Mg. These results point to the potential of G. levis leaves as a source of minerals and bioactive compounds with medicinal value.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Diterpenes , Ethanol , Flavonoids , Gallic Acid , Minerals , Phenol , Phenols , Philippines , Phytosterols , Quercetin , Saponins , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Tannins , Triterpenes
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812436

ABSTRACT

Cancer cell resistance to widely used chemotherapeutic agents is gradually developed. Natural products, mainly isolated from medicinal plants, have been considered as valuable sources for herbal anticancer drugs. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of crude ethyle alcohole extract and four fractions of Q. brantii acorn. Crude ethyle alcohole extract of Q. brantii acorn was prepared and subjected to fractionation with different polarity. Subsequently, the extract and the fractions wereevaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity in two cancerous (Hela and AGS) and one normal (HDFs) cell lines using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2ol) 2, 5 diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. To determine whether the cytotoxicity of these compounds involved the induction of apoptosis, Hela cells were treated with IC50 concentrations of test compounds, stained with both propidium iodide (PI) and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), and analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the cell viability was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner following treatment with crude ethyle alcohole extract and Cholophorm and n-Butanol fractions. Based on the probit regression model, antiproliferative activities of crude ethyle alcohole extract, Cholophorm fraction, and n-Butanol fraction on Hela and AGS cells and HDFs cells were significantly different (P < 0.001). The results of flow cytometric analysis showed that crude ethyle alcohole extract and two fractions of Q. brantii acorn induced early apoptotic cell death. These findings suggest that crude ethyle alcohole extract and Cholophorm and n-Butanol fractions of Q. brantii acorn suppress the proliferation of cancer cells through induction of early apoptosis.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Ethanol , HeLa Cells , Humans , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Quercus , Chemistry
14.
Mycobiology ; : 311-318, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729631

ABSTRACT

Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding beta-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Agaricales , Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Bacteria , Glycine , Grifola , Lycopersicon esculentum , Oryza , Pectobacterium carotovorum , Plants , Ralstonia solanacearum , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seedlings , Shiitake Mushrooms , Water , Xanthomonas
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fermentation can increase functional compounds in fermented soybean products, thereby improving antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the changes in the contents of phenolics and isoflavones, antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of Doenjang during fermentation and aging. MATERIALS/METHODS: Doenjang was made by inoculating Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus licheniformis in soybeans, fermenting and aging for 1, 3, 6, 8, and 12 months (D1, D3, D6, D8, and D12). Doenjang was extracted using ethanol, and sequentially fractioned by hexane, dichloromethane (DM), ethylacetate (EA), n-butanol, and water. The contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and isoflavones, 2,2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured. Anti-inflammatory effects in terms of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions were also measured using LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. RESULTS: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed a gradual increase during fermentation and 6 months of aging and were sustained thereafter. DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP were increased by fermentation. FRAP was further increased by aging, but DPPH radical scavenging activity was not. Total isoflavone and glycoside contents decreased during fermentation and the aging process, while aglycone content and its proportion increased up to 3 or 6 months of aging and then showed a slow decrease. DM and EA fractions of Doenjang showed much higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and DPPH radical scavenging activity than the others. At 100 microg/mL, DM and EA fractions of D12 showed strongly suppressed NO production to 55.6% and 52.5% of control, respectively, and PGE2 production to 25.0% and 28.3% of control with inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 protein expression in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve month-aged Doenjang has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities with high levels of phenolics and isoflavone aglycones, and can be used as a beneficial food for human health.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Aging , Aspergillus oryzae , Bacillus , Dinoprostone , Ethanol , Fermentation , Flavonoids , Humans , Inflammation , Isoflavones , Macrophages , Methylene Chloride , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Phenol , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Soybeans , Water
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202118

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the effects of cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and had a synergistic effect together with cordycepin (W-cordycepin) from CE-WIB801C on the inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C and cordycepin stimulated the phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157) and the dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt, and inhibited the binding of fibrinogen to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3) and the release of ATP and serotonin in collagen-induced platelet aggregation. A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS reduced CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-increased VASP (Ser157) phosphorylation, and increased CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited the fibrinogen binding to alphaIIb/beta3. Therefore, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C-, and cordycepin-inhibited fibrinogen binding to alphaIIb/beta3 are due to stimulation of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP (Ser157), and inhibition of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. These results strongly indicate that CE-WIB801C and cordycepin may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Adenosine Triphosphate , Atherosclerosis , Blood Platelets , Cordyceps , Fibrinogen , Glycoproteins , Myocardial Infarction , Phosphorylation , Platelet Aggregation , Serotonin , Thrombosis
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-87905

ABSTRACT

In this study, we prepared cordycepin-enriched (CE)-WIB801C, a n-butanol extract of Cordyceps militaris-hypha, and investigated the effect of CE-WIB801C on collagen-induced human platelet aggregation. CE-WIB801C dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation, and its IC50 value was 175 microg/ml. CE-WIB801C increased cAMP level more than cGMP level, but inhibited collagen-elevated [Ca2+]i mobilization and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS increased the CE-WIB801C-downregulated [Ca2+]i level in a dose dependent manner, and strongly inhibited CE-WIB801C-induced inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation. These results suggest that the inhibition of [Ca2+]i mobilization by CE-WIB801C is resulted from the cAMP/A-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IP3R. CE-WIB801C suppressed TXA2 production, but did not inhibit the activities of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and TXA2 synthase (TXAS). These results suggest that the inhibition of TXA2 production by WIB801C is not resulted from the direct inhibition of COX-1 and TXAS. In this study, we demonstrate that CE-WIB801C with cAMP-dependent Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effects may have preventive or therapeutic potential for platelet aggregation-mediated diseases, such as thrombosis, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and ischemic cerebrovascular disease.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Atherosclerosis , Blood Platelets , Cordyceps , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Cyclooxygenase 1 , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Inositol , Myocardial Infarction , Phosphorylation , Platelet Aggregation , Thrombosis , Thromboxane A2
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The root of Vitis amurensis Ruprecht, a sort of wild-growing grape, has been used in oriental medicine for treatment of skin ailments; however, its dermatological activity is not sufficiently understood. The aim of this study was to investigate tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-melanogenic activities of V. amurensis Ruprecht root methanol extract (VARM) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and to attempt to isolate and identify the active compound issued from VARM. MATERIALS/METHODS: Anti-melanogenic activity of VARM was analyzed in alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)-stimulated B16F10 cells through evaluation of antioxidative activity as well as inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin contents compared with those of kojic acid and arbutin. After anti-melanogenic analysis of VARM, serial fractionation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and thin layer chromatorgraphy (TLC) were applied for identification of active compounds contained in VARM. RESULTS: VARM significantly inhibited oxidative stress and tyrosinase activity and attenuated alpha-MSH-induced melanin production in B16F10 cells. For isolation of active compounds, VARM was fractionated using a series of organic solvents, including dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH). Among fractions showing anti-melanogenic activity, the CH2Cl2 fraction induced the most potent attenuation of melanogenesis without cytotoxicity and the major compound in the CH2Cl2 fraction was identified as betulinic acid. Betulinic acid isolated from the CH2Cl2 fraction of VARM significantly attenuated alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in a dose dependent manner, which was stronger than that of arbutin used as a positive control. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that VARM inhibits oxidative stress, tyrosinase activity, and alpha-MSH-induced melanogenesis in B16F10 cells, due primarily to the active compound, betulinic acid, in the CH2Cl2 fraction.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Animals , Arbutin , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Melanins , Melanoma , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Mice , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Oxidative Stress , Skin , Solvents , Vitis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351064

ABSTRACT

Rhynchosia volubilis Lour has been a major drug in a folk prescription for contraception in China, whereas its mechanism remains unknown. Its antifertility effects on male mice and antimicrobial activities on sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens were previously reported. This study was undertaken to develop the n-Butanol extract of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour (BERVL) as a spermicidal agent with STI prevention. The spermicidal activities of BERVL with different doses were assessed using selected high-motile sperms of normal human semen samples, and their inhibitory effects on Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined. The mechanism of the spermicidal activity was explored by aqueous Eosin Y and Hoechst 33342/PI staining. The results showed spermicidal activities and inhibitory effects of BERVL on Lactobacillus acidophilus were dose-dependent. Dose of 90 mg/mL BERVL terminated all progressive sperm motility within 2 min, and had slight inhibitory effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus, suggesting it was an effective and safe dose for contraception use. About 80% sperms exposed to BERVL displayed changes consistent with high permeability of head membrane. It is concluded that BERVL as spermicide has advantages over N-9 with strong ability to instantaneously kill human sperm and possesses light inhibitory effect on Lactobacillus acidophilus.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Chemistry , Adult , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fabaceae , Chemistry , Humans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Male , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Sperm Motility , Spermatocidal Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Spermatozoa , Physiology , Young Adult
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1569-1573, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299096

ABSTRACT

Nine compounds were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 95% ethanol extract of the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. with a combination of various chromatographic approaches, including MDS resin, silica gel, reverse phase C18 and preparative HPLC. On the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, they were elucidated as (1R, 4R, 10R)-1β, 4α-dihydroxy-11, 12, 13-trinor-5, 6-eudesmen-7-one (1), 1β, 4β-dihydroxy-11, 12, 13-trinor-8, 9-eudesmen-7-one (2), oxyphyllenone A (3), oxyphyllenone B (4), rhamnocitrin (5), staphylionoside D (6), benzyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1S)-phenylethylene glycol (8), and (S)-1-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (9). Among them, compound 1 is a new sesquiterpene, named as oxyphyllenone C; compounds 8 and 9 are new natural products; compounds 2 and 6 were isolated from the genus Alpinia for the first time, and compound 7 was isolated from A. oxyphylla for the first time.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Alpinia , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fruit , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Chemistry , Sesquiterpenes , Chemistry
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