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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887968

ABSTRACT

As an effective antipyretic medicine,Indigo Naturalis has a long history of application in the field of Chinese medicine.The content of organics,mainly indigo and indirubin,is about 10%. However,the active ingredients and mechanism of its antipyretic effect have not yet been fully elucidated. In view of this,they were investigated in this study with the rectal temperature change as an indicator and 2,4-dinitrophenol-induced fever rats as subjects. The content of PGE2 and c AMP in the hypothalamus and the serum levels of TNF-α,IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Moreover,the plasma samples of fever rats were analyzed by metabonomics in combination with UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for the exploration of potential biomarkers and the discussion on the antipyretic mechanism of Indigo Naturalis and its active ingredients. The results showed that the rising trend of rectal temperature in rats was suppressed 0. 5 h after the treatment with Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo or indirubin as compared with the rats of model group( P < 0. 05),among which Indigo Naturalis and organic matter had better antipyretic effect. ELISA results showed that organic matter and indigo can inhibit the expression of PGE2 and c AMP( P<0. 01),while Indigo Naturalis and organic matter were effective in curbing the increase in TNF-α( P<0. 05). A total of 21 endogenous metabolites were identified from the plasma samples of the Indigo Naturalis,organic matter,indigo and indirubin groups,which were mainly involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Animals , Antipyretics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Indigo Carmine , Indigofera , Rats
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(11): e6353, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888951

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the absorption mechanism of three curcumin constituents in rat small intestines. Self-emulsification was used to solubilize the three curcumin constituents, and the rat in situ intestinal perfusion method was used to study factors on drug absorption, including drug mass concentration, absorption site, and the different types and concentrations of absorption inhibitors. Within the scope of experimental concentrations, three curcumin constituents were absorbed in rat small intestines through the active transport mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic/pharmacology , Curcumin/analogs & derivatives , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Intestinal Absorption , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Uncoupling Agents/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology , Probenecid/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , 2,4-Dinitrophenol/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/chemistry , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/analysis , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Emulsions , Perfusion Imaging/methods , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestine, Small/drug effects
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-228234

ABSTRACT

Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) is considered the first-line therapy for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections, there is debate on the use of the bacteriostatic drug in serious infections, and recently, there has been an increasing occurrence of acquired resistance to TMP-SXT. In the present study, the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on the susceptibility of TMP-SXT and other antibiotics were investigated in S. maltophilia complex. The sul and/or dfrA genes were identified in only up to 27.8% of all 36 TMP-SXT-resistant S. maltophilia complex isolates. Thus, TMP-SXT resistance in S. maltophilia was not explained completely by the presence of sul and dfrA genes. Carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of TMP-SXT by eight to 128 folds in all 14 isolates. In contrast, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), and reserpine did not reduce the MIC of TMP-SXT. In addition to TMP-SXT, slight decrease in MICs was observed for tigecycline and piperacillin/tazobactam by CCCP (by two folds) in one isolate. Although efflux pump may play a role in TMP-SXT resistance in S. maltophilia, inhibition of the efflux pump could be done by active proton pore.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone , Korea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Protons , Reserpine , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Stenotrophomonas , Thiram , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296523

ABSTRACT

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), an organic compound which frequently used in industry, is considered to have high toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the early changes of lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with occupational 2,4-DNP poisoning. Totally 9 patients with acute occupational 2,4-DNP poisoning and 30 healthy volunteers as control were enrolled. The patients received immediately comprehensive supportive treatments, including large-dose glucocorticoid and repeated hemoperfusion (HP). The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were significantly higher in patients upon admission compared to healthy controls (P < 0.01); however, counts of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, B (CD19+), and natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+CD56+) were significantly reduced (all P < 0.001). The NK cell count was negatively correlated with initial plasma 2,4-DNP concentration (r = -0.750, P = 0.026). Thus, acute occupational 2,4-DNP poisoning was accompanied by immediate complex immune cell reactions, especially NK cells might play important role in severe 2,4-DNP poisoning.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Poisoning , Toxicity , Adult , China , Coloring Agents , Poisoning , Toxicity , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases , T-Lymphocytes
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135690

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives In drug resistant, especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used as second line drugs. However, the incidence of FQ-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rapidly increasing which may be due to extensive use of FQs in the treatment of various other diseases. The most important known mechanism i.e., gyrA mutation in FQ resistance is not observed in a significant proportion of FQ resistant M. tuberculosis isolates suggesting that the resistance may be because of other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump. In this study we evaluated the role of the efflux pumps in quinolone resistance by using various inhibitors such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil, in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Methods A total of 55 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates [45 ofloxacin (OFL) resistant and 10 ofloxacin sensitive] were tested by Resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) to observe the changes in ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels in presence of efflux inhibitors as compared to control (without efflux inhibitor). Results The MIC levels of OFL showed 2-8 folds reduction in presence of CCCP (16/45; 35.5%), verapamil (24/45; 53.3%) and DNP (21/45; 46.6%) while in case of isolates identified as OFL sensitive these did not show any effect on ofloxacin MICs. In 11 of 45 (24.5%) isolates change in MIC levels was observed with all the three inhibitors. Overall 30 (66.6%) isolates had reduction in OFL MIC after treatment with these inhibitors. A total of eight isolates were sequenced for gyrA gene, of which, seven (87.5%) showed known mutations. Of the eight sequenced isolates, seven (87.5%) showed 2 to 8 fold change in MIC in presence of efflux inhibitors. Interpretation & conclusions Our findings suggest the involvement of active efflux pumps of both Major Facilitator Super Family (MFS) family (inhibited by CCCP and DNP) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters (inhibited by verapamil) in the development of OFL resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates. Epidemiological significance of these findings needs to be determined in prospective studies with appropriate number of samples / isolates.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone/pharmacology , Computational Biology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity , Verapamil/pharmacology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the health risks for children exposed to phthalate through several pathways including house dust, surface wipes and hand wipes in child facilities and indoor playgrounds. METHODS: The indoor samples were collected from various children's facilities (40 playrooms, 42 daycare centers, 44 kindergartens, and 42 indoor-playgrounds) in both summer (Jul-Sep, 2007) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2008). Hazard index (HI) was estimated for the non-carcinogens and the examined phthalates were diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP). The present study examined these four kinds of samples, i.e., indoor dust, surface wipes of product and hand wipes. RESULTS: Among the phthalates, the detection rates of DEHP were 98% in dust samples, 100% in surface wipe samples, and 95% in hand wipe samples. In this study, phthalate levels obtained from floor dust, product surface and children's hand wipe samples were similar to or slightly less compared to previous studies. The 50th and 95th percentile value of child-sensitive materials did not exceed 1 (HI) for all subjects in all facilities. CONCLUSIONS: For DEHP, DnBP and BBzP their detection rates through multi-routes were high and their risk based on health risk assessment was also observed to be acceptable. This study suggested that ingestion and dermal exposure could be the most important pathway of phthalates besides digestion through food.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Child , Diethylhexyl Phthalate , Digestion , Dust , Eating , Floors and Floorcoverings , Hand , Humans , Phthalic Acids , Risk Assessment
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 953-956, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301166

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the enhancement effect and mechanism of sodium N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC--a kind of synthetic enhancer) to insulin (INS) solution in gastrointestine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>To determine the enhancement effect of SNAC on INS absorption by oral administration to rats and mice; To study the enhancement mechanism of SNAC by three kinds of methods: Delivering SNAC and INS solution to different parts of rats' intestines, adding energy inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil (Ver) into SNAC and INS solution.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SNAC was shown to enhance the gastrointestinal absorption of INS, the intensity of absorption enhancement corresponded to the doses of SNAC. The enhancement of SNAC to INS in different parts of the rat intestine was different (jejunum > colon > ileum). The effect of SNAC on INS absorption increased accordingly.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The enhancement of SNAC to INS absorption presented dose dependence on SNAC; the absorption process needed energy and related to P-gp efflux.</p>


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Pharmacology , Animals , Caprylates , Pharmacology , Colon , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ileum , Metabolism , Insulin , Metabolism , Intestinal Absorption , Jejunum , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Verapamil , Pharmacology
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 31-35, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308146

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the role of outer membrane protein (Omp) F-deficiency and active efflux in the accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin (CPLX) and lomefloxacin (LMLX) in resistant E. coli strains.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fluoroquinolone accumulation in bacteria and the effect of active efflux were measured by a fluorescence method. The outer membrane proteins of the bacteria were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). E. coli strains in this study included control strains JF701 and JF703 that are OmpC- or OmpF-deficient mutants of E. coli K-12, respectively, and the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain the fluoroquinolone susceptible strain of Escherichia coli (Ecs) and its in vitroselected resistant strains R2 and R256, and the clinical resistant isolates R5 and R6.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The steady-state accumulation concentration of each drug in Ecs appeared to be the same as in JF701, while in the OmpF-deficient strain JF703, it was 1/5 CPLX or 1/2 LMLX lower than that in JF701, but JF703 was still susceptible to fluoroquinolones. On the other hand, compared with susceptible strains, a 2- to 10-fold decrease in the accumulation of each drug was found in the resistant strains except R2, in which the accumulation was slightly higher than in JF703. After the addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), accumulation of each drug increased, especially in resistant strains, indicating that the function of the active efflux (pump) system in these bacteria had been enhanced dramatically. Furthermore, both OmpF and OmpC in Ecs, OmpF-deficiency in R2 and R256 and OmpC-deficiency in R5 and R6 were observed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The decreased accumulation of hydrophilic fluoroquinolones in E. coli involved OmpF-deficiency and active efflux (pump), and the latter may be an important factor.</p>


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Metabolism , Fluoroquinolones , Porins , Physiology , Quinolones , Metabolism , Pharmacology
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2000 Dec; 37(6): 491-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-26588

ABSTRACT

It is shown that dinoseb, added to subchloroplast photosystem-II (PS-II) preparations from pea at a concentration higher than 5 microM, along with blocking the electron transfer on the acceptor side of PS-II, induces the following effects revealing its capability to have redox interaction with the components of PS-II reaction center (RC)-pheophytin (Pheo) and chlorophyll P680: (1) acceleration of the dark relaxation of absorbance (delta A) and chlorophyll fluorescence (delta F) changes related to photoreduction of Pheo as a result of the photoreaction [P680Pheo] [symbol: see text] [P680Pheo-] that leads to elimination of the delta A and delta F at a concentration of the inhibitor higher than 50 microM; (2) lowering of the maximum level of fluorescence (F) due to a decrease of delta F under the condition when the electron acceptor, QA, is reduced; (3) loss of the described effects of dinoseb and appearance of its capability to donate electron to RC of PS-II in the presence of dithionite which reduces dinoseb in the dark; (4) inhibition of delta A related to photooxidation of P680; (5) activation of delta A related to photooxidation P700 in photosystem-I (PS-I) preparations (a similar effect is observed upon the addition of 0.2 mM methylviologen). It is suggested that redox interaction with the pair [P680+Pheo-] leading to the shortening of its life-time contributes to the general effect of inhibition of electron transfer in PS-II by dinoseb.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol/analogs & derivatives , Electron Transport/drug effects , Herbicides/pharmacology , Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes , Peas/metabolism , Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins/metabolism , Photosystem I Protein Complex , Photosystem II Protein Complex
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728244

ABSTRACT

To explore whether Cl- channel blockers interact with the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel, I have examined the effect of two common Cl- channel blockers on the KATP channel activity in isolated rat ventricular myocytes using patch clamp techniques. In inside-out patches, 4,4'-diisothio-cyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and niflumic acid applied to bath solution inhibited the KATP channel activity in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 of 0.24 and 927 muM, respectively. The inhibitory action of DIDS was irreversible whereas that of niflumic acid was reversible. Furthermore, DIDS-induced block was not recovered despite exposure to ATP (1 mM). In cell-attached and inside-out patches, DIDS blocked the pinacidil- or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-induced KATP channel openings. In contrast, niflumic acid did not block the pinacidil-induced KATP channel openings in inside-out patches, but inhibited it in cell-attached patches. DIDS and niflumic acid produced additional block in the presence of ATP and did not affect current-voltage relationship and channel kinetics. All these results indicate that DIDS among Cl- channel blockers specifically blocks the cardiac KATP channel.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , 4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Baths , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Kinetics , Muscle Cells , Niflumic Acid , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Rats
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Apr; 27(4): 317-23
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56590

ABSTRACT

The sequence of post-metaphase mitotic events, such as anaphase movement A and B, chromosome decondensation, nuclear envelope reformation and cytokinesis, has been studied in 2,4-initrophenol (DNP)-treated HeLa cells. The effects of DNP were found to be dose dependent and at concentrations higher than 3 mM, both anaphase A and B movements were totally and nearly instantaneously arrested. It could be shown that cytokinesis did not depend on the completion of anaphase movements. This was also true for nuclear envelope reformation which could take place even around condensed chromosomes arrested in anaphase. The post-metaphase mitotic events do not follow a strict causal sequence, but they can be dissociated from each other in anaphase-arrested cells.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Anaphase/drug effects , Animals , Cell Division/drug effects , Chromosomes/drug effects , Dinitrophenols/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HeLa Cells , Humans , Metaphase/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron , Microtubules/ultrastructure , Mitosis/drug effects , Nuclear Envelope/drug effects
12.
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1989 Jan-Mar; 33(1): 28-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106980

ABSTRACT

In this work abroagation of anti-inflammatory effect of Picrorhiza kurroa extract (PK) by beta-adrenergic blockade was confirmed, which suggests alteration in cell-surface biology by PK treatment. Blockade of protein synthesis by cycloheximide pretreatment reduced PK effect, suggesting protein mediation. Metabolic inhibitor dinitrophenol inhibited inflammatory cedema equally in control and PK treated animals, and masking of PK effect was concluded. Discriminations of anti-inflammatory mechanism(s) of PK and the latter two cytotoxic agents was inferred from these observations and from existing knowledge. Selective PK influence on membrane linked activation events in inflammatory effector cells could be the basis of anti-inflammatory and perhaps other biological activities reported with the herb.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cycloheximide/pharmacology , Dinitrophenols/pharmacology , Edema/physiopathology , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/drug effects , Timolol/pharmacology
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