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1.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e505, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280325

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia oportunista asociada a la inmunodepresión causada por VIH, que se relaciona con la infección por VHH tipo 8. Objetivo: Describir la presentación del sarcoma de Kaposi en personas que viven con VIH en Guinea Ecuatorial. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de carácter retrospectivo para identificar la prevalencia y las características epidemiológicas y clínicas del sarcoma de Kaposi en las personas que viven con VIH que acuden a las unidades de referencia para el manejo de casos en Guinea Ecuatorial. Se revisaron las historias clínicas de una muestra aleatoria y representativa de 338 pacientes del grupo que ha recibido tratamiento en las unidades de referencia para enfermedades infecciosas de Bata, desde enero de 2007 a febrero de 2012. Resultados: Se identificaron 40 pacientes diagnosticados de sarcoma de Kaposi (prevalencia del 11, 83 por ciento). La mediana de la edad al diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi fue de 43 años, siendo la ratio del sexo de 1/1. La media de linfocitos CD4 al diagnóstico fue de 166 (rango 21-375) y la frecuencia de afectación oral fue de 45 por ciento. En la mayoría de los pacientes (94,6 por ciento) la observación del sarcoma de Kaposi fue anterior al inicio del tratamiento antirretroviral. Las cifras de linfocitos T CD4/mm3 inferiores a 100 aparecían sobre todo en pacientes menores de 30 años, y esto era especialmente frecuente en el grupo de mujeres (OR 11, p <0,04, Ic 95 por ciento 0,8-148). Conclusiones: El sarcoma de Kaposi es una neoplasia prevalente en personas que viven con VIH seguidas en las unidades de referencia en Guinea Ecuatorial. En mujeres menores de 30 años podría existir un diagnóstico tardío(AU)


Introduction: Kaposi sarcoma is an opportunistic neoplasm associated to the immunosuppression caused by HIV and related to infection by HHV-8. Objective: Describe the presentation of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV in Equatorial Guinea. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to identify the prevalence and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Kaposi sarcoma in people living with HIV attending reference units for the management of cases in Equatorial Guinea. A review was carried out of the medical records of a random sample representative of 338 patients from the group receiving treatment at Bata reference unit for infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2012. Results: A total 40 patients diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma were identified (prevalence of 11,83 percent). Mean age at Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis was 43 years, with a 1/1 sex ratio. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 166 (range 21-375), whereas the frequency of oral damage was 45 percent. In most patients (94.6 percent) detection of Kaposi sarcoma was prior to the start of antiretroviral therapy. CD4 T lymphocyte levels / mm3 below 100 were mainly found in patients aged under 30 years, a fact particularly frequent among women (OR 11, p< 0.04, CI 95% 0.8-148). Conclusions: Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm prevailing in people living with HIV who attend reference units in Equatorial Guinea. Late diagnosis could exist among women aged under 30 years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , HIV/pathogenicity , Herpesvirus 8, Human/growth & development , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Equatorial Guinea , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
3.
Medwave ; 20(1): e7767, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087871

ABSTRACT

Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, a rare manifestation of Kaposi's sarcoma, is a progressive cutaneous hypertrophy caused by chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to obstruction of the lymphatic system that can lead to severe disfigurement of parts of the body that have gravity-dependent blood flow, due to edema, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, especially lower extremities. Among the various conditions that can induce chronic lymphedema are tumors, trauma, radiotherapy, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic venous stasis, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor associated with the presence of human gammaherpesvirus 8 that is predominantly cutaneous, locally aggressive, with metastasis, and is associated with the production of factors that favor inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, and lymphedema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Elephantiasis/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Didanosine/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Elephantiasis/etiology , Elephantiasis/pathology , Alkynes
4.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 378-381, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975599

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Numerous studies have evaluated auditory functions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients; however, these studies had a few major limitations in terms of methodology as they used mainly evoked audiometry although this method is expensive, time consuming and not widely available. Therefore, we conducted a study in naïve HIV subjects with routine audiometry. Objective To determine the effect of HIV and of the drugs used to treat it on the auditory functions. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted in a medical college with 25 naive HIV-seropositive patients for over a year. Pure tone audiometry (250-8,000 Hz) and CD4 T-lymphocyte count were performed at the time of enrollment and 6 months after commencement of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Results The subjects had increased hearing thresholds at high frequencies (4 KHz and 8KHz) in both ears at the time of enrollment that persisted at the same level (p > 0.05) on follow-up at 6 months. None of the subjects had any other otological symptom during the 6 months of observation. Seven subjects had sensorineural hearing loss in one or both ears at 0 and 6 months. These observations did not show any significant difference on Wilcoxon-signed-rank test. Spearman correlation did not find a significant correlation (p > 0.05) between CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and pure tone audiometry during the study. Conclusion We found high-frequency hearing loss in all subjects with no relation with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and severity of the disease. This study advocates hearing assessment with pure tone audiometry in HIV subjects so that intervention can be initiated in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/adverse effects , Hearing Loss/etiology , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , CD4 Lymphocyte Count
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018028, Apr.-May 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905529

ABSTRACT

In the advanced stage of AIDS, the diagnosis of the opportunistic infections may be challenging due to the high risk of performing invasive diagnostic methods in a patient with a critical clinical condition, as well as the correct interpretation of the results of microbiological exams. One of the challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of the opportunistic infections is that they may occur concomitantly in the same patient and they may mimic each other, leading to a high discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man who was hospitalized because of weight loss, anemia, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. During the investigation, the diagnosis of AIDS was made, and the patient developed respiratory failure and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was found, affecting mainly the organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Also, severe and diffuse pneumonia caused by multiple agents (Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, suppurative bacterial infection, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, and cytomegalovirus) was seen in a morphological pattern that could be called "collision pneumonia." The lesson from this case, revealed by the autopsy, is that in advanced AIDS, patients often have multiple opportunistic infections, so the principle of Ockham's razor­that a single diagnosis is most likely the best diagnosis­fails in this clinical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Histoplasmosis/complications , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , Pneumocystis Infections/complications
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(1): e2018012, Jan.-Mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905427

ABSTRACT

Extracerebral toxoplasmosis, with pulmonary involvement and shock, is a rare form of toxoplasmosis in patients with advanced AIDS. It can mimic pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, and disseminated tuberculosis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of respiratory failure and fulminant disease in this group of individuals, especially in areas where the Toxoplasma gondii infection is highly prevalent and in those without proper use of antimicrobial prophylaxis. We report the case of a 46-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with uremia, requiring urgent dialysis. During the laboratorial investigation, the patient had confirmed HIV infection, with a low CD4+ peripheral T-cell count (74 cells/µL). During hospitalization, the patient presented drug-induced hepatitis due to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in a prophylactic dose, requiring interruption of this medication. On the 55th day of hospitalization, the patient developed refractory shock and died. At the autopsy, disseminated toxoplasmosis with encephalitis and severe necrotizing pneumonia were diagnosed, with numerous tachyzoites in the areas of pulmonary necrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Infectious Encephalitis/complications , Pneumonia/complications , Shock/complications , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/complications , Autopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/pathology
7.
Prensa méd. argent ; 103(7): 389-393, 20170000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1372348

ABSTRACT

La trombosis auricular masiva impide el pasaje de la sangre a través del orificio mitral Un paciente de 39 años de edad, HIV positivo, con diagnóstico previo de criptococosis meníngea cumplía tratamiento antifúngico con fluconazol por vía oral, consulta por mialgias y dolor cervical. Fallece repentinamente 24 horas después de su internación. La necropsia determinó la presencia de una trombosis biauricular masiva. La criptococosis meníngea es una infección oportunista que se presenta en pacientes HIV positivos con inmunodeficiencia avanzada. Clínicamente se manifiesta por un síndrome meníngeo, por lo general incompleto, o sólo con persistencia de fiebre y cefalea, sin signos meníngeos. La letalidad de la criptococosis meníngea es elevada. La causa del fallecimiento obedece a una enfermedad no relacionada con el sida


Massive atrial thrombosis prevents passage of blood through the mitral orifice. A 39-year-old HIV-positive patient with previous diagnosis of meningeal cryptococcosis and receiving antifungal treatment with oral fluconazole, consults for myalgias and neck pain and dies suddenly 24 hours after admission. Necropsy determined the presence of massive biauricular thrombosis. Meningeal cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that occurs in HIV-positive patients with severe immunodeficiency. Clinically it is manifested by an incomplete meningeal syndrome, or only with persistence of fever and headache, without meningeal signs. The lethality of meningeal cryptococcosis is high. The cause of the death is due to a disease not related to AIDS


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Autopsy , Thrombosis/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 347-351, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por Cystoisospora belli es una de las causas más frecuentes de diarrea acuosa en pacientes con infección por VIH y ocasiona altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en pacientes infectados con VIH y diarrea por C. belli. Características clínicas y de laboratorio fueron recolectadas mediante el análisis de historias clínicas. Resultados: Se identificaron siete casos. Cuatro presentaron diarrea recurrente a pesar de recibir profilaxis secundaria con cotrimoxazol y tratamiento específico, dos de los cuales tuvieron buena respuesta viral e inmunológica al tratamiento anti-retroviral de gran actividad (TARGA) al momento del diagnóstico y tratamiento antiparasitario. Mientras que, los tres restantes no recibían profilaxis, tampoco TARGA (dos de ellos), pero respondieron bien al tratamiento. Conclusiones: C. belli es causa importante de diarrea en pacientes VIH con TARGA y profilaxis, pudiendo tener distinta evolución clínica. Sugerimos que la infección persistente puede ser debido al fallo farmacológico por causas intrínsecas o extrínsecas al parásito, o a defectos en la restauración del sistema inmune intestinal, o ambos.


Introduction: Cystoisospora belli infection is one of the most important causes of watery diarrhea in patients with HIV and causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HIV and diarrhea by C. belli. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected by analyzing clinical records. Results: Four had recurrent diarrhea despite receiving secondary prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and specific treatment, two of which had a good viral and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of diagnosis and antiparasitic treatment. While the remaining three did not receive prophylaxis, neither did HAART (two of them), but they responded well to treatment. Conclusions: C. belli is an important cause of diarrhea in HIV patients on HAART and prophylaxis, being able to have different clinical evolution. We suggest that persistent infection may be due to drug failure by intrinsic or extrinsic to the parasite causes, or to defects in restoration of the intestinal immune system, or both.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coccidiosis/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Sarcocystidae/microbiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Peru , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Diarrhea/etiology
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 393-396, ago. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899731

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tuberculosis (TBC) gastrointestinal es una complicación infrecuente y fatal en pacientes con infección por VIH. Se presenta en 3-16% de las formas extrapulmonares y su principal localización es la válvula ileocecal y colon. La hemorragia digestiva baja con presencia de una o múltiples úlceras en colon es una presentación muy inusual de TBC intestinal. El diagnóstico se confirma por biopsia y cultivo del tejido intestinal. La cirugía en caso de perforación intestinal sigue siendo el tratamiento de elección. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con infección por VIH, sin tratamiento anti-retroviral, quien desarrolló una TBC diseminada con perforación intestinal y hemorragia digestiva masiva de curso fatal.


Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a rare and fatal complication in patients with HIV infection. It occurs in 3%-16% of extra pulmonary forms. The main location in 90% of cases is the ileocecal valve and colon. The most unusual presentation of gastrointestinal tuberculosis is massive bleeding with the presence of one or multiple ulcers in the colon. The diagnosis can be confirmed by biopsy and by culture of intestinal tissue. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice. We report a case of a HIV-infected patient, who did not receive antiretrovirals, and who developed disseminated tuberculosis with intestinal perforation, presenting a fatal massive intestinal bleeding.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 116-118, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839187

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 37-year-old man with AIDS presented with altered mental status four weeks after stopping his medications for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). He had low CD4 cell count and severe hypercalcemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed bone marrow infiltration by granulomas positive for acid-fast bacilli and cultures grew MAI. His hypercalcemia continued to worsen with the initiation of MAI therapy but we were able to treat it successfully with pamidronate and calcitonin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Hypercalcemia/microbiology , Hypercalcemia/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow/microbiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mycobacterium avium Complex/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(9): e6392, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888998

ABSTRACT

Mortality and adverse neurologic sequelae from HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (HIV-CM) remains high due to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) complications. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) high opening pressure occurs in more than 50% of HIV-CM patients. Repeated lumbar puncture with CSF drainage and external lumbar drainage might be required in the management of these patients. Usually, there is a high grade of uncertainty and the basis for clinical decisions regarding ICP hypertension tends to be from clinical findings (headache, nausea and vomiting), a low Glasgow coma scale score, and/or fundoscopic papilledema. Significant neurological decline can occur if elevated CSF pressures are inadequately managed. Various treatment strategies to address intracranial hypertension in this setting have been described, including: medical management, serial lumbar punctures, external lumbar and ventricular drain placement, and either ventricular or lumbar shunting. This study aims to evaluate the role of a non-invasive intracranial pressure (ICP-NI) monitoring in a critically ill HIV-CM patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Neurophysiological Monitoring/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Neurophysiological Monitoring/methods
12.
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 20(1): 1-16, ene.-mar. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-986257

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Guatemala el primer caso de VIH fue notificado en el año de 1984, desde entonces la curva de casos ha presentado tendencia ascendente, con estabilización incipiente en los últimos años, el país con una epidemia de tipo concentrada. Objetivos: Caracterizar la mortalidad por VIH en Guatemala durante el período 2005-2013. Método: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal. Para el análisis de mortalidad, los indicadores y el cálculo de AVPP por VIH/sida se utilizaron las bases de datos de mortalidad y proyecciones de población del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). Se consideraron para el procesamiento los códigos de los Grupos de B-20 a B-24 de la CIE -10...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Mortality/trends , HIV , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Guatemala/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 531-535, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-770117

ABSTRACT

The reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV infected patients presents high mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a female patient with confirmed Chagasic meningoencephalitis as AIDS-defining illness. Interestingly, her TCD4+ lymphocyte cell count was 318 cells/mm3. After two months of induction therapy, one year of maintenance with benznidazol, and early introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient had good clinical, parasitological and radiological evolution. We used a qualitative polymerase chain reaction for the monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia during and after the treatment. We emphasize the potential value of molecular techniques along with clinical and radiological parameters in the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease and HIV infection. Early introduction of HAART, prolonged induction and maintenance of antiparasitic therapy, and its discontinuation are feasible, in the current management of reactivation of Chagas disease.


A reativação da doença de Chagas em pacientes com a infecção pelo HIV apresenta uma alta morbidade e mortalidade. Neste relato, apresentamos caso confirmado de meningoencefalite chagásica, como doença definidora de aids, em paciente com 318 linfócitos T-CD4+/mm3. Após 2 meses de tratamento seguido de um ano de profilaxia secundária com benzonidazol e início precoce de terapia antirretroviral (HAART), a paciente apresentou boa evolução clínica, parasitológica e radiológica. Utilizamos a reação em cadeia da polimerase qualitativa do T. cruzi, para monitorização da parasitemia por T. cruzi durante e após o tratamento. Ressaltamos o valor potencial das técnicas moleculares associadas aos parâmetros clínicos e radiológicos nos pacientes com doença de Chagas e infecção pelo HIV. A introdução precoce da terapia antirretroviral, a terapia antiparasitária prolongada, manutenção e descontinuação da mesma, são desafios atuais, embora possíveis, no manejo da reativação da doença de Chagas na era das terapias antirretrovirais de alta eficácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Chagas Disease/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Meningoencephalitis , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/parasitology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Chagas Disease/virology , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/parasitology , Meningoencephalitis , Meningoencephalitis/virology , Secondary Prevention/methods , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 365-367, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761161

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYIntroduction: We present a fatal case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a young man whose diagnosis of HIV infection was made at the time of admission to the emergency room.Case report: The patient was a twenty-three-year-old man, with a history of daily fever during one month associated with diarrhea, weight loss, headache, vomiting and generalized seizures. He also had a history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and drug addiction. Upon physical examination the patient was pale, disoriented and had periods of agitation. White blood cells count was 3,440/mm3 (5% lymphocytes), hemoglobin was 10g/dL, platelets were 83,000/ mm3. Creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL; urea 19 mg/dL; Na, K, and liver enzymes were within normal limits. Lactic dehydrogenase was 494 IU/L. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 10 white blood cells/mm3 (58% neutrophils, 31% lymphocytes, 11% monocytes) and 2 red blood cells/mm3. India ink test revealed six Cryptococcusyeasts/mm3. CSF glucose was 122 mg/dL and protein was 36 mg/ dL. VDRL test was negative and anti-HIV test was positive. Intravenous hydration, insulin, phenytoin, fluconazole, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, folinic acid, and amphotericin B were started. The patient did not improve and became obtunded and hypotensive. He was intubated and put on mechanical respiration. He received vasoactive drugs and died less than 24 hours after admission. A postmortem examination was performed and revealed disseminated cryptococcosis, with severe involvement of the kidneys.Conclusion:Cryptococcosis, as a rule, is a systemic disease that affects mostly immunocompromised individuals, especially patients with AIDS. When diagnosed late in its course it has a very high mortality.


RESUMOIntrodução: Apresentamos um caso fatal de criptococose disseminada em homem jovem cujo diagnóstico de HIV foi feito no momento da admissão na emergência.Relato de caso: O paciente, de 23 anos, sexo masculino, tinha história de febre diária de um mês de duração, associada à diarreia, perda de peso, cefaleia, vômitos e convulsões generalizadas. Tinha ainda história de diabetes mellitus, alcoolismo e drogadição. Ao exame físico havia palidez, desorientação e períodos de agitação. Os exames laboratoriais mostraram 3.440 leucócitos/mm3(5% linfócitos), hemoglobina de 10 g/dL, 83,000 plaquetas/mm3, creatinina de 0,7mg/dL, ureia de 19 mg/dL, Na, K e enzimas hepáticas dentro dos limites da normalidade. A lactato desidrogenase era 494 UI/L. Análise do líquor revelou 10 leucócitos/mm3 (58% neutrófilos, 31% linfócitos, 11% monócitos) e 2 hemácias/mm3, glicose de 122 mg/dL e proteína de 36 mg/dL. A análise com tinta da Índia revelou seis blastoconídeos de Cryptococcus/mm³. O VDRL foi negativo e o anti-HIV positivo. Foi iniciado tratamento com hidratação venosa, insulina, fenitoína, fluconazol, pirimetamina, sulfadiazina, ácido folínico e anfotericina B. O paciente não apresentou melhora e evoluiu com obnubilação e hipotensão, sendo intubado e iniciada ventilação mecânica. Foram administradas drogas vasoativas, e o paciente evoluiu a óbito menos de 24h após a admissão. A autópsia revelou criptococose disseminada, com grave envolvimento renal.Conclusão:A criptococose é via-de-regra, doença sistêmica que afeta principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos, especialmente com AIDS, e quando diagnosticada tardiamente apresenta alta mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Cryptococcosis/complications , Kidney Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Kidney Diseases/pathology
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(3): 478-480, May-Jun/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711600

ABSTRACT

A case of abscess resulting from Mycobacterium kansasii, in the left thigh of a 53-year-old woman infected with the Human Immunodeficiency virus, is reported. Curiously, there was no pulmonary or systemic involvement as is usual with these Mycobacterium infections. The patient had CD4 T lymphocyte count of 257 cells/µL and a viral load of 60,154 copies. Despite presenting a relatively preserved immunity, the patient also presented Criptococcic meningoencephalitis and Esophageal candidiasis. The patient responded satisfactorily to treatment for infections and after 51 days was discharged.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Abscess/microbiology , Mycobacterium kansasii , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Abscess/diagnosis , Abscess/drug therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Thigh , Treatment Outcome
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(2): 130-132, abr. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708595

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de reconstitución inmune es un conjunto de fenómenos inflamatorios agudos, que se producen como consecuencia de la recuperación de la inmunidad, generando un empeoramiento paradójico de una infección o de un proceso inflamatorio previo. En los pacientes infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana este síndrome se produce luego de iniciado el tratamiento antirretroviral. Las infecciones más frecuentes asociadas a esta entidad son las producidas por micobacterias, herpes, criptococosis, hepatitis B, citomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii y el empeoramiento de la leucoencenfalopatía multifocal progresiva por el virus JC. Presentamos un paciente con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana que desarrolló el síndrome de reconstitución inmune por Pneumocystis jirovecii.


Immune reconstitution syndrome is a set of acute inflammatory phenomena that occur as a result of restored immunity generating a paradoxical worsening of a prior infection or an inflammatory process. This syndrome occurs in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients after starting antiretroviral treatment. The most frequent associated infections are those produced by mycobacteria, herpes, cryptococcosis, hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jirovecii and worsening of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy secondary to JC virus. We present the case of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus who developed the immune reconstitution syndrome secondary to Pneumocystis jirovecii.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/microbiology , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/microbiology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 111-113, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666807

ABSTRACT

Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic nematode to tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. The parasite is capable of autoinfection, which is limited by an intact immune response. In immunocompromised hosts, hyperinfection and dissemination can occur and have a high index of mortality. A hyperinfection syndrome with dissemination is frequently associated with corticosteroid administration and other conditions (malignancies and organ transplantation). Interestingly, although strongyloidiasis is common among AIDS patients in endemic areas, the hyperinfection syndrome is rarely noted. We report here on a rare manifestation of fulminant gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to hyperinfection of strongyloidiasis in a female drug-abusing, alcoholic HIV/AIDS patient.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/parasitology , Strongyloides stercoralis , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Superinfection/parasitology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(6): 558-563, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-658927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are no reports on hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) involved in the course of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). The main objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hyponatremia and its relationship with AKI and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with HIV-related TE. AKI was considered only when the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage) criterion was met, after the patient was admitted. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included, with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years. Hyponatremia at admission was observed in 43 patients (46.7%), with AKI developing in 25 (27.1%) patients during their hospitalization. Sulfadiazine was the treatment of choice in 81% of the cases. Death occurred in 13 cases (14.1%). Low serum sodium level correlated directly with AKI and mortality. Male gender (OR 7.89, 95% CI 1.22-50.90, p = 0.03) and hyponatremia at admission (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.22-18.30, p = 0.02) were predictors for AKI. Independent risk factors for death were AKI (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.2, p < 0.0001) and hyponatremia (or 9.9, 95% ci 1.2-96.3, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: AKI and hyponatremia are frequent in TE. Hyponatremia on admission is highly associated with AKI and mortality.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hyponatremia/etiology , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hyponatremia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral/mortality
20.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 6(4): 17-20, ene.-jun. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835532

ABSTRACT

El artículo presenta los pasos de orientación que debe dársele al usuario en el momento de realizar una prueba para la detección del VIH y SIDA, ya sea ésta positiva o negativa. Las personas que realizan las orientaciones deben prepararse emocionalmente antes de iniciar cualquier proceso de orientación para responder a las necesidades de información que el ususario necesite.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Sexual Behavior , Patient Escort Service/psychology
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