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Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1121320


Difficulties in confirming and discriminating human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 infections by serological Western blot (WB) assays (HTLV Blot 2.4; MP Biomedicals) have been reported in Brazil, mainly in HIV/AIDS patients, with a large number of WB-indeterminate and WB-positive but HTLV-untypeable results. Nonetheless, a line immunoassay (LIA) (INNO-LIA HTLV-I/II; Fujirebio) provided enhanced specificity and sensitivity for confirming HTLV-1/2 infections. To add information concerning the improved ability of the LIA in relation to WB when applied to samples of individuals from different risk groups from Brazil, we performed the present study. Three groups were analyzed group 1 (G1), with 62 samples from HIV/AIDS patients from São Paulo, SP (48 WB indeterminate and 14 HTLV untypeable); group 2 (G2), with 24 samples from patients with hepatitis B or hepatitis C from São Paulo (21 WB indeterminate and 3 HTLV untypeable; 17 HIV seropositive); and group 3 (G3), with 25 samples from an HTLV outpatient clinic in Salvador, Bahia (16 WB indeterminate and 9 HTLV untypeable; all HIV seronegative). Overall, the LIA confirmed HTLV-1/2 infection (HTLV-1, HTLV-2, or HTLV) in 66.1% (G1), 83.3% (G2), and 76.0% (G3) of samples. Interestingly, the majority of WB-indeterminate results were confirmed by the LIA as being HTLV-2 positive in G1 and G2 but not in G3, in which the samples were defined as being HTLV-1 or HTLV positive. These results agree with the virus types that circulate in such patients of different regions in Brazil and emphasize that the LIA is the bes

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , Hepatitis C , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Hepatitis B , Immunoassay , Blotting, Western , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coinfection
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180204, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003128


Abstract Cystoisospora belli infection manifests as diarrhea, and can potentially progress to malabsorption in HIV patients. Here, we report a case of C. belli infection in an HIV/AIDS patient with chronic diarrhea symptoms for at least 2 years. Coproscopic analyses based on direct technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique without a commercial kit were performed. The current case report highlights the protocol to be adopted in coproscopic analyses applied to HIV patients. The importance of including the appropriate parasitological testing of patients with chronic intestinal isosporiasis in parasitological test routines must be considered.

Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Isosporiasis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Isospora/isolation & purification , Chronic Disease , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Isosporiasis/diagnosis , Isospora/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180457, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041557


Abstract INTRODUCTION: We defined the cut-off values of the antigenemia and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA tests in HIV/AIDS patients to identify CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 97 samples from 68 patients with and without CMV disease were analyzed by viral DNA detection and antigenemia assay. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative results significantly differed between assays. The cut-off values for the antigenemia and qPCR assays were 1.5 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes and 3.715 log/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Antigenemia and qPCR are suitable for monitoring CMV disease in HIV patients, however, the threshold values should be determined within the centers where the patients are monitored.

Humans , DNA, Viral/analysis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antigens, Viral/blood
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 861-863, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977098


Abstract Cysticercosis is caused by the hematogenous dissemination of the larval form (cysticercus) of Taenia solium. It can affect any organ or tissue in the body but commonly affects the subcutaneous tissue, central nervous system, eyes, and skeletal muscle. Skin lesions can assist as a marker in the diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in endemic areas. A 49-year-old HIV positive man presented with multiple cutaneous nodules confirmed as cysticercomas which led to the diagnosis of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis. He was successfully treated with albendazole and steroids at recommended doses with no adverse effects.

Humans , Male , Cysticercosis/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Cysticercosis/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Albendazole/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/ethnology , Neurocysticercosis/drug therapy , Neurocysticercosis/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Tissue/parasitology , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 479-484, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957451


Abstract INTRODUCTION: In many settings, the lack of sensitive biomarkers of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) leads to a clinical reliance on older diagnostic methods and delayed treatment initiation. The early recognition of DH is critical for survival, especially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study aimed to identify clinical and laboratory findings associated with the definitive diagnosis of DH in low-income HIV patients in endemic areas. METHODS: Febrile AIDS patients with suspected DH who were admitted to a reference hospital in northeastern Brazil from January 2006 to January 2007 were evaluated for clinical and laboratory findings associated with DH diagnosis. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients with fever were included, and 48 (41%) cases of DH were determined by Histoplasma capsulatum identification. A higher fever (≥38.5ºC), maculopapular/papular rash, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, wheezing, hemoglobin ≤9.5g/dL, platelets ≤80,000/µL, CD4 count ≤75/µL, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level ≥2.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥5times the ULN; and international normalized ratio (INR) >2 times the ULN were significantly associated with DH. A multivariable analysis identified hepatomegaly [adjusted (a) prevalence ratio (PR)= 1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-3.16), CD4 count ≤75/µL (aPR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.06-3.83), LDH ≥5 times the ULN (aPR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44-3.48), and maculopapular/papular rash (aPR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.02-2.83) were independent risk factors for DH. CONCLUSIONS: These easily assessed parameters can facilitate clinical decision-making for febrile AIDS patients with suspected DH in low socioeconomic and Histoplasma-endemic regions.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Fever/microbiology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Histoplasmosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467


Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 207-210, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954980


Desde 2003, en los países desarrollados han aumentado las comunicaciones sobre casos de linfogranuloma venéreo con cuadros clínicos diferentes de la forma inguinal clásica. Las presentaciones anorrectales, hasta hace poco atípicas, predominan en hombres infectados por HIV que tienen sexo con hombres. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar sobre la presencia de esta infección en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y describir sus variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el contexto de una pesquisa sistemática de la infección rectal por clamidias, en apenas un trimestre fueron identificados ocho casos de linfogranuloma venéreo por Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV en hombres HIV positivos que tienen sexo con hombres. Las manifestaciones anorrectales más frecuentes fueron pujo, tenesmo, urgencia evacuatoria y secreción mucosa o hemopurulenta. En su mayoría presentaban proctitis leve o moderada, acompañada en algunos casos de lesiones perianales. Dados el polimorfismo y la inespecificidad de las manifestaciones clínicas del linfogranuloma venéreo rectal, se advierte sobre la circulación de esta infección en nuestro medio. En caso de detectar Chlamydia trachomatis, es importante genotipificarla para el correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad y también para su vigilancia epidemiológica. Si la genotipificación no es posible, se debe considerar el caso como producido por el biovar LGV y aplicar el tratamiento correspondiente.

From 2003 to date there has been a rising number of reports from developed countries on cases of lymphogranuloma venereum with anorectal localization in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. This localization differs from the classical inguinal abscesses which are typical of the disease in the tropics. The objective of this work is to document the presence of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in Buenos Aires and to describe its varied clinical manifestations. In the context of a systematic survey of rectal chlamydial infection, in just one trimester, eight cases of lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV were identified in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. The most frequent anorectal manifestations were pus, tenesmus, rectal urgency, and mucous or haemopurulent discharge. The proctitis was mostly mild or moderate and, in some cases, it was accompanied by perianal lesions. Given the great polymorphism and unspecificity of the clinical manifestations of the disease, we warn on the presence of this form of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in our setting. If Chlamydia trachomatis is detected, it should be genotyped, not only for the correct diagnosis and treatment but also for epidemiological surveillance. Where genotyping is not available, the disease must be considered as caused by the LGV biovar and treated accordingly.

Humans , Male , Adult , Proctitis/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Polymorphism, Genetic , Proctitis/microbiology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/microbiology , Prospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 167-172, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894906


BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America and the leading fungal cause of mortality in non-immunosuppressed individuals in Brazil. However, HIV/PCM co-infection can increase the clinical severity in these co-infected patients. This co-infection is rarely reported in the literature mainly because of the different epidemiological profiles of these infections. Furthermore, PCM is a neglected and non-notifiable disease, which may underestimate the real importance of this disease. The advent of molecular studies on the species of the genus Paracoccidioides has expanded the knowledge regarding the severity and the clinical spectrum in PCM. In this context, the development of studies to describe the association of the Paracoccidioides phylogenetic cryptic species in vulnerable populations, such as HIV-infected patients, appears relevant. OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects in HIV/PCM co-infected patients, along with the molecular identification of the Paracoccidioides species involved in these cases. METHODS The investigators performed a molecular and clinical retrospective study involving HIV/PCM co-infected patients, from a reference centre for PCM care in the endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2015. Molecular identification of the fungal strains was done by amplification of partial sequences of arf and gp43 genes. FINDINGS Of 89 patients diagnosed with PCM by fungal isolation in the culture, a viable isolate was recovered for molecular analysis from 44 patients. Of these 44 patients, 28 (63.6%) had their serum samples submitted for enzyme immunoassay tests for screening of HIV antibodies, and 5 (17.9%) had a positive result. All cases were considered severe, with a variable clinical presentation, including mixed, acute/subacute clinical forms and a high rate of complications, requiring combination therapy. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1 was the species identified in all cases. CONCLUSIONS HIV/PCM co-infection can change the natural history of this fungal disease. The authors reinforce the need to include HIV screening diagnostic tests routinely for patients with PCM.

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 92-98, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951638


ABSTRACT Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis is the most severe form of disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worse outcomes occur among HIV-positive individuals coinfected with Leishmania. It is unclear, however, if there are significant differences on presentation between Visceral Leishmaniasis patients with or without HIV coinfection. Methods: We reviewed medical records from adult patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis treated at a reference healthcare center in Fortaleza - Ceará, Brazil, from July 2010 to December 2013. Data from HIV-coinfected patients have been abstracted and compared to non-HIV controls diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the same period. Results: Eighty one HIV-infected patients and 365 controls were enrolled. The diagnosis in HIV patients took significantly longer, with higher recurrence and death rates. Kala-azar's classical triad (fever, constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly) was less frequently observed in Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV patients, as well as jaundice and edema, while diarrhea was more frequent. Laboratory features included lower levels of hemoglobin, lymphocyte counts and liver enzymes, as well as higher counts of blood platelets and eosinophils. HIV-infected patients were diagnosed mainly through amastigote detection on bone marrow aspirates and treated more often with amphotericin B formulations, whereas in controls, rK39 was the main diagnostic tool and pentavalent antimony was primarily used for treatment. Conclusions: Clinical and laboratory presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-coinfected patients may differ from classic kala-azar, and these differences may be, in part, responsible for the delay in diagnosing and treating leishmaniasis, which might lead to worse outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Amphotericin B , Cross-Sectional Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Coinfection/parasitology , Coinfection/virology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/virology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 671-679, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990850


Resumen La histoplasmosis diseminada es una micosis sistémica endémica, causada por el hongo dimórfico Histoplasma capsulatum. Las manifestaciones clínicas dependen de la carga fúngica inhalada, del estado inmunológico del paciente y de la virulencia de la cepa infectante. La variante diseminada es más frecuente en inmunocomprometidos, registrándose 90% de los casos en pacientes con serología positiva para VIH. En esta serie se evaluaron 37 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por VIH e histoplasmosis diseminada. El 43,2% de los pacientes no sabía su serología en forma previa a la consulta por histoplasmosis. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron síndrome de impregnación (67,6%), fiebre (64,9%), síntomas respiratorios (62,2%) y manifestaciones muco-cutáneas (67,6%), entre otras. El 94,6% de los pacientes presentó anemia, 75,7% tenía bicitopenia y 32,4% pancitopenia. La sensibilidad de los hemocultivos fue de 70,4%. El 86,5% no tuvo otra infección oportunista concomitante al momento del diagnóstico. En 83,8% de los pacientes la histoplasmosis diseminada fue la primera enfermedad marcadora de SIDA. Se registró una mortalidad de 14,7%.

Disseminated histoplasmosis is an endemic systemic mycosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The clinical manifestations depend on the inhaled fungal load, the immunological state of the patient and the virulence of the infecting fungal strain. The disseminated variant is most frequent in immunocompromised patients, with 90% of cases in patients with positive serology for HIV, In this series, 37 patients with diagnosis of HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis were evaluated. The 43.2% of the patients did not know their serology prior to the consultation due to histoplasmosis. The main clinical causes were impregnation syndrome (67.6%), fever (64.9%), respiratory symptoms (62.2%) and mucocutaneous manifestations (67.6%), among others. The 94.6% of the patients presented anemia, 75.7% had bicytopenia and 32.4% pancytopenia. The sensitivity of the blood cultures was 70.4%. The 86.5% of the patients did not have another opportunistic infection concomitant at the time of diagnosis. In 83.8% of patients, disseminated histoplasmosis was the first AIDS disease. A mortality of 14.7% was recorded.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(5): 560-565, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978070


Resumen Antecedentes: La histoplasmosis es una micosis de gran relevancia en pacientes con SIDA. El cuadro clínico puede ser muy variado y, en enfermos que no desarrollan lesiones cutáneas, el diagnóstico suele demorar varias semanas. Objetivo: Establecer pautas que permitan emplear un tratamiento empírico y precoz en pacientes con histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA sin manifestaciones tegumentarias y determinar las características clínicas, microbiológicas y algunos parámetros bioquímicos en los casos de difícil diagnóstico. Métodos: Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 86 pacientes con histoplasmosis. Fueron seleccionados 31 enfermos con histoplasmosis asociada con SIDA sin lesiones cutáneas. Resultados: La fiebre fue el síntoma más frecuente (96,7%), el compromiso pulmonar se comprobó en 22 enfermos (70,9%). El patrón radiológico más frecuentemente hallado en las radiografías de tórax fue el miliar o micronodulillar bilateral [(12/22), 54,5%]. Diecinueve enfermos presentaron esplenomegalia. Los hemocultivos demostraron una sensibilidad de 93,3% (28/30) y la serología fue positiva en 23,5% de los casos. Fallecieron ocho pacientes (25,8%). Los pacientes con recuentos de linfocitos T CD4+ menores a 50 céls/μl, albúmina menor a 2,5 g/dl y pancitopenia evidenciaron un pronóstico desfavorable. Conclusiones: En los pacientes con infección por VIH, fiebre asociada a esplenomegalia y lesiones micronodulillares bilaterales en la radiografía de tórax debe considerarse el tratamiento empírico con anfotericina B cuando existan signos o síntomas de mal pronóstico, debido al tiempo de demora hasta el diagnóstico definitivo. Previo a iniciar el tratamiento deben tomarse todas las muestras para los estudios microbiológicos que permitan confirmar luego la presunción diagnóstica.

Background: Histoplasmosis is a mycosis with a high prevalence in HIV/AIDS patients. Clinical presentation includes a wide spectrum of manifestations and diagnosis usually takes up to several weeks in patients who do not present cutaneous lesions. Aim: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as some biochemical parameters in patients with AIDS-associated histoplasmosis without tegumentary lesions, in order to develop a guideline which enables an early empiric treatment in cases of difficult diagnosis. Methods: Medical records of 86 patients with histoplasmosis were reviewed; 31 patients with diagnosis of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis without cutaneous lesions were analyzed. Results: Fever was the most frequent symptom (96.7%), lung involvement was observed in 22 patients (70.9%), the most commonly radiological pattern was miliary pattern [(12/22), 54.5%]. Nineteen patients presented with splenomegaly. Blood culture sensitivity was 93.3% (28/30) and serology was positive only in 23.5% of the cases. Eight patients died (25.8%). Patients in which CD4+ T cell lymphocytes count was < 50 cells/μl, albumin levels < 2.5 g/dl and who presented with pancytopenia had an unfavorable outcome. Conclusions: In HIV seropositive patients with fever associated to splenomegaly and bilateral miliar pattern in chest radiography, the empiric treatment with amphotericin B must be considered if signs and symptoms of unfavorable outcome are present and due to the time that it takes to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. In order to confirm the diagnosis, all microbiological samples should be collected prior to initiating therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 606-612, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888923


ABSTRACT Introduction: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients' serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan, galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase. The association among the variables was analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: 60 patients were included in the study. The patients were classified in three groups: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (19 patients), community-acquired pneumonia (18 patients), and other infections (23 patients). The overall mortality was 13.3%. The time since diagnosis of HIV infection was shorter in the pneumocystosis group (4.94 years; p = 0.001) than for the other two groups of patients. The multivariate analysis showed that higher (1-3)-β-D-Glucan level (mean: 241 pg/mL) and lactate dehydrogenase (mean: 762 U/L) were associated with the diagnosis of pneumocystosis. Pneumocystosis was the aids-defining illness in 11 out of 16 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In the era of antiretroviral therapy, PJP was still the most prevalent pulmonary infection and (1-3)-β-D-Glucan and lactate dehydrogenase may be suitable markers to help diagnosing pneumocystosis in our HIV population.

Humans , Male , Female , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , beta-Glucans/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Mannans/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Regression Analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , Lung Diseases, Fungal/blood
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 502-506, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899750


Resumen La aspergilosis cerebral es una patología infrecuente, pero de elevada mortalidad en pacientes con SIDA. Es importante considerarla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales ante una lesión expansiva cerebral. Se requiere un alto grado de sospecha para poder realizar un diagnóstico precoz. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con infección por VIH con un cuadro neurológico rápidamente progresivo por Aspergillus sección flavi. Se realiza una revisión de 40 casos publicados de aspergilosis cerebral en pacientes con SIDA.

Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare disease with high mortality rates in AIDS patients. It is important to take this into account in the differential diagnosis of a brain expansive lesion. A high level of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with progresive neurological disease caused by Aspergillus flavi. We review 40 previously published cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in patients with AIDS.

Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neuroaspergillosis/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/immunology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Neuroaspergillosis/diagnosis , Neuroaspergillosis/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunocompetence
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(4): 402-407, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888898


Abstract Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) cause infections in the female genital tract, increasing susceptibility to and infectiousness of HIV. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT and GC infection among HIV-infected women in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted from March to December 2015, including HIV-infected women attending referral centers in nine states of Brazil, aged 18-49 years, nonpregnant. An interview was conducted including socio-demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics. After the interview, gynecological examination was conducted to collect cervical cytology and vaginal secretion to C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae tests through molecular biology. Results: A total of 802 (89.1%) women participated. The prevalence of CT was 2.1% (17/802) and CG was 0.9% (7/802). The prevalence of a positive test for both CT and/or GC was 2.7%. The factors associated with positive CT/GC test in the multivariate logistic regression analysis were abnormal Papanicolau smear (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.54-11.09) and the presence of abnormal cervical discharge (OR 2.6; 95% CI: 1.02-6.71). Among 377 women who reported previous STI 245 (65.0%) reported using condom more frequently after being diagnosed. 62 (16.4%) discovered the STI after the partner told he was infected; 157 (41.6%) had STI symptoms and looked for care, and 158 (41.9%) discovered it in a routine consultation for another reason. Conclusions: The control of STI represents a unique opportunity to improve reproductive health of women living with HIV. STI diagnosis can change their behavior and reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and bacterial STI.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 365-369, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899725


Resumen Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica endémica en Perú, y la co-infección con VIH conlleva dificultades diagnósticas y alta mortalidad asociada. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y desenlace clínico en pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada (HD) en el Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Lima-Perú. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo; se obtuvo información del registro informático de pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de HD, durante el período 1996-2014. Se describieron características clínicas, epidemiológicas, tratamiento y desenlace. Resultados: Se encontraron 27 pacientes, 25 (92,6%) fueron varones, con edad media de 36,7 años (± 9,4 años) y 22 (81,5%) tuvieron antecedente epidemiológico. Dieciséis (59,3%) tuvieron HD como enfermedad indicadora de SIDA. El recuento medio de LT CD4+ fue de 65 céls/mm3 (RIQ 15-92). Sólo siete (25,9%) recibían al momento del diagnóstico terapia anti-retroviral combinada. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue con fiebre (66,7%), diarrea crónica (40,7%) y linfoadenopatías (33,3%); el diagnóstico fue realizado principalmente mediante histopatología. Seis (22,2%) fallecieron en la etapa aguda de la enfermedad. Siete (25,9%) fueron tratados inicialmente de forma empírica como tuberculosis. Conclusiones: Se describen las características clínicas de un grupo de pacientes que tuvieron HD como co-infección de VIH, siendo esto aún una realidad cuasi endémica en los pacientes que sufren esta patología.

Background: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. Aim: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014. Clinical, epidemiological, treatment and outcome characteristics were described. Results: We found 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) were male, with a mean age of 36.7 years (± 9.4 years) and 22 (81.5%) had an epidemiological history contact. Sixteen patients (59.3%) had DH as an AIDS defining disease. The median CD4 count was 65 cells/mm3 (IQR 15-92). Only 7 (25.9%) received combination antiretroviral therapy at diagnosis. The most common clinical presentation was fever (66.7%), chronic diarrhea (40.7%) and lymphadenopathy (33.3%). The diagnosis was made mainly by histopathology. Six (22.2%) patiens died in the acute stage of the disease. Seven (25.9%) were initially treated empirically as tuberculosis. Conclusion: We describe the clinical characteristics of a group of patients who had DH as HIV coinfection and this is still a quasi endemic reality in patients suffering from this pathology.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Peru , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Coinfection , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 386-388, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886950


Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Tumor Virus Infections/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Merkel cell polyomavirus , Skin Neoplasms/virology , Carcinoma, Merkel Cell/virology , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(3): 215-218, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893832


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2%) of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%), with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1%) of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%). The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7) and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2). Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3) were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0), although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência de resultados indeterminados de um interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama) e os fatores relacionados com esses resultados em pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS (PVHA). Métodos: Foram avaliadas 81 PVHA na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, por meio do teste tuberculínico e de um IGRA. Informações a respeito de variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas foram obtidas por meio de questionários e prontuários médicos. A relação entre essas variáveis e os resultados indeterminados foi avaliada por meio do cálculo da OR ajustada em um modelo de regressão logística multivariada. A concordância foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Os resultados do teste tuberculínico e do IGRA foram positivos em 18 (22,2%) e 10 (12,3%), respectivamente, dos 81 pacientes avaliados (κ = 0,62). O resultado do IGRA foi indeterminado em 22 (27,1%) dos pacientes (IC95%: 17,8-38,1%). A chance de resultados indeterminados foi significativamente maior em fumantes (OR ajustada = 6,0; IC95%: 1,4-26,7) e em amostras armazenadas durante menos de 35 dias (OR ajustada = 14,0; IC95%: 3,1-64,2). Pacientes com imunossupressão avançada (contagem de células T CD4+ < 200 células/mm3) apresentaram maior risco de resultados indeterminados (OR ajustada para tabagismo e tempo inadequado de armazenamento das amostras = 4,7; IC95%: 0,91-24,0), embora a diferença não tenha sido significativa. Conclusões: A alta prevalência de resultados indeterminados pode ser um grande obstáculo ao uso rotineiro de IGRAs em PVHA. A necessidade de repetir o teste aumenta seu custo e deve ser levada em conta em estudos da relação entre custo e eficácia. O processamento das amostras pode alterar significativamente os resultados.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/methods , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/microbiology , Brazil , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feasibility Studies , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/economics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculin Test/methods