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Medwave ; 20(1): e7767, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087871


Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa, a rare manifestation of Kaposi's sarcoma, is a progressive cutaneous hypertrophy caused by chronic non-filarial lymphedema secondary to obstruction of the lymphatic system that can lead to severe disfigurement of parts of the body that have gravity-dependent blood flow, due to edema, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, especially lower extremities. Among the various conditions that can induce chronic lymphedema are tumors, trauma, radiotherapy, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic venous stasis, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor associated with the presence of human gammaherpesvirus 8 that is predominantly cutaneous, locally aggressive, with metastasis, and is associated with the production of factors that favor inflammation, lymphatic obstruction, and lymphedema.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Elephantiasis/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Didanosine/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Elephantiasis/etiology , Elephantiasis/pathology , Alkynes
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 663-666, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058093


Resumen La bacteriemia es una presentación atípica de la infección por Campylobacter jejuni, y es más frecuente en pacientes con inmunodepresión avanzada debido al VIH u otras enfermedades sistémicas. Debido a la terapia anti-retroviral, en las últimas décadas el número de casos ha disminuido. Presentamos el caso de una mujer en situación de calle, con VIH en etapa C3, que cursó con una bacteriemia por C. jejuni durante su hospitalización por una tuberculosis pulmonar. Realizamos una breve revisión de bacteriemia por C. jejuni en pacientes con VIH.

Bacteremia is an atypical presentation of Campylobacter jejuni infection and it is more frequent in patients with advanced inmunodepression due to HIV or other sistemic diseases. Because of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, in the last decades the number of cases had declined. We report a case of a homeless woman with HIV in C3 stage who was diagnosed with the bacteremia during her hospitalization for pulmonary tuberculosis, and a brief review of C. jejuni bacteremia in HIV patients.

Humans , Female , Adult , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Campylobacter Infections/immunology , Campylobacter Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 221-223, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001143


Abstract Vegetative chronic genital herpes is an atypical presentation of herpes simplex 2 that it is usually seen in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clinically, it is characterized by extensive ulcers that evolve to chronification and hypertrophic pseudotumor forms. Antiviral drugs are recommended for the treatment, and acyclovir is the most used one. Foscarnet is the treatment of choice to resistant cases, although treatment failure has been reported. We report a male patient, previously diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus who developed vegetative chronic genital herpes resistant to acyclovir and successfully treated with imiquimod.

Humans , Male , Adult , Herpes Genitalis/drug therapy , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Herpes Genitalis/diagnosis , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , /administration & dosage
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4696, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019808


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency of drug therapy problem in the treatment of patients with tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Methods: Data were obtained through a cross-sectional study conducted between September 2015 and December 2016 at a reference hospital in infectious diseases in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. Sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic variables were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Drug-related problems of pharmaceutical care were classified using the Pharmacotherapy Workup method. Factors associated with indication, effectiveness, safety and compliance drug therapy problem were assessed through multiple logistic regression. Results: We evaluated 81 patients, and 80% presented at least one drug therapy problem, with indication and adherence drug therapy problem being the most frequent. The factors associated with drug therapy problem were age, marital status, new case, ethnicity, time of HIV diagnosis and time to treat tuberculosis. Conclusion: The frequency of drug therapy problem in coinfected patients was high and the identification of the main drug therapy problem and associated factors may lead the multiprofessional health team to ensure the use of the most indicated, effective, safe and convenient medicines for the patients clinical condition. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS coinfected individuals aged over 40 years are more likely to have drug therapy problems during treatment; in that, the most frequente are those that signal toward need of medication for an untreated health condition and non-compliance to treatment. Thus, older patients, unmarried or married, who have treated tuberculosis before, with a shorter time to tuberculosis treatment and longer time to diagnose HIV/AIDS, should receive special attention and be better followed by a multiprofessional health team because they indicate a higher chance of presenting Problems related to the use of non-adherent drugs.

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos no tratamento de pacientes com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS. Métodos: Os dados foram obtidos por estudo transversal realizado entre setembro de 2015 e dezembro de 2016 em hospital referência em doenças infectocontagiosas de Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil. As variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas, comportamentais e farmacoterapêuticas foram avaliadas por questionário semiestruturado. Classificaram-se os problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamento empregando o método Pharmacotherapy Workup de atenção farmacêutica. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação, efetividade, segurança e adesão foram avaliados pela regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: Foram avaliados 81 pacientes, e 80% apresentaram pelo menos um problema relacionado ao uso de medicamentos, sendo os mais frequentes ligados à problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos de indicação e adesão. Os fatores associados aos problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos foram idade, estado civil, caso novo, etnia, tempo de diagnóstico do HIV e tempo de tratamento da tuberculose. Conclusão: A frequência de problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos em pacientes coinfectados foi alta, e a identificação dos principais problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos e dos fatores associados aos mesmos pode direcionar a equipe multiprofissional de saúde, para garantir o uso dos medicamentos mais indicados, efetivos, seguros e convenientes para a condição clínica dos pacientes. Os indivíduos coinfectados com tuberculose e HIV/AIDS maiores de 40 anos possuem maior chance de apresentarem problemas relacionados ao uso de medicamentos durante o tratamento, sendo os mais frequentes os que indicam a necessidade de medicamento para condição de saúde não tratada e não adesão ao tratamento. Pacientes mais idosos, solteiros ou não, que já trataram a tuberculose antes, com menor tempo de tratamento de tuberculose e maior tempo de diagnóstico de HIV/AIDS devem ter atenção especial no acompanhamento por uma equipe multiprofissional de saúde por indicarem maior chance de apresentar Problemas Relacionados ao uso de Medicamentos de não adesão à terapia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Prescription Drugs/standards , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Referral and Consultation , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 881-883, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973645


Abstract: Zoon's plasma cell balanitis is a chronic genital inflammatory dermatosis that affects uncircumcised men, especially the elderly. It's characterized by painless erythematous plaques of orange hue, located on the glans penis and foreskin. Circumcision is the most effective treatment; however, it can be hard for patients to accept. As an alternative, topical calcineurin inhibitors are used, with good response. This article reports the case of a 32-year-old patient, HIV carrier, diagnosed with Zoon's plasma cell balanitis. Treatment with topical tacrolimus was administered, without improvement. A 6-week course of thalidomide resulted in complete remission of the lesions, without recurrence after eight months of follow-up.

Humans , Male , Adult , Plasma Cells/pathology , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Balanitis/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Balanitis/pathology , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1481-1485, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991360


We report a 45-year-old male with AIDS who had a Cryptococcus neoformans central nervous system infection. He was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate subsequently changed to voriconazole due to systemic toxicity of the former. Plasma levels of voriconazole were insufficient with a standard dose (0.7 μg/mL), therefore, the dose was increased thereafter to reach appropriate levels (4.5 μg/mL). Anti-retroviral therapy was started five weeks after voriconazole initiation with non-interacting drugs and he was discharged after a favorable evolution. He was re-admitted three months later due to seizures; a brain magnetic resonance showed new sub-cortical nodules. After excluding alternative causes and demonstrating fungal eradication, an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) event was suspected and treated with a short course of steroids. His evolution was satisfactory.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/chemically induced , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnostic imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(4): 524-528, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949915


Abstract: Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare neoplasm with indolent progression. Since 1981, the Kaposi's sarcoma epidemic has increased as co-infection with HIV. Objectives: The study aimed to identify the clinical and demographic characteristics and therapeutic approaches in HIV/AIDS patients in a regional referral hospital. Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 51 patients with histopathological diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma hospitalized at Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto (HUJBB) from 2004 to 2015. Results: The study sample consisted of individuals 15 to 44 years of age (80.4%), male (80.4%), single (86.3%), and residing in Greater Metropolitan Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The primary skin lesions identified at diagnosis were violaceous macules (45%) and violaceous papules (25%). Visceral involvement was seen in 62.7%, mainly affecting the stomach (75%). The most frequent treatment regimen was 2 NRTI + NNRTI, and 60.8% were referred to chemotherapy. Study limitations: We assumed that more patients had been admitted to hospital without histopathological confirmation or with pathology reports from other services, so that the current study probably underestimated the number of KS cases. Conclusion: Although the cutaneous manifestations in most of these patients were non-exuberant skin lesions like macules and papules, many already showed visceral involvement. Meticulous screening of these patients is thus mandatory, even if the skin lesions are subtle and localized.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Tertiary Care Centers
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 377-385, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978048


Resumen Introducción: Se desconocen los factores asociados a la candidiasis oral en población pediátrica con infección por VIH de los países en desarrollo. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la colonización por Candida, candidiasis oral y la susceptibilidad in vitro a antifúngicos, en niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH institucionalizados en la ciudad de Tijuana, México. Materiales y Métodos: Se examinó la cavidad oral de 30 niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH, se obtuvo una muestra de la mucosa oral para identificar las especies de Candida mediante cultivo y auxonograma. La susceptibilidad a los antifúngicos se determinó de acuerdo al CLSI. Los indicadores del estado inmunológico y falla virológica se clasificaron conforme a la OMS. Resultados: Se identificaron seis especies de Candida, 53% colonizantes y 47% causantes de candidiasis. Los factores asociados a candidiasis fueron alta carga viral (p = 0,001), menor recuento de LTCD4+ (p = 0,002) y esquema TARAA (p ≤ 0,014). La especie prevalente fue C. glabrata (33%); sin embargo, C. albicans (27%) fue más resistente a fluconazol (p = 0,001). Las especies resistentes a itraconazol se identificaron en esquemas que incluyen un INNTR (p = 0,041). Conclusiones: Los niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH institucionalizados mostraron una prevalencia elevada de Candida spp. colonizante y resistencia a los antifúngicos relacionada con los INNTR .

Background: Factors associated with candidiasis and colonization in HIV-positive children and adolescents in developing countries are not well understood. Aim: To identify the factors associated with oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in institutionalized HIV-positive children and adolescents in Tijuana, México, as well as the response of the isolates to antifungals. Materials and Methods: Sample of the oral mucosa of 30 HIV positive children and adolescents were obtained to isolate and identify Candida species by culture and metabolic profile. Antifungal drugs susceptibility was determined according to CLSI. Indicators of immunological and virologic failure were classified in accordance to WHO criteria. Results: Six Candida species were identified from oral mucosa, 53% colonizers and 47% in candidiasis. Factors associated with candidiasis and oral colonization were viral load (p = 0,001), CD4+ counts (p = 0,002) and HAART regimen (p ≤ 0,014). The most prevalent species was C. glabrata (33%), but C. albicans (27%) was more resistant to fluconazole (p = 0,001). Itraconazol resistant species were identified in regimens that include an NNRTI (p = 0,041). Conclusion: HIV-positive children and adolescents living in an orphanage showed high prevalence of colonizing Candida spp. and resistance to antifungals, related to NNRTI.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Candida albicans/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mexico , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 167-172, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894906


BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America and the leading fungal cause of mortality in non-immunosuppressed individuals in Brazil. However, HIV/PCM co-infection can increase the clinical severity in these co-infected patients. This co-infection is rarely reported in the literature mainly because of the different epidemiological profiles of these infections. Furthermore, PCM is a neglected and non-notifiable disease, which may underestimate the real importance of this disease. The advent of molecular studies on the species of the genus Paracoccidioides has expanded the knowledge regarding the severity and the clinical spectrum in PCM. In this context, the development of studies to describe the association of the Paracoccidioides phylogenetic cryptic species in vulnerable populations, such as HIV-infected patients, appears relevant. OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects in HIV/PCM co-infected patients, along with the molecular identification of the Paracoccidioides species involved in these cases. METHODS The investigators performed a molecular and clinical retrospective study involving HIV/PCM co-infected patients, from a reference centre for PCM care in the endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2015. Molecular identification of the fungal strains was done by amplification of partial sequences of arf and gp43 genes. FINDINGS Of 89 patients diagnosed with PCM by fungal isolation in the culture, a viable isolate was recovered for molecular analysis from 44 patients. Of these 44 patients, 28 (63.6%) had their serum samples submitted for enzyme immunoassay tests for screening of HIV antibodies, and 5 (17.9%) had a positive result. All cases were considered severe, with a variable clinical presentation, including mixed, acute/subacute clinical forms and a high rate of complications, requiring combination therapy. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1 was the species identified in all cases. CONCLUSIONS HIV/PCM co-infection can change the natural history of this fungal disease. The authors reinforce the need to include HIV screening diagnostic tests routinely for patients with PCM.

AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 92-98, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951638


ABSTRACT Introduction: Visceral Leishmaniasis is the most severe form of disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worse outcomes occur among HIV-positive individuals coinfected with Leishmania. It is unclear, however, if there are significant differences on presentation between Visceral Leishmaniasis patients with or without HIV coinfection. Methods: We reviewed medical records from adult patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis treated at a reference healthcare center in Fortaleza - Ceará, Brazil, from July 2010 to December 2013. Data from HIV-coinfected patients have been abstracted and compared to non-HIV controls diagnosed with Visceral Leishmaniasis in the same period. Results: Eighty one HIV-infected patients and 365 controls were enrolled. The diagnosis in HIV patients took significantly longer, with higher recurrence and death rates. Kala-azar's classical triad (fever, constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly) was less frequently observed in Visceral Leishmaniasis-HIV patients, as well as jaundice and edema, while diarrhea was more frequent. Laboratory features included lower levels of hemoglobin, lymphocyte counts and liver enzymes, as well as higher counts of blood platelets and eosinophils. HIV-infected patients were diagnosed mainly through amastigote detection on bone marrow aspirates and treated more often with amphotericin B formulations, whereas in controls, rK39 was the main diagnostic tool and pentavalent antimony was primarily used for treatment. Conclusions: Clinical and laboratory presentation of Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-coinfected patients may differ from classic kala-azar, and these differences may be, in part, responsible for the delay in diagnosing and treating leishmaniasis, which might lead to worse outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Amphotericin B , Cross-Sectional Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Coinfection/parasitology , Coinfection/virology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/virology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 11-15, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951617


ABSTRACT Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. The only selection criterion was treatment with fluconazole, which was performed with a generic or similar form of the drug. Fluconazole level was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility profile of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from the patients was assessed by broth microdilution. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid fluconazole levels were found to be related to the fluconazole daily dose, and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of this antifungal for the Cryptococcus spp. isolates. A good correlation was observed between serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration. In conclusion, treatment with non-original fluconazole under usual medical practice conditions results in appropriate blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of the drug for inhibiting Cryptococcus spp. susceptible to this antifungal drug. The relatively common failures of neurocryptococcosis treatment appear not to be due to insufficient fluconazole levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially with the use of daily doses of 400-800 mg.

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Fluconazole/cerebrospinal fluid , Fluconazole/blood , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/cerebrospinal fluid , Antifungal Agents/blood , Reference Values , Candidiasis/cerebrospinal fluid , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/blood , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Cryptococcosis/blood , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(6): 671-679, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990850


Resumen La histoplasmosis diseminada es una micosis sistémica endémica, causada por el hongo dimórfico Histoplasma capsulatum. Las manifestaciones clínicas dependen de la carga fúngica inhalada, del estado inmunológico del paciente y de la virulencia de la cepa infectante. La variante diseminada es más frecuente en inmunocomprometidos, registrándose 90% de los casos en pacientes con serología positiva para VIH. En esta serie se evaluaron 37 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección por VIH e histoplasmosis diseminada. El 43,2% de los pacientes no sabía su serología en forma previa a la consulta por histoplasmosis. Las principales manifestaciones clínicas fueron síndrome de impregnación (67,6%), fiebre (64,9%), síntomas respiratorios (62,2%) y manifestaciones muco-cutáneas (67,6%), entre otras. El 94,6% de los pacientes presentó anemia, 75,7% tenía bicitopenia y 32,4% pancitopenia. La sensibilidad de los hemocultivos fue de 70,4%. El 86,5% no tuvo otra infección oportunista concomitante al momento del diagnóstico. En 83,8% de los pacientes la histoplasmosis diseminada fue la primera enfermedad marcadora de SIDA. Se registró una mortalidad de 14,7%.

Disseminated histoplasmosis is an endemic systemic mycosis, caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. The clinical manifestations depend on the inhaled fungal load, the immunological state of the patient and the virulence of the infecting fungal strain. The disseminated variant is most frequent in immunocompromised patients, with 90% of cases in patients with positive serology for HIV, In this series, 37 patients with diagnosis of HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis were evaluated. The 43.2% of the patients did not know their serology prior to the consultation due to histoplasmosis. The main clinical causes were impregnation syndrome (67.6%), fever (64.9%), respiratory symptoms (62.2%) and mucocutaneous manifestations (67.6%), among others. The 94.6% of the patients presented anemia, 75.7% had bicytopenia and 32.4% pancytopenia. The sensitivity of the blood cultures was 70.4%. The 86.5% of the patients did not have another opportunistic infection concomitant at the time of diagnosis. In 83.8% of patients, disseminated histoplasmosis was the first AIDS disease. A mortality of 14.7% was recorded.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 41-48, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899776


Resumen Introducción La principal causa de muerte en pacientes infectados con VIH es la tuberculosis (TBC). Pocos estudios latinoamericanos han evaluado la sobrevida de pacientes co-infectados. Objetivo Determinar factores asociados a sobrevida en pacientes con co-infección VIH-TBC atendidos en un hospital peruano. Materiales y Métodos Estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, en base a registros clínicos de pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Infectología del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza durante los años 2004-2012. Se evaluó la sobrevida de 315 pacientes, utilizando las curvas de Kaplan-Meier y el método de Riesgos Proporcionales de Cox. Resultados De 315 pacientes, 82 murieron durante el seguimiento. La mediana de seguimiento para cada participante fue de 730 días. El análisis multivariado mostró que recibir TARGA (HR: 0,31; IC: 0,20-0,50; p < 0,01) y tener mayor peso (HR: 0,96; IC 0,94-0,98; p < 0,01) al momento del diagnóstico de la co-infección fueron factores protectores; mientras que tener una patología distinta a TBC (HR: 1,88; IC: 1,19-2,98; p < 0,01), edad mayor a 34 años (HR: 1,76; IC: 1,12-2,74; p ≤ 0,01), y estar hospitalizado al momento del diagnóstico (HR: 1,69; IC 1,02-2,80; p < 0,04) se asociaron a menor sobrevida. Discusión Recibir TARGA y tener mayor peso al momento del diagnóstico de la coinfección se asociaron a mayor sobrevida.

Background The main cause of death in HIV patients is tuberculosis (TB). However, few Latin American studies have evaluated the prognosis of patients with coinfection. Aim To determine the factors associated with survival in patients with HIV-TB coinfection treated at a Peruvian referral hospital. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed based on clinical records of patients treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital from 2004 to 2012. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox Proportional Hazard Model. Results From 315 patients, 82 died during the follow-up. The mean of follow for each patient was 730 days. The multivariate analysis showed that receiving HAART (HR: 0,31; IC: 0,20-0,50; p < 0,01) and having more weight (HR: 0,96; IC 0,94-0,98; p < 0,01) when the coinfection was diagnosed, were protective factors; while having a pathology different from TB (HR: 1,88; IC: 1,19-2,98; p < 0,01), age in years (HR: 1,76; IC: 1,12-2,74; p ≤ 0,01) and being hospitalized when diagnosed with TB (HR: 1,69; IC 1,02-2,80; p < 0,04) were associated with lower survival. Discussion Receiving HAART and having more weight when the coinfection is diagnosed were associated with a higher chance of survival.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/virology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Peru/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Coinfection/drug therapy
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e170391, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894941


Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common central nervous system infection in the world today. It occurs primarily, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised individuals and despite substantial improvement in management of clinical events like AIDS, the numbers of cases of cryptococcosis remain very high. Unfortunately, despite several antifungal agents available for treatment, morbidity and mortality rates remain high with this fungal infection. In this Review, we will describe the treatments and strategies for success, identify the failures, and provide insights into the future developments / improvements for management. This sugar-coated yeast can play havoc within the human brain. Our goals must be to either prevent or diagnose disease early and treat aggressively with all our clinical tools when disease is detected.

Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e180050, 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894943


Cryptococcosis diagnosis has been recently improved by the use of rapid cryptococcal antigen testing with lateral flow assays, which have proved sensitive and specific. Using "test and treat" screening strategies for cryptococcal disease with these tests has been showed effective in reducing cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-infected patients. Recommended induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapeutic strategy for CM is widely unavailable and/or expensive in low and middle-income settings. New therapeutic strategies, mostly using reduced duration, have recently shown acceptable outcome or are currently tested. Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for cryptococcal disease in limited resources countries are undergoing a paradigmatic shift.

Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Immunologic Tests , Drug Therapy, Combination
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(8): e00050916, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952339


Resumo: Propôs-se levantar a prevalência de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB) entre pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS (PVHA), fatores associados e se entre os casos identificados houve progressão para tuberculose ativa. Trata-se de estudo epidemiológico e descritivo. A população foi composta de PVHA, atendidas entre 2003 e 2014 em um centro de referência para HIV/AIDS. Os dados foram coletados com base em prontuários e fichas do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Procedeu-se à estatística bivariada, com aplicação do teste qui-quadrado, em que as variáveis com valores de p < 0,2 foram selecionadas para entrar no modelo de regressão múltipla. Foi fixado em todos os testes o erro tipo I em 5% (p < 0,05). No estudo, 690 casos foram analisados, sendo que 66 (9,4%) apresentaram o diagnóstico de ILTB, tendo uma prevalência de 7,5 casos para cada 100 pacientes. Dos 53 (80,3%) casos de ILTB que tiveram o tratamento indicado com isoniazida, apenas 26 (39,4%) concluíram e 10 (15,1%) abandonaram. Observou-se que as variáveis sexo masculino (OR ajustado = 1,8; IC95%: 1,1-3,3), situação prisional (OR ajustado = 7,6; IC95%: 2,35-24,9) e contagem de linfócitos mais altos são fatores associados ao diagnóstico de ILTB (OR ajustado = 1,1; IC95%: 1,1-1,2). Verificou-se que 47 (6,7%) dos casos de ILTB progrediram para TB ativa. O diagnóstico e o tratamento de ILTB nas PVHA não foram priorizados, o que contribuiu para o desenvolvimento de doença ativa entre os casos. O trabalho contribuiu para o avanço do conhecimento acerca da ILTB entre PVHA, demonstrando aspectos cruciais no que tange ao manejo de PVHA e ainda a importância da detecção da ILTB e a instituição precoce da isoniazida, visando à melhor qualidade de vida e prognóstico das PVHA.

Abstract: The study proposed to identify the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), associated factors, and progression to active tuberculosis among the identified cases. This was an epidemiological and descriptive study. The study population consisted of PLWHA seen from 2003 and 2014 in a reference center for HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from patient files and the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). Bivariate statistical analysis used the chi-square test in which variables with p < 0.2 were selected to enter the multiple regression model. Type I error was set at 5% (p < 0.05) for all the tests. In the study, 690 cases were analyzed, and 66 (9.4%) had a diagnosis of LTBI, with a prevalence of 7.5 cases per 100 patients. Of the 53 cases (80.3%) of LTBI who were prescribed treatment with isoniazid, only 26 (39.4%) concluded treatment, and 10 (15.1%) dropped out. Male gender (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.3), current incarceration (adjusted OR = 7.6; 95%CI: 2.35-24.9), and high lymphocyte count were associated with LTBI diagnosis (adjusted OR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.1-1.2). Forty-seven (6.7%) of LTBI cases progressed to active TB. Diagnosis and treatment of LTBI in PLWHA were not prioritized, which contributed to the development of active disease among cases. The study contributed to knowledge on LTBI in PLWHA, demonstrating crucial aspects in the management of PLWHA and the importance of detecting LTBI and early initiation of isoniazid, aimed at improved quality of life and prognosis for PLWHA.

Resumen: Se propone averiguar la prevalencia de infección latente por tuberculosis (ILTB) entre personas viviendo con VIH/SIDA (PVVS), sus factores asociados, y si entre los casos identificados hubo progresión hacia la tuberculosis activa. Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico y descriptivo. La población estaba compuesta de PVVS, atendidas entre 2003 y 2014 en un centro de referencia para VIH/SIDA. Los datos fueron recogidos en base a historiales clínicos y fichas del Sistema Brasileiro de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación Obligatoria (SINAN). Se procedió a una estadística bivariada, con aplicación del test chi-cuadrado, donde las variables con valores de p < 0,2 fueron seleccionadas para entrar en el modelo de regresión múltiple. Se fijó en todos los tests el error tipo I en un 5% (p < 0,05). En el estudio, se analizaron 690 casos, donde 66 (un 9,4%) presentaron el diagnóstico de ILTB, teniendo una prevalencia de 7,5 casos para cada 100 pacientes. De los 53 (80,3%) casos de ILTB que tuvieron el tratamiento indicado con isoniazida, sólo 26 (39,4%) lo concluyeron y 10 (15,1%) lo abandonaron. Se observó que las variables sexo masculino (OR ajustado = 1,8; IC95%: 1,1-3,3), situación en régimen de prisión (OR ajustado = 7,6; IC95%: 2,35-24,9) y un cómputo de linfocitos más altos son factores asociados al diagnóstico de ILTB (OR ajustado = 1,1; IC95%: 1,1-1,2). Se verificó que 47 (6,7%) de los casos de ILTB progresaron hacia una tuberculosis activa. El diagnóstico y el tratamiento de ILTB en las PVVS no fueron priorizados, lo que contribuyó al desarrollo de la enfermedad activa entre los casos. El trabajo contribuyó al avance del conocimiento acerca de la ILTB entre PVVS, demostrando aspectos cruciales en lo que atañe al manejo de PVVS, e incluso la importancia de la detección de ILTB y la administración precoz de la isoniazida, con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida y el pronóstico de las PVVS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 365-369, ago. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899725


Resumen Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica endémica en Perú, y la co-infección con VIH conlleva dificultades diagnósticas y alta mortalidad asociada. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y desenlace clínico en pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de histoplasmosis diseminada (HD) en el Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, Lima-Perú. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo; se obtuvo información del registro informático de pacientes con infección por VIH con diagnóstico de HD, durante el período 1996-2014. Se describieron características clínicas, epidemiológicas, tratamiento y desenlace. Resultados: Se encontraron 27 pacientes, 25 (92,6%) fueron varones, con edad media de 36,7 años (± 9,4 años) y 22 (81,5%) tuvieron antecedente epidemiológico. Dieciséis (59,3%) tuvieron HD como enfermedad indicadora de SIDA. El recuento medio de LT CD4+ fue de 65 céls/mm3 (RIQ 15-92). Sólo siete (25,9%) recibían al momento del diagnóstico terapia anti-retroviral combinada. La presentación clínica más frecuente fue con fiebre (66,7%), diarrea crónica (40,7%) y linfoadenopatías (33,3%); el diagnóstico fue realizado principalmente mediante histopatología. Seis (22,2%) fallecieron en la etapa aguda de la enfermedad. Siete (25,9%) fueron tratados inicialmente de forma empírica como tuberculosis. Conclusiones: Se describen las características clínicas de un grupo de pacientes que tuvieron HD como co-infección de VIH, siendo esto aún una realidad cuasi endémica en los pacientes que sufren esta patología.

Background: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. Aim: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. Methods: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014. Clinical, epidemiological, treatment and outcome characteristics were described. Results: We found 27 patients, 25 (92.6%) were male, with a mean age of 36.7 years (± 9.4 years) and 22 (81.5%) had an epidemiological history contact. Sixteen patients (59.3%) had DH as an AIDS defining disease. The median CD4 count was 65 cells/mm3 (IQR 15-92). Only 7 (25.9%) received combination antiretroviral therapy at diagnosis. The most common clinical presentation was fever (66.7%), chronic diarrhea (40.7%) and lymphadenopathy (33.3%). The diagnosis was made mainly by histopathology. Six (22.2%) patiens died in the acute stage of the disease. Seven (25.9%) were initially treated empirically as tuberculosis. Conclusion: We describe the clinical characteristics of a group of patients who had DH as HIV coinfection and this is still a quasi endemic reality in patients suffering from this pathology.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Peru , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Coinfection , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 172-176, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838062


Abstract: Background: Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be the most common human immunodeficiency virus - associated neoplasm with considerable morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, initial staging, and outcomes of aids patients with Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital of Recife, Pernambuco. Methods: This is a descriptive study with analytic character, retrospective, of a case series between 2004 and 2014. Results: Of the 22 patients included in the study, 20 were aged <40 years (72.7%). The majority had CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of <200 cells/mm3 (77.3%) and human immunodeficiency virus loads of <100,000 copies/mL (78.9%). Lesions were most commonly observed on the skin (90%), and internal organs were affected in 11 of the 22 patients. Only 7 (31.8%) of the 22 patients were undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of Kaposis sarcoma diagnosis, and the initial disease staging classification was high risk (Aids Clinical Trials Group Oncology Committee) in 19 of the 22 patients (86.4%). Regarding Kaposi's sarcoma treatment, 17 of 22 patients (77.3%) underwent systemic chemotherapy + ART and 5 were treated exclusively with ART. Eight of the 22 patients died (36.5%); of these, 87.5% had died within one year of Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis. Limitation of the study: Without a control group, this study cannot be used to generate hypotheses. Conclusions: Despite the association between aids and late Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis in the study population, including an unfavorable risk at the time of staging, a lower mortality rate was observed relative to other studies; this might be related to access to a specialized health service.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , Retrospective Studies , Mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Hospitals, University