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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(8): 418-422, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358673

ABSTRACT

Las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) son enzimas producidas por bacilos gram negativos capaces de hidrolizar las cefalosporinas de amplio espectro y los monobactámicos. La mayoría pertenece a la familia de Enterobacteriae, tales como Klebsiella pneumoniae y Escherichia coli: Sin embargo, se asocian también con otras bacterias como Proteus, Serratia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter. Las enterobacterias productoras de carbapenemasas no sólo han sido aisladas en el ambiente hospitalario, sino que también provienen de la comunidad. Se presenta una paciente de sexo femenino con antecedentes de sida y osteomielitis secundaria a artritis séptica producida por una Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE de la comunidad. Un tratamiento oportuno y eficaz puede evitar la opción quirúrgica, disminuyendo la morbimortalidad asociada con esta afección


Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) are enzymes produced by gram-negative rods capable of hydrolyzing broad-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams. Most belong to the Enterobacteriae family, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. However, they are also associated with other bacteria such as Proteus, Serratia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have not only been isolated from the hospital environment, but also from the community. We present a female patient with a history of AIDS and secondary osteomyelitis to septic arthritis caused by a community Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL. It is concluded that a timely and effective treatment can avoids the surgical option, reducing the morbidity and mortality of this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Osteomyelitis/immunology , Klebsiella Infections/therapy , Arthritis, Infectious/therapy , Imipenem/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Arthrocentesis , Knee Injuries/therapy
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 663-666, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteriemia es una presentación atípica de la infección por Campylobacter jejuni, y es más frecuente en pacientes con inmunodepresión avanzada debido al VIH u otras enfermedades sistémicas. Debido a la terapia anti-retroviral, en las últimas décadas el número de casos ha disminuido. Presentamos el caso de una mujer en situación de calle, con VIH en etapa C3, que cursó con una bacteriemia por C. jejuni durante su hospitalización por una tuberculosis pulmonar. Realizamos una breve revisión de bacteriemia por C. jejuni en pacientes con VIH.


Bacteremia is an atypical presentation of Campylobacter jejuni infection and it is more frequent in patients with advanced inmunodepression due to HIV or other sistemic diseases. Because of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, in the last decades the number of cases had declined. We report a case of a homeless woman with HIV in C3 stage who was diagnosed with the bacteremia during her hospitalization for pulmonary tuberculosis, and a brief review of C. jejuni bacteremia in HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Campylobacter Infections/immunology , Campylobacter Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 357-365, Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011344

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infections caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and by the larvae of Taenia solium (i.e., cysticercosis) are still widespread in many developing countries. Both pathologies modify host immune status and it is possible that HIV infection may modulate the frequency and pathogeny of cysticercosis of the central nervous system (i.e., neurocysticercosis [NCC]). Objective: To describe published cases of NCC among HIV-positive patients and to evaluate whether the characteristics of NCC, including frequency, symptoms, radiological appearance, and response to treatment differed between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Methods: Forty cases of NCC/HIV co-infected patients were identified in the literature. Clinical and radiological characteristics, as well as response to treatment, were compared with non-matching historical series of NCC patients without HIV infection. Results: Most of these patients had seizures and multiple vesicular parasites located in parenchyma. Clinical and radiological characteristics were similar between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with NCC, as well as between immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: Our review did not reveal clear interactions between HIV and NCC. This may be partially due to the small number of cases and reliance on published research. A systematic, multi-institutional effort aiming to report all the cases of this dual pathology is needed to confirm this finding and to clarify the possible relationship between both pathogens.


RESUMO Las infecciones causadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la larva de la Tenia solium siguen estando diseminadas en países en vías de desarrollo. Ambas patologías modifican el estado inmune y es posible que la infección por el VIH module la frecuencia y la patología de la neurocisticercosis (NCC). Objetivo: Describir los casos publicados de NCC en los pacientes VIH positivos y evaluar si las características de la NCC, incluyendo frecuencia, síntomas, presentación radiológica, respuesta a tratamiento, difieren entre los sujetos VIH positivos y VIH negativos. Métodos: Cuarenta casos con coinfección NCC/VIH fueron identificados en la literatura. Se compararon sus características clínico-radiológicas, así como su respuesta al tratamiento con diferentes series de casos históricos no pareados. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes NCC/VIH tenían epilepsia y múltiples parásitos vesiculares en el parénquima. Las características clínico-radiológicas de la NCC así como la evolución de los pacientes fueron similares entre pacientes VIH positivos y negativos, así como entre pacientes VIH inmunocomprometidos y no inmunocomprometidos. Conclusión: No encontramos interacciones claras entre VIH y NCC. Este resultado puede haber sido influenciado por el pequeño número de casos y la parcialidad de la información publicada. Un esfuerzo multiinstitucional, sistemático encaminado a reportar todos los casos de esta patología dual es necesario para confirmar estos resultados y esclarecer la relación entre patógenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Neurocysticercosis/etiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Neurocysticercosis/immunology , Neurocysticercosis/therapy , Immunocompetence
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 151-159, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019551

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. Methods: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. Results: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. Conclusions: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunophenotyping , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antigens, Bacterial/drug effects
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e180060, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894944

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and the closely related species C. gattii. The severe form of the disease, cryptococcal meningitis (CM), is rapidly fatal without treatment. Although typically a disease of immunocompromised (especially HIV-positive) individuals, there is growing awareness of cryptococcal disease amongst non-immunocompromised patients. Whilst substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathogenicity of C. neoformans in HIV patients, prospective data on cryptococcosis outside the context of HIV remains lacking. Below we review how innate immune responses vary between hosts depending on immunological status, and discuss risk factors and predictors of disease outcome in different groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 502-506, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899750

ABSTRACT

Resumen La aspergilosis cerebral es una patología infrecuente, pero de elevada mortalidad en pacientes con SIDA. Es importante considerarla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales ante una lesión expansiva cerebral. Se requiere un alto grado de sospecha para poder realizar un diagnóstico precoz. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con infección por VIH con un cuadro neurológico rápidamente progresivo por Aspergillus sección flavi. Se realiza una revisión de 40 casos publicados de aspergilosis cerebral en pacientes con SIDA.


Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare disease with high mortality rates in AIDS patients. It is important to take this into account in the differential diagnosis of a brain expansive lesion. A high level of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with progresive neurological disease caused by Aspergillus flavi. We review 40 previously published cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in patients with AIDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neuroaspergillosis/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/immunology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Neuroaspergillosis/diagnosis , Neuroaspergillosis/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunocompetence
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(6): 664-671, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-773273

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is frequent in HIV adults. It is unknown usefulness of quantitative methods for diagnosing the CMV disease in Chilean patients. Aim: To determine the performance of antigenemia and real time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) in the diagnosis of CMV disease in Chilean HIV adults. Method: Detection of CMV by viral isolation (AVR), antigenemia and quantitative rtPCR in HIV adults. Results: The 102 adults with suspected CMV disease had lower LTCD4 count and higher HIV viral load than 77 patients without suspicion (p < 0.05). Antigenemia and PCR were positive in 47 (46.1%) and 37 (36.3%) adults with clinical suspicion and in 2 (2.6%) and 4 (5.2%) of 77 without suspicion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of antigenemia and RPCtr were 92%, 80%, 72% and 95% and 72%, 95%, 92% and 80%, respectively. The cutoff values were ≥ lcell (+) and ≥ 5.5 log10 copies/2 x 10(6) cells. CMV was isolated in 6/179 patients (3.4%), all symptomatic. Conclusión: Positivity of antigenemia and rtPCR are similar for diagnosing CMV disease in Chilean HIV adults. AVR is inappropriate as a gold standard for its low performance.


Introducción: La infección por citomegalovirus (CMV) es frecuente en adultos con virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). No se ha establecido la utilidad de los métodos cuantitativos para diagnosticar enfermedad por CMV en pacientes chilenos. Objetivo: Determinar la positividad de antigenemia y reacción de polimerasa en cadena en tiempo real (RPC-TR) en el diagnóstico de enfermedad por CMV en adultos chilenos con infección por VIH. Metodología: Se detectó CMV mediante aislamiento viral rápido (AVR), antigenemia y reacción de polimerasa en cadena en tiempo real (RPC-TR) cuantitativa en adultos infectados por VIH, con y sin sospecha de enfermedad por CMV. Resultados: El recuento de LT CD4 fue menor y mayor la carga de VIH en 102 sintomáticos respecto a 77 asintomáticos (p < 0,05). La antigenemia y la RPC-TR fueron positivas en 46 y 36% de los enfermos y en 3 y 5% de los asintomáticos respectivamente. La sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictor positivo y negativo de la antigenemia y la RPC-TR fueron 92%, 80%, 72% y 95% y 72%, 95%, 92% y 80%, respectivamente. Los valores de corte fueron ≥ 1 núcleo (+) y ≥ 5,5 log10 copias/2 x 10(6) céls. Se aisló CMV en 3,4%, todos los sintomáticos. Conclusión: La antigenemia y la RPC-TR tienen una positividad similar para diagnosticar enfermedad por CMV en adultos chilenos con infección por VIH. El AVR es inapropiado como referencia por su baja positividad.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , DNA, Viral/blood , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , Antigens, Viral/blood , Chile , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Predictive Value of Tests , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 108-110, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755735

ABSTRACT

Abstract

In Brazil, visceral Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania chagasi. The development of cutaneous lesions in visceral leishmaniasis patients has been described in two different clinical contexts. Patients with compromised immunity can develop skin lesions as a direct consequence of a current visceral disease. Equally, patients with a history of kala-azar and progressive, immune improvement occasionally develop skin lesions as a consequence of immune reconstitution infl ammatory syndrome. These cases manifest in similar fashion to the classic form of post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis. We describe different cases that exemplify these two clinical presentations.

.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 11(2)abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-676606

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tuberculose (TB) ainda é uma das principais infecções oportunistas em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de tuberculose em pacientes portadores do HIV e estudar os fatores de risco associados.MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo do tipo descritivo e analítico.Pacientes atendidos entre janeiro de 2010 e abril de 2011no Serviço de HIV-AIDS da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória tiveram registrados dados demográficos, tabagismo,epidemiologia, contagem de células T CD4/CD8, carga viral HIV, terapia em uso e associação com TB.RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 715 pacientes. Destes,58,9% eram brancos, 59,9% homens, 59,3% heterossexuais,31,6% homo/bissexuais, 6,9% usuários de drogas injetáveis.A mediana de idade foi 44 anos e a do tempo de acompanhamento prévio de 5,7 anos. Havia 87% dos pacientes em uso de terapia antirretroviral e 32,7% eram tabagistas ou ex-tabagistas. Foi realizada quimioprofilaxia para TB em 6,7%dos pacientes. A mediana dos valores mais baixos da contagem de células CD4 foi de 191 células/mL. Foram relatados 80 casos de TB, prévios ou durante este período. Destes, 36casos foram de TB extrapulmonar, sendo 14 de forma miliar,12 ganglionar, cinco pleural, duas meníngea, duas óssea, uma pericárdica. Observou-se uma forte associação entre TB e o valor da contagem de células CD4 abaixo de 200 células/mL. Não foram observadas associações com escolaridade, idade,epidemiologia, cor ou carga viral HIV. Dois óbitos foram registrados em decorrência da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Constatou-se elevada a prevalência de TB entre pacientes HIV positivos, com nítida associação com o valor da contagem de células T CD4 abaixo de 200 células/mL.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of this disease in HIV-infected patients, its clinical presentation, and associated risk factors.METHOD: Retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients attendedat the outpatient's clinic at Santa casa de Misericórdia de Vitoria between January 2010 and April 2011. Data were abstracted from medical records with demographics, smoking habits, epidemiology, T CD4/CD8 cells count, HIV viral load, therapy used and TB-associated disease. RESULTS: Seven hundred fifteen patients were studied. From these, 58.9% were white, 59.9% men, 59.3% with transmission by heterosexual intercourse, 31.6% bisexual men or men who had sex with men, 6.9% intravenous drug users. Median age was 44 years and median time since HIV diagnosis was 5.7 years. There were 87% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and 32.7% were current or past smokers. Treatment for latent TB was prescribed for 6.7% of the patients. Median CD4 cells nadir was 191 cells/mL. Eighty cases of TB were recorded, previous or during the study period. Thirty-six cases were extrapulmonary TB, with14 being miliary, 12 ganglionary, five pleural, two meningitides, two bone, and one pericardial TB. There was a strong association between tuberculosis and CD4 cells bellow 200cells/mL. No association was observed with school years,age, epidemiology, race or HIV-1 viral load. Two death events were recorded as a consequence of TB. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB among HIV-infected patients remains high with a strong association with CD4cells count bellow 200 cells/mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Prevalence , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/immunology
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(2): 243-246, abr. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674164

ABSTRACT

Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common neoplasia diagnosed in AIDS patients and the expression of the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) latent nuclear antigen-1 has been useful for its histological diagnosis. The aim of this study is to confirm that immunohistochemistry is a valuable tool for differentiating KS from its simulators in skin biopsies of HIV patients. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed in 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and 60 of its histological simulators. Positivity was present in the 49 Kaposi's sarcoma skin biopsies and no staining was observed in the 60 simulators analyzed, resulting in sensibility and specificity of 100%. HHV-8 immunohistochemical detection is an effective tool for diagnosing Kaposi's sarcoma, especially in early lesions in which neoplastic features are not evident. It also contributes to its histological differential diagnosis.


O sarcoma de Kaposi é a neoplasia mais diagnosticada em pacientes com SIDA e a expressão do antígeno nuclear latente-1 do herpesvírus humano tipo-8 (HHV-8) tem se mostrado útil no seu diagnóstico histológico. O objetivo deste estudo é confirmar que o método imuno-histoquímico é uma ferramenta útil para diferenciar o sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo de seus simuladores histológicos em pacientes HIV positivos. Análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica foram realizadas em 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi cutâneo e 60 casos de seus simuladores histológicos. Positividade à imuno-histoquímica para o antígeno nuclear latente 1 do HHV-8 foi observada nos 49 casos de sarcoma de Kaposi e nenhuma reação foi detectada nos 60 simuladores analisados, resultando em 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. A detecção do HHV-8 por imuno-histoquímica é uma ferramenta útil para o diagnóstico de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente na lesão inicial cujo caráter neoplásico não é evidente, e contribui para seu diagnóstico diferencial histológico.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , /immunology , Nuclear Proteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunohistochemistry , Sarcoma, Kaposi/immunology , Skin Neoplasms/immunology , Time Factors
12.
Invest. clín ; 54(1): 58-67, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-740336

ABSTRACT

Los microsporidios pueden provocar infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos de todo el mundo. Se realizó éste estudio para identificar las especies de microsporidios intestinales presentes en pacientes con VIH-SIDA del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM). Se recolectaron 50 muestras fecales de individuos con diagnóstico confirmado de VIH durante los años 2007-2008; se obtuvieron las cifras de CD4 de solo 42 pacientes. Las muestras se analizaron mediante PCR separadas para la identificación de Encephalitozoon intestinalis y Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Las especies de microsporidios presentaron un 36% de prevalencia, 10 pacientes presentaron Encephalitozoon intestinalis, 4 Enterocytozoon bieneusi y 4 ambas especies. Se determinó una relación inversamente proporcional y estadísticamente significativa entre el contaje de CD4 y la presencia de microsporidios en la muestra fecal. Es destacable la elevada prevalencia de especies de microsporidios observada en los pacientes VIH estudiados, donde predominó E. intestinalis.


Microsporidioses are considered emerging and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of intestinal microsporidia in patients with HIV-AIDS from the Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo, Venezuela (SAHUM). Fecal samples were collected from 50 patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV, during the years 2007 and 2008; the CD4 values were obtained from 42 patients. The samples were analyzed by separate PCRs to identify Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Microsporidia species showed a 36% prevalence: ten patients had Encephalitozoon intestinalis, four Enterocytozoon bieneusi and four both species. An inverse and statistically significant relationship between the CD4 count and the presence of microsporidia in the fecal sample was also found. It is remarkable the high prevalence of microsporidia species observed in the HIV patients studied, with a predominance of E. intestinalis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Encephalitozoon/isolation & purification , Encephalitozoonosis/epidemiology , Enterocytozoon/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Microsporidiosis/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Asymptomatic Diseases , Coinfection , Comorbidity , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Diarrhea/microbiology , Encephalitozoonosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Wasting Syndrome/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Microsporidiosis/microbiology , Prevalence , Venezuela/epidemiology
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 356-361, May 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624017

ABSTRACT

Erythrovirus B19 (B19V) infection may cause red cell aplasia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the immune function of these patients by modifying the course of B19V infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of B19 seroconversion in a cohort of HIV-infected patients and evaluate the occurrence of B19V-related anaemia during the seroconversion period. Adult HIV-infected patients were studied at a public hospital in Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. IgG and IgM antibodies against B19V were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and B19 viraemia was assayed by polymerase chain reaction. Medical records were reviewed for any clinical evaluation of anaemia. Seroconversion was detected in 31.8% of the 88 individuals who began the study as anti-B19V IgG-negative. No clinical manifestations of B19V infection were detected during the period of seroconversion. Patients who seroconverted were 5.40 times more likely to have anaemia than those who did not [odds ratio 5.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.33-22.93)]. Anaemia was detected in eight patients. All patients recovered from anaemia by either beginning or continuing HAART, without requiring blood transfusions. In the HAART era, B19V infection may only be associated with a course of disease characterised by less severe chronic anaemia. This milder course of B19V-associated disease is likely due to the increased immune function of HAART-treated patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Anemia/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Parvoviridae Infections/immunology , /immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , DNA, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(2): 170-1174, May-Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Compare the anti-T. gondii IgG titer between HIV-1 infected and non HIV-1 infected pregnant women and report three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis resulting from reactivation of infection during pregnancy of HIV-1 infected women. METHODS: This study was conducted among 2,270 pregnant women with chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection (absence of IgM and presence of IgG), including 82 HIV-1 infected and 2,188 non-infected women. RESULTS: The average anti-T. gondii IgG titer was 127 for the 2,188 non-HIV-1 infected women, and 227 for the 82 HIV-1-infected women (p = 0,007). These results suggested that higher anti-T. gondii IgG titers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women may not be indicative of an elevated risk for fetal infection. In this study three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis that resulted from infection reactivation during pregnancy of HIV-1-infected women were manifested by fetal death, symptomatic infection, and infant without symptoms, respectively. In two of these women, a ten-fold increase in IgG levels above used cutoff was observed (2,320 UI/mL and 3,613 UI/mL, respectively). In the third pregnant women anti-T. gondii IgG titers during pregnancy did not rise despite the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis (204; 198; 172 UI/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Congenital toxoplasmosis resulting reactivation of infection during pregnancy in the studied group leads us to believe that it is a public health problem, especially in our population, in which seroprevalence of T. gondii infections is high. These findings also suggest that special attention is necessary during pregnancy, because the serologic diagnosis may not be indicative of toxoplasmosis reactivation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/parasitology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/transmission , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Viral Load
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140123

ABSTRACT

Aim and Objective: This study was carried out with the primary aim of correlating oral changes and general changes of HIV-infected patients with their CD4 count. Materials and Methods: 124 patients were selected, and after taking their informed consent, they were subjected to detailed history taking and thorough clinical examination. Specific oral lesions and general physical changes were recorded. Every patient was subjected to laboratory investigation for CD4 count. All these findings were tabulated. The clinical observation and laboratory findings were subjected to critical analysis and correlated. Statistical test, i.e. Student's " t" test, was applied and objective conclusions were drawn. Result: Out of 124 patients, 40 had oral candidiasis, 6 had oral hairy leukoplakia, 12 had periodontal disease, 20 had xerostomia, 30 had melanin pigmentation, while 4 had HSV2, and atypical ulceration. Out of 40 patients with oral candidiasis, 28 patients had CD4 count <200 (group A), 10 patients were in group, B (CD4 count 200-500 cell/mm 3 ) and 2 patients in group C(CD4 >500 cell/mm 3 ). Oral hairy leukoplakia occurred in equal proportions in group A and B. These periodontal diseases were more commonly in group B; xerostomia and melanin pigmentation was equally seen in group A and B. Conclusion: Oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis are specific oral indicators which will definitely suggest to the dental surgeon that the disease is running a rapid downhill course and due to this the oral physician is in a position to raise a suspicion and alert the general physician regarding the declining immune status of patient.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/etiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Candidiasis, Oral/etiology , Candidiasis, Oral/immunology , Erythema/etiology , Erythema/immunology , Gingival Diseases/etiology , Gingival Diseases/immunology , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/etiology , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Herpesvirus 2, Human/immunology , Humans , Leukoplakia, Hairy/etiology , Leukoplakia, Hairy/immunology , Melanosis/etiology , Melanosis/immunology , Mouth Diseases/etiology , Mouth Diseases/immunology , Oral Ulcer/etiology , Oral Ulcer/immunology , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Periodontal Diseases/immunology , Stomatitis, Herpetic/etiology , Stomatitis, Herpetic/immunology , Xerostomia/etiology , Xerostomia/immunology
16.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4,supl.1): 129-132, jul,-ago. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604141

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of a patient presenting with HIV and paracoccidioidomycosis co-infection. At the time of diagnosis total CD4+ T-cell count was 4 cells/mm3. Histopathology revealed tuberculoid granulomas, scarce CD4+ T cells, a moderate number of CD8+ cells and the absence of Foxp3+ cells. Most of the cutaneous lesions healed after two weeks of treatment with amphotericin B. After 14 months the patient is still under antiretroviral therapy and no clinical evidence of recurrence of the mycosis has been observed.


Neste trabalho apresenta-se paciente com coinfecção paracoccidioidomicose/Aids. No momento do diagnóstico, a contagem de células T CD4 + era 4 células. No exame histopatológico, observou-se a presença de granulomas tuberculóides bem formados e na imunohistoquímica, ausência de células Foxp3, raros linfócitos T CD4+ e presença de células T CD8+ em moderada quantidade. Com duas semanas de uso da anfotericina B, verificou-se a regressão de grande parte das lesões cutâneas. Após 14 meses, o paciente encontra-se em uso de terapia antiretroviral e sem evidências de atividade da micose.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , /immunology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(4,supl.1): 168-172, jul,-ago. 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604151

ABSTRACT

Paciente masculino, 27 anos, portador de HIV, com quadro de histoplasmose cutânea disseminada. Terapia antirretroviral oral e anfotericina B por via EV (dose total acumulada 0,5g) foram introduzidas, verificando-se rápida cicatrização das lesões após duas semanas. A anfotericina B foi substituída por itraconazol (200mg/dia). O paciente interrompeu voluntariamente os tratamentos. A terapia antirretroviral foi reintroduzida, havendo aumento da contagem de células T CD4-positivas (No restante do texto, a autora usa o símbolo "+" (T CD4+) ao invés da palavra "positiva". O que fazer neste caso? Seguimos o padrão do restante do texto ou acatamos essa opção da autora no resumo?!). Neste momento, diagnosticou-se histoplasmose ganglionar. O aumento da contagem de células T CD4-positivas (de novo aqui), associado à redução da carga viral a níveis inferiores ao limite de detecção após a reintrodução da terapia antirretroviral, sugere que essa piora clínica paradoxal seja uma síndrome de restauração imune.


A 27-year-old HIV-positive male patient with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis was treated with both HAART and amphotericin B (total accumulated dose of 0.5g). Amphotericin B was later replaced with itraconazole (200mg/day). Two months after therapy had been started and the cutaneous lesions had healed, the patient interrupted both treatments voluntarily and his health deteriorated. HAART was then re-introduced and CD4+ cell count increased sharply at the same time as lymph node histoplasmosis was diagnosed. This paradoxical response? the relapse of histoplasmosis and concomitant increase in CD4+ cell count and undetectable viral load after resumption of HAART ? suggests that this was a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Histoplasmosis/complications , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/immunology , Medication Adherence , Viral Load
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(4): 520-521, July-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-596607

ABSTRACT

HIV coinfection modifies the clinical course of leishmaniasis by promoting a Th2 pattern of cytokine production. However, little information is available regarding the lymphocytic response in untreated coinfected patients. This work presents the immunophenotyping of Leishmania-stimulated T cells from a treatment-naÏve HIV+ patient with ML. Leishmania braziliensis antigens induced CD69 expression on CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ cells. It also increased IL-4 intracellular staining on CD3+CD4+GATA3- population and decreased the percentage of CD3+CD4+IL-17+ cells. This suggests that modulations in the IL-4R/STAT6 pathway and the Th17 population may serve as parasitic evasion mechanisms in HIV/ML. Further studies are required to confirm these results.


A co-infecção por HIV modifica o curso clínico da leishmaniose ao promover aumento no perfil Th2 de produção de citocinas. No entanto, há pouca informação a respeito da resposta linfocitária em pacientes co-infectados sem tratamento. Neste trabalho, foi realizada a imunofenotipagem de células T estimuladas com antígenos de Leishmania braziliensis em paciente não tratado HIV+ e com leishmaniose mucosa. Os resultados mostraram aumento na expressão de CD69 em células CD3+CD4+ e CD3+CD8+. Além disso, foi observado aumento de IL-4 na população de linfócitos CD3+CD4+GATA3- e diminuição no percentual de células CD3+CD4+IL-17+. Estes resultados sugerem que a modulação da via IL-4R/STAT6 e da população de células Th17 funcione como mecanismo de evasão parasitária em HIV/LM. Estudos futuros são necessários para confirmar estes resultados.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/classification
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(3): 282-285, May-June 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593359

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The situation of tuberculosis (TB) is being modified by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is increasing the occurrence of new cases and the generation of drug resistant strains, affecting not only the people infected with HIV, but also their close contacts and the general population, conforming a serious public health concern. However, the magnitudes of the factors associated to this co-infection differ considerably in relation to the population groups and geographical areas. METHODS: In order to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for the co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) in a population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) in the Southeast of Mexico, we made the analysis of clinical and epidemiological variables and the diagnosis of tuberculosis by isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory samples. RESULTS: From the 147 HIV+ individuals analyzed, 12 were culture positive; this shows a prevalence of 8 percent for the co-infection. The only variable found with statistical significance for the co-infection was the number of CD4-T < 200 cells/mm³, OR 13 (95 percent, CI 2-106 vs 12-109). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report describing the factors associated with tuberculosis co -infection with HIV in a population from Southern Mexico. The low number of CD4 T-cells was the only variable associated with the TB co-infection and the rest of the variables provide scenarios that require specific and particular interventions for this population group.


INTRODUÇÃO: A situação da tuberculose (TB) foi modificada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Com isso, aumentou-se a ocorrência de novos casos de TB e a geração de cepas resistentes à droga, afetando não só as pessoas infectadas com HIV, mas também seus contatos próximos e da população em geral, gerando um sério problema de saúde pública. No entanto, a magnitude dos fatores associados à esta coinfecção diferem consideravelmente em relação aos grupos populacionais e áreas geográficas. MÉTODOS: Para avaliar a prevalência da comorbilidade e fatores de risco da coinfecção de tuberculose (TB) em uma população com o vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH+) no sudeste do México, nós fizemos a análise das variáveis clínicas e epidemiológicas e de isolamento da micobactérias através de cultura de amostras respiratórias. RESULTADOS: A partir de 147 indivíduos HIV+ analisados, 12 foram positivos na cultura, o que mostra uma prevalência de 8 por cento para a coinfecção. A única variável com significância estatística encontrada para a coinfecção foi o número de células CD4-T<200 células/mm³, OR 13 (95 por cento, CI 2-106 vs 12-109). CONCLUSÕES: Ao nosso conhecimento este é o primeiro relatório que descreve os fatores associados à coinfecção de tuberculose com HIV em uma população do sudeste do Mexico. O baixo número de células T CD4+ foi à única variável associada com a coinfecção por TB no resto das variáveis, proporcionando situações que exigem intervenções específicas e particulares para este grupo populacional.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Mexico/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(1): 6-11, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of HIV-1-HTLV-1 coinfected patients, in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective, comparative study. RESULTS: Among a total of 123 consecutive HIV infected patients, 20 men (20.6 percent) and 6 women (23.1 percent) had detectable antibodies against HTLV-I/II. The major risk factor associated with coinfection by HTLV was intravenous drug use (57.7 percent of coinfected patient versus 9.2 percent of HTLV seronegative patients, p < 0.0001). Coinfected patients had higher absolute lymphocyte counts (1,921 + 762 versus 1,587 + 951, p = 0.03). Both groups of patients had similar means of CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. However, among patients with AIDS CD4+ cell counts were significantly higher among those coinfected with HTLV-I/II (292 ± 92 cells/mm³, versus 140 ± 177cells/mm³, p = 0.36). The frequency and type of opportunistic infections were similar for both groups, but strongyloidiasis and encephalopathy were more frequently diagnosed in coinfected patients (p < 0.05). On the other hand, patients coinfected with HTLV-I/II received significantly less antiretroviral therapy than singly infected by HIV-1. CONCLUSION: Coinfection by HTLV-I/II is associated with an increased risk of strongyloidiasis for HIV patients. Higher CD4 count may lead to underestimation of immunodeficiency, and delay to initiate antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , HTLV-II Infections/complications , Strongyloidiasis/etiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HTLV-I Infections/complications , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-I Infections/immunology , HTLV-II Infections/diagnosis , HTLV-II Infections/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Strongyloidiasis/immunology
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