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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 663-666, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La bacteriemia es una presentación atípica de la infección por Campylobacter jejuni, y es más frecuente en pacientes con inmunodepresión avanzada debido al VIH u otras enfermedades sistémicas. Debido a la terapia anti-retroviral, en las últimas décadas el número de casos ha disminuido. Presentamos el caso de una mujer en situación de calle, con VIH en etapa C3, que cursó con una bacteriemia por C. jejuni durante su hospitalización por una tuberculosis pulmonar. Realizamos una breve revisión de bacteriemia por C. jejuni en pacientes con VIH.


Bacteremia is an atypical presentation of Campylobacter jejuni infection and it is more frequent in patients with advanced inmunodepression due to HIV or other sistemic diseases. Because of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, in the last decades the number of cases had declined. We report a case of a homeless woman with HIV in C3 stage who was diagnosed with the bacteremia during her hospitalization for pulmonary tuberculosis, and a brief review of C. jejuni bacteremia in HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Campylobacter Infections/microbiology , Campylobacter jejuni/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Campylobacter Infections/immunology , Campylobacter Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(4): 377-385, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978048

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se desconocen los factores asociados a la candidiasis oral en población pediátrica con infección por VIH de los países en desarrollo. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la colonización por Candida, candidiasis oral y la susceptibilidad in vitro a antifúngicos, en niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH institucionalizados en la ciudad de Tijuana, México. Materiales y Métodos: Se examinó la cavidad oral de 30 niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH, se obtuvo una muestra de la mucosa oral para identificar las especies de Candida mediante cultivo y auxonograma. La susceptibilidad a los antifúngicos se determinó de acuerdo al CLSI. Los indicadores del estado inmunológico y falla virológica se clasificaron conforme a la OMS. Resultados: Se identificaron seis especies de Candida, 53% colonizantes y 47% causantes de candidiasis. Los factores asociados a candidiasis fueron alta carga viral (p = 0,001), menor recuento de LTCD4+ (p = 0,002) y esquema TARAA (p ≤ 0,014). La especie prevalente fue C. glabrata (33%); sin embargo, C. albicans (27%) fue más resistente a fluconazol (p = 0,001). Las especies resistentes a itraconazol se identificaron en esquemas que incluyen un INNTR (p = 0,041). Conclusiones: Los niños y adolescentes con infección por VIH institucionalizados mostraron una prevalencia elevada de Candida spp. colonizante y resistencia a los antifúngicos relacionada con los INNTR .


Background: Factors associated with candidiasis and colonization in HIV-positive children and adolescents in developing countries are not well understood. Aim: To identify the factors associated with oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in institutionalized HIV-positive children and adolescents in Tijuana, México, as well as the response of the isolates to antifungals. Materials and Methods: Sample of the oral mucosa of 30 HIV positive children and adolescents were obtained to isolate and identify Candida species by culture and metabolic profile. Antifungal drugs susceptibility was determined according to CLSI. Indicators of immunological and virologic failure were classified in accordance to WHO criteria. Results: Six Candida species were identified from oral mucosa, 53% colonizers and 47% in candidiasis. Factors associated with candidiasis and oral colonization were viral load (p = 0,001), CD4+ counts (p = 0,002) and HAART regimen (p ≤ 0,014). The most prevalent species was C. glabrata (33%), but C. albicans (27%) was more resistant to fluconazole (p = 0,001). Itraconazol resistant species were identified in regimens that include an NNRTI (p = 0,041). Conclusion: HIV-positive children and adolescents living in an orphanage showed high prevalence of colonizing Candida spp. and resistance to antifungals, related to NNRTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Candida albicans/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Viral Load , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mexico , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 352-356, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041467

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION We describe the clinical and laboratorial features of oral candidiasis in 66 HIV-positive patients. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques were performed for differentiation of Candida spp. isolated from patients at a public teaching hospital in Midwest Brazil. RESULTS: Oral lesions, mainly pseudomembranous, were significantly related to higher levels of immunosuppression. Of 45 Candida isolates, 66.7% were C. albicans. Most of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal drugs tested. CONCLUSIONS: Oral lesions were associated with higher immunosuppression levels. Lower susceptibility to antifungals by non-albicans isolates supports the importance of surveillance studies using susceptibility tests to aid in the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Candida/drug effects , Candidiasis, Oral/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Mycological Typing Techniques , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Middle Aged
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(3): 207-210, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954980

ABSTRACT

Desde 2003, en los países desarrollados han aumentado las comunicaciones sobre casos de linfogranuloma venéreo con cuadros clínicos diferentes de la forma inguinal clásica. Las presentaciones anorrectales, hasta hace poco atípicas, predominan en hombres infectados por HIV que tienen sexo con hombres. El objetivo de este trabajo es informar sobre la presencia de esta infección en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y describir sus variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el contexto de una pesquisa sistemática de la infección rectal por clamidias, en apenas un trimestre fueron identificados ocho casos de linfogranuloma venéreo por Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV en hombres HIV positivos que tienen sexo con hombres. Las manifestaciones anorrectales más frecuentes fueron pujo, tenesmo, urgencia evacuatoria y secreción mucosa o hemopurulenta. En su mayoría presentaban proctitis leve o moderada, acompañada en algunos casos de lesiones perianales. Dados el polimorfismo y la inespecificidad de las manifestaciones clínicas del linfogranuloma venéreo rectal, se advierte sobre la circulación de esta infección en nuestro medio. En caso de detectar Chlamydia trachomatis, es importante genotipificarla para el correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad y también para su vigilancia epidemiológica. Si la genotipificación no es posible, se debe considerar el caso como producido por el biovar LGV y aplicar el tratamiento correspondiente.


From 2003 to date there has been a rising number of reports from developed countries on cases of lymphogranuloma venereum with anorectal localization in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. This localization differs from the classical inguinal abscesses which are typical of the disease in the tropics. The objective of this work is to document the presence of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum in Buenos Aires and to describe its varied clinical manifestations. In the context of a systematic survey of rectal chlamydial infection, in just one trimester, eight cases of lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar LGV were identified in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. The most frequent anorectal manifestations were pus, tenesmus, rectal urgency, and mucous or haemopurulent discharge. The proctitis was mostly mild or moderate and, in some cases, it was accompanied by perianal lesions. Given the great polymorphism and unspecificity of the clinical manifestations of the disease, we warn on the presence of this form of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in our setting. If Chlamydia trachomatis is detected, it should be genotyped, not only for the correct diagnosis and treatment but also for epidemiological surveillance. Where genotyping is not available, the disease must be considered as caused by the LGV biovar and treated accordingly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Proctitis/diagnosis , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/genetics , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Polymorphism, Genetic , Proctitis/microbiology , Lymphogranuloma Venereum/microbiology , Prospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 167-172, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America and the leading fungal cause of mortality in non-immunosuppressed individuals in Brazil. However, HIV/PCM co-infection can increase the clinical severity in these co-infected patients. This co-infection is rarely reported in the literature mainly because of the different epidemiological profiles of these infections. Furthermore, PCM is a neglected and non-notifiable disease, which may underestimate the real importance of this disease. The advent of molecular studies on the species of the genus Paracoccidioides has expanded the knowledge regarding the severity and the clinical spectrum in PCM. In this context, the development of studies to describe the association of the Paracoccidioides phylogenetic cryptic species in vulnerable populations, such as HIV-infected patients, appears relevant. OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic and prognostic aspects in HIV/PCM co-infected patients, along with the molecular identification of the Paracoccidioides species involved in these cases. METHODS The investigators performed a molecular and clinical retrospective study involving HIV/PCM co-infected patients, from a reference centre for PCM care in the endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2015. Molecular identification of the fungal strains was done by amplification of partial sequences of arf and gp43 genes. FINDINGS Of 89 patients diagnosed with PCM by fungal isolation in the culture, a viable isolate was recovered for molecular analysis from 44 patients. Of these 44 patients, 28 (63.6%) had their serum samples submitted for enzyme immunoassay tests for screening of HIV antibodies, and 5 (17.9%) had a positive result. All cases were considered severe, with a variable clinical presentation, including mixed, acute/subacute clinical forms and a high rate of complications, requiring combination therapy. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis S1 was the species identified in all cases. CONCLUSIONS HIV/PCM co-infection can change the natural history of this fungal disease. The authors reinforce the need to include HIV screening diagnostic tests routinely for patients with PCM.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(7): e180060, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894944

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and the closely related species C. gattii. The severe form of the disease, cryptococcal meningitis (CM), is rapidly fatal without treatment. Although typically a disease of immunocompromised (especially HIV-positive) individuals, there is growing awareness of cryptococcal disease amongst non-immunocompromised patients. Whilst substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathogenicity of C. neoformans in HIV patients, prospective data on cryptococcosis outside the context of HIV remains lacking. Below we review how innate immune responses vary between hosts depending on immunological status, and discuss risk factors and predictors of disease outcome in different groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Immunity, Innate
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(5): 502-506, oct. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899750

ABSTRACT

Resumen La aspergilosis cerebral es una patología infrecuente, pero de elevada mortalidad en pacientes con SIDA. Es importante considerarla entre los diagnósticos diferenciales ante una lesión expansiva cerebral. Se requiere un alto grado de sospecha para poder realizar un diagnóstico precoz. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con infección por VIH con un cuadro neurológico rápidamente progresivo por Aspergillus sección flavi. Se realiza una revisión de 40 casos publicados de aspergilosis cerebral en pacientes con SIDA.


Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare disease with high mortality rates in AIDS patients. It is important to take this into account in the differential diagnosis of a brain expansive lesion. A high level of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with progresive neurological disease caused by Aspergillus flavi. We review 40 previously published cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in patients with AIDS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Brain Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neuroaspergillosis/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/immunology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , Fatal Outcome , Neuroaspergillosis/diagnosis , Neuroaspergillosis/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunocompetence
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(4): 347-351, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección por Cystoisospora belli es una de las causas más frecuentes de diarrea acuosa en pacientes con infección por VIH y ocasiona altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo en pacientes infectados con VIH y diarrea por C. belli. Características clínicas y de laboratorio fueron recolectadas mediante el análisis de historias clínicas. Resultados: Se identificaron siete casos. Cuatro presentaron diarrea recurrente a pesar de recibir profilaxis secundaria con cotrimoxazol y tratamiento específico, dos de los cuales tuvieron buena respuesta viral e inmunológica al tratamiento anti-retroviral de gran actividad (TARGA) al momento del diagnóstico y tratamiento antiparasitario. Mientras que, los tres restantes no recibían profilaxis, tampoco TARGA (dos de ellos), pero respondieron bien al tratamiento. Conclusiones: C. belli es causa importante de diarrea en pacientes VIH con TARGA y profilaxis, pudiendo tener distinta evolución clínica. Sugerimos que la infección persistente puede ser debido al fallo farmacológico por causas intrínsecas o extrínsecas al parásito, o a defectos en la restauración del sistema inmune intestinal, o ambos.


Introduction: Cystoisospora belli infection is one of the most important causes of watery diarrhea in patients with HIV and causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with HIV and diarrhea by C. belli. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected by analyzing clinical records. Results: Four had recurrent diarrhea despite receiving secondary prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole and specific treatment, two of which had a good viral and immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the time of diagnosis and antiparasitic treatment. While the remaining three did not receive prophylaxis, neither did HAART (two of them), but they responded well to treatment. Conclusions: C. belli is an important cause of diarrhea in HIV patients on HAART and prophylaxis, being able to have different clinical evolution. We suggest that persistent infection may be due to drug failure by intrinsic or extrinsic to the parasite causes, or to defects in restoration of the intestinal immune system, or both.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coccidiosis/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Sarcocystidae/microbiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Peru , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Diarrhea/etiology
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 116-118, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839187

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 37-year-old man with AIDS presented with altered mental status four weeks after stopping his medications for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). He had low CD4 cell count and severe hypercalcemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed bone marrow infiltration by granulomas positive for acid-fast bacilli and cultures grew MAI. His hypercalcemia continued to worsen with the initiation of MAI therapy but we were able to treat it successfully with pamidronate and calcitonin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Hypercalcemia/microbiology , Hypercalcemia/diagnostic imaging , Bone Marrow/microbiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mycobacterium avium Complex/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Hypercalcemia/drug therapy
11.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842772

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Genotype , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842787

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Colombia , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Fatal Outcome , Genotype
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e13, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842793

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C. neoformans isolated from 2004 to 2013. We evaluated 41 patients, 85% of whom were diagnosed with AIDS. The fungus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients (51%); 19.5% had fungemia and in 24% the agent was isolated from the CSF and blood, concurrently. Meningoencephalitis was the most frequent (75%) manifestation of infection. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality of the disease was 58.5%. Most isolates (97.5%) presented the VNI genotype (serotype A, var. grubii) and one isolate was genotyped as C. gattii (VGI); all the isolates were determined as mating type MATa and showed susceptibility to the tested antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine). Although AIDS detection rates remain stable, opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis remain as major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cryptococcosis/mortality , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Hospitals, University , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
14.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e29, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842770

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Periodontal Diseases/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Periodontal Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Oral/epidemiology , Carrier State , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Mouth/microbiology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 569-575, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828154

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, from June 2013 to June 2015. Proven HIV-infected people attending this reference center were invited. Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained through interview with standardized form. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening was performed using qPCR (COBAS 4800® Roche). Results: The frequency of positive cases of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 12.3% in total, 9.2% cases amongst women and 17.1% amongst men. We found 14.0% of positive cases in anus and 3.1% in genital region in men, while 5.6% and 3.6%, in women, respectively. Among men, anal infection was associated with age <29 years (p = 0.033), report of anal intercourse (p = 0.029), pain during anal intercourse (p = 0.028). On the other hand, no association between genital infection and other variables were detected in bivariate analysis. Among women, we detected an association between Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and age <29 years (p < 0.001), younger age at first sexual intercourse (p = 0.048), pregnancy (p < 0.001), viral load >50 copies/mL (p = 0.020), and no antiretroviral use (p = 0.008). Anal infection in women was associated with age <29 years old (p < 0.001) and pregnancy (p = 0.023), and was not associated with report of anal intercourse (p = 0.485). Conclusion: Missed opportunities for diagnosis in extra genital sites could impact on HIV transmission. The extra genital sites need to be considered to break the HIV and bacterial sexually transmitted infections chain-of-transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Rectum/microbiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Genitalia, Female/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolation & purification
16.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(3): 268-272, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785800

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bordetella bronchiseptica (BB) is a Gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for respiratory diseases in dogs, cats and rabbits. Reports on its development in humans are rare. However, in immunosuppressed patients, especially in those with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV), BB can cause severe pulmonary infections. We report on two cases of pneumonia caused by BB in HIV-positive male patients in a university hospital. CASE REPORT: The first case comprised a 43-year-old patient who was admitted presenting chronic leg pain and coughing, with suspected pneumonia. BB was isolated from sputum culture and was successfully treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in association with levofloxacin. The second case comprised a 49-year-old patient who was admitted presenting fever, nausea, sweating and a dry cough, also with suspected pneumonia. BB was isolated from sputum culture, tracheal secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage. The disease was treated with ciprofloxacin but the patient died. CONCLUSION: BB should be included in the etiology of pneumonia in immunodeficient HIV patients. As far as we know, these two were the first cases of pneumonia due to BB to occur in this university hospital.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Bordetella bronchiseptica (BB) é um cocobacilo Gram-negativo responsável por causar doenças no trato respiratório de cães, gatos e coelhos. São raros os relatos do desenvolvimento desse microrganismo em seres humanos. Porém, em pacientes imunodeprimidos, especialmente nos portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), a BB pode causar infecções pulmonares graves. Nós relatamos dois casos de pneumonia por BB em pacientes do sexo masculino, HIV-positivos em um hospital universitário. RELATO DE CASO: No primeiro caso, o paciente de 43 anos foi internado apresentando dor crônica nos membros inferiores e tosse com suspeita de pneumonia. Na cultura de escarro, foi isolado BB, e a infecção foi tratada com sucesso com a associação de sulfametoxazol/trimetroprima e levofloxacino. No segundo caso, o paciente de 49 anos foi internado apresentando febre, náuseas, sudorese e tosse seca, também com suspeita de pneumonia. Das culturas de escarro, secreção traqueal e lavado bronco-alveolar, foi isolado BB, infecção tratada com ciprofloxacino: porém, o paciente foi a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: BB deve ser incluído na etiologia de pneumonia em pacientes imunocomprometidos com HIV. Pelo que é de nosso conhecimento, estes dois relatos foram os primeiros casos de pneumonia por BB que ocorreram neste hospital universitário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Bordetella Infections/complications , Bordetella bronchiseptica/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology , Bordetella Infections/diagnostic imaging , Immunocompromised Host , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(5): 413-419, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766275

ABSTRACT

The colonization of the oral cavity is a prerequisite to the development of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Aims: The aims of this study were: to evaluate colonization and quantify Candida spp. in the oral cavity; to determine the predisposing factors for colonization; and to correlate the levels of CD4+ cells and viral load with the yeast count of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) in HIV-positive individuals treated at a University Hospital. Saliva samples were collected from 147 HIV patients and were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) and chromogenic agar, and incubated at 30 ºC for 72 h. Colonies with similar morphology in both media were counted and the result expressed in CFU/mL. Results: Of the 147 HIV patients, 89 had positive cultures for Candida spp., with a total of 111 isolates, of which C. albicans was the most frequent species (67.6%), and the mean of colonies counted was 8.8 × 10³ CFU/mL. The main predisposing factors for oral colonization by Candida spp. were the use of antibiotics and oral prostheses. The use of reverse transcriptase inhibitors appears to have a greater protective effect for colonization. A low CD4+ T lymphocyte count is associated with a higher density of yeast in the saliva of HIV patients.


RESUMO A colonização da cavidade oral pode ser considerada um pré-requisito para o desenvolvimento de candidíase orofaríngea. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: avaliar e quantificar espécies de Candidaisoladas da cavidade oral, para determinar os fatores predisponentes para a colonização, e correlacionar os níveis de células CD4+ e carga viral em indivíduos HIV-positivos atendidos em um hospital universitário. Foram coletadas amostras de saliva de 147 pacientes portadores do HIV, as quais foram semeadas em Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose (ASD) e ágar cromogênico e incubadas a 30 °C por 72 horas. As colônias com morfologia semelhante em ambos os meios foram contadas e o resultado expresso em unidade formadora de colônias por mililitro (UFC/mL). Dos 147 pacientes HIV positivos, 89 apresentaram culturas positivas para Candidaspp., totalizando 111 isolados, e C. albicansfoi a espécie mais frequente (67,6%). A contagem média de colônias foi de 8.8 × 10³ UFC/mL. Os principais fatores predisponentes para colonização oral por Candidaspp. foram a utilização de antibióticos e de próteses orais. O uso de antirretroviral da classe de inibidores da transcriptase reversa pareceu ter maior efeito protetor para a colonização. Baixa contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ está relacionada com maior densidade de leveduras na saliva de indivíduos HIV positivos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Candida/classification , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Saliva/virology , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Viral Load
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(3,supl.1): 32-35, May-June 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755767

ABSTRACT

Abstract

We present a case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in a male patient, rural worker, HIV positive for 20 years, with a history of irregular use of antiretroviral therapy, T cell counts below 50 cells/mm3 and with good response to treatment with Itraconazole. We highlight importance of skin lesions in clarifying early diagnosis, since this co-infection often leads patients to death.

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Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Histoplasmosis/immunology , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Immunocompetence/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Biopsy , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 62-67, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741236

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study evaluated the use of polymerase chain reaction for cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis in clinical samples. Materials and methods: The sensitivity and specificity of the methodology were evaluated using eight Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex reference strains and 165 cere- brospinal fluid samples from patients with neurological diseases divided into two groups: 96 patients with cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS; and 69 patients with other neurological opportunistic diseases (CRL/AIDS). Two primer sets were tested (CN4-CN5 and the multiplex CNa70S-CNa70A/CNb49S-CNb-49A that amplify a specific product for C. neoformans and another for C. gattii). Results: CN4-CN5 primer set was positive in all Cryptococcus standard strains and in 94.8% in DNA samples from cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. With the multiplex, no 448-bp product of C. gattii was observed in the clinical samples of either group. The 695 bp products of C. neoformans were observed only in 64.6% of the cryptococcal meningitis and AIDS group. This primer set was negative for two standard strains. The specificity based on the negative samples from the CTL/AIDS group was 98.5% in both primer sets. Conclusions: These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/genetics , Genotype , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(4): 411-416, ago. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724811

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rhodococcus equi is a gram positive coccoid rod that causes pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, radiological, and immunological features as well as the outcomes of 13 AIDS patients with R. equi infection. Results: Between January 1994 and December 2012, 13 patients attending the AIDS department of the Infectious Diseases reference hospital in Buenos Aires were diagnosed with R. equi infection. All were men, the median age was 27 years. At the time of diagnosis, the median of CD4+ T cell counts was 11 cells/μl Twelve patients presented pulmonary disease with isolation of the microorganism from sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage; in the other patient the diagnosis was postmortem with positive culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequent clinical manifestations were fever, haemoptysis, and weight loss. The predominant radiological finding was lobe consolidation with cavitation. Nine patients died after a median survival of 5.5 months. In all of them, cultures persisted positive until the last admission. The other 4 patients did continue clinical follow-ups. Conclusion: The insidious course of R. equi disease and the difficulties in the isolation of the microorganism contribute to the delay in the diagnosis and to the high mortality rate of this opportunistic infection.


Introducción: Rhodococcus equi es un cocobacilo grampositivo que provoca compromiso pulmonar en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Métodos: En el presente trabajo se analizaron de manera retrospectiva los hallazgos epidemiológicos, clínicos, microbiológicos, imagenológicos, inmunológicos y la evolución de 13 pacientes con SIDA y enfermedad por R. equi. Resultados: Entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 2012, 13 pacientes internados en la División de VIH/SIDA del hospital de referencia para Enfermedades Infecciosas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires egresaron con diagnóstico de enfermedad por R. equi. Todos eran varones y la mediana de edad fue 27 años. La mediana de linfocitos T CD4+ fue de 11 céls/μl Doce pacientes presentaron enfermedad pulmonar con aislamiento del microorganismo del esputo o del lavado bronco-alveolar; en el restante se recibió post mortem el cultivo positivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron fiebre, hemoptisis y pérdida de peso. La imagen radiológica predominante fue la consolidación con cavitación. Nueve pacientes fallecieron, con una mediana de supervivencia de 5,5 meses. En todos ellos el cultivo persistió positivo hasta la última internación. Los cuatro restantes abandonaron los controles y no pudieron ser evaluados en el tiempo. Conclusión: El curso insidioso de la enfermedad por R. equi y las dificultades en la identificación del microorganismo, contribuyen al retardo en el diagnóstico y a la elevada mortalidad de esta infección oportunista en esta población de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Actinomycetales Infections/microbiology , Rhodococcus equi , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Argentina , Actinomycetales Infections/diagnosis , Actinomycetales Infections/mortality , Delayed Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
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