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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(2): 155-161, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897065


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) and is characterized by progressive and fatal evolution in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, it is considered an AIDS-defining disease. METHODS: We performed an observational, analytical, retrospective study to identify the clinical outcomes and risk factors for death from DH in patients with AIDS at an infectious diseases service facility in Brazil between September 2011 and July 2016. Patients with a positive serology for HIV and DH were diagnosed via direct examination and/or positive cultures for H. capsulatum. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Approximately, 82.6% were men, with a mean age of 41.0±11.5 years, and 52.2% had a concomitant diagnosis of AIDS and DH. The median CD4+ T cell count was 19 cells/mm3, and 56.5% of the patients died. The most frequently observed symptoms were fever, dyspnea, and skin lesions. On the basis of a comparative analysis of those who died and survived, the absence of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly and the presence of H. capsulatum in the peripheral blood were considered as risk factors for death. Those who died had a higher leukocyte count; CRP, urea, and lactate dehydrogenase levels; AST index; and international normalized ratio prothrombin time. The serum total protein and albumin levels of the patients were lower. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate for DH is high among severely immunocompromised patients with AIDS. The risk factors for death were those traditionally associated with blood dyscrasia, inflammatory activity, as well as increased renal and nutritional impairment.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Histoplasmosis/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Immunocompromised Host
Rev. chil. infectol ; 35(1): 41-48, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899776


Resumen Introducción La principal causa de muerte en pacientes infectados con VIH es la tuberculosis (TBC). Pocos estudios latinoamericanos han evaluado la sobrevida de pacientes co-infectados. Objetivo Determinar factores asociados a sobrevida en pacientes con co-infección VIH-TBC atendidos en un hospital peruano. Materiales y Métodos Estudio de cohorte, retrospectivo, en base a registros clínicos de pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Infectología del Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza durante los años 2004-2012. Se evaluó la sobrevida de 315 pacientes, utilizando las curvas de Kaplan-Meier y el método de Riesgos Proporcionales de Cox. Resultados De 315 pacientes, 82 murieron durante el seguimiento. La mediana de seguimiento para cada participante fue de 730 días. El análisis multivariado mostró que recibir TARGA (HR: 0,31; IC: 0,20-0,50; p < 0,01) y tener mayor peso (HR: 0,96; IC 0,94-0,98; p < 0,01) al momento del diagnóstico de la co-infección fueron factores protectores; mientras que tener una patología distinta a TBC (HR: 1,88; IC: 1,19-2,98; p < 0,01), edad mayor a 34 años (HR: 1,76; IC: 1,12-2,74; p ≤ 0,01), y estar hospitalizado al momento del diagnóstico (HR: 1,69; IC 1,02-2,80; p < 0,04) se asociaron a menor sobrevida. Discusión Recibir TARGA y tener mayor peso al momento del diagnóstico de la coinfección se asociaron a mayor sobrevida.

Background The main cause of death in HIV patients is tuberculosis (TB). However, few Latin American studies have evaluated the prognosis of patients with coinfection. Aim To determine the factors associated with survival in patients with HIV-TB coinfection treated at a Peruvian referral hospital. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed based on clinical records of patients treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital from 2004 to 2012. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox Proportional Hazard Model. Results From 315 patients, 82 died during the follow-up. The mean of follow for each patient was 730 days. The multivariate analysis showed that receiving HAART (HR: 0,31; IC: 0,20-0,50; p < 0,01) and having more weight (HR: 0,96; IC 0,94-0,98; p < 0,01) when the coinfection was diagnosed, were protective factors; while having a pathology different from TB (HR: 1,88; IC: 1,19-2,98; p < 0,01), age in years (HR: 1,76; IC: 1,12-2,74; p ≤ 0,01) and being hospitalized when diagnosed with TB (HR: 1,69; IC 1,02-2,80; p < 0,04) were associated with lower survival. Discussion Receiving HAART and having more weight when the coinfection is diagnosed were associated with a higher chance of survival.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/mortality , Tuberculosis/virology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Peru/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Coinfection/drug therapy
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 22(11): 3781-3792, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890185


Resumo O presente estudo buscou analisar a sobrevida de pacientes com a coinfecção AIDS-Tuberculose por meio de um estudo de coorte retrospectivo de indivíduos com 13 anos ou mais e diagnóstico de AIDS notificados nos anos de 1998-99 e seguimento de 10 anos. Dos 2.091 casos de AIDS, 517 (24,7%) tinham diagnóstico positivo para tuberculose, sendo 379 (73,3%) masculinos. O risco entre os coinfectados foi 1,65 vezes os não coinfectados. As variáveis associadas à maior sobrevida foram: sexo feminino (HR = 0,63), escolaridade ≥ oito anos (HR = 0,52), critério diagnóstico CD4 (HR = 0,64); e à menor sobrevida: faixa etária ≥ 60 anos (HR = 2,33), não uso de ARV (HR = 8,62), não investigação para hepatite B (HR = 2,44) e doenças oportunistas (≥ duas) (HR = 1,97). A sobrevivência acumulada foi de 71% nos não coinfectados e 62% nos coinfectados na região Sul e de 74% e 58%, respectivamente, na região Sudeste, 60 meses após o diagnóstico de AIDS. A AIDS e a Tuberculose exigem acompanhamento e adesão ao tratamento e são marcadores da atenção à saúde e da sobrevivência dos pacientes no Brasil.

Abstract The study investigates the survival of patients with co-infection AIDS-TB through a retrospective study of a cohort of individuals aged 13 or more and the diagnosis of AIDS reported in the years 1998-99 and following 10 years. Of the 2,091 AIDS cases, 517 (24.7%) had positive diagnosis for tuberculosis, and 379 (73.3%) were male. The risk among co-infected patients was 1,65 times the not co-infected. Have been compared the exposed and non-exposed through the Kaplan-Meier and Cox method. The variables associated with longer survival were: female gender (HR = 0.63), educational level ≥ eight years (HR = 0.52), CD4 diagnostic criteria (HR = 0.64); and shorter survival: age ≥ 60 years (HR = 2.33), no use of HAART (HR = 8.62), no investigation to Hepatitis B (HR = 2.44) and opportunistic infections ≥ two (HR = 1.97). The average survival rate, related to TB infection was 69 months for the Southeast region and 73 months for the South. AIDS and tuberculosis require monitoring and treatment adherence and they are markers of the quality of care and survival of patients in Brazil.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/mortality , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Medication Adherence , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Coinfection , Middle Aged
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 562-566, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039200


Abstract Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of tuberculosis and its consequences among individuals diagnosed with virological failure of HIV. This was a retrospective cohort study involving people living with HIV/AIDS being followed-up in an AIDS reference center in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Individuals older than 18 years with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months, diagnosed with virological failure (HIV-RNA greater than or equal to 1000 copies/mL), from January to December 2013 were included. Tuberculosis was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Brazilian Society of Pneumology. Fourteen out of 165 (8.5%) patients developed tuberculosis within two years of follow-up (incidence density = 4.1 patient-years). Death was directly related to tuberculosis in 6/14 (42.9%). A high incidence and tuberculosis-related mortality was observed among patients with virological failure. Diagnosis of and prophylaxis for tuberculosis in high-incidence countries such as Brazil is critical to decrease morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Failure , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 172-176, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838062


Abstract: Background: Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be the most common human immunodeficiency virus - associated neoplasm with considerable morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics, initial staging, and outcomes of aids patients with Kaposi's sarcoma at an university hospital of Recife, Pernambuco. Methods: This is a descriptive study with analytic character, retrospective, of a case series between 2004 and 2014. Results: Of the 22 patients included in the study, 20 were aged <40 years (72.7%). The majority had CD4+ T lymphocyte counts of <200 cells/mm3 (77.3%) and human immunodeficiency virus loads of <100,000 copies/mL (78.9%). Lesions were most commonly observed on the skin (90%), and internal organs were affected in 11 of the 22 patients. Only 7 (31.8%) of the 22 patients were undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of Kaposis sarcoma diagnosis, and the initial disease staging classification was high risk (Aids Clinical Trials Group Oncology Committee) in 19 of the 22 patients (86.4%). Regarding Kaposi's sarcoma treatment, 17 of 22 patients (77.3%) underwent systemic chemotherapy + ART and 5 were treated exclusively with ART. Eight of the 22 patients died (36.5%); of these, 87.5% had died within one year of Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis. Limitation of the study: Without a control group, this study cannot be used to generate hypotheses. Conclusions: Despite the association between aids and late Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis in the study population, including an unfavorable risk at the time of staging, a lower mortality rate was observed relative to other studies; this might be related to access to a specialized health service.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Sarcoma, Kaposi/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Sarcoma, Kaposi/diagnosis , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , Brazil/epidemiology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , Retrospective Studies , Mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Hospitals, University
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e3, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842771


ABSTRACT Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Digestive System/pathology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Autopsy , Digestive System/microbiology , Digestive System/parasitology , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e13, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842793


ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C. neoformans isolated from 2004 to 2013. We evaluated 41 patients, 85% of whom were diagnosed with AIDS. The fungus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients (51%); 19.5% had fungemia and in 24% the agent was isolated from the CSF and blood, concurrently. Meningoencephalitis was the most frequent (75%) manifestation of infection. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality of the disease was 58.5%. Most isolates (97.5%) presented the VNI genotype (serotype A, var. grubii) and one isolate was genotyped as C. gattii (VGI); all the isolates were determined as mating type MATa and showed susceptibility to the tested antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine). Although AIDS detection rates remain stable, opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis remain as major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cryptococcosis/mortality , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Hospitals, University , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903180


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the coding process of death causes for people living with HIV/AIDS, and classify deaths as related or unrelated to immunodeficiency by applying the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) system. METHODS A cross-sectional study that codifies and classifies the causes of deaths occurring in a cohort of 2,372 people living with HIV/AIDS, monitored between 2007 and 2012, in two specialized HIV care services in Pernambuco. The causes of death already codified according to the International Classification of Diseases were recoded and classified as deaths related and unrelated to immunodeficiency by the CoDe system. We calculated the frequencies of the CoDe codes for the causes of death in each classification category. RESULTS There were 315 (13%) deaths during the study period; 93 (30%) were caused by an AIDS-defining illness on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention list. A total of 232 deaths (74%) were related to immunodeficiency after application of the CoDe. Infections were the most common cause, both related (76%) and unrelated (47%) to immunodeficiency, followed by malignancies (5%) in the first group and external causes (16%), malignancies (12 %) and cardiovascular diseases (11%) in the second group. Tuberculosis comprised 70% of the immunodeficiency-defining infections. CONCLUSIONS Opportunistic infections and aging diseases were the most frequent causes of death, adding multiple disease burdens on health services. The CoDe system increases the probability of classifying deaths more accurately in people living with HIV/AIDS.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o processo de codificação das causas de morte em pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids, e classificar os óbitos como relacionados ou não relacionados à imunodeficiência aplicando o sistema Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe). MÉTODOS Estudo transversal, que codifica e classifica as causas dos óbitos ocorridos em uma coorte de 2.372 pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids acompanhadas entre 2007 e 2012 em dois serviços de atendimento especializado em HIV em Pernambuco. As causas de óbito já codificadas a partir da Classificação Internacional de Doenças foram recodificadas e classificadas como óbitos relacionados e não relacionados à imunodeficiência pelo sistema CoDe. Foram calculadas as frequências dos códigos CoDe das causas do óbito em cada categoria de classificação. RESULTADOS Ocorreram 315 (13%) óbitos no período do estudo; 93 (30%) tinham como causa uma doença definidora de Aids da lista do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No total 232 óbitos (74%) foram relacionados à imunodeficiência após aplicar o CoDe. As infecções foram as causas mais comuns, tanto nos óbitos relacionados (76%) como não relacionados (47%) à imunodeficiência, seguindo-se de malignidades (5%) no primeiro grupo e de causas externas (16%), malignidades (12%) e doenças cardiovasculares (11%) no segundo. A tuberculose compreendeu 70% das infecções definidoras de imunodeficiência. CONCLUSÕES Infecções oportunistas e doenças do envelhecimento foram as causas mais frequentes de óbito, imprimindo carga múltipla de doenças aos serviços de saúde. O sistema CoDe aumenta a probabilidade de classificar os óbitos com maior precisão em pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids.

Humans , Male , Female , Cause of Death , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Clinical Coding , Algorithms , Brazil/epidemiology , International Classification of Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications
Rev. med. interna Guatem ; 20(supl. 1): 31-38, 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987180


Tuberculosis (TB) es la enfermedad oportunista más importante relacionada con VIH, provocando manifestaciones clínicas graves y con frecuencia diseminadas, y afección extrapulmonar. En Guatemala es la principal causa de muerte en pacientes con Sida. OBJETIVO: Determinar la morbi-mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con Tuberculosis en Hospital Roosevelt. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico comprobado por tests microbiológicos positivos para Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mayores de 12 años de edad, ingresados en los servicios de Medicina interna durante el año 2013. Se consideraron positivos los pacientes con frotes de ZN, prueba de PCR-RT (GeneXpert de Cepheid). Se colectaron los datos clínicos y epidemiológicos de los pacientes con un instrumento estandarizado de manera prospectiva, generándose una base de datos en Excel 2010 y realizando el análisis estadístico con: SPSS21...(AU)

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the main opportunistic infection related to HIV, causing complex and serious disease, frequently, extra-pulmonary in HIV patients. In Guatemala it represents the main cause of death in AIDS patients and with an increased incidence in patients with other co-morbidities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the morbi-mortalily in admitted patients in internal medicine wards with tuberculosis at Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City. METHODOLOGY: Patients with proved infection by clinical and/or culture/PCR-RT positive to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were included, older than 12 years old, admitted to the internal medicine guards, which presented positive culture and/or ZN smears and/or PCR-RT (GeneXpert, Cepheid) positive tests in 2013. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected in a prospective manner, with a standardized instrument, generating an Excel 2010 data base that was analyzed by SPSS21. RESULTS: 200 patients were included, 61% males with man: woman ratio of 1.5:1. 48% presented HIV coinfection. 54% of the patients aged: 25 to 44 years old. 43% residents outside Guatemala City. The extra pulmonary TB was present in 65%. The highest mortality was observed in TB-HIV co-infected patients: 30.2% versus 10. % in lung cases (p=0.001). 2.1% died in the first 24 hours after admission, 13.5% between 1-7 days; 14.6% after 7 days of hospital stay, (p=0.002). Regarding the CD4 count, the higher mortality index was shown in the cases <100cel/mL 28.12%, versus 2.08% in > 100 (p=0.0001). CONCLUSSIONS: In a reference center like Roosevelt Hospital, the coinfection HIV-TB represents 48% of the TB cases. Mortality was higher in extrapulmonary TB and HIV patients with <100 CD4 counts

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Tuberculosis/mortality , HIV Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Coinfection/drug therapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Guatemala
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 38-45, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SESSP-IIERPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-762056


SUMMARYAIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis continues to cause a substantial burden of death in low and middle income countries. The diagnostic use for detection of cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen (CrAg) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid by latex agglutination test (CrAg-latex) or enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) has been available for over decades. Better diagnostics in asymptomatic and symptomatic phases of cryptococcosis are key components to reduce mortality. Recently, the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA) was included in the armamentarium for diagnosis. Unlike the other tests, the CrAg LFA is a dipstick immunochromatographic assay, in a format similar to the home pregnancy test, and requires little or no lab infrastructure. This test meets all of the World Health Organization ASSURED criteria (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid/robust, Equipment-free, and Delivered). CrAg LFA in serum, plasma, whole blood, or cerebrospinal fluid is useful for the diagnosis of disease caused by Cryptococcusspecies. The CrAg LFA has better analytical sensitivity for C. gattii than CrAg-latex or EIA. Prevention of cryptococcal disease is new application of CrAg LFA via screening of blood for subclinical infection in asymptomatic HIV-infected persons with CD4 counts < 100 cells/mL who are not receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. CrAg screening of leftover plasma specimens after CD4 testing can identify persons with asymptomatic infection who urgently require pre-emptive fluconazole, who will otherwise progress to symptomatic infection and/or die.

RESUMOA meningite criptocócica continua causando um substancial índice de óbitos em pacientes infectados por HIV em países de baixa e média renda. Ferramentas diagnósticas para detecção do antígeno capsular polissacarídico criptocócico (CrAg) em soro e líquor tais como o teste de aglutinação de látex (latex-CrAg) ou o imunoensaio (EIE) têm sido utilizadas por muitos anos. Técnicas diagnósticas mais aprimoradas seriam cruciais nas fases assintomática e sintomática da criptococose para reduzir a mortalidade. Recentemente, o ensaio de fluxo lateral para detecção do antígeno criptocócico (LFA CrAg) foi incluído no arsenal diagnóstico. Contrariamente aos outros testes, LFA CrAg é um ensaio imunocromatográfico em formato similar ao teste de gravidez, e requer pouca ou nenhuma infraestrutura laboratorial. Este teste preenche os critérios ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive,Specific, User friendly,Rapid/ robust,Equipment-free,Delivered) da Organização Mundial da Saúde e pode ser utilizado em soro, plasma, sangue total ou líquor para o diagnóstico da criptococose. LFA CrAg tem melhor sensibilidade analítica para o C. gattii que o teste de látex-CrAg ou EIE. A prevenção da doença criptocócica constituiria uma nova aplicação do LFA CrAg, mediante a triagem de amostras de sangue para a identificação de infecção sub-clínica em pacientes infectados pelo HIV que não apresentam sintomas, possuem contagem de CD4 < 100 células/mL e não recebem terapia antirretroviral eficaz. A triagem de CrgA em amostras de plasma remanescente da contagem de CD4 pode identificar pacientes com infecção assintomática que precisam urgentemente de tratamento preemptivo com fluconazol, evitando assim a progressão para doença sintomática e/ou óbito.

Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Antigens, Fungal/immunology , Cryptococcus/immunology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/blood , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Antigens, Fungal/blood , Chromatography, Affinity , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/blood , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/mortality , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(1): 77-81, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741229


Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, we have seen dramatic changes in morbi-mortality rates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. If on the one hand, the immunologic preservation-associated with the use of current antiretroviral therapy markedly diminishes the incidence of opportunistic infections, on the other hand it extended life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals similarly to the general population. However, the management of critically ill human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients remains challenging and troublesome for practicing clinician. Sepsis - a complex systemic inflammatory syndrome in response to infection - is the second leading cause of intensive care unit admission in both human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected populations. Recent data have emerged describing a substantial burden of sepsis in the infected population, in addition, to a much poorer prognosis in this group. Many factors contribute to this outcome, including specific etiologies, patterns of inflammation, underlying immune dysregulation related to chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection and delays in prompt diagnosis and treatment. This brief review explores the impact of sepsis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus infection, and proposes future directions for better management and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sepsis.

Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Sepsis/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis
Salud pública Méx ; 57(supl.2): s142-s152, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762078


Objetivo. Identificar y reasignar defunciones mal clasificadas por sida en México, y reconstruir la mortalidad 1983-2012, por entidad federativa, sexo, edad y derechohabiencia a la seguridad social. Material y métodos. Se analizaron 15.5 millones de defunciones de 1979 a 2012. La corrección de la mortalidad por sida se hizo en tres fases: a) por causas directamente relacionadas con sida, y b) por muertes mal codificadas; c) muertes por sida ocultas en otras causas. Se calcularon tasas estandarizadas por edad de mortalidad (TEM) por sexo, derechohabiencia a la seguridad social y entidad federativa. Resultados. Se acumularon 107981 muertes por sida entre 1983 y 2012 (11% más del total de muertes observadas). La TEM en hombres, para todos los grupos de edad, empieza a descender desde 1996, mientras que para las mujeres la caída inicia en 2008. Un panorama similar se observa para la población con/sin seguridad social. La heterogeneidad caracteriza la TEM estatal. Conclusión. Se presenta una metodología fácilmente replicable para la corrección de la mortalidad de sida que genera información relevante para la toma de decisiones fundamentada en la evidencia.

Objective. To identify and reassign misclassified AIDS deaths in Mexico, reconstructing the time series of mortality from 1983 to 2012, by state, sex, age, and affiliation to social security. Materials and methods. 15.5 million deaths from 1979 to 2012 were analyzed. The HIV-AIDS mortality correction was done in three phases: a) those causes directly related to AIDS; b) by miscoded deaths, and c) AIDS deaths hidden in other underlying causes of death. Age-standardized rates of mortality (SMR) were calculated by sex, affiliation to social security, and state. Results. 107 981 AIDS deaths from 1983 to 2012 were accumulated, representing 11% of total deaths observed for the period. The SMR in men for all age groups begins to decline since 1996, while for women the decline started in 2008. A similar picture is observed for the population with / without social security. Heterogeneity is a feature for SMR by state. Conclusion. An easily replicable methodology for the correction of mortality from AIDS, which generates relevant information for decision making based on the evidence is presented.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/mortality , International Classification of Diseases , Social Security , Comorbidity , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Mortality/trends , Cause of Death , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Medically Uninsured , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Diagnostic Errors , Mexico/epidemiology
Salud pública Méx ; 57(supl.2): s163-s170, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762068


Objetivo. Establecer las características y causas de muerte de pacientes VIH positivos que fallecen al estar hospitalizados. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes VIH positivos que fallecieron durante la hospitalización entre 2010 y 2013. Se recabaron datos sociodemográficos y clínicos, causas de muerte y muertes prevenibles. Se consideraron prevenibles aquellas muertes en pacientes con menos de seis meses de terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TARAA) o sin tratamiento y con menos de 350 CD4+ al momento del diagnóstico o del internamiento, con o sin enfermedades oportunistas. Resultados. Se identificaron 128 muertes. La mediana de CD4+ fue 47 cels/mm³; 18% llegó al internamiento sin diagnóstico de VIH, 51% tenía menos de seis meses de haber sido diagnosticado y 40.5% no había recibido TARAA. Las principales causas de muerte fueron eventos definitorios de sida (65.6%). Se identificaron 70 muertes prevenibles (57%). Conclusión. A pesar del acceso universal a TARAA, en México los pacientes VIH positivos siguen falleciendo por eventos relacionados con sida, que es un indicador de diagnóstico tardío del VIH. Es urgente implementar programas de detección temprana para hacer accesible el beneficio de la TARAA.

Objective. To establish the characteristics and causes of death of HIV patients who die while hospitalized. Materials and methods. We included HIV+ patients who died during hospitalization, in three hospitals in Mexico City between 2010 and 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected as well as causes of death. We identified preventable deaths (defined as deaths that occurred in patients with less than six months of HAART, or without HAART, with less than 350 CD4 at diagnosis and/or opportunistic events as the cause of hospitalization). Results. 128 deaths were analyzed. The median of CD4 count was 47 cells/mm³; 18% of the patients ignored their HIV status at the time of hospitalization, 51% had less than six months of HAART, 40.5% had never received HAART before. The main causes of death were AIDS defining events, with 65.6%. We identified 70 preventable deaths (57%). Conclusions. Despite universal access to HAART, HIV patients in Mexico are still dying of AIDS defining illnesses, an indicator of late diagnosis. It is urgent to implement HIV testing programs to allow earlier diagnosis and make HAART benefit accessible to all.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Cause of Death , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Delayed Diagnosis , Mortality, Premature , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(4): 360-373, oct.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-735296


Introducción: El citomegalovirus (CMV) es considerado un germen oportunista común entre individuos con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y con frecuencia produce enfermedades en diferentes órganos. Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de esta entidad en nuestro medio. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo ambispectivo que incluyó 105 de las 674 autopsias realizadas en pacientes con sida fallecidos en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, con el diagnóstico postmorten de enfermedad por CMV en el período comprendido entre 1986 y 2008. Se describe el comportamiento de variables sociodemográficas, principales órganos afectados, correlación clínico-patológica, hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio, relación entre el conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ y las formas clínicas de la enfermedad. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino en una proporción 4:1 y el color de piel blanco (80,2 por ciento). El 66,6 por ciento de los casos tenía enfermedad diseminada. Las glándulas suprarrenales (41,9 por ciento), el tubo digestivo (30,5 por ciento) y el encéfalo (17,1por ciento) fueron los órganos más afectados. La fiebre (51,4 por ciento), la diarrea (42,9 por ciento), las convulsiones (31,4 por ciento) y el desgaste físico (17,1 por ciento) fueron los síntomas más frecuentes. Los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH) mayores de 600 mmol/L se asociaron fuertemente a CMV como causa de muerte (p= 0,005). Aproximadamente el 70 por ciento de los pacientes tenía menos de 100 células/µL y el 37,5 por ciento menos de 50 células/µL, aunque esto no influyó de manera significativa en las formas clínicas de presentación (p0,641). Conclusiones: La enfermedad por CMV se diagnosticó mayormente postmorten, diseminada y asociada con niveles elevados de LDH y conteo de linfocitos T CD4 menor de 100 células/µL...

Introduction : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is considered a common opportunistic germ in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often causing disease in different organs. Objective: To determine the incidence of this condition in our environment. Material and Methods: A descriptive, ambispective study that included 105 of the 674 autopsies of AIDS patients died at the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri, with postmortem diagnosis of CMV disease, between 1986 and 2008. Sociodemographic variables, main organs affected, clinical and pathological correlation, clinical and laboratory findings, relation between CD4 + T cells count and clinical forms of the disease are described. Results: Males predominated in a ratio 4:1 as well as white skin color (80.2 percent). 66.6 percent of patients had disseminated disease. Adrenal glands (41.9 percent), gastrointestinal tract (30.5 percent) and brain (17.1percent) were the most affected organs. Fever (51.4 percent), diarrhea (42.9 percent), seizures (31.4 percent) and physical consumption (17.1 percent) were the most frequent symptoms. LDH levels >600 mmol/L were strongly associated to CMV as cause of death (p = 0.005). Nearly 70 percent of patients had less than 100 cells/µL and 37.5 percent less than 50 cells/µL, although this had no significant influence in the clinical forms of presentation (p = 0.641). Conclusions: CMV disease was mainly diagnosed postmortem, usually spread and in association with high levels of LDH and CD4 count lesser than 100 cells/µL...

Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/diagnosis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 632-636, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728891


Introduction The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon that has been modified with the implementation of effective antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the leading causes of hospitalization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study with patients admitted to a general hospital in southern Brazil, between January 2007 and May 2012. Results Medical records of 550 hospital admissions (230 patients) were reviewed, with an average of 2.4 hospitalizations per patient. Infectious diseases were the most prevalent causes of hospitalization. Overall, 44.8% patients died and their deaths were associated with longer hospital stays. Conclusions Opportunistic infections remained the leading causes of hospitalization. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cross-Sectional Studies
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(5): 491-495, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723086


Background: The timing of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after a tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected patients can affect clinical outcomes and survival. We compared survival after tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected adults who initiated HAART and tuberculosis therapy simultaneously to those who delayed the start of HAART for at least two months. Methods: The THRio cohort includes 17,983 patients receiving HIV care in 29 public clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. HAART-naïve patients at the time of a new TB diagnosis between September 2003 and June 2008 were included. Survival was measured in days from diagnosis of TB. We compared survival among patients who initiated HAART within 60 days of TB treatment (simultaneous – ST) to those who started HAART >60 days of TB treatment or never started (deferred – DT). Kaplan–Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted. Results: Of 947 patients diagnosed with TB, 572 (60%) were HAART naïve at the time of TB diagnosis; 135 were excluded because of missing CD4 count results. Among the remaining 437 TB patients, 56 (13%) died during follow-up: 25 (10%) among ST patients and 31 (16%) in DT group (p = 0.08). ST patients had lower median CD4 counts at TB diagnosis than DT patients (106 vs. 278, p < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards utilizing propensity score analysis showed that DT patients were more likely to die (adjusted HR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.05–3.40; p = 0.03). Conclusion: HAART administered simultaneously with TB therapy was associated with improved survival after TB diagnosis. HAART should be given to patients with HIV-related TB as soon as clinically feasible. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Tuberculosis/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Survival Analysis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Viral Load
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(4): 411-416, ago. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-724811


Introduction: Rhodococcus equi is a gram positive coccoid rod that causes pulmonary infections in immunosuppressed patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed epidemiological, clinical, microbiological, radiological, and immunological features as well as the outcomes of 13 AIDS patients with R. equi infection. Results: Between January 1994 and December 2012, 13 patients attending the AIDS department of the Infectious Diseases reference hospital in Buenos Aires were diagnosed with R. equi infection. All were men, the median age was 27 years. At the time of diagnosis, the median of CD4+ T cell counts was 11 cells/μl Twelve patients presented pulmonary disease with isolation of the microorganism from sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage; in the other patient the diagnosis was postmortem with positive culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The most frequent clinical manifestations were fever, haemoptysis, and weight loss. The predominant radiological finding was lobe consolidation with cavitation. Nine patients died after a median survival of 5.5 months. In all of them, cultures persisted positive until the last admission. The other 4 patients did continue clinical follow-ups. Conclusion: The insidious course of R. equi disease and the difficulties in the isolation of the microorganism contribute to the delay in the diagnosis and to the high mortality rate of this opportunistic infection.

Introducción: Rhodococcus equi es un cocobacilo grampositivo que provoca compromiso pulmonar en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Métodos: En el presente trabajo se analizaron de manera retrospectiva los hallazgos epidemiológicos, clínicos, microbiológicos, imagenológicos, inmunológicos y la evolución de 13 pacientes con SIDA y enfermedad por R. equi. Resultados: Entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 2012, 13 pacientes internados en la División de VIH/SIDA del hospital de referencia para Enfermedades Infecciosas de la ciudad de Buenos Aires egresaron con diagnóstico de enfermedad por R. equi. Todos eran varones y la mediana de edad fue 27 años. La mediana de linfocitos T CD4+ fue de 11 céls/μl Doce pacientes presentaron enfermedad pulmonar con aislamiento del microorganismo del esputo o del lavado bronco-alveolar; en el restante se recibió post mortem el cultivo positivo de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron fiebre, hemoptisis y pérdida de peso. La imagen radiológica predominante fue la consolidación con cavitación. Nueve pacientes fallecieron, con una mediana de supervivencia de 5,5 meses. En todos ellos el cultivo persistió positivo hasta la última internación. Los cuatro restantes abandonaron los controles y no pudieron ser evaluados en el tiempo. Conclusión: El curso insidioso de la enfermedad por R. equi y las dificultades en la identificación del microorganismo, contribuyen al retardo en el diagnóstico y a la elevada mortalidad de esta infección oportunista en esta población de pacientes.

Adult , Humans , Male , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Actinomycetales Infections/microbiology , Rhodococcus equi , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Argentina , Actinomycetales Infections/diagnosis , Actinomycetales Infections/mortality , Delayed Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies