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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 879-889, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970559

ABSTRACT

Acute myocardial infarction seriously endangers the health of people due to its high morbidity and high mortality. Reperfusion strategy is the preferred treatment strategy for acute myocardial infarction. However, reperfusion may lead to additional heart damage, namely myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury(MIRI). Therefore, how to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury has become one of the urgent problems to be solved in cardiovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has the multi-component, multi-channel, and multi-target advantages in the treatment of MIRI, which offers new ideas in this aspect. TCM containing flavonoids has a variety of biological activities and plays a significant role in the treatment of MIRI, which has great research and development application value. TCM containing flavonoids can regulate multiple signaling pathways of MIRI, such as phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcriptions(JAK/STAT) signaling pathway, adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathway, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element(Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway, nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) signaling pathway, silent information regulator 1(Sirt1) signaling pathway, and Notch signaling pathway. It reduces MIRI by inhibiting calcium overload, improving energy metabolism, regulating autophagy, and inhibiting ferroptosis and apoptosis. Therefore, a review has been made based on the regulation of relative signaling pathways against MIRI by TCM containing flavonoids, thus providing theoretical support and potential therapeutic strategies for TCM to alleviate MIRI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Flavonoids
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 193-201, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970514

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic liver disease(ALD), with its increasing morbidity and mortality, has seriously and extensively affected the health of people worldwide. Methyl ferulic acid(MFA) has been proven to significantly inhibit alcohol-induced lipid production in L02 cells through the AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK) pathway, but its in-depth mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to further clarify the mechanism of MFA in improving lipid accumulation in L02 cells through the microRNA-378b(miR-378b)-mediated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2(CaMKK2)-AMPK signaling pathway based on existing researches. L02 cells were induced by 100 mmol·L~(-1) ethanol for 48 h to establish the model of ALD in vitro, and 100, 50, and 25 μmol·L~(-1) concentration of MFA was treated. MiR-378b plasmids(containing the overexpression plasmid-miR-378b mimics, silence plasmid-miR-378b inhibitor, and their respective negative control-miR-378b NCs) were transfected into L02 cells by electroporation to up-regulate or down-regulate the levels of miR-378b in L02 cells. The levels of total cholesterol(TC) and triglyceride(TG) in cells were detected by commercial diagnostic kits and automatic biochemical analyzers. The expression levels of miR-378b in L02 cells were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR). CaMKK2 mRNA levels were detected by PCR, and protein expressions of related factors involved in lipid synthesis, decomposition, and transport in lipid metabolism were detected by Western blot. The results displayed that ethanol significantly increased TG and TC levels in L02 cells, while MFA decreased TG and TC levels. Ethanol up-regulated the miR-378b level, while MFA effectively inhibited the miR-378b level. The overexpression of miR-378b led to lipid accumulation in ethanol-induced L02 cells, while the silence of miR-378b improved the lipid deposition induced by ethanol. MFA activated the CaMKK2-AMPK signaling pathway by lowering miR-378b, thus improving lipid synthesis, decomposition, and transport, which improved lipid deposition in L02 cells. This study shows that MFA improves lipid deposition in L02 cells by regulating the CaMKK2-AMPK pathway through miR-378b.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ethanol/toxicity , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Fatty Liver , Triglycerides , MicroRNAs/genetics , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase/genetics
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 183-192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970513

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the anti-depression mechanism of Zuojin Pills based on the plasma constituents, network pharmacology, and experimental verification. UHPLC-TOF-MS was used for qualitative analysis of Zuojin Pills-containing serum. Targets of the plasma constituents and the disease were retrieved from PharmMapper and GeneCards. Then the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed and core targets were screened for GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was employed construct the "compound-target-pathway" network and the targets and signaling pathways of Zuojin Pills against depression were predicted. CUMS-induced depression mouse model was established to verify the key targets. The results showed that a total of 21 constituents migrating to blood of Zuojin Pills were identified, which were mainly alkaloids. A total of 155 common targets of the constituents and the disease and 67 core targets were screened out. KEGG enrichment and PPI network analysis showed that Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression through AMPK/SIRT1, NLRP3, insulin and other targets and pathways. Furthermore, the results of animal experiments showed that Zuojin Pills could significantly improve the depression behaviors of depression, reduce the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus and serum, activate AMPK/SIRT1 signaling, and reduce the protein expression of NLRP3. In conclusion, Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway, and inhibiting NLRP3 activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Network Pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Sirtuin 1 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 59-68, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970106

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and mechanism of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on Parkinson's disease (PD)-like lesions in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The T2DM model was established by feeding Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ). The rats were intragastrically administered with DHM (125 or 250 mg/kg per day) for 24 weeks. The motor ability of the rats was measured by balance beam experiment, the changes of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the expression of autophagy initiation related protein ULK1 in the midbrains of the rats were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein expression levels of α-synuclein (α-syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), as well as AMPK activation level, in the midbrains of the rats were detected by Western blot. The results showed that, compared with normal control, the rats with long-term T2DM exhibited motor dysfunction, increased α-syn aggregation, down-regulated TH protein expression, decreased number of DA neurons, declined activation level of AMPK, and significantly down-regulated ULK1 expression in the midbrain. DHM (250 mg/kg per day) treatment for 24 weeks significantly improved the above PD-like lesions, increased AMPK activity, and up-regulated ULK1 protein expression in T2DM rats. These results suggest that DHM may improve PD-like lesions in T2DM rats by activating AMPK/ULK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Parkinson Disease , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 17-26, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970102

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that long-term spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the potential to spontaneously transform into pluripotent stem cells, which is speculated to be related to the tumorigenesis of testicular germ cells, especially when p53 is deficient in SSCs which shows a significant increase in the spontaneous transformation efficiency. Energy metabolism has been proved to be strongly associated with the maintenance and acquisition of pluripotency. Recently, we compared the difference in chromatin accessibility and gene expression profiles between wild-type (p53+/+) and p53 deficient (p53-/-) mouse SSCs using the Assay for Targeting Accessible-Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) techniques, and revealed that SMAD3 is a key transcription factor in the transformation of SSCs into pluripotent cells. In addition, we also observed significant changes in the expression levels of many genes related to energy metabolism after p53 deletion. To further reveal the role of p53 in the regulation of pluripotency and energy metabolism, this paper explored the effects and mechanism of p53 deletion on energy metabolism during the pluripotent transformation of SSCs. The results of ATAC-seq and RNA-seq from p53+/+ and p53-/- SSCs revealed that gene chromatin accessibility related to positive regulation of glycolysis and electron transfer and ATP synthesis was increased, and the transcription levels of genes encoding key glycolytic enzymes and regulating electron transport-related enzymes were markedly increased. Furthermore, transcription factors SMAD3 and SMAD4 promoted glycolysis and energy homeostasis by binding to the chromatin of the Prkag2 gene which encodes the AMPK subunit. These results suggest that p53 deficiency activates the key enzyme genes of glycolysis in SSCs and enhances the chromatin accessibility of genes associated with glycolysis activation to improve glycolysis activity and promote transformation to pluripotency. Moreover, SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated transcription of the Prkag2 gene ensures the energy demand of cells in the process of pluripotency transformation and maintains cell energy homeostasis by promoting AMPK activity. These results shed light on the importance of the crosstalk between energy metabolism and stem cell pluripotency transformation, which might be helpful for clinical research of gonadal tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Male , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Chromatin , Energy Metabolism , Gene Deletion , Stem Cells , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Spermatogonia/cytology
6.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 53-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the hypoglycemic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Tianshu" (ST 25) combined with metformin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as its effect on expression of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and pancreas.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group (6 rats) and a model establishing group (30 rats). The rats in the model establishing group were fed with high-fat diet and treated with intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) to establish T2DM model. The rats with successful model establishment were randomly divided into a model group, a control group, a metformin group, an EA group and a combination group, 6 rats in each group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25), dense-disperse wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 2 mA in current intensity, 20 min each time. The rats in the metformin group were treated with intragastric administration of metformin (190 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (2 mL/kg). The rats in the combination group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and intragastric administration of metformin. The rats in the control group were treated with intragastric administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution with the same dose. All the treatments were given once a day for 5 weeks. After the intervention, the body mass and random blood glucose were detected; the serum insulin level was detected by ELISA; the expression of AMPK and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in liver and pancreas was detected by Western blot method; the expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) was detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#①Compared with the blank group, the body mass in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was lower than the metformin group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the random blood glucose in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the random blood glucose in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.01). The random blood glucose in the combination group was lower than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ②Compared with the blank group, the insulin level in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the insulin level in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was all increased (P<0.05). The insulin level in the combination group was higher than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ③Compared with the blank group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue was decreased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue was increased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group was increased (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the protein expression of p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05). The protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the combination group was higher than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was less than that in the metformin group (P<0.05), and the expression of p-AMPK protein in pancreatic tissue in the combination group was less than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ④Compared with the blank group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the EA group was lower than the metformin group and the combination group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Tianshu" (ST 25) could promote the effect of metformin on activating AMPK in liver tissue of T2DM rats, improve the negative effect of metformin on AMPK in pancreatic tissue, and enhance the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of pancreatic intrinsic nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acupuncture Points , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulins , Metformin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 516-526, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982721

ABSTRACT

Lignans derived from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (Eucommia lignans) inhibit the progression of inflammatory diseases, while their effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remained unclear. This work was designed to assess the function of Eucommia lignans in DN. The major constituents of Eucommia lignans were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. The binding between Eucommia lignans and aldose reductase (AR) was predicted by molecular docking. Eucommia lignans (200, 100, and 50 mg·kg-1) were used in model animals to evaluate their renal function changes. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were transfected with sh-AR, sh-AMPK, and oe-AR in the presence of high glucose (HG) or HG combined with Eucommia lignans to evaluate whether Eucommia lignans affected HG-induced cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Eucommia lignans significantly attenuated the progression of DN in vivo. Eucommia lignans notably reversed HG-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial injury, while downregulating the levels of Cyto c, caspase 9, AR, and NOX4 in HBZY-1 cells. In contrast, HG-induced downregulation of Nrf2, HO-1 and p-AMPKα levels were abolished by Eucommia lignans. Meanwhile, knockdown of AR exerted similar therapeutic effect of Eucommia lignans on DN progression, and AR overexpression reversed the effect of Eucommia lignans. Eucommia lignans alleviated renal injury through the AR/Nrf2/HO-1/AMPK axis. Thus, these findings might provide evidence for the use of Eucommia lignans in treating DN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Eucommiaceae/metabolism , Lignans/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 371-382, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982708

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of Ephedra Herb (EH) extract on adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome (NS), providing an experimental basis for the clinical treatment of NS. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and kidn injury molecule-1 were used to evaluate the activities of EH extract on renal function. The levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress were detected by kits. The levels of reactive oxygen species, immune cells, and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. A network pharmacological approach was used to predict the potential targets and mechanisms of EH extract in the treatment of NS. The protein levels of apoptosis-related proteins and CAMKK2, p-CAMKK2, AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR and p-mTOR in the kidneys were detected by Western blot. The effective material basis of EH extract was screened by MTT assay. The AMPK pathway inhibitor (compound C, CC) was added to investigate the effect of the potent material basis on adriamycin-induced cell injury. EH extract significantly improved renal injury and relieve inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in rats. Network pharmacology and Western blot results showed that the effect of EH extract on NS may be associated with the CAMKK2/AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, methylephedrine significantly ameliorated adriamycin-induced NRK-52e cell injury. Methylephedrine also significantly improved the phosphorylation of AMPK and mTOR, which were blocked by CC. In sum, EH extract may ameliorate renal injury via the CAMKK2/AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, methylephedrine may be one of the material bases of EH extract.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Doxorubicin/adverse effects , Nephrotic Syndrome , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis
9.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 388-431, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982588

ABSTRACT

Metformin has been used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus for decades due to its safety, low cost, and outstanding hypoglycemic effect clinically. The mechanisms underlying these benefits are complex and still not fully understood. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory-chain complex I is the most described downstream mechanism of metformin, leading to reduced ATP production and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Meanwhile, many novel targets of metformin have been gradually discovered. In recent years, multiple pre-clinical and clinical studies are committed to extend the indications of metformin in addition to diabetes. Herein, we summarized the benefits of metformin in four types of diseases, including metabolic associated diseases, cancer, aging and age-related diseases, neurological disorders. We comprehensively discussed the pharmacokinetic properties and the mechanisms of action, treatment strategies, the clinical application, the potential risk of metformin in various diseases. This review provides a brief summary of the benefits and concerns of metformin, aiming to interest scientists to consider and explore the common and specific mechanisms and guiding for the further research. Although there have been countless studies of metformin, longitudinal research in each field is still much warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metformin/pharmacokinetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Aging
10.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 336-344, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore pathogenesis of glucocortocoid-induced osteoporosis(GIOP) based on label-free mass proteomics.@*METHODS@#Twevle female Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into two groups, named as sham group and GIOP group. After one-week adaptive feeding, the rats of GIOP group were administered with dexamethasone via intramuscular injection according to 2.5 mg/kg weighting, while the rats of sham group were administered with the same amount of saline, twice a week. The tibias of each group were collected after 8-week modeling and made pathological sections to confirm the success of modeling. Three samples of each group were picked up to perform label-free mass proteomics. After quality control, differentially expressed proteins were identified according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. Then gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, cluster analysis as well as protein-protein interaction analysis were performed using bioinformatics analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with sham group, the structure of bone trabecular in GIOP group showed abnormal arrangement, uneven distribution and obvious fragmentation, which could demonstrate successful modeling. A total of 47 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified including 20 up-regulated and 27 down-regulated proteins. The expression of protein nucleophosmin 1(NPM1), adipocyte plasma membrane associated protein (APMAP), cytochromec oxidase subunit 6A1 (COX6A1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP5) showed a significant difference between two groups. KEGG results showed DEPs were enriched on metabolism-related pathways, immune-related pathways and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Protein NPM1, APMAP, COX6A1 and ACP5 showed a close relationship with pathogenesis of GIOP, which could serve as potential biomarkers of GIOP. AMPK signaling pathway played an important role in the occurrence and development of GIOP, which could be regarded as potential signaling pathway to treatment GIOP.


Subject(s)
Female , Rats , Animals , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Proteomics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Osteoporosis/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/adverse effects
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3255-3262, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981462

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease(CAD) caused by atherosclerosis(AS) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. The pathogenesis of CAD is complex, and the subset and function of cardiac macrophages are important factors affecting the occurrence and development of AS and the prognosis of CAD. Recent studies have shown that some traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) formulas and active ingredients can regulate macrophage subsets involved in the inflammation, injury, and repair process of CAD. This paper summarized the significant role of macrophages in AS and myocardial infarction. Based on the plasticity of macrophages, this paper elaborated that traditional Chinese medicine prevented and attenuated AS by regulating macrophage subsets, reducing the level of inflammatory factors, and promoting macrophage autophagy.Traditional Chinese medicine participated in the cardiac repair process after myocardial infarction by accelerating the recruitment of M2 macrophages, inhibiting the polarization of M1 macrophages mediated by glycolysis, inhibiting M1 macrophage-mediated cardiac nerve remodeling, and promoting M2 macrophage-mediated angiogenesis. In addition, in vitro studies on the regulation of macrophage subsets by the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine were also reviewed. It was pointed out that nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB), adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B(PI3K/Akt), chemokine(C-C motif) ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2(CCL2/CCR2) were the key targets and pathways for the regulation of macrophages by TCM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Inflammation/drug therapy , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Macrophages , NF-kappa B
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3246-3254, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981461

ABSTRACT

As one of the main diseases leading to end-stage renal disease, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome(SRNS) can cause serious complications such as infection. Without effective control, this disease can further lead to the malignant development of the renal function, bringing serious social and economic burdens. As previously reported, the formation of SRNS is mostly related to the podocyte injury in the body, i.e., the injury of glomerular visceral epithelial cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway, nuclear transcription factor-κB(NF-κB) signaling pathway, mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)/adenosine monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1/Smads, and other signaling pathways are classical signaling pathways related to podocyte injury. By regulating the expression of signaling pathways, podocyte injury can be intervened to improve the adhesion between podocyte foot processes and glomerular basement membrane and promote the function of podocytes, thereby alleviating the clinical symptoms of SRNS. Through the literature review, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has unique advantages and an important role in intervening in podocyte injury. In the intervention in podocyte injury, TCM, by virtue of multi-target and multi-pathway role, can regulate and intervene in podocyte injury in many ways, alleviate the clinical symptoms of SRNS, and interfere with the progress of SRNS, reflecting the unique advantages of TCM. On the other hand, TCM can directly or indirectly inhibit podocyte injury by regulating the above signaling pathways, which can not only promote the effect of hormones and immunosuppressants and shorten the course of treatment, but also reduce the toxic and side effects caused by various hormones and immunosuppressants to exert the advantages of small side effects and low price of TCM. This article reviewed TCM in the treatment of SRNS by interfering with podocyte injury-related signaling pathways and is expected to provide a reference for the in-depth study of TCM in the treatment of SRNS, as well as a theoretical basis and a new direction for the clinical application of TCM to shorten the course of treatment of SRNS and delay the progression to end-stage renal disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Podocytes , Nephrotic Syndrome/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Hormones
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1770-1778, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981394

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Huazhi Rougan Granules(HZRG) on autophagy in a steatotic hepatocyte model of free fatty acid(FFA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and explore the possible mechanism. FFA solution prepared by mixing palmitic acid(PA) and oleic acid(OA) at the ratio of 1∶2 was used to induce hepatic steatosis in L02 cells after 24 h treatment, and an in vitro NAFLD cell model was established. After termination of incubation, cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was performed to detect the cell viability; Oil red O staining was employed to detect the intracellular lipid accumulation; enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay(ELISA) was performed to measure the level of triglyceride(TG); to monitor autophagy in L02 cells, transmission electron microscopy(TEM) was used to observe the autophagosomes; LysoBrite Red was used to detect the pH change in lysosome; transfection with mRFP-GFP-LC3 adenovirus was conducted to observe the autophagic flux; Western blot was performed to determine the expression of autophagy marker LC3B-Ⅰ/LC3B-Ⅱ, autophagy substrate p62 and silent information regulator 1(SIRT1)/adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway. NAFLD cell model was successfully induced by FFA at 0.2 mmol·L~(-1) PA and 0.4 mmol·L~(-1) OA. HZRG reduced the TG level(P<0.05, P<0.01) and the lipid accumulation of FFA-induced L02 cells, while elevated the number of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes to generate autophagic flux. It also affected the functions of lysosomes by regulating their pH. Additionally, HZRG up-regulated the expression of LC3B-Ⅱ/LC3B-Ⅰ, SIRT1, p-AMPK and phospho-protein kinase A(p-PKA)(P<0.05, P<0.01), while down-regulated the expression of p62(P<0.01). Furthermore, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) or chloroquine(CQ) treatment obviously inhibited the above effects of HZRG. HZRG prevented FFA-induced steatosis in L02 cells, and its mechanism might be related to promoting autophagy and regulating SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Autophagy , Liver
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1751-1759, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981392

ABSTRACT

Hepatic lipid deposition is one of the basic manifestations of obesity, and nowadays pharmacological treatment is the most important tool. Punicalagin(PU), a polyphenol derived from pomegranate peel, is a potential anti-obesity substance. In this study, 60 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a normal group and a model group. After establishing a model of simple obesity with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks, the successfully established rat models of obesity were then regrouped into a model group, an orlistat group, a PU low-dose group, a PU medium-dose group, and a PU high-dose group. The normal group was kept on routine diet and other groups continued to feed the high-fat diet. The body weight and food intake were measured and recorded weekly. After 8 weeks, the levels of the four lipids in the serum of each group of mice were determined by an automatic biochemical instrument. Oral glucose tole-rance and intraperitoneal insulin sensitivity were tested. Hemoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was applied to observe the hepatic and adipose tissues. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) and C/EBPα were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Q-PCR), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK), anterior cingulate cortex(ACC), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A(CPT1A) were determined by Western blot. Finally, the body mass, Lee's index, serum total glyceride(TG), serum total cholesterol(TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) levels were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in the model group as compared with the normal group. The fat deposition in the liver was significantly increased. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic PPARγ and C/EBPα and the protein expression level of ACC were increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of CPT-1α(CPT1A) and AMPK were decreased. After PU treatment, the above indexes of obese mice were reversed. In conclusion, PU can decrease the body weight of obese mice and control their food intake. It also plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and glycometabolism metabolism, which can significantly improve hepatic fat deposition. Mechanistically, PU may regulate liver lipid deposition in obese mice by down-regulating lipid synthesis and up-regulating lipolysis through activation of the AMPK/ACC pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Mice, Obese , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Liver/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Body Weight , Lipid Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Lipids , Cholesterol
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1739-1750, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981391

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of Lianmei Qiwu Decoction(LMQWD) on the improvement of cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling in the diabetic rat model induced by the high-fat diet and explored the underlying mechanism of LMQWD through the AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK)/tropomyosin receptor kinase A(TrkA)/transient receptor potential melastatin 7(TRPM7) signaling pathway. The diabetic rats were randomly divided into a model group, an LMQWD group, an AMPK agonist group, an unloaded TRPM7 adenovirus group(TRPM7-N), an overexpressed TRPM7 adenovirus group(TRPM7), an LMQWD + unloaded TRPM7 adenovirus group(LMQWD+TRPM7-N), an LMQWD + overexpressed TRPM7 adenovirus group(LMQWD+TRPM7), and a TRPM7 channel inhibitor group(TRPM7 inhibitor). After four weeks of treatment, programmed electrical stimulation(PES) was employed to detect the arrhythmia susceptibility of rats. The myocardial cell structure and myocardial tissue fibrosis of myocardial and ganglion samples in diabetic rats were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and Masson staining. The immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), and Western blot were adopted to detect the distribution and expression of TRPM7, tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), choline acetyltransferase(ChAT), growth associated protein-43(GAP-43), nerve growth factor(NGF), p-AMPK/AMPK, and other genes and related neural markers. The results showed that LMQWD could significantly reduce the arrhythmia susceptibility and the degree of fibrosis in myocardial tissues, decrease the levels of TH, ChAT, and GAP-43 in the myocardium and ganglion, increase NGF, inhibit the expression of TRPM7, and up-regulate p-AMPK/AMPK and p-TrkA/TrkA levels. This study indicated that LMQWD could attenuate cardiac autonomic nerve remodeling in the diabetic state, and its mechanism was associated with the activation of AMPK, further phosphorylation of TrkA, and inhibition of TRPM7 expression.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , GAP-43 Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Fibrosis
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2146-2159, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981346

ABSTRACT

On the basis of establishing the prescription of Xinjianqu and clarifying the increase of the lipid-lowering active ingredients of Xinjianqu by fermentation, this paper further compared the differences in the lipid-lowering effects of Xinjianqu before and after fermentation, and studied the mechanism of Xinjianqu in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Seventy SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups, including normal group, model group, positive drug simvastatin group(0.02 g·kg~(-1)), and low-dose and high-dose Xinjianqu groups before and after fermentation(1.6 g·kg~(-1) and 8 g·kg~(-1)), with ten rats in each group. Rats in each group were given high-fat diet continuously for six weeks to establish the model of hyperlipidemia(HLP). After successful modeling, the rats were given high-fat diet and gavaged by the corresponding drugs for six weeks, once a day, to compare the effects of Xinjianqu on the body mass, liver coefficient, and small intestine propulsion rate of rats with HLP before and after fermentation. The effects of Xinjianqu before and after fermentation on total cholesterol(TC), triacylglyceride(TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(Cr), motilin(MTL), gastrin(GAS), and the Na~+-K~+-ATPase levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The effects of Xinjianqu on liver morphology of rats with HLP were investigated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and oil red O fat staining. The effects of Xinjianqu on the protein expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK), liver kinase B1(LKB1), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate monoacyl coenzyme A reductase(HMGCR) in liver tissues were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of Xinjianqu on the regulation of intestinal flora structure of rats with HLP were studied based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that compared with those in the normal group, rats in the model group had significantly higher body mass and liver coefficient(P<0.01), significantly lower small intestine propulsion rate(P<0.01), significantly higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, and AQP2(P<0.01), and significantly lower serum levels of HDL-C, MTL, GAS, Na~+-K~+-ATP levels(P<0.01). The protein expression of AMPK, p-AMPK, and LKB1 in the livers of rats in the model group was significantly decreased(P<0.01), and that of HMGCR was significantly increased(P<0.01). In addition, the observed_otus, Shannon, and Chao1 indices were significantly decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in rat fecal flora in the model group. Besides, in the model group, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was reduced, while that of Verrucomicrobia and Proteobacteria was increased, and the relative abundance of beneficial genera such as Ligilactobacillus and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group was reduced. Compared with the model group, all Xinjianqu groups regulated the body mass, liver coefficient, and small intestine index of rats with HLP(P<0.05 or P<0.01), reduced the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ALT, AST, BUN, Cr, and AQP2, increased the serum levels of HDL-C, MTL, GAS, and Na~+-K~+-ATP, improved the liver morphology, and increased the protein expression gray value of AMPK, p-AMPK, and LKB1 in the liver of rats with HLP and decreased that of LKB1. Xinjianqu groups could regulate the intestinal flora structure of rats with HLP, increased observed_otus, Shannon, Chao1 indices, and increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Ligilactobacillus(genus), Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group(genus). Besides, the high-dose Xinjianqu-fermented group had significant effects on body mass, liver coefficient, small intestine propulsion rate, and serum index levels of rats with HLP(P<0.01), and the effects were better than those of Xinjianqu groups before fermentation. The above results show that Xinjianqu can improve the blood lipid level, liver and kidney function, and gastrointestinal motility of rats with HLP, and the improvement effect of Xinjianqu on hyperlipidemia is significantly enhanced by fermentation. The mechanism may be related to AMPK, p-AMPK, LKB1, and HMGCR protein in the LKB1-AMPK pathway and the regulation of intestinal flora structure.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cholesterol, LDL , Fermentation , Aquaporin 2/metabolism , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Lipids , Hyperlipidemias/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 199-205, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971515

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of forsythiaside B (FB) against cerebral oxidative stress injury induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Ninety C57BL/6 mice were randomized into sham-operated group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model group, and low-, medium and highdose (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, respectively) FB groups. The expression levels of MDA, ROS, PCO, 8-OHdG, SOD, GSTα4, CAT and GPx in the brain tissue of the mice were detected using commercial kits, and those of AMPK, P-AMPK, DAF-16, FOXO3 and P-FOXO3 were detected with Western blotting. Compound C (CC), an AMPK inhibitor, was used to verify the role of the AMPK pathway in mediating the therapeutic effect of FB. In another 36 C57BL/6 mice randomized into 4 sham-operated group, MCAO model group, FB (40 mg/kg) treatment group, FB+CC (10 mg/kg) treatment group, TTC staining was used to examine the volume of cerebral infarcts, and the levels of ROS and SOD in the brain were detected; the changes in the protein expressions of AMPK, P-AMPK, DAF-16, FOXO3 and P-FOXO3 in the brain tissue were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#In mice with cerebral IR injury, treatment with FB significantly reduced the levels of ROS, MDA, PCO and 8-OHdG, increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GSTα4, CAT and GPx, and enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3 and DAF-16 protein expression in the brain tissue (P < 0.01). Compared with FB treatment alone, the combined treatment with FB and CC significantly reduced phosphorylation of AMPK and FOXO3, lowered expression of DAF-16 and SOD activity, and increased cerebral infarction volume and ROS level in the brain tissue of the mice (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#FB inhibits oxidative stress injury caused by cerebral I/R in mice possibly by enhancing AMPK phosphorylation, promoting the downstream DAF-16 protein expression and FOXO3 phosphorylation, increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and reducing ROS level in the brain tissue.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Brain Ischemia , Oxidative Stress , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion Injury , Reperfusion , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 191-198, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of different manners of heat exposure on thoracic aorta injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Normal 6 to 7-week-old male SHRs were randomized into control group (cage at room temperature), intermittent heat exposure group (SHR-8 group, exposed to 32 ℃ for 8 h daily for 7 days) and SHR-24 group (with continuous exposure to 32 ℃ for 7 days). After the treatments, the pathologies of the thoracic aorta of the rats were observed with HE staining, and the expressions of Beclin1, LC3B and p62 were detected with Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay; TUNEL staining was used to observe cell apoptosis in the thoracic aorta, and the expressions of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were detected using Western blotting. The effects of intraperitoneal injections of 3-MA (an autophagy agonist), rapamycin (an autophagy inhibitor) or compound C 30 min before intermittent heat exposure on the expressions of proteins associated with autophagy, apoptosis and the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway in the aorta were examined with immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#In SHR-8 group, the rats showed incomplete aortic intima with disordered cell distribution and significantly increased expressions of Beclin1, LC3II/LC3I and Bax, lowered expressions of p62 and Bcl-2, and increased apoptotic cells in the thoracic aorta (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with 3-MA obviously inhibited the expressions of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins, whereas rapamycin promoted their expressions. Compared with the control group, the rats in SHR-8 group had significantly down-regulated p-mTOR and up-regulated p-AMPK and p-ULK1 expression of in the aorta; Treatment with compound C obviously lowered the expressions of p-AMPK and p-ULK1 and those of LC3B and Beclin1 as well.@*CONCLUSION@#In SHRs, intermittent heat exposure causes significant pathologies and promotes autophagy and apoptosis in the thoracic aorta possibly by activating the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Inbred SHR , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic , Beclin-1 , Hot Temperature , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Aortic Diseases , Autophagy , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/metabolism
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of modified Linggui Zhugan Decoction (, MLZD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, on obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups by a random number table, including normal, obese T2DM (ob-T2DM), MLZD low-dose [MLDZ-L, 4.625 g/(kg·d)], MLZD middle-dose [MLD-M, 9.25 g/(kg·d) ] and MLZD high-dose [MLD-H, 18.5 g/(kg·d)] groups, 10 rats in each group. After 4-week intervention, blood samples and liver, pancreas, muscle tissues were collected to assess the insulin resistance (IR), blood lipid, adipokines and inflammation cytokines. The alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-ribosome protein subunit 6 kinase 1 (S6K1 )/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 α) pathways were also studied.@*RESULTS@#MLZD dose-dependently reduced fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for IR index and increased insulin sensitive index compared with ob-T2DM rats (P<0.05). Similarly, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and free fatty acids were also decreased compared with ob-T2DM rats after 4-week treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Improvements in adipokines and inflammatory cytokines were observed with a raised level of adiponectin and a reduced level of leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). MLZD regulated the PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways and restored the tissue structure of liver and pancreas (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MLZD ameliorated glycolipid metabolism and inflammation, which may be attributed to the regulation of PI3K-Akt/mTOR-S6K1/AMPK-PGC-1 α pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glycolipids , Inflammation , Obesity/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
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