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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927695

ABSTRACT

Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) is a specific Ser/Thr protein kinase in plants. SnRK2 can regulate the expression of downstream genes or transcription factors through phosphorylation of substrates to achieve stress resistance regulation in different tissue parts, and make plants adapt to adverse environment. SnRK2 has a small number of members and a molecular weight of about 40 kDa, and contains a conserved N-terminal kinase domain and a divergent C-terminal regulatory domain, which plays an important role in the expression of enzyme. This review summarized the recent research progresses on the discovery, structure, and classification of SnRK2, and its function in response to various stresses and in regulating growth and development, followed by prospecting the future research direction of SnRK2. This review may provide a reference for genetic improvement of crop stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Growth and Development , Plants/genetics , Protein Kinases , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244331, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249255

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on gas exchange and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms seedlings under water deficit and its influence on the recovery potential of the seedlings. The experiment was conducted using four treatments, being daily irrigation or water restriction without and with 10 μM ABA. Seedlings under water deficit + ABA showed greater adjustment to drought, and when re-irrigated, they restored photosynthetic metabolism and water potential. ABA minimizes the reduction in the photosynthetic metabolism and water potential of the leaf, however, it does not increase the antioxidant activity of the O. arborea seedlings under water deficit. These results suggest that this species exhibits plasticity, which enables it to survive also in environments subjected to temporary water deficit regardless of the supplementation of ABA. We suggest that other doses of ABA be researched to expand the beneficial effect of ABA on this species.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido abscísico (ABA) nas trocas gasosas e na atividade de enzimas antioxidantes de mudas de Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms sob deficiência hídrica e sua influência no potencial de recuperação das mudas. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro tratamentos, sendo eles irrigação diária ou restrição hídrica sem e com 10 μM ABA. As mudas sob déficit hídrico + ABA apresentaram maior ajuste à seca e ao serem re-irrigadas restabeleceram o metabolismo fotossintético e o potencial hídrico. O ABA minimizou a redução do metabolismo fotossintético e do potencial da água na folha, porém, não aumentou a atividade antioxidante de mudas de O. arborea sob déficit hídrico. Esses resultados sugerem que esta espécie apresenta plasticidade fisiológica, o que lhe permite sobreviver em ambientes sujeitos a déficit hídrico temporário, independente da suplementação de ABA. Sugerimos que outras doses de ABA sejam avaliadas para ampliar os efeitos benéficos do ABA sobre esta espécie.


Subject(s)
Water , Abscisic Acid , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Droughts , Antioxidants
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(3): 216-221, Mar. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep disorders induce anxiety and forgetfulness and change habits. The chemical hypnotic drugs currently used have serious side effects and, therefore, people are drawn towards using natural compounds such as plant-based healing agents. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in a variety of mammalian tissues and it is involved in many neurophysiological functions. Objective: To investigate the possible effect of ABA on pentobarbital-induced sleep and its possible signaling through GABA-A and PPAR (γ and β) receptors, in male Wistar rats. Methods: The possible effect of ABA (5 and 10 µg/rat, intracerebroventricularly) on sleep onset latency time and duration was evaluated in a V-maze model of sleep. Pentobarbital sodium (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was injected to induce sleep 30 min after administration of ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rat), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rat) or GABA-A receptor (bicuculline, 6 µg/rat) antagonists were given 15 min before ABA injection. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was used as a positive control group. Results: ABA at 5 µg significantly boosted the pentobarbital-induced subhypnotic effects and promoted induction of sleep onset in a manner comparable to diazepam treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with bicuculline significantly abolished the ABA effects on sleep parameters, while the amplifying effects of ABA on the induction of sleep onset was not significantly affected by PPARβ or PPARγ antagonists. The sleep prolonging effect of ABA was significantly prevented by both PPAR antagonists. Conclusions: The data showed that ABA boosts pentobarbital-induced sleep and that GABA-A, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors are, at least in part, involved in ABA signaling.


RESUMO Introdução: Os distúrbios do sono induzem a ansiedade e esquecimento e mudam hábitos. Os medicamentos hipnóticos químicos utilizados atualmente têm efeitos colaterais graves e, portanto, as pessoas são atraídas para o uso de compostos naturais, como agentes de cura à base de plantas. O ácido abscísico (ABA) é produzido em uma variedade de tecidos de mamíferos e está envolvido em muitas funções neurofisiológicas. Objetivo: Investigar o possível efeito do ABA no sono induzido por pentobarbital e sua possível sinalização por meio dos receptores GABA-A e PPAR (γ e β), em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: O possível efeito do ABA (5 e 10 µg/rato, intracerebroventricularmente) no tempo de latência e duração do início do sono foi avaliado em um modelo de labirinto em V de sono. Pentobarbital sódico (40 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi injetado para induzir o sono 30 minutos após a administração de ABA. PPARβ (GSK0660, 80 nM/rato), PPARγ (GW9662, 3 nM/rato) ou antagonistas do receptor GABA-A (bicuculina, 6 µg/rato) foram administrados 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Diazepam (2 mg/kg, intraperitonealmente) foi utilizado como grupo de controle positivo. Resultados: ABA a 5 µg aumentou significativamente os efeitos sub-hipnóticos induzidos por pentobarbital e promoveu a indução do início do sono de forma comparável ao tratamento com diazepam. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com bicuculina aboliu significativamente os efeitos do ABA nos parâmetros do sono, ao passo que os efeitos amplificadores do ABA na indução do início do sono não foram significativamente afetados pelos antagonistas do PPARβ ou PPARγ. O efeito de prolongamento do sono do ABA foi significativamente prevenido por ambos os antagonistas do PPAR. Conclusões: Os dados mostraram que o ABA estimula o sono induzido por pentobarbital e que os receptores GABA-A, PPARβ e PPARγ estão, pelo menos em parte, envolvidos na sinalização ABA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sleep , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , PPAR-beta/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Pentobarbital/pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Rats, Wistar
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921698

ABSTRACT

Schisandra sphenanthera is dioecious and only the fruits of female plants can be used as medicine and food. It is of great significance for the cultivation and production of S. sphenanthera to explore the differences between male and female plants at the non-flowering stage and develop the identification markers at non-flowering or seedling stage. In this study, the transcriptome of male and female leaves of S. sphenanthera at the non-flowering stage was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology and analyzed based on bioinformatics. A total of 236 682 transcripts were assembled by Trinity software and 171 588 were chosen as unigenes. Finally, 1 525 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified, with 458 up-regulated and 1 067 down-regulated in female lea-ves. The down-regulated genes mainly involve photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna protein, carbon fixation in photosynthetic or-ganisms, and other pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) identified two genes between male and female leaves and one of them was a HVA22-like gene related to floral organ development and abscisic acid(ABA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to determine the content of ABA, auxin, gibberellin, and zeatin riboside(ZR) in leaves of S. sphenanthera. The results showed that the content of ABA and ZR in male leaves was significantly higher than that in female leaves. The involvement of down-regulated genes in female leaves in the photosynthesis pathway and the significant differences in the content of endogenous hormones between male and female leaves lay a scientific basis for analyzing the factors affecting sex differentiation of S. sphenanthera.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Leaves/genetics , RNA-Seq , Schisandra , Transcriptome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888102

ABSTRACT

Phytohormones play an important role at all stages of plant growth, influencing plant growth and development and regulating plant secondary metabolism, such as the synthesis of flavone, flavonol, anthocyanin, and other flavonoids. Flavonoids, a group of important secondary metabolites ubiquitous in plants, have antioxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have a wide range of potential applications in Chinese medicine and food nutrition. With the development of biotechnology, phytohormones' regulation on flavonoids has become a research focus in recent years. This study reviewed the research progress on the mechanism of common phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, gibberellin, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid, in regulating flavonoid metabolism, and discussed the molecular mechanism of the synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids, aiming at clarifying the key role of phytohormones in modulating flavonoid metabolism. The result is of guiding significance for improving the content of flavonoids in plants through rational use of phytohormones and of reference value for exploring the mechanism of hormones in regulating flavonoid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Flavonoids , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gibberellins , Plant Development , Plant Growth Regulators
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879108

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , China , Materia Medica , Nitrogen , Plant Growth Regulators
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200133, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249209

ABSTRACT

Abstract Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays several roles in plant development. The de novo synthesis and the reversible inactivation of ABA have been largely described in the literature; however, the degradation of ABA, promoted by the enzymes Abscisic Acid 8'-Hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP707A gene family, is still poorly elucidated. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) has been used as a model to study the ABA-dependent maturation process of non-climacteric fruits, and the ABA-dependent response to abiotic stress. However, the CYP707A genes from this species have not been fully described and characterized. In this perspective, FaCYP707A sequences were identified from strawberry fruit transcriptome and several structural and comparative genomic analyzes were performed. Moreover, the expression of the FaCYP707A sequences identified was investigated in fruits under salt stress and ABA application. Four putative FaCYP707A were identified and the structural analysis confirmed the identity of three of them. The phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine their homologous in other plant species and to predict their evolutionary history; and the expression profile of the FaCYP707As demonstrated that FaCYP707A3 seems to be involved in the response against salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Moreover, the interaction network analysis pointed out proteins involved in the ABA metabolism, heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification, and cell wall dissemble. This study characterized for the first time the CYP707A gene family in F. ananassa; this information will guide future studies in order to develop biofortified fruits and stress tolerant plants.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Stress, Physiological , Abscisic Acid , Genetic Association Studies
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 318-325, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153356

ABSTRACT

CKB3 is a regulatory (beta) subunit of CK2. In this study Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous T-DNA mutant ckb3 was studied to understand the role of CKB3 in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The results shown: CKB3 was expressed in all organs and the highest expression in the seeds, followed by the root. During seed germination and root growth the ckb3 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to ABA. The ckb3 mutant had more stomatal opening and increased proline accumulation and leaf water loss. The expression levels of number of genes in the ABA regulatory network had changed. This study demonstrates that CKB3 is an ABA signaling-related gene and may play a positive role in ABA signaling.


CKB3 é uma subunidade reguladora (beta) de CK2. Neste estudo, o mutante homozigoto ckb3 de Arabidopsis thaliana foi estudado para entender o papel da CKB3 na sinalização de ácido abscísico (ABA). Os resultados apresentados: CKB3 foi expresso em todos os órgãos e a maior expressão nas sementes, seguida pela raiz. Durante a germinação das sementes e o crescimento radicular, o mutante ckb3 mostrou sensibilidade reduzida ao ABA. O mutante ckb3 teve mais abertura estomática e aumento do acúmulo de prolina e perda de água nas folhas. Os níveis de expressão do número de genes na rede reguladora da ABA haviam mudado. Este estudo demonstra que CKB3 é um gene relacionado à sinalização ABA e pode desempenhar um papel positivo na sinalização ABA.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/genetics , Arabidopsis/metabolism , Abscisic Acid , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , Seeds , Germination , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Mutation/genetics
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 21-27, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) as a signaling molecule exists in various types of organisms from early multicellular to animal cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that ABA has an antinociceptive effect in rodents. The present study was designed to assess the possible role of PKA and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) on the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) ABA in male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were cannulated intrathecally and divided into different experimental groups (n=6‒7): Control (no surgery), vehicle (received ABA vehicle), ABA-treated groups (received ABA in doses of 10 or 20 µg/rat), ABA plus H.89 (PKA inhibitor)-treated group which received the inhibitor 15 min prior to the ABA injection. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests were used as acute nociceptive stimulators to assess ABA analgesic effects. p-ERK was evaluated in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord using immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that a microinjection of ABA (10 and 20 µg/rat, i.t.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in tail flick and hot plate tests. The application of PKA inhibitor (H.89, 100 nM/rat) significantly inhibited ABA-induced analgesic effects. Expression of p-ERK was significantly decreased in ABA-injected animals, which were not observed in the ABA+H.89-treated group. Conclusions: Overall, i.t. administration of ABA (10 µg/rat) induced analgesia and p-ERK down-expression likely by involving the PKA-dependent mechanism.


Resumo Objetivo: O ácido fito-hormônio abscísico (ABA) existe como molécula sinalizadora em vários tipos de organismos, de multicelulares a células e tecidos animais. Foi demonstrado que o ABA tem efeito antinociceptivo em roedores. O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar o possível papel da PKA e da ERK fosforilada (p-ERK) nos efeitos antinociceptivos do ABA intratecal (i.t.) em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: Os animais foram canulados por via i.t. e divididos em diferentes grupos experimentais (n=6‒7): controle (sem cirurgia), veículo (veículo ABA recebido), grupos tratados com ABA (recebeu ABA em doses de 10 ou 20 µg/rato), grupo tratado com ABA mais H.89 (inibidor de PKA) que recebeu o inibidor 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Os testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente foram utilizados como estimuladores nociceptivos agudos para avaliar os efeitos analgésicos da ABA. A p-ERK foi avaliada na porção dorsal da medula espinhal por imunotransferência. Resultados: A microinjeção de ABA (10 e 20 µg/rato, i.t.) aumentou significativamente o limiar nociceptivo nos testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente. A aplicação de inibidor de PKA (H.89, 100 nM/rato) inibiu significativamente os efeitos analgésicos induzidos por ABA. A expressão de p-ERK diminuiu significativamente em animais injetados com ABA que não foram observados no grupo tratado com ABA+H.89. Conclusões: No geral, a administração i.t. de ABA (10 µg/rato) induziu a analgesia e expressão negativa de p-ERK provavelmente envolvendo mecanismo dependente de PKA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology
10.
Biol. Res ; 53: 23, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) genes are a class of plant specific transcription factors (TFs), which play important roles in plant development, growth and abiotic stress responses. The wheat ASRs have not been described in genome-wide yet. METHODS: We predicted the transmembrane regions and subcellular localization using the TMHMM server, and Plant-mPLoc server and CELLO v2.5, respectively. Then the phylogeny tree was built by MEGA7. The exon-intron structures, conserved motifs and TFs binding sites were analyzed by GSDS, MEME program and PlantRegMap, respectively. RESULTS: In wheat, 33ASR genes were identified through a genome-wide survey and classified into six groups. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the TaASR proteins in the same group tightly clustered together, compared with those from other species. Duplication analysis indicated that the TaASR gene family has expanded mainly through tandem and segmental duplication events. Similar gene structures and conserved protein motifs of TaASRs in wheat were identified in the same groups. ASR genes contained various TF binding cites associated with the stress responses in the promoter region. Gene expression was generally associated with the expected group-specific expression pattern in five tissues, including grain, leaf, root, spike and stem, indicating the broad conservation of ASR genes function during wheat evolution. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that several ASRs were up-regulated in response to NaCl and PEG stress. CONCLUSION: We identified ASR genes in wheat and found that gene duplication events are the main driving force for ASR gene evolution in wheat. The expression of wheat ASR genes was modulated in responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including drought/osmotic and salt stress. The results provided important information for further identifications of the functions of wheat ASR genes and candidate genes for high abiotic stress tolerant wheat breeding.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Abscisic Acid/analysis , Genome, Plant/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Droughts , Phylogeny , Transcription Factors/genetics , Triticum/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 383-394, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001447

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bidens pilosa L. is a heterocarpic weed species with two cypselae types that present morpho-physiological differences, being the peripheral type smaller and slower to germinate than the central one. We aimed to verify how the germination mechanism varied between types. We focused on two mechanisms: (1) pericarp constraints (physical and chemical) and (2) hormonal stimulation (Abcisic acid [ABA] and Gibberellin [GA]). Both cypselae types are physically constrained by the pericarp, for when it is excised both seed types increase their germination, but behavioral differences still remain. The pericarp of the peripheral type also has chemical inhibitors that effectively inhibited germination of the intact central cypsela. To test the hormonal effects, we focused on the ABA:GA control. Both cypselae responded to an exogenous ABA concentration gradient, however there is no variation between types on the sensitivity to it. Also, both cypselae types were indifferent to Fluridone (ABA inhibitor), which indicates that the dormancy is not maintained by de novo ABA synthesis. Cypselae types had different sensitivity to an exogenous GA3 gradient, the central type being more sensitive to the treatment than the peripheral one. But when the endogenous GA synthesis was blocked by Paclobutrazol, both types responded equally to same GA3 concentrations. This indicates that endogenous GA synthesis may be related to differences observed on germination of cypselae types. To conclude, seed types differ on their growth potential to overcome the pericarp resistance: while the inhibitor in the peripheral pericarp reduces growth potential, GA increases it.


Resumo Bidens pilosa L. é uma espécie de planta daninha heterocarpica com dois tipos de cipselas que possuem diferenças morfofisiológicas, sendo o tipo periférico de menor tamanho e com germinação lenta se comparado com o central. Nosso objetivo foi verificar como o mecanismo de germinação varia entre os tipos. Focamos em dois mecanismos: (1) restrição causada pelo pericarpo (física e química) e (2) estímulo hormonal (Ácido abscísico [ABA] e Giberelina [GA]). Os tipos de cipselas são fisicamente limitados pelo pericarpo, pois quando ambos os tipos de sementes são excisados há um aumento na germinação, contudo as diferenças no processo se mantém. O pericarpo do tipo periférico ainda possui inibidores que efetivamente retardam a germinação das cipselas centrais intactas. Para testar os efeitos hormonais, nós focamos no controle pelo ABA:GA. Ambas cipselas responderam ao gradiente de concentração de ABA exógeno, contudo não houve variação na sensibilidade entre os tipos. Ainda, ambos tipos de cipselas foram indiferentes à Fluoridona (inibidor de ABA), que indica que a dormência não é mantida pela nova síntese de ABA. Tipos de cipselas apresentam diferentes sensibilidades ao gradiente exógeno de GA3, com o tipo central sendo mais sensível ao tratamento que o periférico. Mas quando a síntese endógena de GA foi bloqueada pelo Paclobutrazol, ambos os tipos responderam de forma similar às concentrações de GA 3. Isso indica que a síntese de GA endógena pode estar relacionada com a diferença observada na germinação dos dois tipos de cipselas. Para concluir, os tipos de sementes diferem no potencial para superar a resistência do pericarpo, sendo o inibidor no pericarpo da cipsela periférica o redutor do potencial de crescimento, enquanto a GA aumenta esse potencial.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Germination/physiology , Bidens/physiology , Herbicides/pharmacology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Bidens/drug effects
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777439

ABSTRACT

DcCDPK8 involved in abiotic stress such as low temperature and signal transduction of hormones ABA and MeJA,but the transcriptional regulation is still unclear. In order to study the core promoter region of DcCDPK8 gene in Dendrobium catenatum and explore its transcriptional regulation mechanism,the DcCDPK8 gene promoter sequence was cloned by PCR from D. catenatum. Promoter sequence function was studied by fusion of 5 'terminal deletion and GUS gene. The results showed that the promoter sequence of DcCDPK8 gene has a low-temperature responsive element( LTR) between~(-1) 749 bp and-614 bp,two MeJA responsive elements between~(-1) 749 bp and-230 bp,and one ABA responsive elements between-614 bp and-230 bp. Three 5'-end different deletion fragments were constructed to fuse the eukaryotic expression vectors p BI121 with GUS,which were transformed into tobacco leaves. The GUS activity under cold stress treatment was DcCDPK8-p1>DcCDPK8-p2>DcCDPK8-p3. GUS activity under exogenous ABA induction was DcCDPK8-p1>DcCDPK8-p2>DcCDPK8-p3,and GUS activity under exogenous MeJA induction was DcCDPK8-p1>DcCDPK8-p2>DcCDPK8-p3. It is speculated that the ABA response element( ARE) in the promoter sequences of DcCDPK8 is positive regulatory role in response to exogenous ABA,the MeJA cis-acting element plays a negative role in response to exogenous MeJA.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Acetates , Cloning, Molecular , Cold Temperature , Cyclopentanes , Dendrobium , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Oxylipins , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Response Elements , Stress, Physiological , Tobacco
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 385-400, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape) predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM). Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs) formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1) and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%).


Subject(s)
Plant Shoots/physiology , Carica/embryology , Carica/physiology , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Indoleacetic Acids/analysis , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Germination/physiology , Culture Media , Carica/anatomy & histology , Carica/drug effects
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 12-17, nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021049

ABSTRACT

Background: Molluscs can accumulate carotenoids in their body tissues by predominantly feeding on aquatic plant sources. Carotenoid transport and absorption are determined by the regulation of various proteins such as Scavenger receptor class B(SR-BI). We report the identification and characterisation of pearl oyster Pinctada fuctada martensii SR-BI (PmSR-BI). The correlation between total carotenoid content (TCC) and gene expression was also estimated. Results: The full-length cDNA of PmSR-BI was 1828 bp, including an open-reading frame encoding of 1518 bp with a pI value of 5.83. PmSR-BI protein contains a hydrophobic CD36 domain and four centrally clustered cysteine residues for the arrangement of disulphide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence had an identity of 30% to 60% with the SR-B of other organisms. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that mRNA transcripts were expressed in multiple tissues of adult pearl oyster. A higher expression of PmSR-BI gene was observed in the hepatopancreas than in the adductor muscle, gill and mantle. The TCC and gene expression of PmSR-BI were significantly correlated (P b 0.05), with a correlation coefficient of 0.978. Conclusions: The results suggested that PmSR-BI is involved in the absorption of carotenoids in the pearl oyster P. fuctada martensii.


Subject(s)
Carotenoids/metabolism , Pinctada , Receptors, Scavenger/genetics , Receptors, Scavenger/metabolism , Terpenes , Vitamin A/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Gene Expression , Cloning, Molecular , Sequence Analysis , Abscisic Acid , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 253-257, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-41802

ABSTRACT

The phytochemical study for the extract of Nelumbo nucifera (Nymphaceae) seeds has led to the isolation of ten compounds including five simple phenolic compounds, two indole derivatives, a flavonoid glycoside, two abscisic acid derivatives. The interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-Q-TOF-MS spectroscopic data revealed the chemical structures of isolates to be p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), protocatechuic acid (2), (E)-p-coumaric acid (3), (E)-ferulic acid (4), (E)-sinapate-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), tryptophan (6), 3-indoleacetic acid (7), isoschaftoside (8), dihydrophaseic acid (9), dihydrophaseic acid 3′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10). To the best of our knowledge, 1 – 5 and 7 were identified for the first time from N. nucifera seeds, and the presence of dihydrophaseic acid (9) and its glucoside (10) were demonstrated secondly in this plant.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Nelumbo , Phenol , Plants , Tryptophan
16.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(2): 496-504, mar./abr. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965371

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was describe the germination and evaluate the desiccation and reduction in desiccation sensitivity of Hancornia speciosa Gomes seeds. Initially, we evaluated the germination characteristics and morphophysiological aspects of seedlings. The seeds in the first experiment were subjected to fast desiccation (activated silica gel) and slow desiccation (laboratory conditions) until the water content reached 40%, 30%, 20%, and 15% ± 2%. To reduce the desiccation sensitivity, in the second experiment, the seeds were soaked in polyethylene glycol (PEG) at potentials of -0.1 and - 0.3 MPa for 120 h, with or without abscisic acid (ABA) (10-4µM), and subsequently subjected to fast desiccation until a water content of 15% was reached, based on the results from the first experiment. The seed vigor in both experiments was evaluated by the primary root protrusion tests, percentage of normal seedlings, germination speed index, length and mass (shoot, underground, and total). Seedlings of H. speciosa feature a stem-like xylopodium structure. The seeds were tolerant to water reduction up to 15% by fast desiccation and 30% by slow desiccation. Moreover, priming was not efficient in reducing the desiccation sensitivity of H. speciosa seeds.


Objetivou-se neste trabalho descrever a germinação e avaliar a secagem e a redução da sensibilidade à dessecação em sementes de Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Inicialmente, foi realizada a descrição das características de germinação e aspectos morfofisiológicos das plântulas. Para primeiro experimento, as sementes foram submetidas à secagem rápida (sílica gel ativada) e à secagem lenta (condições de ambiente de laboratório) até atingirem os teores de água de 40, 30, 20 e 15 ± 2%. Na tentativa da redução da sensibilidade à dessecação em um segundo experimento, as sementes foram embebidas em polietileno glicol (PEG) nos potenciais de -0,1 e -0,3 MPa por 120 horas associados ou não ao ácido abscísico (ABA) (10-4M) e posteriormente submetidas a secagem rápida no teor de água de 15%, de acordo com os resultados do primeiro experimento. O potencial fisiológico das sementes, em ambos os experimentos, foi avaliado por meio dos testes de protrusão da raiz primária, porcentagem de plântulas normais, índice de velocidade de germinação, comprimento e massa seca de plântulas (parte aérea, sistema subterrâneo e total). As plântulas de H. speciosa apresentam xilopódio de estrutura caulinar. As sementes toleram a redução do teor de água até 15% na secagem rápida e de 30% para secagem lenta. O condicionamento osmótico não foi eficiente para reduzir a sensibilidade à dessecação de sementes de H. speciosa.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols , Seeds , Abscisic Acid , Germination , Apocynaceae , Desiccation
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 222-230, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242299

ABSTRACT

To investigate roles of nitric oxide (NO) signal in accumulations of phenolic acids in abscisic.acid (ABA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots, S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-an exogenous NO donor, for 6 days, and contents of phenolic acids in the hairy roots are determined. Then with treatment of ABA and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide, c-PTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME), contents of phenolic acids and expression levels of three key genes involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis were detected. Phenolic acids production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots was most significantly improved by 100 µmoL/L SNP. Contents of RA and salvianolic acid B increased by 3 and 4 folds. ABA significantly improved transcript levels of PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) and RAS (rosmarinic acid synthase), and increased phenolic acids accumulations. However, with treatments of ABA+c-PTIO or ABA+L-NAME, accumulations of phenolic acids and expression levels of the three key genes were significantly inhibited. Both NO and ABA can increase accumulations of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. NO signal probably mediates the ABA-induced phenolic acids production.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Pharmacology , Benzofurans , Metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers , Pharmacology , Hydroxybenzoates , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Metabolism , Tyrosine Transaminase , Metabolism
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 99 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834155

ABSTRACT

A banana é um fruto consumido no mundo todo e, ao contrário do que acontece na maioria dos países nos quais predomina o grupo Cavendish, uma grande variedade de cultivares são consumidas nas diferentes regiões do Brasil. No entanto, as informações bioquímicas e fisiológicas a respeito das cultivares consumidas no país são ainda restritas e, apesar de serem muito diferentes entre si, são tratadas da mesma maneira na pré e pós-colheita, o que muitas vezes compromete a qualidade do fruto. Diante disso, dois pontos são fundamentais para a obtenção de frutos de melhor qualidade: a definição do ponto de colheita e o tratamento dos frutos com etileno após a colheita. Hoje a colheita é feita em função do diâmetro dos frutos e o tratamento com etileno é o mesmo para todas as cultivares. Porém, frutos com o mesmo diâmetro nem sempre estão no mesmo estágio de maturidade fisiológica e, usualmente, o tratamento pós-colheita feito com etileno, visando o amadurecimento mais rápido e uniforme dos frutos, não segue nenhuma orientação técnica. A consequência da falta de critérios definidos para a colheita e para a aplicação de etileno resulta em bananas com baixa qualidade e com vida-de-prateleira curta. A produção de banana é dificultada pelos problemas fitossanitários que ocorrem nas plantações, incluindo doenças como as Sigatokas Negra e Amarela e o Mal-do-Panamá. Tendo em vista a ameaça que as doenças da bananeira representam e os prejuízos que podem causar, a introdução de cultivares resistentes é a melhor forma para reduzir a pressão desses patógenos sobre a cultura. Por ser resistente às Sigatokas e ao Mal de Panamá este trabalho visou conhecer melhor a cultivar Thap Maeo (Musa acuminata AAB cv. Thap Maeo) que tem como defeito principal uma vida-de-prateleira muito curta. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1) estabelecer o ponto de colheita das bananas da cultivar Thap Maeo utilizando a metodologia da soma de temperatura a que a planta está exposta durante o desenvolvimento dos frutos; (2) estabelecer, a partir da caracterização físico-química dos frutos, o teor ideal de etileno exógeno para promover o amadurecimento uniforme dos frutos e, (3) estudar o balanço hormonal no amadurecimento dos frutos. Em uma primeira etapa foi implantado um experimento de campo para determinar a Temperatura Base e a Idade Fisiológica Máxima para esta cultivar. Estes parâmetros são necessários para o cálculo da idade fisiológica e na determinação do ponto de colheita. Com o término desta etapa, foram realizadas colheitas de frutos em diferentes épocas do ano para confirmar a metodologia usada. Foi possível estabelecer uma metodologia para estimar o ponto de colheita dos frutos de acordo com a estação do ano em que estes se desenvolveram. Para estabelecer o teor ideal de etileno exógeno aplicado na pós-colheita, os frutos foram testados com diferentes concentrações de etileno (0 a 1000 ppm) em dose única. Os resultados indicam que mesmo as menores concentrações de etileno aplicadas promovem o amadurecimento uniforme dos frutos, sem diferenças aparentes entre os tratamentos. Além disso, as análises do perfil de compostos voláteis da polpa indicam que a maior diferença entre o aroma dos tratamentos é entre frutos tratados e não tratados. Os frutos que não foram tratados apresentaram maior quantidade de compostos identificados. Em todas as colheitas realizadas, o período entre o início do amadurecimento e o amadurecimento completo dos frutos foi consideravelmente curto se comparado a bananas do subgrupo Nanica. Para melhor compreender estes resultados, além do etileno, foram quantificados os teores livres dos hormônios ácido indol-3-acético (AIA) e ácido abcísico (ABA). Em comparação com estudos anteriores, com cultivares do subgrupo Nanica, a cultivar Thap Maeo produz mais etileno e ABA durante o amadurecimento, além de apresentar menores teores de AIA quando verde. Estas diferenças hormonais podem explicar o curto período de amadurecimento desta cultivar


Banana is an important staple food. Unlike the world Market, which has only the Cavendish Bananas as export bananas, Brazilian market has many Bananas varieties. However, biochemical and physiological information about these varieties are still scarce and different bananas cultivars are treated the same way in pre or post-harvest, which often affects the quality of the fruit. In this context, two issues are important to reach best fruit quality: definition of harvest time and the exogenous ethylene treatment. Now a day the harvest time is defined by the diameter of the fruits and the ethylene treatment is equal for all cultivars. However, fruits with the same diameter not always are in the same development grade and the post-harvest ethylene treatment, aiming a faster and uniform ripening, does not follow any technical recommendation. The consequences for the lack of criteria in the harvest and for the ethylene treatment might be a low quality and shelf life banana. Banana production is hampered by plant health problems occurring in the production fields, including the diseases such as the Sigatokas and the Panama Wilt. Given the threat of the banana diseases, and the damage they can cause, the introduction of resistant cultivars is the best way to reduce the pressure of these pathogens on this crop. Being resistant to Sigatokas and Panama diseases, this work aimed to know better the cultivar Thap Maeo (Musa acuminata AAB cv. Thap Maeo) whose main defect is a short shelf life. The objectives of this work were: (1) to establish the harvest time of Thap Maeo bananas using the thermal sum techniques, (2) using the physico-chemical characterization of the fruit, establish the ideal concentration of exogenous ethylene to promote uniform ripening of fruits and (3) study the hormonal balance in the fruit ripening. The first step was a field experiment to determine the base temperature and the maximum physiological age. These parameters are used to calculate the thermal sum. The next step was to harvest fruits from different times of the year to confirm the methodology. It was established a methodology to estimate the harvest time according to the season in which the fruit has developed. Five ethylene concentration were tested (0-1000 ppm). Results showed that even the low ethylene concentration applied could promote the uniform ripening of the fruits with no apparent differences between the treatments. Furthermore, the analysis of volatile compounds in the pulp indicate that the major difference between the aroma of treatments is between treated and untreated fruits. The fruits that were not treated showed a higher amount of identified compounds. For all harvested fruits, the period between the ripening start and full ripening of the fruit was short when compared to the Nanica bananas. Levels of the hormones indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid, in addition to ethylene, were quantified to better understand these results. Compared to previous studies, with cultivars of Nanica subgroup, the cultivar Thap Maeo produce more ethylene and ABA during ripening, and have lower IAA level in the green stage. These hormonal differences may explain the short maturity period of this cultivar


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Ethylenes/toxicity , Biochemistry , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Volatile Organic Compounds/classification
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351283

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Pharmacology , Color , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavanones , Glucosides , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 17(6): 287-295, Nov. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730260

ABSTRACT

Background Abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress- and ripening-induced protein (ASR) is plant-specific hydrophilic transcriptional regulators involved in sucrose stress and wounding in banana. However, it is not known whether banana ASR genes confer salt stress tolerance. The contexts of the study was to analysis the sequence characterization of banana ASR1, and identify its expression patterns and function under salt stress using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and overexpression in Arabidopsis. The purpose was to evaluate the role of banana ASR1 to salt stress tolerance employed by plants. Results A full-length cDNA isolated from banana fruit was named MaASR1, and it had a 432 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 143 amino acids. MaASR1 was preferential expression in roots and leaves compared to low expression in fruits, rhizomes and flowers. Under salt stress, the expression of MaASR1 quickly increased and highest expression level was detected in roots and leaves at 4 h, and then gradually decreased. These results suggested that MaASR1 expression was induced under salt stress. MaASR1 protein was localized in the nucleus and plasma membrane. MaASR1 was transformed to Arabidopsis and verified by southern and northern analysis, transgenic lines L14 and L38 integrated one and two copies of MaASR1, respectively, while overexpression in transgenic lines provided evidence for the role of MaASR1 to salt stress tolerance. Conclusions This study demonstrated that overexpression of MaASR1 in Arabidopsis confers salt stress tolerance by reducing the expression of ABA/stress-responsive genes, but does not affect the expression of the ABA-independent pathway and biosynthesis pathway genes.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Musa/genetics , Salt Tolerance , Plant Growth Regulators , RNA/analysis , Plants, Genetically Modified , Cloning, Molecular , Sequence Analysis , Arabidopsis , Abscisic Acid , DNA, Complementary/chemical synthesis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salt Stress
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