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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(4): 241-251, dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1355032

ABSTRACT

El basul es el fruto de la planta Erythrina edulis que posee un alto contenido de proteínas, fibra dietética y antioxidantes, pero también con contenido de antinutrientes. Objetivo. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto del germinado sobre las características nutricionales, propiedades bioactivas y funcionales de las semillas de basul. Materiales y métodos. Mediante un diseño aleatorizado con arreglo factorial de 2x2x2 (tiempo de remojo, tiempo de germinado, presencia o ausencia de luz), las semillas de basul fueron germinadas y convertidas en harina (HBG) para determinar la composición proximal y la digestibilidad in vitro de la proteína. Además, se ha determinado los fenoles totales (CFT), la capacidad antioxidante (métodos ABTS y DPPH) y las propiedades de hidratación y adsorción de aceite. Resultados. Las diferentes condiciones de germinado no han modificado la composición proximal de la HBG; sin embargo, la digestibilidad in vitro de la proteína incrementó hasta en 6,25% en uno de los tratamientos respecto a la muestra no germinada. El CFT, también ha incrementado de 241,49 mg AGE/100g (sin germinar) a 267,15 mg AGE/100g (germinado); al igual que la capacidad antioxidante (ABTS) de 173,04 µmolTE/g (sin germinar) a 195,67 µmolTE/g (germinado). También se tuvo incrementos en la solubilidad, la capacidad de absorción de agua y la capacidad de hinchamiento. Conclusión. La calidad de la proteína, el contenido de fenoles totales, la capacidad antioxidante y propiedades funcionales de interacción con el agua de la semilla de basul mejora con el germinado(AU)


Basul is the fruit of the Erythrina edulis plant. It has a high content of proteins, dietary fiber, and antioxidants, but it also contains antinutrients. Objective. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of sprouting on the nutritional characteristics, bioactive and functional properties of basul seeds. Materials and methods. Basul seeds were germinated to produce flour (HBG) and determine its proximal composition and in vitro digestibility of the protein through a randomized design with a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (soaking time, germination time, and presence or absence of light). Total phenols (CFT), antioxidant capacity (ABTS and DPPH methods), and hydration and oil adsorption properties were also determined. Results. The different germination conditions did not modify the proximal composition of HBG. However, the in vitro digestibility of the protein increased up to 6.25% in one of the treatments compared to the non-germinated sample. The CFT also increased from 241.49 mg AGE/100g (without germination) to 267.15 mg AGE/100g (germinated) and the antioxidant capacity (ABTS) from 173.04 µmolTE/g (without germination) to 195.67 µmolTE/g (germinated). Solubility, water absorption capacity, and swelling capacity also increased. Conclusion. The quality of the protein, the content of total phenols, the antioxidant capacity, and the functional properties of interaction with the water of the basul seed improved with germination(AU)


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Dietary Fiber , Dietary Proteins , Germination , Erythrina , Phenolic Compounds , Flour/analysis , Proteins , Absorption , Fabaceae , Antioxidants , Nutritive Value
2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1)2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352956

ABSTRACT

Polymeric membrane technologies demand the synthesis of new polymers to enhance their equilibrium, thermal, and transport properties. Therefore, the focus of this investigation was the evaluation of the equilibrium and thermal properties of a sulfonated fluoroblock copolymer blend membrane composed of sulfonated poly(styre-ne-isobutylene-styrene) (SIBS SO3H) and a novel sulfonated fluoroblock copolymer composed of poly(4-fluo-rostyrene) (P4FS), poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(isobutylene) (PIB). The fluoroblock copolymer was synthesized using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) and cationic polymerization. First, the molecular weight and the thermal stability of the block copolymer were determined using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Second, the chemical composition was monitored utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The molecular weight of P4FS-b-PS was Mn ~ 36,100; this value increased 8% after the cationic polymerization. The equilibrium properties of the membrane were evaluated using the water uptake and Ion-Exchange Capacity. The degradation behavior and the thermal transitions were determined using TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), respectively. This newly membrane exhibited water uptake higher than 608% related to the improvement of 36% in the ion-exchange capacity and the increment of 25.31% and 25.24% in the energy required to produce the thermal transitions induced by the addition of the sulfonated fluoroblock copolymer.


La tecnología de membranas poliméricas requiere de la síntesis de nuevos polímeros que mejoren sus propiedades de equilibrio, térmicas y de transporte. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las pro-piedades de equilibrio y térmicas de una membrana compuesta de poli(estireno-isobutileno-estireno) sulfonado (SIBS SO3H) y un fluoropolímero en bloque sulfonado compuesto de poli(4-fluorostireno) (P4FS), poli(estireno) (PS) y poli(isobutileno) (PIB). El fluoropolímero en bloque se sintetizó utilizando la técnica de polimerización radical por transferencia atómica (ATRP por sus siglas en inglés) y polimerización catiónica. El peso molecular y la estabilidad térmica del fluoropolímero en bloque fueron determinadas por medio de Cromatografía de Permeación en Gel (GPC) y un análisis termogravimétrico (TGA). La composición química se monitorizó utilizando espectroscopía infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FTIR) y espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN). El peso molecular de P4FS-b-PS fue Mn ~ 36,100; este valor aumentó un 8% después de la polimerización catiónica. Las propiedades de equilibrio de la membrana fueron evaluadas por medio de la absorción de agua y la capacidad de intercambio iónico. El comportamiento de degradación y las transiciones térmicas se determinaron utilizando TGA y Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC). Esta nueva membrana exhibió una absorción de agua mayor del 608% relacionada con la mejora del 36% en la capacidad de intercambio iónico y el incremento en 25.31% y 25.24% en la energía requerida para producir las transiciones termales inducidas por la adición del fluoropolímero sulfonado en bloque.


Subject(s)
Polymers/analysis , Membranes, Artificial , Polystyrenes/analysis , Absorption , Polymerization , Ion Exchange , Molecular Weight
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281759

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal de la investigación fue analizar la estructura factorial y la consistencia de una escala de compromiso académico a través del análisis factorial exploratorio, confirmatorio y multigrupo; y también, con el coeficiente Alfa. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1110 estudiantes de diversas universidades de Lima, Perú y el instrumento analizado fue la Escala de Utrecht de Engagement Académico (UWES-S) de 17 ítems. Durante el análisis factorial exploratorio, se evidenció que los ítems se agrupan en tres factores: dedicación, vigor y absorción; y se eliminó el ítem 10 por presentar carga factorial en más de una dimensión. El análisis factorial confirmatorio indicó que el modelo es óptimo; por otra parte, el análisis factorial multigrupo señaló que el instrumento presenta un ajuste adecuado para la muestra de varones y mujeres. Además, la escala final de 16 ítems obtuvo un coeficiente Alfa igual a .83. Con lo anterior, se aporta un instrumento válido para la evaluación del compromiso académico en estudiantes universitarios peruanos.


The main purpose of the research was to analyze the factor structure and consistency of an academic engagement scale through exploratory, confirmatory and multigroup factor analysis; and also, with the Alpha coefficient. The sample consisted of 1,110 students from several universities in Lima, Peru and the instrument analyzed was the Utrecht Academic Engagement Scale (UWES-S) of 17 items. During the exploratory factor analysis, it was evident that the items are grouped into three factors: dedication, vigor and absorption; and item 10 was eliminated for presenting factor loading in more than one dimension. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the model is optimal; on the other hand, the multigroup factor analysis indicated that the instrument presents an appropriate adjustment for a sample of men and women. Furthermore, the final scale of 16 items obtained an alpha coefficient equal to .83. With the above, a valid instrument is provided for the evaluation of academic engagement in Peruvian university students.


O principal objetivo da investigação foi analisar a estrutura fatorial e a consistência de uma escala de engajamento acadêmico por meio de análise fatorial exploratória, confirmatória e multigrupo; e também com o coeficiente alpha. A amostra foi composta por 1110 estudantes de várias universidades de Lima, Peru, e o instrumento analisado foi a Escala Utrecht de Engajamento Acadêmico (UWES-S) de 17 itens. Durante a análise fatorial exploratória, demonstrou-se que os itens estão agrupados em três fatores: dedicação, vigor e absorção; e o item 10 foi eliminado por apresentar carga fatorial em mais de uma dimensão. A análise fatorial confirmatória indicou que o modelo é ótimo; Por outro lado, a análise fatorial multigrupo indicou que o instrumento apresenta um ajuste adequado para a amostra de homens e mulheres. Além disso, a escala final de 16 itens obteve um coeficiente alfa igual a .83. Com o exposto, este trabalho fornece um instrumento válido para avaliar o engajamento acadêmico em estudantes universitários peruanos.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Research , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Universities , Absorption
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 171-180, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115486

ABSTRACT

La bioaccesibilidad de un nutriente en un alimento sirve para determinar la calidad nutricional de éste para el consumo humano. El arroz es uno de los alimentos más importantes en la dieta por su gran aporte calórico y nutricional. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la bioaccesibilidad in vitro del zinc en arroz mediante espectrofotometría ultravioleta-visible y espectrometría de absorción atómica de llama y su relación con el contenido de ácido fítico. El porcentaje de bioaccesibilidad del zinc, respecto al porcentaje de ácido fítico, presentó una relación logarítmica inversamente proporcional (r= −0,669; p<0,05). Los valores porcentuales de bioaccesibilidad del zinc y ácido fítico en las líneas de arroz evaluadas se hallaron en un rango de 1,98,7% y 0,039-0,946% respectivamente. Se encontró que el ácido fítico afecta la bioaccesibilidad del zinc y que ésta no estuvo ligada a la concentración total del zinc presente en las líneas de arroz evaluadas. Las técnicas implementadas para cuantificar el zinc dializado presentaron diferencias significativas y se mostró que la técnica ultravioleta-visible no fue apta para este tipo de ensayos.


The bioavailability of a nutrient in a food serves to determine the nutritional quality for human consumption. Rice is one of the most important foods in diet due to its caloric and nutritional contribution. The objective of this study was to analyze the in vitro bioavailability of zinc in rice by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry and its relationship with phytic acid content. The percentage of zinc bioaccessibility with respect to phytic acid percentage, showed an inverse proportional logarithmic relationship (r= −0.669; p<0.05). The percentage values of zinc bioavailability and phytic acid in the evaluated rice varieties had a range of 1.9-8.7% and 0.039-0.946%, respectively. Phytic acid affected the bioaccessibility of zinc and was not linked to the total concentration of zinc present in the rice lines evaluated. The techniques implemented to quantify zinc dialyzed presented significant differences. It was shown that the ultraviolet-visible technique was not suitable for this type of assay.


Subject(s)
Phytic Acid/analysis , Oryza , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Zinc/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Biological Availability , Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy , Absorption , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0762018, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1121084

ABSTRACT

Intoxication by dispersion of glyphosate droplets in coffee seedlings is common and, in addition to the problem of drift, there are reports of contamination of this herbicide to a nontarget plant via the rhizosphere. Hydroponics allows the comparison of the translocation of the glyphosate absorbed by the foliage or the roots and avoids the interaction with the soil, which could hamper the achievement of more accurate conclusions when it is absorbed by the root. Thus, the toxicity of glyphosate sublethal dosages in the initial growth of coffee plants in hydroponics was evaluated by applying four sublethal dosages in two different locations (solution and leaf). Fifty days after the application of the herbicide, the intoxication percentage and the growth of the coffee seedlings were evaluated. From the reduced dose of 115.2 g·ha-1 of glyphosate, height reductions, root length; number of leaves, dry mass of leaf, roots and total, leaf area, and leaf mass ratio were observed. The first two parameters were observed only in leaf application and the others via leaf and solution. The aerial part­root ratio system had an increase in herbicide sublethal dosages when applied to leaves and the ratio of leaf area and specific leaf area increased in both applications. Sublethal dosages of glyphosate applied to young coffee plants under hydroponic conditions impair their growth, and it is more accentuated with increasing doses and when the leaves, instead of the roots, absorb the herbicide.(AU)


Intoxicação por dispersão das gotas de glifosato em mudas de café são comuns, além do problema da deriva, há relatos da passagem desse herbicida para planta não alvo via rizosfera. A hidroponia possibilita comparar a translocação do glifosato absorvido pelas folhagens ou raízes e evita a interação do solo que poderia dificultar a obtenção de conclusões mais precisas quando absorvido pela raiz. Assim, a toxidade de subdoses de glifosato no crescimento inicial de plantas de café em hidroponia foi avaliada aplicando-se quatro subdoses em dois locais distintos (solução e folha). Cinquenta dias após a aplicação do herbicida, a porcentagem de intoxicação e o crescimento das mudas de café foram avaliados. A partir da subdose de 115,2 g·ha-1 de glifosato observaram-se reduções da altura; comprimento radicular; número de folhas; massa seca da folha, raiz, radicular e total; área foliar; razão de massa foliar, sendo os dois primeiros parâmetros observados somente na aplicação foliar e os demais via foliar e solução. A relação parte aérea/sistema radicular aumentaram com o incremento das subdoses do herbicida quando aplicado nas folhas e a razão de área foliar e área foliar específica aumentaram em ambas as vias de aplicação. Subdoses de glifosato aplicadas em plantas jovens de café, em condições hidropônicas, prejudicam o seu crescimento sendo mais acentuados com o aumento das doses e quando o herbicida é absorvido pelas folhas em relação à absorção radicular.(AU)


Subject(s)
Coffee , Hydroponics , Herbicides , Absorption , Environmental Pollution , Toxicity , Rhizosphere
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17836, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132033

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out in order to compare the relative bioavailability of two different formulations containing 400 mg of acetaminophen + 4 mg of phenylephrine hydrochloride + 4 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate, Test formulation (Cimegripe®) and Reference formulation (Resfenol®) in 84 healthy volunteers of both sexes under fasting conditions. The study was conducted in a single dose, randomized, open-label, crossover 3-way and partially replicated. The tolerability was evaluated by the monitoring of adverse events and vital signs, results of clinical and laboratory tests. Plasma concentrations were quantified by validated bioanalytical methods using the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, T1/2 and Kel pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from these obtained concentrations. The 90% confidence intervals were constructed for the ratio reference/test from the geometric average of the Cmax and AUC parameters which were comprised between 80% and 125%. Only the Cmax parameter of the phenylephrine was applied the scaled average bioequivalence due to the intraindividual coefficient of variation > 30% obtained, thus extending the acceptance limits of the interval. It can be concluded that the two formulations were bioequivalent in terms of rate and absorption extent and thus interchangeable


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Phenylephrine/analysis , Capsules/classification , Biological Availability , Chlorpheniramine/analysis , Acetaminophen/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Single Dose , Fasting/adverse effects , Cross-Over Studies , Monitoring , Absorption/drug effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Healthy Volunteers/classification
7.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e208556, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152139

ABSTRACT

Aim: Self-adhesive flowable composite resins have been recently introduced to the market. Degree of conversion (DC) and water sorption (WS) are two important parameters affecting the properties of restorative materials. This study aimed to assess the DC and WS of a self-adhesive flowable composite resin in comparison with two conventional flowable composite resins. Methods: Vertise Flow (VF) self-adhesive and Tetric-N Flow (TF) and Grandio Flow (GF) conventional flowable composites were evaluated in this in vitro, experimental study. The DC (n=3) was determined by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The WS (n=7) was measured after 7 days of immersion in artificial saliva accordingto ISO 4049specifications. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and a post-hoc test (p<0.05). Results: VF showed the highest DC percentage (84.3%) followed by GF (72.79%) and TF (68.7%). The latter two had no significant difference (p=0.8). WS was the highest in VF (55.2 µg/mm3), and the two conventional flowable composites had a significant difference in WS (19.5 µg/mm3 in TF and 11 µg/mm3 in GF; p<0.001). Conclusions: Flowable composite resins had significant differences in DC and WS, and VF demonstrated the highest DC and WS


Subject(s)
Composite Resins , Absorption , Polymerization
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 56-60, Jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051261

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals are natural elements in the Earth's crust that can enter human food through industrial or agricultural processing, in the form of fertilizers and pesticides. These elements are not biodegradable. Some heavy metals are known as pollutants and are toxic, and their bioaccumulation in plant and animal tissues can cause undesirable effects for humans; therefore, their amount in water and food should always be under control. The aim of this study is to investigate the conditions for the bioremediation of heavy metals in foods. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been used to reduce the heavy metal content in the environment. During the last decades, bioremediation methods using plants and microorganisms have created interest to researchers for their advantages such as being more specific and environmentally friendly. The main pollutant elements in foods and beverages are lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury, which have their own permissible limits. Among the microorganisms that are capable of bioremediation of heavy metals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an interesting choice for its special characteristics and being safe for humans, which make it quite common and useful in the food industry. Its mass production as the byproduct of the fermentation industry and the low cost of culture media are the other advantages. The ability of this yeast to remove an individual separated element has also been widely investigated. In countries with high heavy metal pollution in wheat, the use of S. cerevisiae is a native solution for overcoming the problem of solution. This article summarizes the main conditions for heavy metal absorption by S. cerevisiae.


Subject(s)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Food Industry , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Arsenic , Yeasts , Cadmium , Contaminant Removal , Absorption , Bioaccumulation , Lead , Mercury
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765667

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia, highly elevated, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Statins have been proven to effectively reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are recommended as a first-line therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, statins may not be sufficient in decreasing LDL cholesterol levels and pose a significant on-treatment residual risk of major cardiovascular events (i.e., residual cholesterol risk) according to meta-analyses of statin trials. Current guidelines for cholesterol management to achieve additional LDL cholesterol reduction and reduce ASCVD risk recommend two hyperlipidemic agents besides statins. Use of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, leads to additional LCL cholesterol reduction and decreased ASCVD risk, when added to statin therapy, without raising significant safety concerns. Furthermore, in combination with a mild-to-moderate statin intensity, ezetimibe is used in situations of statin-associated adverse effects such as myalgia and the combination therapy is relatively safer. Monoclonal antibody of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), alirocumab, and evolocumab, have been approved to lower LDL cholesterol level. While there are drawbacks to the use of PCSK9 inhibitors, including high cost and adverse events such as injection site reaction, they significantly decreased serum LDL cholesterol levels and thereby ASCVD risks when added to maximally tolerated statin therapy.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Dyslipidemias , Ezetimibe , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Lipoproteins , Myalgia , Proprotein Convertases , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of polishing methods on the color stability of composite resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two bulk-fill and four conventional resin composites were filled in cylindrical molds (6 mm diameter, 4 mm height) and light-cured. The specimens were stored in 34℃ distilled water for 24 h. Spectrophotometer was used to determine the color value according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) color space. Each group was divided into three groups according to polishing methods (n = 5). Group 1 was control group (Mylar strip group), group 2 was polished with PoGo, and group 3 was polished with Sof-Lex Spiral wheels. Color evaluation was performed weekly for 4 weeks after immersion in 34℃ distilled water. The results were analyzed by generalized least squares method (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Generalized least squares analysis revealed that Sof-Lex Spiral wheels group showed the significantly lower ΔE values compared to PoGo and control group (P < 0.05). The ΔE values of polished group showed the significantly lower than the ΔE values of unpolished group (P < 0.05). Regarding color changes of composite resins, there was no significant difference between the ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350 XT Universal restorative in all time intervals (P < 0.05). Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill showed the significantly lower ΔE values compared to other composite resins in 1, 2, 3 weeks (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, polishing methods influence the color stabilities of composite resins. The group polished with Sof-Lex Spiral Wheels showed more resistance to discoloration than group polished with PoGo.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Composite Resins , Fungi , Immersion , Least-Squares Analysis , Methods , Water
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764424

ABSTRACT

In the case of edentulous patients, the total amount of occlusal force is dispersed by the keratinized gingiva during mastication, in result, causing lower masticatory and chewing efficiency. In particular, the mandibular area has more side effects such as pain than the maxilla has. It gets worse when the patient has more absorption of alveolar bone, but the implant treatment is often interrupted due to the existence of the inferior alveolar nerve. In this case, a patient treated with the all-on-4 method by placing the implant in the anterior part of mandible and with the conventional complete denture for the maxilla has maintained without complications and was satisfied with the restoration both functionally and esthetically.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Bite Force , Denture, Complete , Gingiva , Humans , Mandible , Mandibular Nerve , Mastication , Maxilla , Methods
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 366-372, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Radiopaque metal markers are required to improve X-ray absorption by self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) to enable precise stent placement. A new tantalum radiopaque marker was recently developed using an ultrasonic spray technique. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and visibility of tantalum markers. METHODS: A total of three beagle dogs were used for a gastrointestinal tract absorption test. Five tantalum markers were placed in the stomach of each dog endoscopically. Excreted tantalum markers were collected, and their weights were compared to the original weights. In radiopacity tests, marker radiopacities on X-ray images were quantified using ImageJ software and compared with those of commercially available metal markers. Finally, the radiographic images of six patients who underwent biliary SEMS placement using tantalum marker Nitinol SEMSs (n=3) or gold marker Nitinol SEMSs (n=3) were compared with respect to marker brightness on fluoroscopic images. RESULTS: Absorption testing showed that the marker structures and weights were unaffected. Radiopacity tests showed that the mean brightness and total brightness scores were greater for tantalum markers (226.22 and 757, respectively) than for gold (A, 209 and 355, respectively; B, 204.96 and 394, respectively; C, 194.34 and 281, respectively) or platinum markers (D, 203.6 and 98, respectively). On fluoroscopic images, tantalum markers had higher brightness and total brightness scores (41.47 and 497.67, respectively) in human bile ducts than gold markers (28.37 and 227, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Tantalum markers were found to be more visible than other commercially available markers in X-ray images and to be resistant to gastrointestinal absorption.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Bile Ducts , Dogs , Gastrointestinal Absorption , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , Platinum , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Stents , Stomach , Tantalum , Ultrasonics , Weights and Measures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 plays a role in absorption of iron preparations given to children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental study involving pre- and postintervention tests using a control group in North Sulawesi province, Indonesia, between July and September 2017. We conducted a single-blind controlled trial that included primary school children who were diagnosed with IDA based on reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (Ret-He) levels <27.8 pg/L. RESULTS: A total of 66 children were randomized into 2 groups. Thirty-four children received iron preparations with the addition of L. reuteri DSM 17938 (group 1), whereas the other 32 received iron preparations alone (group 2). The baseline Ret-He levels before intervention were similar in both groups. After 14 days of intervention, mean Ret-He level in group 1 changed from 24.43±1.64 to 28.21±1.72 pg/L (P=0.000). Mean Ret-He level in group 2 changed from 24.31±1.42 to 27.03±2.14 pg/L (P=0.000). Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in Ret-He levels in both groups; Ret-He levels were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Children with IDA receiving iron preparations with L. reuteri DSM 17938 for 14 days show higher Ret-He levels than those receiving iron preparations alone.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Anemia , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Child , Humans , Indonesia , Iron , Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reticulocytes
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate anterior knee symptoms in patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft followed by implantation of a beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) block as a bone void filler. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 84 cases of synthetic bone grafting using a β-TCP block for the patellar bone defect in ACL reconstruction with a BPTB autograft. Computed tomography of the operated knee was performed immediately after the surgery to evaluate whether the grafted β-TCP block protruded forward from the anterior surface of the patella. On the basis of the results, the cases were divided into a protrusion group (n=31) and a non-protrusion group (n=53). Anterior knee symptoms at 12 months postoperatively and absorption of the grafted β-TCP block were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Except for patellofemoral crepitus, there was no significant difference in anterior knee symptoms between the two groups (p>0.05). The incidence of patellofemoral crepitus was significantly lower in the protrusion group than in the non-protrusion group (p=0.027). The groups showed no significant difference in β-TCP absorption. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the protrusion of β-TCP that was used as a bone void filler had no adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Autografts , Bone Transplantation , Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Grafts , Humans , Incidence , Knee , Patella , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Transplants
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786342

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to elucidate the influence of acetazolamide on choroidal structure changes during the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 45 eyes from 45 patients with acute CSC who were divided into an acetazolamide group (group 1, n = 20) and an observation group (group 2, n = 25). The main outcome measures were the changes in best-corrected visual acuity, subretinal fluid (SRF) height, subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), and choroidal vascularity index (CVI) at one week, one month, two months, and three months, respectively.RESULTS: Although statistical significance was not reached, best-corrected visual acuity improved in both groups at month 3 (from 0.06 ± 0.07 to 0.01 ± 0.03 in group 1 and 0.17 ± 0.24 to 0.09 ± 0.18 in group 2; p = 0.083 and 0.183, respectively). Separately, SRF height and CVI showed a significant decrease at three months in both groups (all p < 0.05), while a significant SRF height decrease was also noted in group 1 at one month (p = 0.038). In group 1, a significant decrease in the SFCT and CVI started at one week and one month (p = 0.021 and 0.008), respectively. However, in group 2, a significant decrease in the SFCT and CVI started at one month and two months (p = 0.005 and 0.015), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Acetazolamide has no effect on final functional or anatomical status at three months in eyes with CSC but does shorten the time for SRF absorption and accompanying choroidal structural changes.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Acetazolamide , Central Serous Chorioretinopathy , Choroid , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Subretinal Fluid , Visual Acuity
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 511-518, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have reported that endotoxemia is associated with pathogenesis and complications in cirrhosis. Endotoxin stimulates the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the development of complications. In addition, endotoxin easily invades the gut barrier system because of the increased intestinal permeability due to portal hypertensive enteropathy. In this report, we explored changes in cytokine levels and intestinal permeability and measured the thickness and elasticity of the bowel wall using ultrasonography in cirrhotic patients.METHODS: We enrolled 40 patients with cirrhosis classified as Child-Pugh B or C and 20 healthy volunteers. Abdominal ultrasonography examinations were used to evaluate bowel wall parameters in the ascending colon and terminal ileum. Intestinal permeability was measured using dual sugar absorption tests with lactulose and mannitol. Levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10 were determined from blood samples. We compared these outcomes between cirrhotic patients and healthy controls and between Child-Pugh B and C patients. In addition, we explored the correlation between cytokine levels, intestinal permeability ratio, and bowel wall parameters in cirrhotic patients.RESULTS: In cirrhotic patients, the ascending colon wall elasticity decreased (20.4 vs. 10.9 kPa, p = 0.048) and the terminal ileum wall thickness increased (4.2 vs. 1.9 mm, p < 0.001). The intestinal permeability ratio and levels of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 increased (0.219 vs. 0.017, p < 0.001; 22.47 vs. 13.48 pg/mL, p < 0.001; and 14.91 vs. 8.57 pg/mL, p = 0.019, respectively) in cirrhotic patients. However, there were no significant differences between Child-Pugh classes and no significant correlations between bowel wall parameters and intestinal permeability or cytokine levels.CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography revealed bowel wall thickening and decreases in elasticity; in addition, intestinal permeability and cytokine levels increased in cirrhotic patients compared with healthy controls.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Ascites , Colon, Ascending , Cytokines , Elasticity , Endotoxemia , Fibrosis , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Ileum , Interleukin-10 , Intestines , Lactulose , Liver Cirrhosis , Mannitol , Permeability , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Ultrasonography
17.
Intestinal Research ; : 443-454, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785871

ABSTRACT

The gut is an immune-microbiome-epithelial complex. Gut microbiome-host interactions have widespread biological implications, and the role of this complex system extends beyond the digestion of food and nutrient absorption. Dietary nutrients can affect this complex and play a key role in determining gut homeostasis to maintain host health. In this article, we review various dietary nutrients and their contribution to the pathogenesis and treatment of various intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, and diverticulitis, among other such disorders. A better understanding of diet-host-gut microbiome interactions is essential to provide beneficial nutrients for gut health and to limit nutritional hazards to ensure successful nutritional management of gastrointestinal conditions in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diet , Digestion , Diverticulitis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Homeostasis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestinal Diseases , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Microbiota , Nutrition Therapy
18.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 293-310, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785522

ABSTRACT

Two photon fluorescence microscopy and the numerous technical advances to it have served as valuable tools in biomedical research. The fluorophores (exogenous or endogenous) absorb light and emit lower energy photons than the absorption energy and the emission (fluorescence) signal is measured using a fluorescence decay graph. Additionally, high spatial resolution images can be acquired in two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (2P-FLIM) with improved penetration depth which helps in detection of fluorescence signal in vivo. 2P-FLIM is a non-invasive imaging technique in order to visualize cellular metabolic, by tracking intrinsic fluorophores present in it, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide and tryptophan etc. 2P-FLIM of these molecules enable the visualization of metabolic alterations, non-invasively. This comprehensive review discusses the numerous applications of 2P-FLIM towards cancer, neuro-degenerative, infectious diseases, and wound healing.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Communicable Diseases , Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide , Fluorescence , Microscopy, Fluorescence , NAD , Photons , Tryptophan , Wound Healing
19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785411

ABSTRACT

Skeletal mineralization is initiated in matrix vesicles (MVs), the small extracellular vesicles derived from osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) taken up by MVs form hydroxyapatite crystals, which propagate on collagen fibrils to mineralize the extracellular matrix. Insufficient calcium or phosphate impairs skeletal mineralization. Because active vitamin D is necessary for intestinal calcium absorption, vitamin D deficiency is a significant cause of rickets/osteomalacia. Chronic hypophosphatemia also results in rickets/osteomalacia. Excessive action of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a key regulator of Pi metabolism, leads to renal Pi wasting and impairs vitamin D activation. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of hereditary FGF23-related hypophosphatemia, and enhanced FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling in osteocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Increased extracellular Pi triggers signal transduction via FGFR to regulate gene expression, implying a close relationship between Pi metabolism and FGFR. An anti-FGF23 antibody, burosumab, has recently been developed as a new treatment for XLH. In addition to various forms of rickets/osteomalacia, hypophosphatasia (HPP) is characterized by impaired skeletal mineralization. HPP is caused by inactivating mutations in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme rich in MVs. The recent development of enzyme replacement therapy using bone-targeting recombinant alkaline phosphatase has improved the prognosis, motor function, and quality of life in patients with HPP. This links impaired skeletal mineralization with various conditions, and unraveling its pathogenesis will lead to more precise diagnoses and effective treatments.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Chondrocytes , Collagen , Diagnosis , Durapatite , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Extracellular Matrix , Extracellular Vesicles , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Gene Expression , Humans , Hypophosphatasia , Hypophosphatemia , Metabolism , Miners , Osteoblasts , Osteocytes , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Rickets , Signal Transduction , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 666-668, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762389

ABSTRACT

Localized cutaneous argyria is a rare condition in which the skin changes into blue-grey spots due to the absorption of silver. The lesions need to be differentiated from other pigmentary disorders and require radiographic and histological examination for more accurate diagnosis. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy can be a confirmatory tool in the evaluation of silver elements in biopsy tissue. This report shows the localized cutaneous argyria in earlobe of a 21-year-old woman who wears silver earrings for 10 years.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Argyria , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Ear , Female , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nevus, Blue , Silver , Skin , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Young Adult
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