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1.
Immune Network ; : 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811174

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 has resulted in unprecedented clinical benefit for cancer patients. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy has become the standard treatment for diverse cancer types as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-cancer therapies, and its indications are expanding. However, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy due to primary and/or acquired resistance, which is a major obstacle to broadening the clinical applicability of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. In addition, hyperprogressive disease, an acceleration of tumor growth following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, has been proposed as a new response pattern associated with deleterious prognosis. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy can also cause a unique pattern of adverse events termed immune-related adverse events, sometimes leading to treatment discontinuation and fatal outcomes. Investigations have been carried out to predict and monitor treatment outcomes using peripheral blood as an alternative to tissue biopsy. This review summarizes recent studies utilizing peripheral blood immune cells to predict various outcomes in cancer patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828163

ABSTRACT

In order to reduce the impact caused by the contact between the foot and the ground when wearing the lower extremity exoskeleton under the condition of high load, this paper proposed an exoskeleton foot mechanism for improving the foot comfort, and optimized the key index of its influence on the comfort. Firstly, the physical model of foot mechanism was established based on the characteristics of foot stress in gait period, and then the mathematical model of vibration was abstracted. The correctness of the model was verified by the finite element analysis software ANSYS. Then, this paper analyzed the influence of vibration parameters on absolute transmissibility based on vibration mathematical model, and optimized vibration parameters with MATLAB genetic algorithm toolbox. Finally, this paper took white noise to simulate the road elevation as the vibration input, and used the visual simulation tool Simulink in MATLAB and the vibration equation to construct the acceleration simulation model, and then calculated the vibration weighted root mean square acceleration value of the foot. The results of this study show that this foot comfort mechanism can meet the comfort indexes of vibration absorption and plantar pressure, and this paper provides a relatively complete method for the design of exoskeleton foot mechanism, which has reference significance for the design of other exoskeleton foot and ankle joint rehabilitation mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Ankle Joint , Biomechanical Phenomena , Exoskeleton Device , Finite Element Analysis , Foot , Gait , Humans , Lower Extremity , Models, Theoretical , Vibration
4.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(2): 87-95, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042601

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Antecedentes: La presión media arterial pulmonar (PMAP) es una variable hemodinámica indispensable para el diagnóstico, clasificación y pronóstico de la Hipertensión Pulmonar (HP). Su cuantificación se realiza en forma invasiva por cateterismo cardíaco derecho (CCD) y no invasivamente por ecocardiografía Doppler. Masuyama propuso su medición mediante el gradiente transvalvular pulmonar diastólico derivado de la velocidad máxima inicial de la regurgitación pulmonar (∆RPi2) correspondiendo cercanamente a la medición invasiva. Objetivos: Revalidar 3 métodos ecocardiográficos que estiman la PMAP y valorar la utilidad del método de Chemla en el Test de Reactividad Vascular Pulmonar (TRVP). Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, doble ciego divido en dos etapas. A) o I) 30 pacientes se realizó ecocardiografía Doppler diagnóstica en nuestro centro. Se midieron regurgitación tricuspídea (RT) y tiempo de aceleración pulmonar (TAP) para derivar las siguientes ecuaciones: 1) 0.61xPSAP+1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradiente presión media RT (∆PmRT) +PAD (presión-aurícula derecha) (Aduen) y 3) 79-0.45xTAP o 90-0.60xTAP, según sea el valor del TAP. B) o II) 10 pacientes enrolados para realizar el TRVP comparando la medición ecocardiográfica (Chemla) con CCD. Resultados: En la primera parte del estudio se encontró alta correlación entre las 3 ecuaciones: ChemlaAduen, R2=0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0,91. En la segunda parte comparando la PMAP-Chemla y Cateterismo derecho (CD) obtuvimos alta correlación: en tiempo 0, 30 min y recuperación:(R2=0.87, 0.99, 0.98, respectivamente). Ambas partes del estudio mostraron límites de concordancia satisfactoria con valor medio de la diferencia entre los métodos cercano a 1 en el t30 y tR del TRVP. Conclusión: los métodos dependientes de la medición de la RT son efectivos y confiables para estimar la PMAP. El método de Chemla es útil en el TRVP.


ABSTRACTS: Background: Mean Pulmonary arterial pressure (PMAP)is an indispensable hemodynamic variable for the diagnosis, classification and prognosis of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). Its quantification is performed invasively by cardiac catheterization and non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography. Masuyama proposed its measurement by the transvalvular diastolic pulmonary gradient derived from the initial maximum velocity of pulmonary regurgitation(ΔPRi2) corresponding closely to the invasive measurement. Objectives: to compare 3 known echocardiographic methods to estimate MPAP and demonstrate the usefulness of the Chemla method in the Pulmonary Vascular Reactivity Test (PVRT). Methods: prospective, observational, double-blind study divided into two stages. A) 30 patients underwent diagnostic Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary acceleration time (PAT) were measured to derive the equations: 1) 0.61xSPAP + 1.95 (Chemla) 2) Gradient mean pressure TR (ΔPmTR) + RAP (right atrium pressure) (Aduen).3) 79-0.45xPAT o 90-0.60xPAT depending on the value of PAT. B) 10 patients enrolled to PVRT comparing the echocardiographic measurement (Chemla) with right catheterization. Results: in the first part of the study a high correlation between the 3 equations was found : ChemlaAduen, R2 = 0.91; Chemla-Kitabatake, R2=0.87; Aduen-Kitabatake, R2=0.91. In the second part comparing the MPAP-Chemla and RHC we obtained a high correlation in time 0, 30 min and recovery: (R2=0.87,0,99,0.98, respectively). Both parts of the study showed satisfactory limits concordance with mean value of the difference between the methods close to 1 in the t30 and tR of the TRVP. Conclusion: the methods dependent on the measurement of the TR are effective and reliable for estimating MPAP. The Chemla method is useful in the PVRT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Artery/physiology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Circulation/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Vascular Resistance , Blood Flow Velocity , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Linear Models , Double-Blind Method , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Acceleration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Lung/blood supply
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we present an efficient method to visualize computed tomography (CT) datasets using ambient occlusion, which is a global illumination technique that adds depth cues to the output image. We can change the transfer function (TF) for volume rendering and generate output images in real time. METHODS: In preprocessing, the mean and standard deviation of each local vicinity are calculated. During rendering, the ambient light intensity is calculated. The calculation is accelerated on the assumption that the CT value of the local vicinity of each point follows the normal distribution. We approximate complex TF forms with a smaller number of connected line segments to achieve additional acceleration. Ambient occlusion is combined with the existing local illumination technique to produce images with depth in real time. RESULTS: We tested the proposed method on various CT datasets using hand-drawn TFs. The proposed method enabled real-time rendering that was approximately 40 times faster than the previous method. As a result of comparing the output image quality with that of the conventional method, the average signal-to-noise ratio was approximately 40 dB, and the image quality did not significantly deteriorate. CONCLUSIONS: When rendering CT images with various TFs, the proposed method generated depth-sensing images in real time.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Computer Systems , Cues , Dataset , Lighting , Mathematical Computing , Methods , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758931

ABSTRACT

The right pulmonary artery distensibility (RPAD) index has been used in dogs with pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by heartworm infection, myxomatous mitral valve disease, or patent ductus arteriosus. We hypothesized that this index correlates with the tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) assessed by echocardiography and could predict survival in dogs with PH secondary to various causes. To assess this hypothesis, the medical records of 200 client-owned dogs at a referral institution were retrospectively reviewed. The RPAD index and the ratios of acceleration time to peak pulmonary artery flow (AT) and to the ejection time of pulmonary artery flow (ET) were recorded for each dog. The owners were contacted for follow-up assessments. The findings indicated that the RPAD index was correlated with the TRPG (R2 = 0. 362, p < 0.001). The survival time was significantly shorter in dogs with an RPAD index ≤ 21% that were followed up for 3 months and in dogs with an RPAD index ≤ 24% that were followed up for 1 year. Thus, the RPAD index was correlated with the TRPG and could predict the clinical outcome in dogs with PH caused by various diseases. This index could be used to evaluate the severity of PH in dogs without tricuspid regurgitation.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Animals , Dogs , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Echocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Medical Records , Mitral Valve , Pulmonary Artery , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the response patterns of nursing unit managers regarding workplace bullying. METHODS: Q methodology was used to identify the response patterns. Thirty-six Q samples were selected from the Q population of 210 that included literature reviews and in-depth interviews with clinical nurses and nursing managers. Participants were 30 nursing unit managers who had experience managing workplace bullying and they classified the Q samples into a normal distribution frame measured on a nine-point scale. The data were analyzed using the PC-QUANL program. RESULTS: Five types of response patterns were identified: (1) sympathetic-understanding acceleration, (2) harmonious-team approach, (3) preventive-organizational management, (4) passive observation, and (5) leading-active intervention. The preventive-organizational management type was most frequently used by the nursing unit managers. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that nursing unit managers attempted to prevent and solve workplace bullying in various ways. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and conduct leadership training and intervention programs that appropriately address the response patterns of nursing unit managers, such as those identified in this study.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Bullying , Leadership , Nursing
8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763546

ABSTRACT

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most preferred drug for treatment of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we aimed to discuss the possible effects and mechanisms of MPH on precocious puberty (PP) via a case series with seven children who had normal body mass index. In this case series we evaluated seven children with ADHD, who had received MPH for at least 6 months (0.5 mg/kg/dose three times a day, maximum 60 mg) and admitted to Department of Pediatric Endocrinology with PP symptoms. The mean age was 8.16 years. Basal hormonal levels (luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone, and estrogen/testosterone) were within normal range. Results of LH-releasing hormone stimulation tests demonstrated central pubertal responses. Glutamine, dopamine and noradrenaline are most important excitatory neurotransmitters that have a role at the beginning of puberty. The effect of MPH, cumulating dopamine and noradrenaline in the synaptic gap could be associated with the acceleration of puberty with the excitatory effect of dopamine’s gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, excitatory effect of noradrenaline’s GnRH release and the disappearance of GnRH receptor expression suppressor effect on prolactin disinhibitory effect.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Body Mass Index , Child , Dopamine , Endocrinology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Glutamine , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Humans , Methylphenidate , Neurotransmitter Agents , Norepinephrine , Prolactin , Puberty , Puberty, Precocious , Receptors, LHRH , Reference Values
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The sensitivity and positive predictive value of widely used intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) using electromyography (EMG) of the vocalis muscle in thyroid surgery are controversial. Thus, we developed a novel IONM system with an accelerometer sensor that uses the piezoelectric effect instead of EMG to detect laryngeal twitching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this novel IONM system during thyroid surgery in a porcine model. METHODS: We developed an accelerometer sensor that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure laryngeal twitching in three dimensions. This novel accelerometer sensor was placed in the anterior neck skin (transcutaneous) or postcricoid area. Stimulus thresholds, amplitude, and latency of laryngeal twitching measured using the accelerometer sensor were compared to those measured through EMG of the vocalis muscle. RESULTS: The amplitudes of the accelerometer sensor at the anterior neck and postcricoid area were significantly lower than those of EMG because of differences in the measurement method used to evaluate laryngeal movement. However, no significant differences in stimulus thresholds between the EMG endotracheal tube and transcutaneous or postcricoid accelerometer sensors were observed. CONCLUSION: Accelerometer sensors located at the anterior neck or postcricoid area were able to identify laryngeal twitching. The stimulus intensity measured with these sensors was equivalent to that from conventional vocalis EMG. Our novel IONM system with an accelerometer sensor that checks changes in surface acceleration can be an alternative to EMG of the vocalis muscle for IONM in the future.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Electromyography , Laryngeal Muscles , Methods , Neck , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Skin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771629

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Whiplash associated disorders remain a major health problem in terms of impact on health care and on societal costs. Aetiology remains controversial including the old supposition that the cervical muscles do not play a significant role. This study examined the muscle activity from relevant muscles during rear-end impacts in an effort to gauge their influence on the aetiology of whiplash associated disorders.@*METHODS@#Volunteers were subjected to a sub-injury level of rear impact. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record cervical muscle activity before, during and after impact. Muscle response time and EMG signal amplitude were analysed. Head, pelvis, and T1 acceleration data were recorded.@*RESULTS@#The activities of the cervical muscles were found to be significant. The sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius and erector spinae were activated on average 59 ms, 73 ms and 84 ms after the impact stimulus, respectively, prior to peak head acceleration (113 ms).@*CONCLUSION@#The cervical muscles reacted prior to peak head acceleration, thus in time to influence whiplash biomechanics and possibly injury mechanisms. It is recommended therefore, that muscular influences be incorporated into the development of the new rear-impact crash test dummy in order to make the dummy as biofidelic as possible.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Accidents, Traffic , Biomechanical Phenomena , Electromyography , Head , Humans , Models, Biological , Neck Muscles , Reaction Time , Whiplash Injuries
11.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 187-193, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786404

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidences have reported that periodontitis can be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the crucial pathogens in chronic periodontitis, has been spotlighted as a potential cause for the promotion and acceleration of periodontitis-associated systemic disorders. To investigate the association between Pg and intestinal disease or homeostasis, we treated Pg-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine colitis model or intestinal organoid, respectively. Pg-derived LPS (Pg LPS) was administrated into chemically induced murine colitis model and disease symptoms were monitored compared with the infusion of LPS derived from E. coli (Ec LPS). Organoids isolated and cultured from mouse small intestine were treated with Pg or Ec LPS and further analyzed for the generation and composition of organoids. In vivo observations demonstrated that both Pg and Ec LPS exerted slight protective effects against murine colitis. Pg LPS did not affect the generation and growth of intestinal epithelial organoids. Among subtypes of epithelial cells, markers for stem cells, goblet cells or Paneth cells were changed in response to Pg LPS. Taken together, these results indicate that Pg LPS leads to partial improvement in colitis and that its treatment does not significantly affect the self-organization of intestinal organoids but may regulate the epithelial composition.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Animals , Chronic Periodontitis , Colitis , Epithelial Cells , Goblet Cells , Homeostasis , Intestinal Diseases , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestine, Small , Mice , Organoids , Paneth Cells , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas , Risk Factors , Stem Cells
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774209

ABSTRACT

The requirement for unconstrained monitoring of heartbeat during sleep is increasing, but the current detection devices can not meet the requirements of convenience and accuracy. This study designed an unconstrained ballistocardiogram (BCG) detection system using acceleration sensor and developed a heart rate extraction algorithm. BCG is a directional signal which is stronger and less affected by respiratory movements along spine direction than in other directions. In order to measure the BCG signal along spine direction during sleep, a 3-axis acceleration sensor was fixed on the bed to collect the vibration signals caused by heartbeat. An approximate frequency range was firstly assumed by frequency analysis to the BCG signals and segmental filtering was conducted to the original vibration signals within the frequency range. Secondly, to identify the true BCG waveform, the accurate frequency band was obtained by comparison with the theoretical waveform. The J waves were detected by BCG energy waveform and an adaptive threshold method was proposed to extract heart rates by using the information of both amplitude and period. The accuracy and robustness of the BCG detection system proposed and the algorithm developed in this study were confirmed by comparison with electrocardiogram (ECG). The test results of 30 subjects showed a high average accuracy of 99.21% to demonstrate the feasibility of the unconstrained BCG detection method based on vibration acceleration.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Ballistocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate , Humans , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Vibration
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719371

ABSTRACT

Role of growth hormone (GH) in mammalian aging is actively explored in clinical, epidemiological, and experimental studies. The age-related decline in GH levels is variously interpreted as a symptom of neuroendocrine aging, as one of causes of altered body composition and other unwelcome symptoms of aging, or as a mechanism of natural protection from cancer and other chronic diseases. Absence of GH signals due to mutations affecting anterior pituitary development, GH secretion, or GH receptors produces an impressive extension of longevity in laboratory mice. Extension of healthspan in these animals and analysis of survival curves suggest that in the absence of GH, aging is slowed down or delayed. The corresponding endocrine syndromes in the human have no consistent impact on longevity, but are associated with remarkable protection from age-related disease. Moreover, survival to extremely old age has been associated with reduced somatotropic (GH and insulin-like growth factor-1) signaling in women and men. In both humans and mice, elevation of GH levels into the supranormal (pathological) range is associated with increased disease risks and reduced life expectancy likely representing acceleration of aging. The widely advertised potential of GH as an anti-aging agent attracted much interest. However, results obtained thus far have been disappointing with few documented benefits and many troublesome side effects. Possible utility of GH in the treatment of sarcopenia and frailty remains to be explored.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Aging , Animals , Body Composition , Chronic Disease , Female , Growth Hormone , Humans , Life Expectancy , Longevity , Male , Mice , Sarcopenia
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare a high acceleration three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) sequence using the combined compressed sensing (CS)-sensitivity encoding (SENSE) method with a conventional 3D GRE sequence using SENSE, with respect to image quality and detectability of solid focal liver lesions (FLLs) in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 217 patients with gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI at 3T (54 in the preliminary study and 163 in the main study) were retrospectively included. In the main study, HBP imaging was done twice using the standard mDixon-3D-GRE technique with SENSE (acceleration factor [AF]: 2.8, standard mDixon-GRE) and the high acceleration mDixon-3D GRE technique using the combined CS-SENSE technique (CS-SENSE mDixon-GRE). Two abdominal radiologists assessed the two MRI data sets for image quality in consensus. Three other abdominal radiologists independently assessed the diagnostic performance of each data set and its ability to detect solid FLLs in 117 patients with 193 solid nodules and compared them using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics (JAFROC). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the overall image quality. CS-SENSE mDixon-GRE showed higher image noise, but lesser motion artifact levels compared with the standard mDixon-GRE (all p < 0.05). In terms of lesion detection, reader-averaged figures-of-merit estimated with JAFROC was 0.918 for standard mDixon-GRE, and 0.953 for CS-SENSE mDixon-GRE (p = 0.142). The non-inferiority of CS-SENSE mDixon-GRE over standard mDixon-GRE was confirmed (difference: 0.064 [−0.012, 0.081]). CONCLUSION: The CS-SENSE mDixon-GRE HBP sequence provided comparable overall image quality and non-inferior solid FFL detectability compared with the standard mDixon-GRE sequence, with reduced acquisition time.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Artifacts , Consensus , Dataset , Humans , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Noise , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741415

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare conventional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) to compressed sensing plus SENSE (CS) for high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of intracranial and extracranial arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HR-MRI was performed in 14 healthy volunteers. Three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and proton density-weighted imaging (PD) were acquired using CS or SENSE under the same total acceleration factors (AF(t))-5.5, 6.8, and 9.7 for T1WI and 3.2, 4.0, and 5.8 for PD-to achieve reduced scanning times in comparison with the original imaging sequence (SENSE T1WI, AF(t) 3.5; SENSE PD, AF(t) 2.0) using the 3-tesla system. Two neuroradiologists measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and used visual scoring systems to assess image quality. Acceptable imaging was defined as a visual score ≥ 2. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Cochran's Q test were performed. RESULTS: CS yielded better image quality and vessel delineation than SENSE in T1WI with AF(t) of 5.5, 6.8, and 9.7, and in PD with AF(t) of 5.8 (p 0.05). SNR and CNR in CS were higher than they were in SENSE, but lower than they were in the original images (p < 0.05). CS yielded higher proportions of acceptable imaging than SENSE (CS T1WI with AF(t) of 6.8 and PD with AF(t) of 5.8; p < 0.0167). CONCLUSION: CS is superior to SENSE, and may be a reliable acceleration method for vessel HR-MRI using AF(t) of 5.5 for T1WI, and 3.2 and 4.0 for PD.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Arteries , Healthy Volunteers , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Protons , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the image quality of three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with sparse undersampling and iterative reconstruction (sparse TOF) with that of conventional TOF MRA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 56 patients who had undergone sparse TOF MRA for intracranial artery evaluation on a 3T MR scanner. Conventional TOF MRA scans were also acquired from 29 patients with matched acquisition times and another 27 patients with matched scanning parameters. The image quality was scored using a five-point scale based on the delineation of arterial vessel segments, artifacts, overall vessel visualization, and overall image quality by two radiologists independently, and the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Contrast ratios (CRs) of vessels were compared using the paired t test. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the kappa test. RESULTS: Compared with conventional TOF at the same spatial resolution, sparse TOF with an acceleration factor of 3.5 could reduce acquisition time by 40% and showed comparable image quality. In addition, when compared with conventional TOF with the same acquisition time, sparse TOF with an acceleration factor of 5 could also achieve higher spatial resolution, better delineation of vessel segments, fewer artifacts, higher image quality, and a higher CR (p < 0.05). Good-to-excellent interobserver agreement (κ: 0.65–1.00) was obtained between the two radiologists. CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional TOF, sparse TOF can achieve equivalent image quality in a reduced duration. Furthermore, using the same acquisition time, sparse TOF could improve the delineation of vessels and decrease image artifacts.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Arteries , Artifacts , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Angiography
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of the vestibular function tests (VFTs) and the predictability of lesion side of vestibular asymmetry parameters in acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy. METHODS: Medical records and results of VFTs (caloric, rotatory chair, and head impulse tests) of 57 patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy were reviewed retrospectively. The VFTs were examined within 7 days after the clinical onset. RESULTS: For the caloric test, 74% showed significant canal paresis and the predictability of lesion side was 88%. For the sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test, 91% had low gain in at least 1 Hz, phase lead showed 70%, 89% showed phase asymmetry and the predictability of lesion side was 90%. For velocity step test, 67% had abnormal Tc asymmetry and the predictability of lesion side was 95%. In bedside head impulse test (HIT), abnormal catch up saccades were observed in 89% and the predictability of lesion side was 100%. For the video HIT, cover or overt catch-up saccades were observed in 95% and the predictability of lesion side was 100%. One hundred percent (100%) had low gain on the video HIT, but the lesion sides were uncertain because of bilateral involvements or artifacts. CONCLUSIONS: The most important things in the diagnosis of acute unilateral vestibulopathy are typical clinical symptoms and spontaneous nystagmus. A combination of rotatory, caloric, and HITs will result in a more complete examination of the vestibular system. Among them, HIT is recommended as the best tool in acute unilateral vestibulopathy.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Artifacts , Caloric Tests , Diagnosis , Exercise Test , Head , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Medical Records , Paresis , Retrospective Studies , Saccades , Treatment Outcome , Vestibular Function Tests
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the effect on uterine contraction frequency (UCF), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns and psychophysical symptoms (physical discomfort, anxiety, and depression) of structured bed exercise (SBE) in hospitalized high-risk pregnant women prescribed bed rest. METHODS: Forty-five hospitalized high risk pregnant women at >24 weeks of pregnancy prescribed bed rest were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. From January to May 2014, data were collected using electronic fetal monitoring and patient monitoring of UCF, BP, HR and FHR patterns, and psychophysical symptoms were measured using the antenatal physical discomfort scale, state-trait anxiety scale, and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. RESULTS: UCF, BP, HR, and FHR patterns (rate, variability, acceleration, and deceleration) did not differ significantly between the experimental and control groups. The experimental group showed a significant increase in baseline FHR after SBE within the normal range, and after SBE, it reduced to the FHR before SBE. The variability, acceleration and deceleration of FHR before and after SBE did not differ significantly between two groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference before and after SBE in the experimental group. Also, the experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in physical discomfort score. However, there were no significant differences in depression and anxiety score between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: SBE in hospitalized high-risk pregnant women under bed rest did not increase the risk to the fetus, and relieved physical discomfort and anxiety. Therefore, SBE should be considered as a nursing intervention in hospitalized high-risk pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Anxiety , Bed Rest , Blood Pressure , Cardiotocography , Deceleration , Depression , Depression, Postpartum , Female , Fetal Heart , Fetus , Heart Rate , Heart Rate, Fetal , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Nursing , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnant Women , Reference Values , Uterine Contraction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719225

ABSTRACT

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves multiple organ systems, with short stature as the most common presentation (>70%). Possible mechanisms of short stature in NS include growth hormone (GH) deficiency, neurosecretory dysfunction, and GH resistance. Accordingly, GH therapy has been carried out for NS patients over the last three decades, and multiple studies have reported acceleration of growth velocity (GV) and increase of height standard deviation score (SDS) in both prepubertal and pubertal NS patients upon GH therapy. One year of GH therapy resulted in almost doubling of GV compared with baseline; afterwards, the increase in GV gradually decreased in the following years, showing that the effect of GH therapy wanes over time. After four years of GH therapy, ~70% of NS patients reached normal height considering their age and sex. Early initiation, long duration of GH therapy, and higher height SDS at the onset of puberty were associated with improved final height, whereas gender, dosage of GH, and the clinical severity did not show significant association with final height. Studies have reported no significant adverse events of GH therapy regarding progression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, alteration of metabolism, and tumor development. Therefore, GH therapy is effective for improving height and GV of NS patients; nevertheless, concerns on possible malignancy remains, which necessitates continuous monitoring of NS patients receiving GH therapy.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Adolescent , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Growth Hormone , Humans , Metabolism , Noonan Syndrome , Puberty
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718957

ABSTRACT

With the increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide, early adiposity rebound, which is known to have a strong association with obesity, has recently been a focus of research. Early adiposity rebound is conventionally known to have a close relationship with non-communicable diseases. However, novel insights into early adiposity rebound have implied an acceleration of growth and puberty, which is directly reflected in the trends in the timing of adiposity rebound, in the 21st century compared with in the past. Furthermore, the observation that lean mass changes rather than fat mass changes show a more similar pattern to body mass index trajectories is interesting. In this article, the later outcomes and risk factors of early adiposity rebound are briefly summarized, and the current trends in the timing of adiposity rebound and novel insights into its relationship with body composition are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Adiposity , Adolescent , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Child , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , Prevalence , Puberty , Risk Factors
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