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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252364, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355885

ABSTRACT

Abstract Understanding morphological and physiological changes under different light conditions in native fruit species in juveniles' stage is important, as it indicate the appropriate environment to achieve vigorous saplings. We aimed to verify growth and morphophysiological changes under shade gradient in feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) to achieve good quality saplings adequate to improve cultivation in orchards. The saplings were grown for twenty-one-month under four shading treatments (0%, 30%, 50%, and 80%). Growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf anatomy parameters were evaluated. Saplings under full sun and 30% shade had higher height and diameter growth and dry mass accumulation due to higher photosynthesis rate. As main acclimatization mechanisms in feijoa saplings under 80% shade were developed larger leaf area, reduced leaf blade thickness, and enhanced quantum yield of photosystem II. Even so, the net CO2 assimilation and the electron transport rate was lower and, consequently, there was a restriction on the growth and dry mass in saplings under deep shade. Therefore, to obtain higher quality feijoa saplings, we recommend that it be carried out in full sun or up to 30% shade, to maximize the sapling vigor in nurseries and, later, this light environment can also be used in orchards for favor growth and fruit production.


Resumo A verificação de mudanças morfológicas e fisiológicas sob diferentes condições luminosas em espécies frutíferas nativas em estágio juvenil é importante, uma vez que indicam o ambiente adequado para a formação de mudas com alto vigor. Objetivou-se verificar o crescimento e as alterações morfofisiológicas sob gradiente de sombreamento em mudas de feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret) para obter mudas de boa qualidade, adequadas para fomentar os plantios da espécie em pomares. As mudas foram cultivadas por vinte e um meses sob quatro tratamentos de sombreamento (0%, 30%, 50% e 80%). Foram avaliados parâmetros de crescimento, pigmentos fotossintéticos, trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila e anatomia foliar. Mudas a pleno sol e 30% de sombra apresentaram maior crescimento em altura, diâmetro e acúmulo de massa seca, devido à maior taxa de fotossíntese. Como principais mecanismos de aclimatação sob 80% de sombra, as mudas desenvolveram maior área foliar, redução da espessura do limbo foliar e aumento do rendimento quântico do fotossistema II. Mesmo assim, a assimilação líquida de CO2 e a taxa de transporte de elétrons foram menores e, consequentemente, houve restrição ao crescimento e acúmulo de massa seca das mudas no maior nível de sombreamento. Portanto, para a obtenção de mudas de feijoa de maior qualidade, recomendamos que seja realizada a pleno sol ou até 30% de sombra, para maximizar o vigor das mudas em viveiros e, posteriormente, este ambiente de luz também pode ser utilizado em pomares para favorecer o crescimento e a produção de frutos.


Subject(s)
Myrtaceae , Feijoa , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Acclimatization , Light
2.
Acta amaz ; 51(1): 1-9, jan.-mar. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352826

ABSTRACT

In the Amazon region, agroforestry systems (AFSs) are recommended as a sustainable production alternative for local communities. A common component in Amazonian AFSs are tropical fruit trees, which can form the canopy or grow in the understory. In this study, we evaluated the effect of high radiation on photosynthesis, growth and seedling survival of four Amazonian fruit-tree species: Theobroma cacao, Eugenia stipitata, Inga edulis and Psidium guajava. Growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, and leaf pigments were measured in seedlings of each species grown for 12 months inside shade houses with low (8%), medium (30%) and high relative illumination (100%). Eugenia stipitata and T. cacao had the lowest acclimation capacity to high solar radiation, followed by I. edulis. Therefore, these species must be grown under intermediate light levels in early growth stages, to protect them from direct sunlight. In contrast, P. guajava seedlings demonstrated high tolerance to elevated radiation, therefore, this species can be planted under full sunlight. (AU)


Subject(s)
Carotenoids , Chloroplasts , Photosystem II Protein Complex , Rainforest , Acclimatization
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1055-1075, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142991

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa as narrativas de viagem ao interior de Mato Grosso e Goiás publicadas em 1935 e 1936 pelo explorador paulista Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, que obtiveram considerável sucesso editorial e impacto no meio letrado brasileiro. Concentramo-nos em suas ideias sobre a relação entre o ambiente do Brasil Central e o homem sertanejo, sobre as potencialidades de exploração econômica da região e sobre o papel do Estado na condução de iniciativas capazes de promover sua incorporação efetiva à nacionalidade. Buscamos também compreender a fundamentação de seu discurso em conceitos e esquemas científicos genéricos dotados de poder retórico e argumentativo.


Abstract The article analyzes the travel narratives to the hinterlands of the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás published in 1935 and 1936 by the São Paulo-based explorer Hermano Ribeiro da Silva, which proved a great publishing success and had a considerable impact on lettered society in Brazil. The analysis focuses on his ideas about the relationship between the environment in Central Brazil and the man who inhabited it, the potential economic exploitation of the region, and the role of the State in orchestrating initiatives capable of promoting its effective incorporation into the nationhood. It also seeks to understand how he grounded his discourse on generic scientific concepts and schemas endowed with rhetorical and argumentative power.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Travel/history , Indians, South American/history , Environment , Portugal/ethnology , Selection, Genetic , Brazil , Ecosystem , Colonialism/history , Federal Government/history , European Continental Ancestry Group/history , Famous Persons , Indigenous Peoples/history , Acclimatization
4.
Biol. Res ; 53: 37, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soil salinity causes huge economic losses to agriculture productivity in arid and semiarid areas world-wide. The affected plants face disturbances in osmotic adjustment, nutrient transport, ionic toxicity and reduced photosynthesis. Conventional breeding approaches produce little success in combating various stresses in plants. However, non-conventional approaches, such as in vitro tissue culturing, produce genetic variability in the development of salt-tolerant plants, particularly in woody trees. RESULTS: Embryogenic callus cultures of the date palm cultivar Khalas were subjected to various salt levels ranging from 0 to 300 mM in eight subcultures. The regenerants obtained from the salt-treated cultures were regenerated and evaluated using the same concentration of NaCl with which the calli were treated. All the salt-adapted (SA) regenerants showed improved growth characteristics, physiological performance, ion concentrations and K+/Na+ ratios than the salt non-adapted (SNA) regenerants and the control. Regression between the leaf Na+ concentration and net photosynthesis revealed an inverse nonlinear correlation in the SNA regenerants. Leaf K+ contents and stomatal conductance showed a strong linear relationship in SA regenerants compared with the inverse linear correlation, and a very poor coefficient of determination in SNA regenerants. The genetic fidelity of the selected SA regenerants was also tested using 36 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, of which 26 produced scorable bands. The primers generated 1-10 bands, with an average of 5.4 bands per RAPD primer; there was no variation between SA regenerants and the negative control. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the variants generated from salt-stressed cultures and their potential adaptation to salinity in date palm cv. Khalas. The massive production of salt stress-adapted date palm plants may be much easier using the salt adaptation approach. Such plants can perform better during exposure to salt stress compared to the non-treated date palm plants.


Subject(s)
Salt Tolerance/genetics , Phoeniceae/genetics , Acclimatization , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Salinity
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 347-355, mar./apr. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048589

ABSTRACT

A regeneration protocol for castor bean plant (Ricinus communis) was successfully developed using epicotyl sections obtained from in vitro seedlings. The maximum number of induced shoots (4.3 shoots/explant) and highest shoots frequency (75,56%) was obtained in WPM medium supplemented with TDZ (1 mg/L) and zeatin (0.5 mg/L), whereas the minimum number (0.8 shoots/explant) and lowest shoots frequency (37,78%) was obtained in medium containing TDZ (1 mg/L) and BAP (0.5 mg/L). The highest percentage of rooting (93.3%) was obtained in a medium containing IBA (1 mg/L). These plants were transplanted in a mesh house and achieved a high adaptability to acclimatization, reaching 77% survival. On the other hand, the maximum elongation (height) during this stage was 7.9 cm in plants supplemented with WPM nutrients, whereas it was only 4.38 cm in control plants


Foi desenvolvido com sucesso um protocolo de regeneração para a planta de Mamona (Ricinus communis) utilizando seções de epicótilos, obtidas a partir de mudas in vitro. O número máximo de brotações induzidas (4.3 brotos/explante), assim como a maior frequência de brotações (75,56%), foi obtido em meio WPM suplementado com TDZ (1 mg/L) e zeatina (0,5 mg/L). Enquanto que o número mínimo (0,8 brotos/explante), como a menor freqüência de rebentos (37,78%), foi obtido em meio contendo TDZ (1 mg/L) e BAP (0,5 mg/L). Adicionalmente, a maior percentagem de enraizamento (93,3%) foi obtida em um meio contendo IBA (1 mg/L). Depois da regeneração, as plantas foram transplantadas em casa de vegetação e conseguiram uma alta adaptabilidade e aclimatização, atingindo 77% de sobrevivência. Por outro lado, oalongamento máximo (altura) durante este estágio foi de 7,9 cm em plantas suplementadas com nutrientes de WPM, enquanto as plantas de controle presentaram apenas 4,38 cm


Subject(s)
Ricinus , Organogenesis, Plant , Acclimatization , Biotechnology , Castor Oil
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 356-366, mar./apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048590

ABSTRACT

Orchids are known for the beauty, exuberance, and color of their flowers and therefore represent one of the most coveted ornamental plants. Due to their high commercial value, several illegal practices of removal and commercialization have led to the verge of extinction. This study aimed to develop protocols for in vitro conservation under slow growth and acclimatization of species of the subfamily Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae), from the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Two experiments were conducted: the first one tested four concentrations of MS (MURASHIGE and SKOOG, 1962) (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%), three orchid species (Catasetum macrocarpum, Oeceoclades maculata, and Polystachya estrellensis), and two temperatures (18 and 25ºC); the second one tested three combinations of carbon sources and osmotic regulators (20 g L-1 sucrose; 10 g L-1 sucrose + 5 g L-1 de mannitol; 10 g L-1 sucrose + 5 g L-1 sorbitol) and the same three species and two temperatures. For the in vitro conservation of C. macrocarpum, O. maculata, and P. estrellensis over 450 days, the use of 25% of MS salts or 20 g.L-1 sucrose at 25ºC is recommended. C. macrocarpum seedlings were acclimatized using sand + shredded pine bark + worm castings at a ratio of 2:2:1 (w:w:w). The use of sand alone is recommended for the acclimatization of O. maculata


As orquídeas são conhecidas pela beleza, exuberância e cores de suas flores e por isso representam uma das plantas ornamentais mais cobiçadas. Devido ao alto valor comercial, muitas são as práticas ilegais de retirada e comercialização de orquídeas, o que leva as espécies à beira de extinção. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver protocolos para a conservação in vitro sob crescimento lento e aclimatação de espécies da subfamília Epidendroideae (Orchidaceae) do Estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Dois experimentos foram realizados: o primeiro ensaio testou quatro concentrações dos sais MS (MURASHIGE e SKOOG, 1962) (25, 50, 75 e 100%), três espécies (Catasetum macrocarpum, Oeceocladesmaculata e Polystachya estrellensis) e duas temperaturas (18 e 25ºC); o segundo ensaio testou três combinações de fontes de carbono e reguladores osmóticos (20 g L-1 de sacarose; 10 g L-1 de sacarose + 5 g L-1 manitol; 10 g L-1 de sacarose + 5 g L-1 sorbitol), três espécies (C. macrocarpum, O. maculata e P. estrellensis) e duas temperaturas (18 e 25ºC). Para executar a aclimatação, oito substratos foram testados para as espécies C. macrocarpum e O. maculata. Para realizar a conservação in vitro de C. macrocarpum, O. maculata e P.estrellensis ao longo de 450 dias, recomenda-se a utilização 25% dos sais de MS ede 20 g L-1 de sacarose a 25°C. Mudas de C. macrocarpum foram aclimatizadas utilizando areia + casca de pinus + húmus de minhoca (2:2:1). Recomenda-se a utilização de areia para aclimatização de O. maculata.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Substrates for Biological Treatment , Orchidaceae , Acclimatization
7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(6): 440-445, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977844

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise at high altitude has become constant. However, the risks associated with this type of exercise represent a major concern, considering the influence of important stressors such as hypoxia and physical exercise on psychobiological and physiological responses. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the mood state and behavior of physiological variables of volunteers subjected to a progressive loading protocol until they reached maximum volitional exhaustion, both at sea level and at a simulated altitude of 4500 meters. METHOD: For both conditions studied, the volunteers responded to two instruments that assess mood responses: The Brunel Mood Scale and the Visual Analogue Mood Scale. They also underwent blood sampling to measure blood lactate levels and to evaluate oxygen-hemoglobin saturation. These procedures were performed before, immediately after, and 30 and 60 minutes after the end of the protocol. RESULTS: Hypoxia triggered negative effects on mood responses, especially when compared to sea level conditions. An increase in fatigue level (p=0.02) and mental confusion (p=0.04) was observed immediately after the exercise session, and reduction of vigor (p=0.03) was noted at 30 minutes, accompanied by a reduction in oxygen-hemoglobin saturation immediately after the session and at 30 minutes. There was also an increase in blood lactate levels immediately after the session (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: The particularities of the hypoxic environment associated with maximum exercise are able to cause a deterioration of mood and physiological responses, which can negatively modulate physical performance. This is a cross-sectional clinical study.


INTRODUÇÃO: Prática de exercícios físicos em elevadas altitudes tem se tornado constante. Entretanto, os riscos associados a esta representam uma grande preocupação, considerando a influência de importantes agentes estressores, como hipóxia e exercício físico, sobre as respostas psicobiológicas e fisiológicas. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil do humor e o comportamento de variáveis fisiológicas de voluntários submetidos a um protocolo de cargas progressivas até a Exaustão Voluntária Máxima no nível do mar e em altitude simulada de 4.500 metros. MÉTODOS: Para ambas as condições estudadas, os voluntários responderam a dois instrumentos que avaliam as respostas do humor, Escala de Humor de Brunel e o Visual Analogue Mood Scale, e foram submetidos à coleta de sangue para verificar a concentração de lactato sanguíneo, bem como para avaliar a saturação de oxi-hemoglobina. Esses procedimentos foram realizados antes, imediatamente depois e 30 e 60 minutos após o término do protocolo. RESULTADOS: A hipóxia desencadeou efeitos negativos sobre as respostas de humor, principalmente com relação ao nível do mar. Verificou-se aumento da fadiga (p = 0,02) e da confusão mental (p=0,04) imediatamente após a prática e redução do vigor (p = 0,03) aos 30 minutos; acompanhadas da diminuição da saturação da oxi-hemoglobina imediatamente após e aos 30 minutos; constatou-se ainda, o aumento da concentração de lactato sanguíneo no momento imediatamente após (p = 0,006). CONCLUSÃO: As particularidades do ambiente hipóxico associadas à realização do exercício físico máximo são capazes de piorar o estado de humor e as respostas fisiológicas, o que pode modular negativamente o desempenho físico. Este estudo é do tipo clínico transversal.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La práctica de ejercicios físicos en elevadas altitudes se ha vuelto constante. Entretanto, los riesgos asociados a ésta representan una gran preocupación, considerando la influencia de importantes agentes estresantes, como hipoxia y ejercicio físico, sobre las respuestas psicobiológicas y fisiológicas. OBJETIVO: Analizar el perfil del humor y el comportamiento de variables fisiológicas de los voluntarios sometidos a un protocolo de cargas progresivas hasta el Agotamiento Voluntario Máximo, al nivel del mar y a una altitud simulada de 4500 metros. MÉTODOS: Para ambas condiciones estudiadas, los voluntarios respondieron a dos instrumentos que evalúan las respuestas del humor: la Escala de Humor de Brunel y el Visual Analogue Mood Scale, y fueron sometidos a colecta de sangre para verificar la concentración de lactato sanguíneo, bien como para evaluar la saturación de oxihemoglobina. Estos procedimientos fueron realizados antes, inmediatamente después, y 30 y 60 minutos después de finalizar el protocolo. RESULTADOS: La hipoxia desencadenó efectos negativos sobre las respuestas de humor, principalmente con relación al nivel del mar. Se verificó aumento de fatiga (p = 0,02) y de la confusión mental (p = 0,04) inmediatamente después de la práctica y reducción del vigor (P = 0,03) a los 30 minutos; acompañadas de la disminución de la saturación de la oxihemoglobina inmediatamente después y a los 30 minutos; se constató además el aumento de la concentración de lactato sanguíneo en el momento inmediatamente después (p = 0,006). CONCLUSIÓN: Las particularidades del ambiente hipóxico asociadas a la realización del ejercicio físico máximo, son capaces de empeorar el estado de humor y las respuestas fisiológicas, lo que puede modular negativamente el desempeño físico. Este estudio es del tipo clínico transversal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Exercise/physiology , Affect , Physical Exertion , Hypoxia , Exercise Test/methods , Altitude , Acclimatization/physiology
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(3): 648-656, mai/jun. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966926

ABSTRACT

Bromeliads are known worldwide for their ornamental potential. In Brazil, species of the genus Tillandsia occur in the Atlantic rainforest, Amazon rainforest, and rocky fields. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization on micropropagated seedlings of Tillandsia bulbosa, at the acclimatization stage, and their leaf anatomy. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, in a 4x4+1 factorial scheme, using coconut coir: earthworm humus: sand mixture as substrate (2:1:1). Urea, single superphosphate, and potassium chloride were used as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium sources, respectively, at proportions of 50, 100, 200, and 400% of the dose recommended. The doses were distributed in four applications, testing total application at planting (1); ½ application at planting and ½ at 80 DAP (2); application at planting, at 50 DAP, and at 100 DAP (3); and » application at planting, » at 30 DAP, » at 60 DAP, and » at 120 DAP (4); and a control (without fertilization). Leaves anatomy was analyzed at 180 days after planting. Fertilization did not significantly influence the development of seedlings during acclimatization. The doses of 50, 100, and 200% provided thicker parenchyma of chlorophyll and aquifer and leaf blade. Tillandsia bulbosa can be acclimatized without fertilizer application.


As bromélias são conhecidas mundialmente por seu potencial ornamental. No Brasil, as espécies de Tillandsia podem ser encontradas na Mata Atlântica, Floresta Amazônica e campos rupestres. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência de adubação com nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em plântulas micropropagadas de Tillandsia bulbosa, na fase de aclimatização e na sua anatomia foliar. O experimento foi implantado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x4+1, utilizando como substrato a mistura de pó de coco: húmus de minhoca: areia (2:1:1). Ureia, super fosfato simples e cloreto de potássio foram utilizados como fontes de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, nas proporções de 50, 100, 200 e 400% da dose recomendada. As doses foram distribuídas em quatro aplicações, testando aplicação total no plantio (1); ½ no plantio e ½ aos 80 DAP (2); no plantio, aos 50 DAP e aos 100 DAP (3) e » no plantio, » aos 30 DAP, » aos 60 DAP e » aos 120 DAP (4), e uma testemunha (sem adubação). Foi realizado o estudo anatômico das folhas aos 180 dias. A adubação não influenciou significativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas durante a aclimatização. As doses de 50, 100 e 200% proporcionaram maior espessura de parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero e do limbo foliar. A aclimatização de Tillandsia bulbosa pode ser realizada sem a necessidade de adubação.


Subject(s)
Bromelia , Tissue Culture Techniques , Acclimatization , Manure , Phosphorus , Potassium , Bromeliaceae , Nitrogen
9.
Biol. Res ; 51: 47, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983951

ABSTRACT

Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated climatic variability is primarily responsible for inducing heat waves, flooding and drought stress. Among these, water scarcity is a major limitation to crop productivity. Water stress can severely reduce crop yield and both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Water availability is a key driver for sustainable cotton production and its limitations can adversely affect physiological and biochemical processes of plants, leading towards lint yield reduction. Adaptation of crop husbandry techniques suitable for cotton crop requires a sound understanding of environmental factors, influencing cotton lint yield and fiber quality. Various defense mechanisms e.g. maintenance of membrane stability, carbon fixation rate, hormone regulation, generation of antioxidants and induction of stress proteins have been found play a vital role in plant survival under moisture stress. Plant molecular breeding plays a functional role to ascertain superior genes for important traits and can offer breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. This review highlights drought-induced damage to cotton plants at structural, physiological and molecular levels. It also discusses the opportunities for increasing drought tolerance in cotton either through modern gene editing technology like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9), zinc finger nuclease, molecular breeding as well as through crop management, such as use of appropriate fertilization, growth regulator application and soil amendments.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/physiology , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Plants, Genetically Modified/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Gossypium/physiology , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Acclimatization/genetics
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 868-875, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888816

ABSTRACT

Abstract Roots and leaves of Panicum maximum Tanzânia, Mombaça and Massai; Urochloa brizantha Piatã, Marandu and Xaraés; Urochloa humidicola Llanero; Urochloa ruziziensis Ruzizienses; Urochloa hybrida Mulato II and Cynodon nlemfuensis Estrela-roxa were analyzed, seeking to identify characters for better adaptation to the environment that may interfere with digestibility of tissue from the point of view of the rumen in cattle. Were planted ten cultivars in a completely randomized blocks with three repetitions. Was collected vegetative material, which histological slides were prepared from middle third of the sections of roots and leaves. Were observed differences (p>0.05) in the roots: higher volume of epidermal cells (28.62 µm) and overall diameter (1926.41 µm) of Llanero; thicker vascular cylinder (975.09 µm) and more protoxylem (42.25) in Estrela-roxa and occurrence of aerenchyma in cultivars Piatã, Mulato II, Xaraés, Massai, Llanero and Estrela-roxa; Were found higher proportions of bulliform cells in the leaves (121.07 µm) and thicker leaf mesophyll in U. humidicola Llanero (263.63 µm); higher proportion of sclerenchyma fibers in Xaraés and Marandu; lower results for amount of fibers in P. maximum Massai. We conclude that the cultivars Estrela-roxa, Llanero and Massai have greater adaptability to the environment and better nutritional quality.


Resumo Foram analisadas raízes e folhas de Panicum maximum Tanzânia, Mombaça e Massai; Urochloa brizantha Piatã, Marandu e Xaraés; Urochloa humidicola Llanero; Urochloa ruziziensis Ruzizienses; Urochloa hybrida Mulato II e Cynodon nlemfuensis Estrela-roxa, procurando identificar caracteres relacionados à melhor adaptação ao ambiente e à qualidade nutritiva das forrageiras. As dez cultivares foram semeadas em blocos inteiramente casualizados com três repetições. Após estabelecidas foi coletado material vegetativo, do qual lâminas histológicas foram confeccionadas a partir de secções do terço médio de raízes e folhas. Foram observadas diferenças significativas (p>0,05) nas raízes: maior volume de células epidérmicas (28,62 µm) e diâmetro total (1926,41 µm) de Llanero; em Estrela-roxa maior espessura do cilindro vascular (975,09 µm) e número maior de protoxilemas (42,25) e formação de aerênquimas nas cultivares Piatã, Mulato II, Xaraés, Massai, Llanero, e Estrela-roxa; Nas folhas, foram constatadas maiores proporções de células buliformes (121,07 µm) e mesofilo foliar mais espesso (263,63 µm) em Llanero; em Xaraés e Marandu maiores proporções de fibras esclerenquimáticas; em Massai menores resultados para quantidade de fibras. Conclui-se que as cultivares Estrela-roxa, Llanero e Massai apresentam maior adaptabilidade ao ambiente e melhor qualidade nutritiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poaceae/anatomy & histology , Animal Husbandry , Brazil , Cattle , Plant Roots/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Acclimatization
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 260-266, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888733

ABSTRACT

Abstract Flood events in riparian forests of southern Brazil, can be characterized as unpredictable and of low magnitude with an average duration of less than 15 days. Inga marginata is an evergreen tree which grows in Southeast South America on a wide range of environments, including riparian forests. In this paper, the interactive effects of the light environment and soil flooding on morphological parameters of I. marginata were examined. Seedlings were acclimated in two contrasting light conditions: sun or shade for 30 days. Sun and shade plants were subjected to soil flooding for two periods; five or 15 days. After 5 days, the interaction between flooding and light did not affect growth, chlorophyll content and dry mass or the root-shoot ratio. After 15 days, flooded plants from the sunny treatment had a lower shoot dry mass compared to control sun plants and flooded plants from the shaded treatment. Moreover, the higher dry mass observed for shade plants compared to sun plants, following flooding, can also be directly associated with a higher content of soluble sugars. Shade plants of I. marginata showed a greater acclimation to soil waterlogging. This acclimation appears to be associated with a larger accumulation of soluble sugars compared to non-flooded plants. The responses observed on the shade plants appear to be decisive to indicate the use of I. marginata in degraded areas.


Resumo As inundações em florestas ripárias do Sul do Brasil, podem ser caracterizadas como imprevisíveis e de baixa magnitude com uma duração média de menos de 15 dias. Inga marginata é uma árvore que cresce no sudeste da América do Sul em uma grande variedade de ambientes, incluindo matas ciliares. Neste trabalho, os efeitos combinados da luminosidade e do e alagamento do solo nos parâmetros morfológicos de I. marginata foram examinados. As plântulas foram aclimatadas em duas condições contrastantes de luminosidade: sol e sombra por 30 dias. Plantas de sol e sombra foram submetidas ao alagamento do solo por dois períodos; cinco ou 15 dias. Após 5 dias, a interação entre a inundação e luminosidade não afetou o crescimento, teor de clorofila e massa seca e a razão raiz-parte aérea. Após 15 dias, plantas de sol sob inundação apresentaram menor massa seca na parte aérea em relação as plantas controle de sol e as plantas alagadas de sombra. Além disso, a maior massa seca observada nas plantas de sombra em comparação com plantas de sol, sob inundação, pode ser diretamente associado com um maior teor de açúcares solúveis. Plantas de sombra de I. marginata mostraram uma maior aclimatação ao encharcamento do solo. Esta aclimatação parece estar associada com um maior acúmulo de açúcares solúveis em comparação com as plantas não-inundadas. As respostas observadas nas plantas de sombra parecem ser determinantes para a indicação do uso de I. marginata em áreas degradadas.


Subject(s)
Floods , Fabaceae/physiology , Light , Solubility , Seedlings/anatomy & histology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/physiology , Sugars/metabolism , Acclimatization , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Fabaceae/growth & development
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 80-83, May. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010415

ABSTRACT

Background: A protocol for the micropropagation of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar 'Monastrell' was developed. Initial plant material was obtained from the sanitary selection of grapevine plants performed by real-time RT-PCR to confirm the absence of Grapevine fanleaf virus, Arabis mosaic virus, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, and Grapevine fleck virus. Results: The effects of the salt composition (comparing Lloyd and McCown woody plant medium and Murashige and Skoog medium 1/2 macronutrients) and the growth regulator benzylaminopurine (BAP), at 0 and 8.9 µM, on plant propagation were evaluated using nodes as explants. The most efficient procedure consisted of bud induction in the medium with Lloyd and McCown woody plant salts and 8.9 µM BAP for 30 d along with elongation in cytokinin-free medium for 60 d, which gave 22 nodes/explant (174 plants/initial plant). A second cycle of propagation in a medium without BAP for another 60 d could give approximately 10,000 nodes, which can be obtained after an additional 2 months of culture. All plants acclimatized after the second cycle of multiplication were successfully transferred to soil. Conclusion: We developed an optimal protocol for V. vinifera cv. 'Monastrell' micropropagation, the first described for this cultivar.


Subject(s)
Vitis/growth & development , Purines/metabolism , Benzyl Compounds/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Vitis/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Acclimatization
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 395-400, Apr. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895428

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intracytoplasmic lipid content, development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced bovine embryos treated with different concentrations of forskolin before vitrification. Embryos were produced from abattoir-derived ovaries and allocated into four groups. In the treatment groups, forskolin was added to the in vitro culture medium on Day 6 and incubated for 24 hours in one of the following concentrations: 2.5µM (Forsk 2.5 group), 5.0µM (Forsk 5.0 group) or 10.0µM (Forsk 10.0 group). Embryos from the control group were cultured without forskolin. On Day 7 of culture, the expanded blastocysts were stained with the lipophilic dye Sudan Black B for determination of the intracytoplasmic lipid content or were cryopreserved via the Vitri-Ingá® procedure. Although there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the blastocyst rates between the Control group (44.9%) and the other treatments, the embryo production was lower (P<0.05) in Forsk 10.0 group (38.8%) compared to Forsk 2.5 (50.5%) and Forsk 5.0 (54.7%) groups. The intracytoplasmic lipid content (expressed in arbitrary units of pixels) in blastocysts from the Control group (1.00±0.03) was similar (P>0.05) to that found in Forsk 2.5 (0.92±0.03) and Forsk 10.0 groups (1.06±0.03) groups; however the lipid accumulation in blastocysts from Forsk 5.0 group (0.82±0.04) was lower than in the Control group (P<0.05). Based on these results, Forsk 5.0 treatment was tested for cryotolerance and it was observed that the blastocoel re-expansion rate evaluated 24 hours after warming was greater (P<0.05) in Forsk 5.0 group (72.2%) compared to the Control group (46.2%). In conclusion, pre-treatment with forskolin at a concentration of 5.0 µM for 24 hours before vitrification is effective in reducing the intracytoplasmic lipid content and, consequently, improves cryotolerance of IVP bovine embryos.(AU)


Os embriões foram produzidos a partir de ovários obtidos em abatedouro e foram alocados em quatro grupos experimentais. Nos grupos tratados, o forskolin foi adicionado ao meio de cultivo in vitro no dia 6 do cultivo e os embriões foram incubados durante 24 horas com uma das seguintes concentrações: 2,5µM (grupo Forsk 2,5), 5,0µM (grupo Forsk 5,0) ou 10,0µM (grupo Forsk 10,0). Os embriões do grupo controle foram cultivados na ausência de forskolin. No dia 7 do cultivo, os blastocistos expandidos foram corados com o corante lipofílico Sudan Black B para a determinação do teor de lípidos intracitoplasmáticos ou foram criopreservados através do protocolo Vitri-Ingá®. Não foi observada diferença significativa (P>0,05) na taxa de produção de blastocistos entre o grupo Controle (44,9%) e os demais tratamentos, todavia observou-se menor produção de embriões (P<0,05) no grupo Forsk 10,0 (38,8%) em comparação com os grupos Forsk 2,5 (50,5%) e Forsk 5,0 (54,7%). A quantidade de lipídeos intracitoplasmáticos do grupo Controle (1,00±0,03) foi semelhante (P>0,05) a dos grupos Forsk 2,5 (0,92±0,03) e Forsk 10,0 (1,06±0,03); no entanto, o acúmulo de lípidos nos blastocistos do grupo Forsk 5.0 (0,82 ± 0,04) foi menor do que no grupo controle (P<0,05). A partir destes resultados, o grupo Forsk 5,0 foi testado quanto à criotolerância e foi observado que a taxa de re-expansão da blastocele 24 horas após o aquecimento foi maior (P<0,05) no grupo Forsk 5,0 (72,2%) quando comparado ao grupo Controle (46,2%). Em conclusão, o pré-tratamento com forskolin na concentração de 5,0 µM durante 24 horas antes da vitrificação foi eficiente para promover a redução da quantidade de lipídeos intracitoplasmáticos e, consequentemente, melhorou a criotolerância de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Colforsin , Embryo, Mammalian/physiology , Vitrification , Acclimatization/physiology , Lipids/analysis
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 89-101, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897528

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The genus Bathypterois (tripod fish) comprises 19 species of deep-sea fishes distributed worldwide. The biology and distribution of the species of this genus are relatively poorly known throughout the Eastern Central Pacific (ECP). This work aims to update the geographic and bathymetric distribution of species of Bathypterois throughout the ECP. To describe the influence of depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) on latitudinal and depth distribution of members of the genus throughout the Mexican Pacific, 51 specimens of B.atricolor (12 trawls) and 112 of B. ventralis (18 trawls), collected during TALUD project, were analyzed. Bathypterois atricolor had broader environmental niches (depth: 0.47, temperature: 0.46, DO: 0.39), and inhabits deeper and colder sites (Electivity positives: > 1 000 m, < 3.2 °C, 1.0-1.62 mL/L) than B. ventralis, which had narrow environmental niches (depth: 0.34, temperature: 0.32, DO: 0.28), with high affinity to warmer sites and lower DO concentrations (Electivity positives: 778-1 400 m, 3.3-5.8 °C, < 1.0 mL/L). Both species used different environmental strata (niche overlap; depth: 0.34, temperature: 0.32, DO: 0.28). The adaptation of B. atricolor to live in a broad range of DO concentrations explains its almost circumglobal distribution, while B. ventralis lives almost permanently in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (< 0.05 mL/L), so the DO could be a limiting factor, reducing its potential geographic and bathymetric distributions. None of these species had been previously recorded in the central Gulf of California, and B. ventralis had not been recorded along the West coast of Baja California. This study confirms that both species have a continuous distribution within the ECP, our new records extended the known northernmost range for B. atricolor by 886 km (from 22°46' N to 30°45' N) and for B. ventralis by 645 km (from 21°18' N to 27°07' N). Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 89-101. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenEl género Bathypterois (peces trípode) está conformado por 19 especies de peces de profundidad, distribuidas alrededor del mundo. La biología y distribución de las especies de este género son relativamente poco conocidas a lo largo del Pacífico Centro Oriental (POT). Este trabajo tiene el objetivo de actualizar la distribución geográfica y batimétrica de las especies del género Bathypterois a lo largo del POT. Para describir la influencia de la profundidad, temperatura y concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto (OD) sobre la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de miembros del género Bathypterois en el Pacífico Mexicano, se analizaron 51 especímenes de B.atricolor (12 arrastres) y 112 B. ventralis (18 arrastres), recolectados durante el proyecto TALUD. Bathypterois atricolor presentó nichos ambientales más amplios (profundidad: 0.47, temperatura: 0.46, OD: 0.39) y habita sitios más profundos y fríos (Electividad positiva: > 1 000 m, < 3.2 °C, 1.0 - 1.62 mL/L) en comparación con B. ventralis, que tiene nichos ambientales reducidos (profundidad: 0.34, temperatura: 0.32, OD: 0.28), con alta afinidad por sitios más cálidos y bajas concentraciones de OD (Electividad positiva: 778-1 400 m, 3.3-5.8 °C, < 1.0 mL/L). Estas especies utilizaron distintos estratos ambientales (traslape de nicho; profundidad: 0.34, temperatura: 0.32, OD: 0.28). La adaptación de B. atricolor para vivir en un amplio intervalo de concentraciones de OD explica su distribución casi circunglobal, mientras que B. ventralis vive casi permanentemente en la Zona de Mínimo Oxígeno (< 0.05 mL/L), por lo que el OD puede ser un factor limitante, reduciendo su posible distribución geográfica y batimétrica. Ninguna de estas especies había sido registrada anteriormente en el centro del Golfo de California, así como B. ventralis no había sido reportada a lo largo de la costa occidental de Baja California. Este estudio confirma que ambas especies tienen una distribución continua dentro del POT, nuestros nuevos registros extienden la distribución más norteña conocida para B. atricolor en 886 km (de 22°46' N a 30°45' N) y en 645 km para B. ventralis (de 21°18' N a 27°07' N).


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fishes/physiology , Oxygen/analysis , Seawater/chemistry , Species Specificity , Temperature , Pacific Ocean , Population Dynamics , Multivariate Analysis , Acclimatization/physiology , Mexico
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 55-63, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897525

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Anuran embryos and tadpoles are daily exposed to wide thermal variations in their ponds, with maximum temperatures at midday. The aim of this research was to study the impact of three daily variable thermal environments (with maximum experimental temperatures between 10:00 and 16:00 hours), on the survival, developmental time and body size of metamorphs of four tropical anuran species from lowland habitats in Colombia. A total of 50 embryos (Gosner stage ten) to metamorphosis (Gosner stage 46) of Rhinella humboldti, Hypsiboas crepitans and Engystomops pustulosus were exposed to each one of the three daily variable temperature treatments: high temperature (mean = 27.5 °C; maximum temperature = 34 ± 1 °C; range = 23-35 °C), medium temperature (25.5 °C; 29 ± 1 °C; 23-30 °C), and low temperature (24 °C; 24 ± 1 °C; 23-25 °C). For the other species, Espadarana prosoblepon, 40 embryos to metamorphosis were exposed to each one of the following thermal treatments: high temperature (mean = 22 °C; maximum temperature = 25 ± 1 °C; range = 18-26 °C), medium temperature (20.5 °C; 22 ± 1 °C; 18-23 °C), and low temperature (19 °C; 19 ± 1 °C; 18-20 °C). For all species, the thermal variable environment with the highest temperature showed the greatest accumulated survival, reduced significantly the developmental time from embryos to metamorphs, and the snout-vent-length of metamorphs. Therefore, under field conditions where ponds are exposed to thermally variable environments, the highest temperatures may promote a decrease in the period of time to metamorphosis, and a positive increase for the anuran survival; nevertheless, extreme temperatures were also found in the microhabitat of the species studied, higher than their upper thermal limits reported, which suggest a vulnerable situation for them and other tropical anurans from similar habitats. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 55-63. Epub 2017 March 01.


ResumenLos embriones y renacuajos de anuros están expuestos diariamente a amplias variaciones térmicas en sus estanques, con temperaturas máximas al mediodía. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar el impacto de tres ambientes térmicos diariamente variables, con temperaturas máximas experimentales entre las 10:00 y las 16:00 horas, sobre la supervivencia, tiempo de desarrollo y tamaño corporal de metamorfos de cuatro especies de anuros tropicales de hábitat de tierras bajas de Colombia. 50 embriones (estadio de Gosner diez) hasta la metamorfosis (estadio de Gosner 46) de Rhinella humboldti, Hypsiboas crepitans y Engystomops pustulosus fueron expuestos a cada uno de tres tratamientos de temperatura variable diariamente: temperatura alta (promedio = 27.5 °C; temperatura máxima = 34 ± 1 °C; rango = 23-35 °C), temperatura media (25.5 °C; 29 ± 1 °C; 23-30 °C), y temperatura baja (24 °C; 24 ± 1 °C; 23-25 ºC). Para la otra especie de estudio, Espadarana prosoblepon, 40 embriones hasta la metamorfosis fueron expuestos a cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos térmicos: temperatura alta (promedio = 22 °C; temperatura máxima = 25 ± 1 °C; rango = 18-26 °C), temperatura media (20.5 °C; 22 ± 1 °C; 18-23 °C), y temperatura baja (19 °C; 19 ± 1 °C; 18-20 °C). Para todas las especies, los ambientes térmicos variables con las temperaturas más altas tuvieron la mayor supervivencia acumulada, redujeron significativamente el tiempo de desarrollo de los embriones a metamorfos y la longitud hocico-cloaca de los metamorfos. Por lo tanto, bajo condiciones de campo donde las charcas están expuestas a ambientes térmicamente variables, las temperaturas más altas pueden promover una disminución en el tiempo de la metamorfosis y un aumento positivo para la supervivencia de los anuros; sin embargo, también se encontraron temperaturas extremas en los microhábitats de las especies estudiadas, más altas que sus límites térmicos máximos reportados, lo que sugiere una situación vulnerable para estas especies y otros anuros tropicales con hábitat similares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura/growth & development , Temperature , Larva/growth & development , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Ecosystem , Embryonic Development/physiology , Acclimatization
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 251-262, Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. Methods: We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Results: Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Conclusions: Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Research Design/standards , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation/standards , Housing, Animal/standards , Animal Husbandry/standards , Reference Standards , Lighting , Adaptation, Physiological , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Environment , Acclimatization , Intestines/microbiology , Animal Feed
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 140-149, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839157

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare vitroplants Catasetum x apolloi grown under natural light and artificial light and different concentrations of potassium silicate, providing data on the anatomical differentiation that aids the acclimatization process of this species. Plants from in vitro seeding were used; 5 protocorms of approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated into vials with a capacity of 500 mL containing 100 mL of alternative culture medium plus potassium silicate (0.0, 0.5; 1.0 mL L–1), pH adjusted to 5.5 ± 0.5 and gelated with 4GL–1 agar before the autoclaving process. Cultures were maintained under natural light (TNE) and artificial light (TAE) for 90 days, and micromorphometric analysis was performed for polar and equatorial diameter, density and stomatal index, blade thickness in the central rib, and secondary veins. Applications in K2SiO4 alternative medium provided the following: elongation of the hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, and more prominent midrib; elipptical guard cells; formation of epistomatal chamber; and lower stomatal density and stomatal with lower equatorial and polar diameters. The conditions that favored the acclimatization were lower light intensities and lower potassium silicate doses.


Resumo O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar vitroplantas de Catasetum x apolloi cultivadas sob luz natural e luz artificial e diferentes concentrações de silicato de potássio, fornecendo dados sobre diferenciação anatômica que auxiliem no processo de aclimatação dessa espécie. Utilizou-se plantas provenientes da semeadura in vitro, 5 protocormos de aproximadamente 0,5 cm foram inoculados em frascos com capacidade para 500 mL contendo 100 mL de meio de cultura alternativo, acrescido de silicato de potássio (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mL L–1), pH ajustado para 5,5 ±0,5 e gelificado com 4gL–1 de ágar antes do processo de autoclavagem. As culturas foram mantidas sob luz natural (TAA) e luz artificial (TAN) por 90 dias, e feitas análises micromorfométricas (diâmetro polar e equatorial, densidade e índice estomático, espessura do limbo na nervura central e nervuras secundárias). As aplicações de K2SiO4 em meio alternativo, propiciaram: alongamento da hipoderme; mesofilo mais espesso e nervura central mais proeminente; células guardas elípticas; formação de câmaras supraestomáticas; menor densidade estomática e estômatos com menores diâmetros equatorial e polar. As condições que podem favorecer a aclimatação são menores intensidades de luz e menores doses de silicato de potássio.


Subject(s)
Potassium/analysis , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Orchidaceae/physiology , Light , Potassium/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Silicates/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Acclimatization/physiology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 191-198, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Successful animal rearing under laboratory conditions for commercial processes or laboratory experiments is a complex chain that includes several stressors (e.g., sampling and transport) and incurs, as a consequence, the reduction of natural animal conditions, economic losses and inconsistent and unreliable biological results. Since the invasion of the bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in South America, several studies have been performed to help control and manage this fouling pest in industrial plants that use raw water. Relatively little attention has been given to the laboratory rearing procedure of L. fortunei, its condition when exposed to a stressor or its acclimation into laboratory conditions. Considering this issue, the aims of this study are to (i) investigate L. fortunei physiological responses when submitted to the depuration process and subsequent air transport (without water/dry condition) at two temperatures, based on glycogen concentrations, and (ii) monitor the glycogen concentrations in different groups when maintained for 28 days under laboratory conditions. Based on the obtained results, depuration did not affect either of the groups when they were submitted to approximately eight hours of transport. The variation in glycogen concentration among the specimens that were obtained from the field under depurated and non-depurated conditions was significant only in the first week of laboratory growth for the non-depurated group and in the second week for the depurated group. In addition, the tested temperature did not affect either of the groups that were submitted to transport. The glycogen concentrations were similar to those of the specimens that were obtained from the field in third week, which suggests that the specimens acclimated to laboratory conditions during this period of time. Thus, the results indicate that the air transport and acclimation time can be successfully incorporated into experimental studies of L. fortunei. Finally, the tolerance of L. fortunei specimens to the stressor tested herein can help us understand the invasive capacity of this mussel during the establishment process.


Resumo A criação bem sucedida de animais em condições de laboratório para processos comerciais ou experimentais é uma cadeia complexa que inclui vários fatores de estresse (ex. coleta e transporte) que tem como consequência a redução das condições naturais do animal, prejuízos econômicos e resultados biológicos inconsistentes. Desde a invasão do bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) na América do Sul, vários estudos têm sido realizados para ajudar no controle e gestão dessa praga em plantas industriais que utilizam água. Relativamente pouca atenção tem sido dada ao processo de criação de L. fortunei em laboratório, sua condição quando exposta ao estresse e sua aclimatação a condições de laboratório. Considerando estes aspectos, os objetivos deste estudo foram: (i) investigar as respostas fisiológicas de L. fortunei submetidos ao processo de depuração e subsequente transporte (sem água/condição seca) em duas temperaturas, analisando as diferentes concentrações de glicogênio e (ii) monitorar as concentrações de glicogênio nos diferentes grupos, quando mantidos por 28 dias em condições de laboratório. Com base nos resultados obtidos, a depuração não afetou nenhum grupo quando eles foram submetidos a oito horas de transporte. A variação da concentração de glicogênio entre os espécimes do campo quando depurados e não depurados, foi significativa apenas em relação à primeira semana em laboratório para o grupo não depurado e à segunda semana para o grupo depurado. Além disto, a temperatura testada não afetou os grupos submetidos ao transporte. As concentrações de glicogénio foram semelhantes as dos espécimes do campo a partir da terceira semana, o que sugere que os espécimes estão aclimatados às condições de laboratoriais neste período de tempo. Assim, os resultados indicam que o transporte ao ar e o tempo de aclimatação podem ser incorporados com sucesso aos estudos experimentais com L. fortunei. Finalmente, o conhecimento sobre a tolerância de L. fortunei ao estresse pode ajudar a entender a capacidade invasiva deste durante o processo de estabelecimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Mytilidae/physiology , South America , Specimen Handling , Temperature , Water , Analysis of Variance , Mytilidae/chemistry , Glycogen/analysis , Acclimatization/physiology
19.
Biol. Res ; 50: 25, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950892

ABSTRACT

Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant's cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.


Subject(s)
Waxes , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Biotechnology , Plant Roots , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Culture Techniques , Acclimatization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197945

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM) reduce the Alzheimer disease (AD)-related gene expression in brain tissues of amyloid beta (Aβ)-injected mice. Male Crj:CD1 (ICR) mice were divided into 6 treatment groups; 1) control, 2) Aβ control, 3) Aβ + NA 20 mg/kg/day (NA20), 4) Aβ + NA40, 5) Aβ + NAM 200 mg/kg/day (NAM200), and 6) Aβ + NAM400. After 1-week acclimation period, the mice orally received NA or NAM once a day for a total of 7 successive days. On day 7, biotinylated Aβ42 was injected into mouse tail vein. At 5 hours after the injection, blood and tissues were collected. Aβ42 injection was confirmed by Western blot analysis of Aβ42 protein in brain tissue. NAM400 pre-treatment significantly reduced the gene expression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 in brain tissues. And, NAM200 and NAM400 pre-treatments significantly increased sirtuin 1 expression in brain tissues, which is accompanied by the decreased brain expression of nuclear factor kappa B by 2 doses of NAM. Increased expression of AD-related genes was attenuated by the NAM treatment, which suggests that NAM supplementation may be a potential preventive strategy against AD-related deleterious changes.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization , Aging , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Gene Expression , Humans , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B , Niacin , Niacinamide , Presenilin-1 , Presenilins , Sirtuin 1 , Tail , Veins
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