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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 128-132, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153115

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate the relationship of changes in hypermetropia and ocular alignment in patients with accommodative esotropia. Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with refractive accommodative esotropia (esotropia eliminated or decreased to within 10 D with full hyperopic correction) were retrospectively reviewed. Cycloplegic refractions culled from medical records were converted into spherical equivalents. Presence of amblyopia, changes in refractive error and ocular alignment at admission and after the follow-up period were evaluated. Results: Seventy patients (mean age: 6.01 ± 5.41 years; female: 60.6%; mean follow-up: 5.8 ± 3 years) had corrected esotropia of 40 ± 20 prismatic diopters at admission. The average decrease per year in near and distance deviations with glasses was 1.71 ± 3.96 prismatic diopters/year and 1.09 ± 3.25 prismatic diopters/year, respectively. The total myopic shift of the right and left eyes was 1.08 ± 1.35 D and 1.20 ± 1.40 D, respectively. Myopic shift/year was 0.22 D/year and 0.26 D/year, respectively. The correlation between the rate of myopic shift and rate of change in corrected near deviation was weak. The correlation for the rate of myopic shift was not high for the right and left eyes (r=0.18; p=0.15). Conclusion: The amount of deviation and hypermetropia gradually decreased in accommodative esotropia during follow-up. On the other hand, it may be incorrect to assure patients that the amount of deviation will decrease in parallel with the refractive error.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre alterações na hipermetropia e o alinhamento ocular em pacientes com esotropia acomodativa. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente prontuários médicos de pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados com esotropia acomodativa refrativa (com esotropia eliminada ou reduzida a menos de 10 D com correção completa da hipermetropia). As medidas de refração em cicloplegia obtidas dos prontuários foram convertidas em equivalentes esféricos. Avaliaram-se ainda a presença de ambliopia, alterações do erro refrativo e o alinhamento ocular à admissão e depois do período de acompanhamento. Resultados: Setenta pacientes (média de idade=6,01 ± 5,41 anos, 60,6% do sexo feminino, acompanhamento médio de 5,8 ± 3 anos) apresentaram esotropia de 40 ± 20 dioptrias prismáticas (DP) para perto à admissão. A diminuição média anual no desvio para perto e para longe com o uso de óculos foi de 1,71 ± 3,96 DP/ano e 1,09 ± 3,25 DP/ano, respectivamente. Os desvios miópicos totais dos olhos direito e esquerdo foram de 1,08 ± 1,35 D e 1,20 ± 1,40 D, respectivamente. Os desvios miópicos anuais foram de 0,22 D/ano e 0,26 D/ano para os olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente. A correlação entre a taxa de desvio miópico e a taxa de alteração do desvio para perto corrigido foi fraca. A correlação da taxa de desvio miópico não foi alta para os olhos direito e esquerdo (r=0,18, p=0,15). Conclusão: A quantidade de desvio e a hipermetropia diminuem gradualmente na esotropia acomodativa durante o acompanhamento. Por outro lado, pode não ser apropriado garantir aos pacientes que o desvio diminuirá em paralelo ao erro refrativo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Refraction, Ocular , Esotropia/physiopathology , Accommodation, Ocular , Hyperopia/etiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 107-112, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153113

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia on ocular measurements. Methods: Thirty-three healthy subjects [mean (±SD) age, 32.97 (±5.21) years] volunteered to participate in the study. Measurement of the axial length, macular and choroidal thickness, refractive error, and corneal topography, as well as anterior segment imaging, were performed. After these procedures, pharmacological accommodation was induced by applying pilocarpine eye drops (pilocarpine hydrochloride 2%), and the measurements were repeated. The measurements were repeated again after full cycloplegia was induced using cyclopentolate eye drops (cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1%). The correlations between the measurements were evaluated. Results: A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after applying 2% pilocarpine was identified (without the drops, 319.36 ± 90.08 µm; with pilocarpine instillation, 341.60 ± 99.19 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 318.36 ± 103.0 µm; p<0.001). A significant increase in the axial length was also detected (without the drops, 23.26 ± 0.83 mm; with pilocarpine instillation, 23.29 ± 0.84 mm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 23.27 ± 0.84 mm; p=0.003). Comparing pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia revealed a significant difference in central macular thickness (with pilocarpine instillation, 262.27 ± 19.34 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 265.93 ± 17.91 µm; p=0.016). Pilocarpine-related miosis (p<0.001) and myopic shift (p<0.001) were more severe in blue eyes vs. brown eyes. Conclusion: Pharmacological accommodation may change ocular measurements, such as choroidal thickness and axial length. This condition should be considered when performing ocular measurements, such as intraocular lens power calculations.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da acomodação farmacológica e da cicloplegia nas medições oculares. Métodos: participaram do estudo 33 voluntários saudáveis (média de idade [± DP], 32,97 anos [± 5,21 anos]). Foram medidos o comprimento axial, a espessura macular e coroidal e o erro refrativo, bem como realizados exames de imagem da topografia corneana e do segmento anterior. Em seguida, foi induzida a acomodação farmacológica aplicando-se colírio de pilocarpina (cloridrato de pilocarpina a 2%) e as medições foram repetidas nos participantes. As mesmas medições foram repetidas depois de induzir a cicloplegia completa com colírio de ciclopentolato (cloridrato de ciclopentolato a 1%) e foram avaliadas as correlações entre as medidas. Resultados: Identificou-se aumento significativo da espessura coroidal subfoveal com o uso da pilocarpina a 2% (sem colírio, 319,36 ± 90,08 µm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 341,60 ± 99,19 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 318,36 ± 103,0 µm; p<0,001). Detectou-se também aumento significativo do comprimento axial (sem colírio, 23,26 ± 0,83 mm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 23,29 ± 0,84 mm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 23,27 ± 0,84 mm; p=0,003). Ao se comparar a acomodação farmacológica e a cicloplegia, houve diferença significativa na espessura macular central (com a instilação de pilocarpina, 262,27 ± 19,34 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 265,93 ± 17,91 µm; p=0,016). Observou-se que a miose associada à pilocarpina (p<0,001) e o desvio miópico (p<0,001) foram mais severos nos olhos azuis que nos castanhos. Conclusão: A acomodação farmacológica pode alterar medidas oculares como a espessura da coroide e o comprimento axial. Essa possibilidade deve ser levada em consideração ao se efetuarem medições oculares, tais como cálculos de potência de lentes intraoculares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Accommodation, Ocular , Pilocarpine/pharmacology , Corneal Topography/instrumentation , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Mydriatics/pharmacology
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): e0037, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341160

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The term dysfunctional lens syndrome has gained acceptance in the field and encompasses natural changes due to aging of crystalline lens. The evolution of diagnostic devices has been a key factor in better staging, understanding and characterizing of these degenerative changes. Even with these technological advances and the use of subjective classifications, such as the classic Lens Opacities Classification System, an objective staging of early dysfunctional lens syndrome has yet to be established. Ocular wavefront aberrometry and objective scatter index, associated with Scheimpflug backscatter densitometry, have proven instrumental in detecting early dysfunctional lens syndrome. Staging of early dysfunctional lens syndrome has been proposed in the literature, but no classification has been recognized worldwide. The purpose of this literature review is to assess the current state of dysfunctional lens syndrome from a technological perspective and propose a new staging system to assist surgeons in making surgical decisions.


RESUMO O termo "síndrome disfuncional do cristalino" tem sido mais aceito na área e engloba mudanças naturais devido ao envelhecimento do cristalino. A evolução dos dispositivos diagnósticos tem sido fator fundamental para melhor estadiamento, compreensão e caracterização dessas alterações. Mesmo com esses avanços tecnológicos e o uso de classificações subjetivas, como o Lens Opacities Classification System , um estadiamento objetivo da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino precoce ainda não foi estabelecido. A aberrometria ocular total e o índice de superfície ocular, associado à densitometria de Scheimpflug, mostraram-se instrumentais na detecção da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino precoce. Embora estadiamentos precoces de síndrome disfuncional do cristalino tenham sido propostos na literatura, nenhum foi reconhecido mundialmente até o momento. O objetivo desta revisão de literatura é avaliar o estado atual da síndrome disfuncional do cristalino a partir de uma perspectiva tecnológica, e propor um novo sistema de estadiamento para auxiliar os cirurgiões na tomada de decisões cirúrgicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Lens, Crystalline , Lens Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Presbyopia , Cataract , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Visual Acuity , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Corneal Wavefront Aberration
4.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 207-213, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001311

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To measure changes in the anterior ciliary muscle during accommodation at the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior sectors by means of an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer, and correlate them with vergence changes. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with healthy, phakic eyes, whose mean age was 27.1 ± 8.9 years, underwent measurement with an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer. The anterior ciliary muscle was measured at the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior sectors for 0, -1, -2, and -3 D of vergence. A linear model was used to assess the correlation of each eye parameter with the accommodative demand. Results: The anterior ciliary muscle area significantly increased with accommodation for each sector, with a maximum increase of about 30% for the nasal-temporal sectors and about 25% for the inferior-temporal sectors. The linear model showed a tendency toward a positive relationship between change in the ciliary muscle area of each sector and vergence. Conclusion: The anterior ciliary muscle area tends to increase with accommodation, although the increase has been shown to be symmetric between the pair sectors superior-nasal and inferior-temporal. These results may help to increase understanding of accommodation biometry and biomechanics.


RESUMO Objetivo: Medir as alterações do músculo ciliar anterior durante a acomodação nos setores nasal, superior, temporal e inferior, através de um tomógrafo de coerência óptica de câmara anterior, e correlacioná-las com alterações de vergência. Métodos: Vinte e quatro indivíduos com olhos saudáveis e fácicos, com idade média de 27,1 ± 8,9 anos, foram submetidos à medida com um tomógrafo de coerência óptica de câmara anterior. O músculo ciliar anterior foi medido nos setores nasal, temporal, superior e inferior para 0, -1, -2 e -3D de vergência. Um modelo linear foi utilizado para avaliar a correlação de cada parâmetro do olho com a demanda acomodativa. Resultados: A área do músculo ciliar anterior aumentou significativamente com a acomodação em cada setor, com um aumento máximo foi de cerca de 30% para os setores naso-temporais, e cerca de 25% para os inferiores-temporais. O modelo linear mostrou uma tendência para uma relação positiva entre a alteração da área do músculo ciliar de cada setor e a vergência. Conclusão: A área do músculo ciliar anterior tende a aumentar com a acomodação, embora o aumento tenha se mostrado simétrico entre os setores superior-nasal e inferior-temporal. Estes resultados podem ajudar a aumentar a compreensão da biometria e biomecânica da acomodação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ciliary Body/physiology , Ciliary Body/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Reference Values , Biomechanical Phenomena , Linear Models , Analysis of Variance , Biometry/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 98-102, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989401

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and surgical impacts of phenomena that could occur in intermittent exotropia. Methods: The medical records of intermittent exotropia cases from 1991 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a series of measures, including a protocol to assess monocular occlusion based on the propedeutics proposed by Kushner. Results: Outdoor sensitivity was observed in 31% of patients with an undercorrection rate of 44% vs. 18% of cases with no outdoor sensitivity. After 1 h of monocular occlusion, 41% of all patients achieved an increase in deviation with an undercorrection rate of 40%, whereas 25% did not. Conclusion: The results show the importance of complete propedeutics, since there is a higher rate of late undercorrection in cases with outdoor sensitivity and increased deviation after occlusion.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os impactos clínico e cirúrgico dos fenômenos que podem ocorrer na exotropia intermitente. Métodos: Os prontuários de casos de exotropia intermitente de 1991 a 2014 foram revisados retrospectivamente. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a uma serie de medidas incluindo o protocolo com oclusão monocular com base na propedêutica proposta por Kushner. Resultados: Outdoor sensitivity foi observada em 31% dos pacientes com taxa de subcorreção de 44% vs. 18% dos casos sem outdoor sensitivity. Após 1 hora de oclusão monocular, 41% de todos os pacientes apresentaram um aumento no desvio com uma taxa de subcorreção 40%, enquanto 25% não. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstram a importância da propedêutica completa, uma vez que há maior taxa de subcorreção tardia nos casos de outdoor sensitivity e maior desvio após a oclusão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Exotropia/surgery , Exotropia/physiopathology , Education, Premedical/methods , Postoperative Period , Reoperation , Time Factors , Vision, Monocular/physiology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Convergence, Ocular/physiology , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology
6.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(1): 38-41, jan.-mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-994765

ABSTRACT

A tiny structure, the pupil, attracts too much attention, since the antiquity. The pupil as part of the "'window of/to the soul", the eyes, it can demonstrate a clinical disorder sign, or simply a psychological expression. In this paper, it is studied the situation in which the pupillary reflex to light is compromised, but the accommodation reflex is preserved, what is named after Argyll Robertson, the frst Scottish ophthalmologist, who besides described the signal (1869), he also tried to defned its clinical signifcance. Afterwards, it was clearly demonstrated its relationship with tertiary neurosyphilis.


Uma estrutura minúscula, a pupila, atrai muita atenção, desde a antiguidade. A pupila como parte da "'janela da alma'", os olhos, poderia demonstrar um sinal de desordem clínica, ou, simplesmente, uma expressão psicológica. Neste trabalho, estuda-se a situação em que o reflexo pupilar à luz é comprometido, mas o reflexo de acomodação é preservado, o que leva o nome de Argyll Robertson, o primeiro oftalmologista escocês que além de descrever o sinal (1869), também tentou defniu seu signifcado clínico. Posteriormente, foi claramente demonstrada sua relação com a neurossíflis terciária.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 21st Century , Ophthalmology/history , Reflex, Pupillary , Pupil Disorders/diagnosis , Pupil Disorders/physiopathology , Autonomic Nervous System , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Neurosyphilis
7.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(3): 115-118, May-June 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959087

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia na adaptação de lentes de contato em relação à melhora da acuidade visual em pacientes portadores de ceratocone. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, através de revisão de prontuários médicos, em 175 pacientes (326 olhos) portadores de ceratocone, atendidos no período de março/2004 a junho/2015. Foram coletados os dados sobre sexo, idade, número de olhos adaptados, severidade do ceratocone e acuidade visual com óculos e com lentes de contato. Resultados: Dos pacientes avaliados, 100 pacientes (57,4%) eram do sexo feminino e 75 pacientes (42,6%) do sexo masculino. Dos olhos classificados, 267 (81,9%) tinham ceratocone moderado (45 a 52D). A faixa etária mais frequente foi de 10-39 anos (84%) e a taxa de sucesso ao fim do tratamento foi de 92,3% (acuidade visual boa ou satisfatória). Conclusão: A adaptação de lentes de contato mostrou-se eficaz em proporcionar importante melhora da acuidade visual em pacientes portadores de ceratocone.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of the contact lens adaptation in relation to the improvement of visual acuity in patients with keratoconus. Methods: A retrospective study of 175 patients (326 eyes) with keratoconus was carried out from March 2004 to June 2015. Data on sex, age, number of adapted eyes, keratoconus severity, and visual acuity with glasses and contact lenses were collected. Results: Of the classified eyes, 267 (81.9%) had moderate keratoconus (45 to 52D). The most frequent age group was 10-39 years of age (84%) and the success rate at the end of treatment was 92.3% (good or satisfactory visual acuity). Conclusion: Adaptation of contact lenses was effective in providing important improvement of visual acuity in patients with keratoconus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adaptation, Physiological , Contact Lenses , Keratoconus/rehabilitation , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Accommodation, Ocular , Keratoconus/classification
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(6): 364-368, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess changes in anatomic structures in the anterior eye segment in terms of axial lengths with accommodation via optical coherence tomography. Methods: In this observational study, 25 eyes of 25 healthy adults were examined using the Visante® omni optical coherence tomography system. Central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, central lens thickness, and anterior segment length were assessed. The evaluated parameters were obtained with accommodation using different stimulus vergences, namely 0.0, -1.0, -2.0, and -3.0 D. Variation of these parameters was compared among different levels of accommodation. Results: Central corneal thickness was not altered at any stimulus vergence during accommodation (p>0.05). Conversely, anterior chamber depth was significantly reduced (p<0.05), whereas central lens thickness was significantly increased (p<0.05). Anterior segment length also increased with accommodation (p<0.05), indicating backward movement of the posterior pole. Conclusions: There are significant variations in anterior segment lengths that occur with accommodation. Studying these changes will provide useful information regarding the accommodation mechanism that can improve our understanding of this process and facilitate clinical decision-making by practitioners.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar as mudanças das estruturas anatômicas no segmento anterior do olho em termos de comprimentos axiais com acomodação por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica. Métodos: Neste estudo observacional, foram incluídos 25 olhos de vinte e cinco adultos saudáveis e medidos com o sistema Visante® omni tomografia de coerência óptica. A espessura corneana central, a profundidade da câmara anterior, a espessura central da lente e o comprimento do segmento anterior foram avaliados. Os parâmetros avaliados foram obtidos com acomodação usando diferentes vergências de estímulo: 0,0, -1,0, -2,0 e -3,0 D. A variação desses parâmetros foi comparada para os diferentes níveis de acomodação. Resultados: A espessura corneana central não foi alterada em nenhum estímulo durante a acomodação (p>0,05). A ACD mostrou uma redução significativa (p<0,05), enquanto a espessura central da lente foi significativamente aumentada (p<0,05). O comprimento do segmento anterior também aumentou com acomodação (p<0,05) indicando um movimento do polo posterior para trás. Conclusões: Há variações significativas nos comprimentos do segmento anterior que ocorrem com acomodação. Estudar essas mudanças fornece informações úteis sobre o mecanismo de acomodação para os profissionais, a fim de obter uma melhor compreensão desse processo e ajudá-los a tomar suas decisões clínicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Anterior Eye Segment/anatomy & histology , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(5): 242-246, Sept.-Oct. 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899085

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de desconforto visual e insuficiência de convergência (IC) em docentes universitários. Métodos: Tratar-se de um estudo transversal, com 60 docentes de ambos os sexos, tendo sido utilizado o questionário Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, validado para a população brasileira. Resultados: Dos docentes entrevistados 55,0% eram do sexo feminino. 48,3% responderam dedicar menos que duas horas por dia à leitura, sendo que 40,0% dos entrevistados disseram que fazem pausas de 30 minutos à uma hora durante a leitura e 63,3% afirmaram passar entre 2 a 5 horas por dia em frente ao computador. Em relação à investigação sobre as doenças do sistema visual, 25,0% relataram apresentar miopia, sendo que 55,0% dos indivíduos usam óculos e destes 41,7% o usam com frequência. Quanto à investigação da prevalência de insuficiência de convergência, obteve-se frequência de (1,8) %. Conclusão: Constatou-se que a maioria dos entrevistados se apresentou com desconforto visual e uma pequena porcentagem foram acometidos pela IC.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of visual discomfort and convergence failure in professors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done, consisting of 60 teachers of both sexes, of the Centro Universitário FAG, which used the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, validated for the Brazilian population. Results: Of those surveyed 55.0% are female. 48.3% respondents spend less than two hours a day reading, with 40.0% of respondents said they do 30-minute breaks for one hour during reading and 63.3% said they spend between 2-5 hours a day in front of the computer. With regard to research on diseases of the visual system, 25.0% reported having myopia, with 55.0% of individuals use these glasses and 41.7% use it frequently. The research of the prevalence of convergence insufficiency, gave an average of 12.4(1.8) %. Conclusion: It was found that most respondents presented with visual discomfort and small percentages were affected by CI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Ocular Motility Disorders/epidemiology , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Convergence, Ocular , Faculty , Universities , Vision, Binocular , Visual Acuity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Accommodation, Ocular
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(4): 194-197, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899077

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: Comparar as alterações da refração e da biometria ocular na população infantil hipermetrópica com e sem correção óptica total. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo prospectivo longitudinal não randomizado em 41 pacientes com hipermetropia, entre 3 e 6 dioptrias ou/e com esotropia acomodativa pura nos ambulatórios do Hospital Geral Universitário e Oftalmocenter Santa Rosa, com idade inicial entre 4 e 6 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, em que o Grupo 1 compôs-se pelos pacientes hipermétropes que não necessitavam usar sua correção óptica ou poderiam usá-la parcialmente, e o Grupo 2 por pacientes com esotropia acomodativa pura e pelos hipermétropes que necessitavam usar toda sua correção óptica. Os pacientes submeteram-se a exame oftalmológico completo, incluindo refração objetiva em autorrefrator com cicloplegia, biometria óptica e topografia corneana em uma medida inicial e outra 3 anos mais tarde. Comparou-se a refração e parâmetros biométricos com teste T student. Resultados: A média da idade inicial foi de 5,23 ± 0,81 e 5,36 ± 0,74 anos, a refração inicial foi +3,99 ± 0,92 e +4,27 ± 0,85 D, o diâmetro anteroposterior do globo ocular foi de 21,42 ± 0,84 e 21,22 ± 0,86 mm, e a ceratometria foi de 42,55 ± 1,24 e 42,39 ± 1,22 D, para os Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Em relação à refração, houve redução significativa do poder esférico no Grupo 1, em 3 anos; e não houve no Grupo 2 (p<0,05). Com relação ao diâmetro anteroposterior do globo ocular, ocorreu aumento significativo no Grupo 1 e não houve no Grupo 2 (p<0,05 ). Não se verificou diferença significativa na comparação das ceratometrias em 3 anos nos Grupos 1 e 2. Conclusão: Estes dados permitiram concluir que a correção total da hipermetropia pode prejudicar a emetropização natural em crianças.


Abstract Objective: To compare changes in refraction and ocular biometric parameters in hyperopic children with and without full optical correction. Methods: Non-randomized prospecting study with 41 subjects (21 males and 20 females) aged 4 to 6 years with accommodative esotropia and or hyperopia between 3 to 6 diopters, select in Hospital Geral Universitário and Oftalmocenter Santa Rosa. The patients were divided in two groups: group 1 for hyperopic patients that did not need to use optical correction or could use partial correction, and group 2 for patients with accommodative esotropia or hyperopia who needed to use full optical correction all the time. The patients were examined to a complete ophthalmological examination, including objective cycloplegic refraction with auto refractometer, optical biometry and corneal topography, in baseline measurements and 3 years after that. Refraction and ocular biometric parameters were compared using T student test. Results: The mean initial age was 5.23 ± 0.81 and 5.36 ± 0.74 years; the initial refractive error in average was +3.99 ± 0.92 e +4.27 ± 0.85 D, the initial axial length was 21.42 ± 0.84 and 21.22 ± 0.86 mm, and initial keratometry was 42.55 ± 1.24 e 42.39 ± 1.22 D for group 1 and 2, respectively. In relation to refractive error, there was a significant decrease in group 1 and there was not in group 2 (p < 0.05). In relation to axial length, there was significant increase in group1 and there was not in group 2 (p<0.05). The 3-year comparison showed no statistically significant differences in keratometry for both groups. Conclusion: This study suggests that full optical correction of hyperopia may inhibit natural emmetropization during early and late childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Refraction, Ocular/physiology , Eye/growth & development , Eyeglasses , Hyperopia/therapy , Visual Acuity , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Treatment Failure , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Watchful Waiting , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Hyperopia/diagnosis
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(1): 9-13, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838777

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accommodation response after short reading periods using a tablet and a smartphone as well as determine potential differences in the accommodation response at various stimulus vergences using a Hartmann- Shack aberrometer. Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects with astigmatism of less than 1 D, corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and normal findings in an ophthalmic examination were enrolled. Accommodation responses were obtained under three different conditions: accommodation system of the eye relaxed and visually stressed with a tablet and an smartphone for 10 min, at a distance of 0.25 m from the subject's eyes. Three measurements of accommodation response were monocularly acquired at stimulus vergences ranging from 0 to 4 D (1-D step). Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the accommodation responses among the conditions. A moderate but gradually increasing root mean square, coma-like aberration was found for every condition. Conversely, the spherical aberration decreased as stimulus vergences increased. These outcomes were identified in comparison to the one-to-one ideal accommodation response, implying that a certain lag value was present in all stimulus vergences different from 0 D. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta de acomodação após períodos de leitura curtos usando um tablet e um smartphone, bem como para determinar potenciais diferenças na resposta de acomodação em estímulos de várias vergências com uma aberrômetro Hartmann-Shack. Método: Dezoito indivíduos saudáveis com astigmatismo inferior a 1 D, apresentando acuidade visual corrigida de 20/20 ou melhor com exame oftalmológico normal foram avaliados. As respostas acomodativas foram obtidas em três condições diferentes: sistema de acomodação com o olho relaxado, e visualmente estressado com um tablet e um smartphone por 10 min, a uma distância de 0,25 m dos olhos dos sujeitos. Três medidas de resposta acomodativa foram obtidas monocularmente com estímulos cujas vergências variaram de 0 a 4 D (intervalos de 1 D). Resultados: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as respostas acomodativas em todas as condições. Foi observada moderada aberração do tipo coma com aumento progressivo para cada condição, enquanto houve diminuição da aberração esférica com o aumento das vergências do estímulo. Estes resultados foram identificados em comparação com a resposta acomodativa de um-para-um ideal, o que implica que um certo valor de desfasagem estava presente em todos os estímulos com vergências diferentes de 0 D. Conclusões: Os resultados apoiam a hipótese de que a diferença entre as respostas acomodativas ideal e real é atribuída principalmente a parâmetros tais como a acuidade visual para perto, profundidade de foco, diâmetro pupilar e aberrações de frente de onda, associados ao processo acomodativo. As aberrações de frente de onda foram dependentes do tamanho da pupila de 3 mm, selecionado neste estudo. A resposta acomodativa não foi dependente do dispositivo eletrônico empregue em cada condição e foi associada principalmente à idade jovem e ao nível da amplitude de acomodação dos sujeitos avaliados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Visual Acuity/physiology , Cell Phone , Computers, Handheld , Corneal Wavefront Aberration/diagnosis , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Refraction, Ocular , Aberrometry
12.
JEMDSA (Online) ; 22(1): 1-5, 2017.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1263755

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing exponentially often causing an enormous public health burden due to changing lifestyles. People with diabetes have accelerated age-related biometric ocular changes compared with people without diabetes.Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of diabetes on the amplitude of accommodation in pre-presbyopic diabetic patients, and compare the results with age-matched healthy individuals.Methods: The study population consisted of 84 diabetic patients (30­40 years of age, 36 ± 2.5 years and 81 (35 ± 2.7 years) age matched healthy normal controls. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity, the amplitude of accommodation was measured using the subjective push-up technique. The influence of age and duration of diabetes on amplitude of accommodation were analysed using the regression analysis.Results: The mean amplitude of accommodation was lower in the diabetic group (6.34 ± 1.39 dioptre (D)) compared with the controls (8.60 ± 2.00 D), which was statistically significant (p = 0.000). There was a little negative correlation between the amplitude of accommodation and duration of diabetes (­0.20, p = 0.069).Conclusion: People with diabetes showed lower amplitude of accommodation when compared with age-matched controls. The results suggest that diabetic people will experience presbyopia earlier in life than people without diabetes. Early detection and rehabilitation of diabetic patients with corrective spectacle lenses is recommended


Subject(s)
Accommodation, Ocular , Diabetes Mellitus , Presbyopia , Prevalence , South Africa
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the change in accommodative lag and accommodation convergence/accommodation (AC/A) after patients with myopia wear orthokeratology lenses. 
@*METHODS@#A total of 48 myopic subjects (a test group), who wore orthokeratology lenses regularly, and 48 myopic subjects (a control group), who wore spectacles regularly, were enrolled for this study from January 2011 to January 2013 in Optometric Center, the Forth Hospital of Changsha. Accommodative lag was measured by fused cross cylinder method, where the patients should gaze at the front optotypes 40 cm away. Gradient of the AC/A ratio was measured by Von Grafe method to check closer distance heterophoria. Accommodative lag and AC/A ratio were analyzed by statistics.
@*RESULTS@#After 1-year follow-up, accommodative lag and AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia in the test group was decreased in 1, 3, 6 months or 1 year compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). 
@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with spectacles, orthokeratology lenses are able to decrease accommodative lag and high AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia. The relationship between accommodation and convergence is improved by orthokeratology lenses. Orthokeratology is an effective way to control myopia.


Subject(s)
Accommodation, Ocular , Case-Control Studies , Contact Lenses , Eyeglasses , Humans , Myopia , Therapeutics , Orthokeratologic Procedures , Strabismus
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 74(4): 225-230, Jul-Aug/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752079

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare the symptoms of asthenopia in patients at different levels of hyperopia and corrected for different accommodative efforts. Methods: This study is an experimental design and quantitative approach. Sixty-nine hyperopic patients aged between 15 and 40 were selected. Individuals with a diagnosis of accommodative insufficiency and paralysis, accommodative spasm or any type of ocular deviation were excluded. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups. Each one performed a nearvision task with different corrective lenses, varying the value of the accommodative effort. Results: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score during the near-vision task when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The linear regression showed that the variables total hyperopia (r = 0.109) and the difference between static and dynamic refraction (r = 0.135) did not obtain significant linear relationship to the asthenopia score. Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The symptoms of asthenopia are not associated to the severity of the hyperopic refractive error. The search for symptoms before the near vision task, using a questionnaire, related to the symptoms during the accommodative effort task, revealing the importance of searching for complaints about asthenopia during anamnesis, which can help ophthalmologists with prescriptions of glasses for hyperopic patients with asthenopia.


Objetivos: O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos do esforço acomodativo e do poder do erro refrativo nos sintomas de astenopia. Métodos: Trata-se de um modelo de estudo experimental e abordagem quantitativa, cuja amostra consistiu de 69 pacientes hipermetropes entre 15 e 40 anos de idade. Foram excluídos os indivíduos com diagnóstico de insuficiência ou paralisia da acomodação, espasmo de acomodação ou qualquer tipo de desvio ocular. Os pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Cada grupo realizou o trabalho de visão para perto com correções diferentes, variando o valor do esforço acomodativo. Resultado: Houve melhora significativa dos sintomas de astenopia com correções que proporcionaram mais de 35% da amplitude de acomodação em reserva. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre os sintomas e o valor do erro refrativo. Conclusão: Há uma redução significativa dos sintomas quando os pacientes mantêm 35 % ou mais de sua acomodação em reserva. Os sintomas de astenopia não estão associados à gravidade do defeito hipermetrópico. A pesquisa de sintomas antes do teste, através de um questionário, foi o fator que melhor se relacionou com os sintomas durante o teste de visão para perto, revelando a importância da pesquisa das queixas de astenopia durante anamnese na prescrição de lentes para visão de perto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Accommodation, Ocular , Asthenopia , Eyeglasses , Hyperopia/diagnosis , Refractive Errors , Epidemiology, Experimental , Evaluation Studies as Topic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65416

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. METHODS: Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. CONCLUSIONS: Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children.


Subject(s)
Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Child , Depth Perception/physiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/adverse effects , Male , Refractive Errors/physiopathology , Television , Vision, Binocular/physiology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure and compare the accommodative amplitude of Filipino patients with different accommodative conditions using a wavefront aberrometer. METHODS: A total of 120 eyes of 67 patients seen in a private eye center were included and divided into two groups (phakic and pseudophakic). After undergoing routine ophthalmologic examination that included manifest refraction and visual acuity testing, accomodative amplitude was measured using the iTraceTM wavefront aberrometer. Comparison of the measurements was made between the accommodative amplitude of phakic pre-presbyopes and presbyopes, and between eyes implanted with monofocal and accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs). RESULTS: The mean age of the pre-presbyopes was 27 years, presbyopes 50 years, monofocal IOL 69 years and accommodating IOL 67 years. The mean accommodative amplitude of the pre-presbyopes was 1.64 ± 1.06D, presbyopes 0.99 ± 0.42D, monofocal IOL 0.36 ± 1.16D, and accommodating IOL 0.94 ± 0.89D. The pre-presbyopes had a higher accommodative amplitude than the presbyopes (p=0.008), while the accommodating IOL subgroup had a higher amplitude than the monofocal IOL subgroup (p=0.02). Increasing age was correlated with decreasing amplitude in the phakic group (r2=0.926). There was no correlation between refractive error and amplitude of accommodation in the phakic and pseudophakic groups (r2=0.02 for both groups). CONCLUSION: The wavefront aberrometer is a reliable tool in objectively measuring accommodative amplitude. Pre-presbyopes and accommodating IOLs were shown to have higher amplitudes of accommodation than presbyopes and monofocal IOLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Lenses, Intraocular , Accommodation, Ocular , Presbyopia , Visual Acuity , Refractive Errors
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 243-249, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728661

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To study the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil diameter (PD) during accommodation. Methods: Eighty eyes of 80 subjects, aged 22 to 40 years, were included. The rotating Dual Scheimpflug and a Placido disc system (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Switzerland) was used to measure the changes in ACD, ACA, and PD during accommodation. ACD measurement was taken for the central zone and for 4 more positions, each in different orientation (nasal, superior, temporal and inferior), 4 mm away from the centre. ACA was measured for the whole eye as well for the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants. These metrics were obtained for various accommodation stimuli, ranging from +1 D to -4 D in 1-D steps. Results: For a given position, the ACD did not vary significantly with accommodation. For the central ACD, the percentage of relative change between far and near vision was -4.11%. The ACA was significantly lower at the inferior, temporal, and superior positions. There was no change in the ACA of the whole eye and that of the nasal orientation. These two eye metrics were significantly lower in the superior-nasal than in the inferior-temporal region. At each vergence studied, the PD decreased significantly with accommodation. The relative change after the -4 D stimulus was -8.13%. Conclusion: ACA and PD varied significantly with accommodation, whereas no such variation of ACD was observed. Further, the anterior chamber was found to be asymmetrical, with the nasal-superior area becoming significantly shallower than the inferior temporal region. .


Objetivo: Estudar as mudanças na profundidade da câmara anterior (ACD), ângulo da câmara anterior (ACA) e diâmetro da pupila (PD) durante a acomodação. Métodos: Foram incluídos 80 olhos de 80 indivíduos com idades entre 22 e 40 anos. Um sistema rotacional de Scheimpflug duplo acoplado a um sistema de disco de Placido (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Suíça) foi usado para medir as mudanças na ACD, ACA e PD, durante a acomodação. As medidas da ACD foram consideradas na zona central e em mais 4 posições, cada uma em orientação diferente (nasal, superior, temporal e inferior), a 4 milímetros de distância do centro. O ACA do olho inteiro, assim como nos quadrantes nasal, superior, temporal e inferior foram medidos. Todos estes indicadores foram obtidos por vários estímulos acomodativos, que variaram de +1 D a -4 D em intervalos de 1 D. Resultados: A ACD não variou significativamente com acomodação para qualquer determinada orientação, sendo a percentagem de variação relativa entre longe e visão de perto -4,11% para a ACD central (onde sinal negativo representa uma diminuição na ACD). Em relação ao ACA, este diminuiu significativamente em posições inferiores, temporais e superiores. O ACA total de olho e o ACA nasal não se alterou. Estas duas métricas oculares foram significativamente menores no par nasal-superior do que no temporal-inferior. Finalmente, PD diminuiu significativamente com a acomodação em cada vergência estudada, a mudança relativa após o estímulo de -4 D foi -8,13%. Conclusão: ACA e PD variaram significativamente com a acomodação, enquanto ACD não. Além disso, a câmara anterior se mostrou alterar assimetricamente, com a área nasal-superior se tornando ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Anterior Chamber/anatomy & histology , Iris/anatomy & histology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Iris/physiology , Photography/instrumentation , Pupil/physiology
18.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 78(1): 13-21, abr. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708700

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio es conocer el comportamiento biométrico de las estructuras oculares que participan en la acomodación. Para estudiar los cambios biométricos de las estructuras del segmento anterior del globo ocular, in vivo y durante la acomodación, hemos elegido el ultrasonido de alta frecuencia. Se estudiaron 75 pacientes divididos en 3 grupos, según su rango etario: grupo 1, de 30 a 45 años; grupo 2, de 46 a 60 años, y grupo 3, de 61 a 70 años. Los resultados obtenidos nos muestran cómo varían la forma y la dimensión de las estructuras del segmento anterior y las relaciones entre sí, permitiendo conocer sus comportamientos en la pérdida de la acomodación de los distintos grupos etarios estudiados. Esta técnica permite una evaluación biométrica, morfológica y funcional del segmento anterior, incluyendo la cápsula posterior del cristalino y los cambios del cuerpo ciliar (que no hemos logrado estudiar con otras técnicas). La ultrabiomicroscopía posibilita la visualización durante la acomodación de las cápsulas anterior y posterior del cristalino, la zónula con sus inserciones en la cápsula ecuatorial y el cuerpo ciliar, y la úvea anterior en relación con el cristalino. Las imágenes ultrasónicas obtenidas representan las estructuras del segmento anterior y sus modificaciones in vivo y en tiempo real durante la acomodación. El ultrasonido ha mostrado ser el método diagnóstico más adecuado para esta investigación.


The aim of this study is to understand the biometric behaviour of the ocular structures involved during accommodation. We chose high-frequency ultrasound to study ocular globe anterior segment structures biometric changes in vivo and during accommodation.This technique allows biometric screening, morphological and functional anterior segment, including the posterior lens capsule and changes of the ciliary body that we have failed to study with other techniques. The ultrabiomicroscopy allows visualization during accommodation of the anterior and posterior capsules of the lens, the zonules with insertions in the equatorial capsule and the ciliary body and anterior uvea relative to the lens. The ultrasound images obtained represent the anterior segment structures and their modifi cations in vivo and in real time during accommodation.We studied 75 patients divided into three groups according to age range: Group 1 from 30 to 45 years, Group 2 of 46-60 years, and Group 3 of 61-70 years.The results obtained show how they vary the shape and size of anterior segment structures and relationships with each other, allowing to know their behavior in the loss of accommodation of different age groups studiedUltrasound has proven to be the most appropriate diagnostic method for this research.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Female , Accommodation, Ocular , Biometry , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Eye , Vision, Ocular
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 77(2): 103-109, Mar-Apr/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716254

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare optical and visual quality of implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation and femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (F-LASIK) for myopia. Methods: The CRX1 adaptive optics visual simulator (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern after the two surgical procedures for -3-diopter (D) and -6-D myopia. Visual acuity at different contrasts and contrast sensitivities at 10, 20, and 25 cycles/degree (cpd) were measured for 3-mm and 5-mm pupils. The modulation transfer function (MTF) and point spread function (PSF) were calculated for 5-mm pupils. Results: F-LASIK MTF was worse than ICL MTF, which was close to diffraction-limited MTF. ICL cases showed less spread out of PSF than F-LASIK cases. ICL cases showed better visual acuity values than F-LASIK cases for all pupils, contrasts, and myopic treatments (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in contrast sensitivities between ICL and F-LASIK cases with -3-D myopia for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p>0.05). For -6-D myopia, however, statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivities were found for both pupils for all evaluated spatial frequencies (p<0.05). Contrast sensitivities were better after ICL implantation than after F-LASIK. Conclusions: ICL implantation and F-LASIK provide good optical and visual quality, although the former provides better outcomes of MTF, PSF, visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity, especially for cases with large refractive errors and pupil sizes. These outcomes are related to the F-LASIK producing larger high-order aberrations. .


Objetivo: Comparar a qualidade óptica e visual da lente implantável de collamer (ICL) e da ceratomileuse in situ com laser de femtosegundo (F-LASIK) na correção de miopia. Métodos: O simulador visual de óptica adaptativa CRX1 (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, França) foi usado para simular o padrão de aberração de frentes de onda, depois de dois procedimentos cirúrgicos: implante de ICL e tratamento F-LASIK para -3 e -6 D. A acuidade visual em diferentes contrastes e sensibilidade ao contraste em 10, 20 e 25 ciclos/grau (cpd) foram medidos para pupilas de 3 e 5 mm. A função de transferência de modulação (MTF) e a função de espalhamento de ponto (PSF) foram calculados para a pupila de 5 mm. Resultados: A MTF do F-LASIK foi pior do que a do ICL, que estava perto da MTF do limite de difração. A ICL apresentou menor espalhamento do PSF do que o F-LASIK. ICL apresentou melhores valores da acuidade visual do que F-LASIK para todas as pupilas, contrastes e tratamentos miópicos (p<0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes na sensibilidade ao contraste entre ICL e F-LASIK de -3 D, para ambas as pupilas e quaisquer frequências espaciais avaliadas (p>0,05). Por outro lado, para -6 D, diferenças estatisticamente significativas na sensibilidade ao contraste foram encontrados para ambas as pupilas e todas as frequências espaciais avaliadas (p<0,05). Sensibilidade ao contraste foi melhor após o implante da ICL que após o F-LASIK. Conclusões: ICL e F-LASIK proporcionam uma boa qualidade óptica e visual, embora a ICL oferece melhores resultados de MTF, PSF, acuidade visual e sensibilidade ao contraste, especialmente para grandes erros de refração e tamanhos de pupila. Estes resultados estão relacionados ao procedimento F-LASIK que induz maiores aberrações ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Myopia/surgery , Phakic Intraocular Lenses , Aberrometry , Accommodation, Ocular/physiology , Computer Simulation , Contrast Sensitivity/physiology , Myopia/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity/physiology
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