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Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 168-178, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990820


Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and the efficacy of the available anxiolytic drugs is less than desired. Adverse effects also compromise patient quality of life and adherence to treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that the pathophysiology of anxiety and related disorders is multifactorial, involving oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and glutamatergic dysfunction. The aim of this review was to evaluate data from animal studies and clinical trials showing the anxiolytic effects of agents whose mechanisms of action target these multiple domains. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for multitarget agents that had been evaluated in animal models of anxiety, as well as randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of anxiety and/or anxiety related disorders. Results: The main multitarget agents that have shown consistent anxiolytic effects in various animal models of anxiety, as well in clinical trials, are agomelatine, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data from clinical trials are preliminary at best, but reveal good safety profiles and tolerance to adverse effects. Conclusion: Agomelatine, NAC and omega-3 fatty acids show beneficial effects in clinical conditions where mainstream treatments are ineffective. These three multitarget agents are considered promising candidates for innovative, effective, and better-tolerated anxiolytics.

Humans , Animals , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Neuroimmunomodulation/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Glutamine/drug effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17032, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019533


The aim of the present research work was to investigate the enzyme inhibitory potential of some new sulfonamides having benzodioxane and acetamide moieties. The synthesis was started by the reaction of N-2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]-dioxin-6-amine (1) with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in the presence of 10% aqueous Na2CO3 to yield N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[1,4]-dioxin-6-yl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (3), which was then reacted with 2-bromo-N-(un/substituted-phenyl)acetamides (6a-l) in DMF and lithium hydride as a base to afford various 2-{2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-yl[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-N-(un/substituted-phenyl)acetamides (7a-l). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by their IR and 1H-NMR spectral data along with CHN analysis data. The enzyme inhibitory activities of these compounds were tested against a-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Most of the compounds exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against yeast a-glucosidase and weak against AChE. The in silico molecular docking results were also consistent with in vitro enzyme inhibition data.

Sulfonamides/agonists , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Acetamides/analysis
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 54-63, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777080


Recent studies have shown that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10 in the dorsal root ganglion mediate itch in experimental allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). CXCR3 in the spinal cord also contributes to the maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, whether spinal CXCR3 is involved in acute or chronic itch remains unclear. Here, we report that Cxcr3 mice showed normal scratching in acute itch models but reduced scratching in chronic itch models of dry skin and ACD. In contrast, both formalin-induced acute pain and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain were reduced in Cxcr3 mice. In addition, the expression of CXCR3 and CXCL10 was increased in the spinal cord in the dry skin model induced by acetone and diethyl ether followed by water (AEW). Intrathecal injection of a CXCR3 antagonist alleviated AEW-induced itch. Furthermore, touch-elicited itch (alloknesis) after compound 48/80 or AEW treatment was suppressed in Cxcr3 mice. Finally, AEW-induced astrocyte activation was inhibited in Cxcr3 mice. Taken together, these data suggest that spinal CXCR3 mediates chronic itch and alloknesis, and targeting CXCR3 may provide effective treatment for chronic pruritus.

Acetamides , Therapeutic Uses , Animals , Chemokine CXCL10 , Metabolism , Chloroquine , Toxicity , Chronic Disease , Cyclopropanes , Dehydration , Dinitrofluorobenzene , Disease Models, Animal , Formaldehyde , Toxicity , Freund's Adjuvant , Toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Motor Activity , Pain , Pruritus , Pathology , Pyrimidines , Therapeutic Uses , Receptors, CXCR3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Skin , Pathology , Spinal Cord , Metabolism , Pathology , Time Factors , p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine , Toxicity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258840


N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is a widely used organic solvent in modern chemical industry with low to moderate hepatotoxicity to occupational health of employees. But so far, there are fewer and less conclusive data concerning its pathogenic mechanism in detail. In current study, the toxicity of DMAc was firstly investigated on human normal hepatocytes (LO-2), using a series of molecular biology measurements to ananlyze the effect and mechanism of DMAc-induced hepatic cell injury and explore effective prophylactic measures. We found that DMAc triggered LO-2 apoptosis in a obviously dose-dependent manner, caused by increased ROS generation and activation of Bcl-2 pathway. Significantly, glutathione (GSH) rather than vitamin C (Vit C) could partially inhibit DMAc-induced apoptosis thus showing potential as a effective precaution for workers.

Acetamides , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Cell Line , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Glutathione , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Liver
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 93-99, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320011


In order to develop potent antidiabetic agents that have inhibitory effect to a-glucosidase, twelve β-acetamido ketone derivatives such as N-{[(substituted-4-oxo-thiochroman-3-yl)phenyl]-methyl}acetamide are designed and synthesized through one-pot Dakin-West reaction. Their chemical structures are confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HR-MS. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assays of compounds 4a-41 were carried out using glucose oxidase method. The result indicated that most of them possess inhibitory activity in vitro. Compound 4k showed the most potent inhibitory activity with 87.3% inhibition of α-glucosidase at the concentration of 5.39 mmol x L(-1). The structure-activity relationship of these β-acetamido ketone derivatives was discussed preliminarily. Moreover, the molecular docking method was used to study the interaction mode of compound 4k and α-glucosidase. Our results will be helpful for designing of α-glucosidase inhibitors in the future.

Acetamides , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Structure-Activity Relationship , alpha-Glucosidases , Metabolism
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(4): 931-947, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778412


abstract A series of N-substituted 2-{[5-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}acetamides (8a-w) was synthesized in three steps. The first step involved the sequential conversion of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid (1) to ester (2) followed by hydrazide (3) formation and finally cyclization in the presence of CS2 and alcoholic KOH yielded 5-(1H-indole-3-yl-methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (4). In the second step, aryl/aralkyl amines (5a-w) were reacted with 2-bromoacetyl bromide (6) in basic medium to yield 2-bromo-N-substituted acetamides (7a-w). In the third step, these electrophiles (7a-w) were reacted with 4 to afford the target compounds (8a-w). Structural elucidation of all the synthesized derivatives was done by 1H-NMR, IR and EI-MS spectral techniques. Moreover, they were screened for antibacterial and hemolytic activity. Enzyme inhibition activity was well supported by molecular docking results, for example, compound 8q exhibited better inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase, while 8g and 8b exhibited comparatively better inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase, respectively. Similarly, compounds 8b and 8c showed very good antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, which was very close to that of ciprofloxacin, a standard antibiotic used in this study. 8c and 8l also showed very good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well. Almost all compounds showed very slight hemolytic activity, where 8p exhibited the least. Therefore, the molecules synthesized may have utility as suitable therapeutic agents.

resumo Uma série de acetamidas 2-{[5-(1H-indol-3-ilmetil)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-il]sulfanila} N-substituídas (8a-w) foi sintetizada em três fases. A primeira etapa envolveu a conversão sequencial de ácido 2-(1H-indol-3-il)acético (1) a éster (2), seguido por hidrazida (3) e, finalmente, a e ciclização na presença de CS2 e KOH alcoólico produziu 5-(1H-indol-3-il- metil)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-tiol (4). Na segunda etapa, aminas arílicas/aralquílicas(5a-w) reagiram com brometo de 2-bromoacetila (6​​), em meio básico, para se obter acetamidas 2-bromo-N-substituídas (7a-w). Na terceira etapa, estes eletrófilos (7a- w) reagiram com 4, para se obter os compostos alvo (8a-w). A elucidação estrutural de todos os derivados sintetizados foi realizada por 1H-NMR, IR e técnicas de espectrometria de EI-MS. Além disso, eles foram submetidos a triagem de atividade antibacteriana e hemolítica. Análise da inibição enzimática foi bem apoiada pelos resultados de docking molecular. Por exemplo, o composto 8q exibiu melhor potencial inibitório contra α-glicosidase, e os compostos 8g e 8b exibiram, comparativamente, melhor inibição contra butirilcolinesterase (BChE) elipoxigenase (LOX), respectivamente. Do mesmo modo os compostos 8b e 8c mostraram excelente potencial antibacteriano contra SalmonellaTyphi, semelhante ao do ciprofloxacino, antibiótico padrão usado neste estudo. Os compostos 8c e 8l também mostraram excelente potencial antibacteriano contra Staphylococcus aureus . Quase todos os compostos mostraram pequena atividade hemolítica, sendo que o composto 8p apresentou menor atividade. Assim, as moléculas sintetizadas podem ter a sua utilidade como agentes terapêuticos adequados.

Acetamides/analysis , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/analysis , Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay/classification , Glycoside Hydrolases/pharmacokinetics , Lipoxygenases/pharmacokinetics
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 837-849, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744855


Comprender el significado del capital social de la diabetes tipo 2 según género, dentro un contexto urbano colombiano. Investigación cualitativa del interaccionismo simbólico. 25 mujeres y 16 hombres, diabéticos, familiares, vecinos y personal asistencial participaron en seis grupos focales. Emergieron 850 códigos que se integraron en un set de 142 códigos de códigos para el ego, el alter y alter ego. Tres categorías y veinte subcategorías fueron identificadas para el diseño del "paradigma de la codificación". El significado no es igual para hombres y mujeres. Los vínculos sociales de las redes sociales, creados cotidianamente por la confianza y la solidaridad para el cuidado, son valorados de manera diferente, debido a experiencias y hechos sociales resultantes de la autoconfianza, la autoeficacia para el apoyo social principalmente y, la autoestima frente al manejo y control de la enfermedad. Los recursos sociales de un individuo son reificados para el manejo y cuidado de la enfermedad como estrategia para disminuir las inequidades en salud.

The aim of this study was to understand the meaning of social capital in relation to type 2 diabetes according to gender, within an urban setting in Colombia, based on a qualitative design for symbolic interactionism. Twenty-four women and 16 men with diabetes, family members, and healthcare personnel participated in six focus groups. A total of 850 codes emerged that comprised a set of 142 codes for ego, alter, and alter ego. Three categories and 20 subcategories were identified for the "coding paradigm design". The meaning differed between men and women. Social ties in social networks, created daily through trust and solidarity for care, were valued differently due to the social experiences and events resulting from self-confidence, self-efficacy for social support, and mainly self-esteem vis-à-vis management and control of the disease. An individual's social resources are reified for the management and care of the disease as a strategy to mitigate health inequalities. .

Compreender o significado do capital social, diabetes tipo 2 por sexo, um contexto urbano da Colômbia. pesquisa qualitativa do interacionismo simbólico. 25 mulheres e 16 homens, diabéticos, familiares, vizinhos e cuidadores participaram seis grupos focais. 850 códigos se que foram integrados em um conjunto de 142 codes para o ego, o alter e alter ego. Três categorias e vinte subcategorias foram identificados para o projeto de "codificação de paradigma". O significado não é o mesmo para homens e mulheres. Laços sociais das redes sociais criadas diariamente pela confiança e solidariedade são valorizados cuidado diferente, porque as experiências sociais e fatos resultantes da auto-confiança, auto-eficácia e de apoio social, principalmente, auto-gestão e controle em relação a doença. Os recursos sociais de um indivíduo são reificadas para a gestão o cuidado da doença como uma estratégia para reduzir as desigualdades na saúde.

Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/agonists , Acetamides/chemistry , Acetamides/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Arrestins/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Databases, Chemical , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Dynorphins/chemistry , Dynorphins/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Protein Transport , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 829-833, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727009


Staphylococcus species are one of the major causes of bacterial bloodstream infections. Multi-resistant staphylococci infections are major therapeutic problems. This study was aimed to detect methicillin, linezolid and vancomycin susceptibilities of Staphylococcus isolates. A total of 870 Staphylococcus strains isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients with BSI. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of methicillin, linezolid and vancomycin were detected according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 771 (88.6%) isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). 700 (80.5%) isolates were methicillin-resistant (MR) and 170 (19.5%) were methicillin-susceptible (MS). All the MS isolates were also susceptible to linezolid. However 15 (1.7%) of MR strains were resistant to linezolid. The minimum inhibitory concentration range for the linezolid-resistant isolates by Etest was 6-32 µg/mL. The difference between linezolid susceptibilities for MS and MR staphylococci was not quite statistically significant (p = 0.052). There was no statistically significant difference between S. aureus and CoNS isolates for linezolid susceptibility. All of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. In conclusion, linezolid is currently an efficient option for the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococci infections.

Humans , Acetamides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Methicillin/pharmacology , Oxazolidinones/pharmacology , Sepsis/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Turkey
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(4): 451-456, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722304


Introduction Acinetobacter baumannii has attained an alarming level of resistance to antibacterial drugs. Clinicians are now considering the use of older agents or unorthodox combinations of licensed drugs against multidrug-resistant strains to bridge the current treatment gap. We investigated the in vitro activities of combination treatments that included colistin with vancomycin, norvancomycin or linezolid against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods The fractional inhibitory concentration index and time-kill assays were used to explore the combined effects of colistin with vancomycin, norvancomycin or linezolid against 40 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate the interactions in response to the combination of colistin and vancomycin. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vancomycin and norvancomycin for half of the isolates decreased below the susceptibility break point, and the MIC of linezolid for one isolate was decreased to the blood and epithelial lining fluid concentration using the current dosing regimen. When vancomycin or norvancomycin was combined with subinhibitory doses of colistin, the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii test samples were eradicated. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that subinhibitory doses of colistin were able to disrupt the outer membrane, facilitating a disruption of the cell wall and leading to cell lysis. Conclusions Subinhibitory doses of colistin significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity of vancomycin, norvancomycin, and linezolid against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. .

Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/ultrastructure , Colistin/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Oxazolidinones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Vancomycin/analogs & derivatives , Vancomycin/pharmacology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 50-57, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712421


Introducción. Actualmente se considera a Enterococcus spp. como uno de los agentes de infección hospitalaria más importantes, siendo su resistencia a los antibióticos un problema importante en los centros de salud. Objetivos. Caracterizar la resistencia antimicrobiana en 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados . Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal en 50 aislamientos clínicos de estas especies microbianas. Se trabajó un aislamiento por paciente. La identificación y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron por métodos automatizados y convencionales. El análisis fenotípico de los mecanismos de resistencia a glucopéptidos se hizo según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. Resultados. De 50 aislamientos, 30 (60,0 %) y 20 (40,0 %) pertenecían a las especies de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, respectivamente. La resistencia global expresada por este género fue de 38/50 (76,0 %) para ampicilina; 33/50 (66,0 %) para gentamicina de alto nivel; 34/50 (68,0 %) para estreptomicina de alto nivel; 26/50 (52,0 %) para ciprofloxacina; 4/50 (8,0 %) para linezolid; 17/50 (34,0 %) para teicoplanina; 25/50 (50,0 %) para vancomicina; 31/50 (62,0 %) para minociclina; 34/50 (68,0 %) para tetraciclina y 9/50 (18,0 %) para nitrofurantoina. Frente a los glucopéptidos, 25/50 (50,0 %) y 10/50 (20,0 %) de los aislamientos presentaron los mecanismos Van A y Van B, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de las veces, las cepas aisladas en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras mostraron porcentajes de resistencia por encima de lo reportado en la literatura científica consultada. El alto porcentaje de cepas con resistencia a la vancomicina podría influir en la aparición de otros gérmenes Gram positivos con resistencia a este fármaco. Se reporta por primera vez en un hospital cubano resistencia de E. faecium a linezolid.

Introduction: Enterococcus spp is currently considered as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens . The antibiotic resistance of this group of bacteria is a particularly important problem in health centers. Objective: To characterize the antibiotic resistance of 50 Enterococcus spp strains isolated from hospitalized patients clinical samples. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive observational study in 50 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Only one isolate per patient was analyzed . The identification and antibiotic susceptibility were studied by conventional and automated methods . The phenotypic analysis of glycopeptide resistance mechanisms was performed as recommended by the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases . Results: Of 50 isolates obtained from clinical samples, 30 ( 60.0%) belonged to Enterococcus faecalis and 20 (40.0 %) to Enterococcus faecium . The global resistance expressed by this genre was as follows: Ampicillin, 38/50 ( 76.0%); high-level gentamicin, 33/50 ( 66.0%); high-level streptomycin, 34/50 (68.0 %) ; ciprofloxacin, 26/50 (52.0 %); linezolid, 4/50 (8.0 %); teicoplanin, 17/50 ( 34.0%); vancomycin, 25/50 (50.0 %); minocycline, 31/50 ( 62.0%); tetracycline, 34/50 (68.0 %); nitrofurantoin, 9/50 ( 18.0%). As regards glycopeptides, 25/50 (50.0%) showed a Van A mechanism and 10/50 (20.0 %) a Van B mechanism . Conclusions: The isolates obtained at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras showed higher resistance rates than those reported in the consulted literature. The high percentage of vancomycin-resistant strains might have influenced the development of other Gram-positive bacteria resistant to this drug. This is the first report on Enterococcus faecium resistant to linezolid in a Cuban hospital.

Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Acetamides/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cuba/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxazolidinones/pharmacology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Vancomycin Resistance
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (3): 517-524
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142168


A new series of N-aryl/aralkyl substitued-2"-[[phenylsulfonyl][piperidin-1-yl]amino]acetamide [7a-k] was synthesized. These derivatives were geared up by the pairing of benzenesulfonyl chloride [4] with 1-aminopiperidine [5] under dynamic pH control in aqueous media to afford parent compound N-[Piperidin-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide [6], followed by the substitution at nitrogen atom with different electrophiles N-aryl/aralkyl-substituted-2-bromoacetamides [3a-k] in the presence of sodium hydride [NaH] and N,N-Dimethylformamide [DMF] to give a new series of Nsubstituted derivatives of acetamide [7a-k] bearing piperidine moiety. All the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of IR, EIMS and 1H-NMR spectral data. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase [AChE and BChE] respectively and lipoxygenase [LOX] enzymes. Almost all the synthesized compounds displayed promising activity but few of them remained inactive against lipoxygenase enzymes.

Sulfones , Acetamides , Acetylcholinesterase , Butyrylcholinesterase , Lipoxygenase
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310320


Medical polyurethane fiber membrane after extraction with water, and then establish the determination of N, N dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) in Medical polyurethane fiber membrane by GC, and discuss the analysis and evaluation of other extracts of polyurethane fiber membrane for the determination of DMAC in the linear range of the average recovery rate was more than 90%, the RSD 1.51%-2.08% (n = 6). This method is simple, fast, sensitive and accurate, and may serve as a mass control method for DMAC in Medical polyurethane fiber membrane.

Acetamides , Chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Membranes, Artificial , Polyurethanes , Chemistry , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306317


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of different doses of acetamide on the histopathology in the cerebral cortex of rats with tetramine (TET) poisoning and to provide a basis for the treatment of fluoroacetamide poisoning with acetamide.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty clean Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: saline control group,dimethylsulfoxide water solution control group,TET poisoning group, acetamide (2.88 g/kg/d) treatment group, and acetamide (5.68 g/kg/d) treatment group, with 16 rats in each group. Rats in the poisoning group and treatment groups were poisoned with TET by intragastric administration after fasting; then, saline was injected intramuscularly into rats of the poisoning group, and different doses of acetamide were injected intramuscularly into rats of treatment groups; the course of treatment was 5 d. At 3 h, 12 h, 48 h, and 7 d after treatment, the cerebral cortex was harvested from rats in each group, and the histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex were evaluated under light and electron microscopes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The light microscopy showed that the TET poisoning group had hypoxia changes in the cerebral cortex, which worsened over time; the treatment groups had reduced hypoxia changes, and the acetamide (2.88 g/kg/d) treatment group had more reduction than the acetamide (5.68 g/kg/d) treatment group. The electron microscopy showed that the apoptosis of neuronal cells were the main pathological changes in the TET poisoning group; the treatment groups had reduced apoptotic changes, and the acetamide (2.88 g/kg/d) treatment group had more reduction than the acetamide (5.68 g/kg/d) treatment group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>No pathological changes associated with the synergistic toxic effect of acetamide and TET are found in the cerebral cortex. Acetamide (2.88 g/kg/d) could reduce central nervous lesions, but the efficacy is not improved after increasing the dose. For patients who cannot be identified with TET or fluoroacetamide poisoning, acetamide could be considered for treatment.</p>

Acetamides , Pharmacology , Animals , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Toxicity , Cerebral Cortex , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306276


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of acetamide at different doses on the expression of inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA) and excitatory amino acid (glutamate, Glu) in the cerebral cortex of rats with acute tetramine (TET) poisoning.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (SPF) were randomly divided into five groups, with 16 rats in each group: saline control group, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group, TET exposure group, high-dose (2.8 g/kg/d) acetamide treatment group, and super-high-dose (5.6 g/kg/d) acetamide treatment group. Rats in the exposure group and treatment groups were exposed to TET by intragastric administration after fasting, and were then intramuscularly injected with saline or different doses of acetamide in the following 5 days. The cortex of the temporal lobe was collected at 3 h, 12 h, 48 h, or 7 d after treatment. The expression levels of GABA and Glu in the cortex of the temporal lobe were determined by average optical density (OD) values in immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>1) Expression of GABA: The OD value of GABA in TET exposure group started to increase at 12 h after treatment, reached the peak at 48 h, and decreased to the normal level at 7 d. In the high-dose acetamide treatment group, the increase in OD at 12 h was not so significant as that in the TET exposure group, OD value decreased to the normal level at 48 h and was lower than that in the exposure group, and the changes were more like those in the control groups. In the super-high-dose acetamide treatment group, OD value began to increase significantly at 3 h and was significantly higher than that in the TET exposure group (P < 0.01), it reached the peak at 12 h, and was restored to the normal value at 48 h. 2) Expression of Glu: The OD value of Glu in TET exposure group at 3 h after treatment was significantly lower than those in the two control groups, it increased gradually from 12 h to 48 h, and recovered to the normal level at the 7th d. The changes in the high-dose acetamide treatment group were similar to those in the TET exposure group, but became more like those in the control groups after 48 h; the OD value in super-high-dose acetamide treatment group was significantly higher than that in the TET exposure group at 3 h after treatment (P < 0.01), while no significant difference was found at 12 h; it was significantly lower than those of all other groups at 48 h and 7 d (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Treatment with high dose of acetamide has some curative effect on TET poisoning-induced central nervous lesion, while the effect of super-high-dose acetamide on expression of neurotransmitters is too complex to evaluate.</p>

Acetamides , Pharmacology , Animals , Bridged-Ring Compounds , Poisoning , Cerebral Cortex , Metabolism , Female , Glutamic Acid , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Metabolism
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(1): 127-133, Jan.-Mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671408


This manuscript reports the synthesis of a series of N-substituted derivatives of 2-phenitidine. First, the reaction of 2-phenitidine (1) with benzene sulfonyl chloride (2) yielded N-(2-ethoxyphenyl) benzenesulfonamide (3), which further on treatment with sodium hydride and alkyl halides (4a-g) furnished into new sulfonamides (5a-g). Second, the phenitidine reacted with benzoyl chloride (6) and acetyl chloride (8) to yield the reported N-benzoyl phenitidine (7) and N-acetyl phenitidine (9), respectively. These derivatives were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, and EI-MS, and then screened against acetylcholinesterase, butylcholinesterase, and lipoxygenase enzyme, and were found to be potent inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase alone.

Este trabalho apresenta a síntese de uma série de derivados da 2-fenetidina N-substituídos. Primeiro, a reação da 2-fenetidina (1) com cloreto de benzenossulfonila (2) conduziu à N-(2-etoxifenil)benzenossulfonamida (3) que, após tratamento com hidreto de sódio e haletos de alquila (4a-g), originou novas sulfonamidas (5a-g). Em segundo lugar, a reação da fenetidina com cloreto de benzoíla (6) e cloreto de acetila (8) conduziu, respectivamente, à N-benzoilfenetidina (7) e N-acetilfenetidina (9). A caracterização destes derivados fez-se por IV, ¹H-RMN e EM-IE. Procedeu-se à avaliação da atividade inibidora destes compostos em relação às enzimas acetilcolinesterase, butirilcolinesterase e lipoxigenase. No entanto, apenas revelaram atividade inibidora da butirilcolinesterase.

Phenetidine/analysis , Acetamides/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 455-463
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142604


A series of new N-substituted derivatives of 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2yl-2''-sulfanyl acetamide [6a-n] were synthesized in three phases. The first phase involved the sequentially converting phenyl acetic acid into ester, hydrazide and finally cyclized in the presence of CS[2] to afford 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-thiol. In the second phase N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides were prepared by reacting substituted amines with bromoacetyl bromide in basic media. In the third phase, 5-benzyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol was stirred with N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides in the presence of N,N-dimethyl formamide [DMF] and sodium hydride [NaH] to get the target compounds. Spectral techniques were used to confirm the structures of synthesized compounds. Synthesized compounds were screened against butyrylcho linesterase [BChE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and lipoxygenase enzymes [LOX] and were found to be relatively more active against acetylcholinesterase

Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Acetamides/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism
International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 2013; 2 (4): 233-236
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140924


The following is a case of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis [MDR-TB] that was treated successfully with a linezolid-containing regimen. It was found that linezolid is an efficient medicine for MDR-TB treatment with an acceptable side effect profile. Treatment was maintained for 18 months, and closely monitoring toxicities did not reveal evidence of any neurologic adverse effects. However, despite our expectation, thrombocytopenia was seen after 2 years follow-up

Humans , Male , Acetamides , Oxazolidinones , Thrombocytopenia
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 372-376, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235657


According to the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of modafinil, a therapeutic drug of hypnolepsy, we designed and synthesized two series of compounds 2-[(diphenylmethane)sulfinyl] acetamides and 2-[(diphenylmethyl)thio] acetamides, and measured their biological activities. The target compounds (6a-6o) were synthesized beginning with diphenyl carbinol by substitution, oxidation, acylation and so on. Their structures were confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The central stimulatory effects of the target compounds were determined by the independent activity assay on mice. Compounds 6c, 6f and 6n have considerable activities, while the central stimulative effect of 6h is slightly better than the positive control modafinil.

Acetamides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Benzhydryl Compounds , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Methane , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Random Allocation , Structure-Activity Relationship , Wakefulness-Promoting Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology