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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 217-223, May-Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sciatic nerve transection (SNT), a model for studying neuropathic pain, mimics the clinical symptoms of "phantom limb", a pain condition that arises in humans after amputation or transverse spinal lesions. In some vertebrate tissues, this condition decreases acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, the enzyme responsible for fast hydrolysis of released acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses. In spinal cord of frog Rana pipiens, this enzyme's activity was not significantly changed in the first days following ventral root transection, another model for studying neuropathic pain. An answerable question is whether SNT decreases AChE activity in spinal cord of frog Lithobates catesbeianus, a species that has been used as a model for studying SNT-induced neuropathic pain. Since each animal model has been created with a specific methodology, and the findings tend to vary widely with slight changes in the method used to induce pain, our study assessed AChE activity 3 and 10 days after complete SNT in lumbosacral spinal cord of adult male bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Because there are time scale differences of motor endplate maturation in rat skeletal muscles, our study also measured the AChE activity in bullfrog tibial posticus (a postural muscle) and gastrocnemius (a typical skeletal muscle that is frequently used to study the motor system) muscles. AChE activity did not show significant changes 3 and 10 days following SNT in spinal cord. Also, no significant change occurred in AChE activity in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius muscles at day 3. However, a significant decrease was found at day 10, with reductions of 18% and 20% in tibial posticus and gastrocnemius, respectively. At present we cannot explain this change in AChE activity. While temporally different, the direction of the change was similar to that described for rats. This similarity indicates that bullfrog is a valid model for investigating AChE activity following SNT.


Resumo A transecção do nervo isquiático (SNT), um modelo para estudar dor neuropática, simula os sintomas clínicos do "membro fantasma", uma condição dolorosa que ocorre nos humanos após amputação ou secção completa da medula espinal. Essa condição muda a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE), a enzima responsável pela rápida hidrólise da acetilcolina liberada nas sinapses colinérgicas, em alguns tecidos de vertebrados. Em medula espinal de rã Rana pipiens, a atividade da AChE não foi significativamente alterada nos primeiros dias após a secção da raiz ventral, outro modelo para o estudo da dor neuropática. Uma questão ainda não respondida é se a SNT diminui a atividade da AChE na medula espinal de rã Lithobates catesbeianus, uma espécie que vem sendo usada como modelo em estudos da dor neuropática induzida por SNT. Como cada modelo animal é criado a partir de metodologia específica, e seus resultados tendem a variar com pequenas mudanças na metodologia de indução da dor, o presente estudo avaliou a atividade da AChE em medula espinal lombossacral de rã-touro Lithobates catesbeianus, adultos, machos, 3 e 10 dias após a completa SNT. Como há diferenças temporais na maturação de placas motoras em músculos esqueléticos de ratos, nosso estudo ainda demonstrou, na rã-touro, os efeitos da SNT sobre a atividade da AChE nos músculos esqueléticos tibial posticus, um músculo postural, e gastrocnêmio, um músculo frequentemente usado em estudos do sistema motor. A atividade da AChE não mudou significativamente na medula espinal aos 3 e 10 dias após a SNT. Nos músculos, a atividade não alterou significativamente aos 3 dias após a lesão, mas reduziu de forma significativa aos 10 dias após a SNT. Aos 10 dias, a diminuição foi 18% no músculo tibial posticus e 20% no gastrocnêmio. No momento, nós não temos explicação para essa mudança na atividade da AChE. Embora temporalmente diferente, o sentido da mudança é similar ao que é descrito em ratos. Esta similaridade torna a rã-touro um modelo válido para se estudar questões ainda não respondidas da SNT sobre a AChE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Sciatic Nerve/enzymology , Sciatic Nerve/physiopathology , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Spinal Cord/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Rana catesbeiana
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 169-176, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum) were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid). Extracts from T. islandicus cultured or not with hydralazine inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth in 57.66 ± 5.98% and 15.38 ± 1.99%, respectively. Increment in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed for the extract from P. janthinellum grown with procainamide (100%), when compared to the control extract (39.62 ± 3.76%). Similarly, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity increased from 20.91 ± 3.90% (control) to 92.20 ± 3.72% when the tested extract was obtained from T. pinophilus under a combination of suberohydroxamic acid and procainamide. Concluding, increases in antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition were observed when fungal extracts in the presence of DNA methyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase modulators were tested.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Penicillium/chemistry , Talaromyces/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/metabolism , Chromatin/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/enzymology , Listeria monocytogenes/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Talaromyces/metabolism
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 29(2): 253-258, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899506

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo explorar a utilidade da avaliação da atividade muscular respiratória em pacientes em uso de ventilação mecânica após envenenamento agudo por organofosforados, para fornecer informações complementares para determinação do melhor momento para suspensão do suporte ventilatório. Foi registrada eletromiografia de superfície em músculos respiratórios (diafragma, intercostais externos e esternocleidomastóideos) em um homem jovem afetado por autoenvenenamento com quantidade desconhecida de paration, para determinar o nível de atividade muscular no decurso de diversas tentativas de desmame da ventilação mecânica. A distribuição de energia de cada frequência de sinal de eletromiografia de superfície; a sincronização entre máquina, paciente e músculos; a atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase; o trabalho respiratório e os índices de respiração rápida e superficial foram calculados em cada uma das tentativas de desmame. O trabalho respiratório e o índice de respiração rápida e superficial não se correlacionaram com a falha ou o sucesso da tentativa de desmame. O diafragma aumentou gradualmente seu envolvimento com a ventilação, tendo alcançado resposta máxima, que se correlacionou com o sucesso do desmame e a atividade máxima da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Por outro lado, a atividade de músculos respiratórios acessórios mostrou tendência oposta.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the usefulness of measuring respiratory muscle activity in mechanically ventilated patients suffering from acute organophosphate poisoning, with a view towards providing complementary information to determine the best time to suspend ventilatory support. Surface electromyography in respiratory muscles (diaphragm, external intercostal and sternocleidomastoid muscles) was recorded in a young man affected by self-poisoning with an unknown amount of parathion to determine the muscle activity level during several weaning attempts from mechanical ventilation. The energy distribution of each surface electromyography signal frequency, the synchronization between machine and patient and between muscles, acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, and work of breathing and rapid shallow breathing indices were calculated in each weaning attempt. The work of breathing and rapid shallow breathing indices were not correlated with the failure/success of the weaning attempt. The diaphragm gradually increased its engagement with ventilation, achieving a maximal response that correlated with successful weaning and maximal acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity; in contrast, the activity of accessory respiratory muscles showed an opposite trend.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Ventilator Weaning , Electromyography/methods , Organophosphate Poisoning/therapy , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Respiration , Respiratory Muscles/physiology
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6346, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888962

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Catfishes , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism , Thymol/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Anesthesia/veterinary , Brain/drug effects , Brain/enzymology , Catfishes/metabolism , Diazepam/pharmacology , GABA Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Picrotoxin/pharmacology , Receptors, GABA-A/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(spe): 20-29, ago. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762714

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The determination of cholinesterase (ChE) activity has been commonly applied in the biomonitoring of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. However, ChE activity is influenced by genetic factors. Integrating genotype and phenotype information in clinical laboratory tests would increase the accuracy of the reference values in well-defined populations. Objective: To establish genetic-based reference values for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in a Colombian population. Materials and methods: A total of 397 healthy adults from Bucaramanga were included in the study. AChE and BChE activities were measured in blood samples by potentiometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Genotyping for ACHE rs17880573 and BCHE rs1803274 was performed using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The statistical analyses to obtain the reference values were performed with the MedCalc® software. Results: Allele frequencies were 10.58% for rs17880573 A and 8.82% for rs1803274 A. People with genotypes rs1803274 AA and AG showed a reduction of 20.69% and 10.92% respectively in mean BChE activity compared to people with genotype GG. No significant differences were identified in AChE activity between rs17880573 alleles or genotypes. In the overall sample, the corresponding reference values were as follows: for AChE activity, 0.62-0.98 D pH/h and for BChE activity, 4796.3-10321.1 U/L for people carrying the allele rs1803274A and 5768.2-11180.4 U/L for people carrying the genotype rs1803274 GG. Conclusion: We strongly recommend using these genetic-based reference values for ChE enzymes in our well-defined population in daily clinical practice.


Introducción. La determinación de la actividad enzimática de la colinesterasa se utiliza comúnmente en la vigilancia biológica de la exposición a pesticidas organofosforados y carbamatos. Sin embargo, los factores genéticos afectan la actividad de la colinesterasa, por lo que la integración de la información sobre genotipos y fenotipos en las pruebas de laboratorio clínico, incrementaría la precisión de los valores de referencia. Objetivo. Establecer los valores de referencia basados en el contexto genético para la actividad enzimática de la acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) y la butirilcolinesterasa (BChE), en una población colombiana. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 397 adultos sanos. La actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa y la de la butirilcolinesterasa, se determinaron en muestras de sangre por potenciometría y espectrofotometría, respectivamente. Los genotipos de los ACHE rs17880573 y BCHE rs1803274 se obtuvieron mediante el ensayo TaqMan y los valores de referencia se estimaron con el programa MedCalc®. Resultados. La frecuencia alélica fue de 10,58 % para rs17880573 A y de 8,82 % para rs1803274 A. Las personas con los genotipos rs1803274 AA y AG, mostraron una reducción en el promedio de la actividad de la butirilcolinesterasa de 20,69 % y de 10,92 %, respectivamente, comparados con aquellas con el genotipo GG. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la actividad de la acetilcolinesterasa con respecto a los alelos y genotipos del rs17880573. Los valores de referencia determinados para esta población fueron de 0,62-0,98 D pH/h para acetilcolinesterasa y de 4796,3-10321,1 U/L para butirilcolinesterasa, en las personas portadoras del alelo rs1803274 A, y de 5768,2-11180,4 U/L, en las portadoras del genotipo rs1803274 GG. Conclusión. Se recomienda el uso de estos valores de referencia basados en el contexto genético para las colinesterasas, en la práctica clínica diaria en esta población.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Precision Medicine , Acetylcholinesterase/genetics , Butyrylcholinesterase/genetics , Colombia , Reference Values
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(2): 170-177, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750772

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar se os níveis plasmáticos de serotonina e atividade de acetilcolinesterase determinados por ocasião da admissão à unidade de terapia intensiva preveem a ocorrência de disfunção cerebral aguda em pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Foi conduzido no período entre maio de 2009 e setembro de 2010 um estudo prospectivo de coorte em uma amostra com 77 pacientes não consecutivos. A ocorrência de delirium foi determinada utilizando a ferramenta Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit, tendo sido determinadas as avaliações de acetilcolinesterase e serotonina em amostras de sangue coletadas até um máximo de 24 horas após admissão do paciente à unidade de terapia intensiva. Resultados: No presente estudo, 38 pacientes (49,6%) desenvolveram delirium durante sua permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva. Nem os níveis de atividade de acetilcolinesterase nem os de serotonina tiveram associação independente com delirium. Não se observaram correlações significantes entre atividade de acetilcolinesterase e níveis de serotonina com o número de dias livres de delirium/coma, porém, em pacientes que desenvolveram delirium, ocorreu uma forte correlação negativa entre níveis de acetilcolinesterase e número de dias livres de delirium/coma, demonstrando que níveis mais elevados de acetilcolinesterase se associaram com menos dias de vida sem delirium e coma. Nenhuma associação foi identificada entre os biomarcadores e mortalidade. Conclusão: Nem a atividade de acetilcolinesterase nem os níveis séricos de serotonina se associaram com delirium ou disfunção cerebral aguda em pacientes gravemente enfermos. A ocorrência de sepse não modificou esse relacionamento. .


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results: In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions: Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Serotonin/blood , Critical Illness , Delirium/epidemiology , Acetylcholinesterase/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Delirium/blood , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
7.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Atriplex laciniata L. was investigated for phenolic, flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Plant crude methanolic extract (Al.MeF), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Al.HxF), chloroform (Al.CfF), ethyl acetate (Al.EaF), aqueous (Al.WtF), Saponins (Al.SPF) and Flavonoids (Al.FLVF) were investigated for DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 free radical scavenging activities. Further these extracts were subjected to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's assay. Phenolic and Flavonoid contents were determined and expressed in mg Gallic acid GAE/g and Rutin RTE/g of samples respectively. RESULTS: In DPPH free radicals scavenging assay, Al.FLVF, Al.SPF and Al.MeF showed highest activity causing 89.41 ± 0.55, 83.37 ± 0.34 and 83.37 ± 0.34% inhibition of free radicals respectively at 1 mg/mL concentration. IC50 for these fractions were 33, 83 and 82 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, plant extracts showed high ABTS scavenging potential, i.e. Al.FLVF (90.34 ± 0.55), Al.CfF (83.42 ± 0.57), Al.MeF (81.49 ± 0.60) with IC50 of 30, 190 and 70 µg/ml respectively. further, H2O2 percent scavenging was highly appraised in Al.FLVF (91.29 ±0.53, IC50 75), Al.SPF (85.35 ±0.61, IC50 70) and Al.EaF (83.48 ± 0.67, IC50 270 µg/mL). All fractions exhibited concentration dependent AChE inhibitory activity as; Al.FLVF, 88.31 ± 0.57 (IC50 70 µg/mL), Al.SPF, 84.36 ± 0.64 (IC50 90 µg/mL), Al.MeF, 78.65 ± 0.70 (IC50 280 µg/mL), Al.EaF, 77.45 ± 0.46 (IC50 270 µg/mL) and Al.WtF 72.44 ± 0.58 (IC50 263 µg/mL) at 1 mg/mL. Likewise the percent BChE inhibitory activity was most obvious in Al.FLVF 85.46 ± 0.62 (IC50 100 µg/mL), Al.CfF 83.49 ± 0.46 (IC50 160 µg/mL), Al.MeF 82.68 ± 0.60 (IC50 220 µg/mL) and Al.SPF 80.37 ± 0.54 (IC50 120 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These results stipulate that A. laciniata is enriched with phenolic and flavonoid contents that possess significant antioxidant and anticholinestrase effects. This provide pharmacological basis for the presence of compounds that may be effective in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.


Subject(s)
Saponins/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Atriplex/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Phenols/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Saponins/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Benzothiazoles/metabolism , Medicine, Traditional , Antioxidants/isolation & purification
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157585

ABSTRACT

Organophosphorus poisoning is common problem throughout the world. It occurs due to accidental exposure; suicidal and homicidal attempt. Many deaths occur within hours of ingestion of organophosphorus compounds like pesticides. For its prevention, speedy diagnosis and prompt treatment is required; which requires sensitive marker/s. The aim of this study was to find such marker/s. In this regard, activities of Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase and β-glucuronidase were estimated in 80 samples including 40 controls and 40 organophosphorus poisoning cases (mild = 07, moderate = 19 and severe = 14). Results indicated that activities of Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinestrase decrease in mild, moderate and severe Organophosphorus poisoning in proportionate manner whereas, β-glucuronidase activity increases as severity of Organophosphorus poisoning progresses. Thus, all the three enzymes showed alterations in their activities however, the degree of change in activity was maximum in case of Acetylcholinesterase. Thus, Acetylcholinesterase activity is the most sensitive marker amongst three enzymes in Organophosphorus poisoning.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Humans , Organophosphate Poisoning/enzymology , Organophosphate Poisoning/epidemiology , Organophosphate Poisoning/metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56432

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to assess the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, arsanilic acid and danofloxacin by quantification of neural-specific proteins in vitro. Quantitation of the protein markers during 14 days of differentiation indicated that the mouse ESCs were completely differentiated into neural cells by Day 8. The cells were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of three chemicals during differentiation. Low levels of exposure to methylmercury decreased the expression of GABAA-R and Nestin during the differentiating stage, and Nestin during the differentiated stage. In contrast, GFAP, Tuj1, and MAP2 expression was affected only by relatively high doses during both stages. Arsanilic acid affected the levels of GABA(A)-R and GFAP during the differentiated stage while the changes of Nestin and Tuj1 were greater during the differentiating stage. For the neural markers (except Nestin) expressed during both stages, danofloxacin affected protein levels at lower concentrations in the differentiated stage than the differentiating stage. Acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited by relatively low concentrations of methylmercury and arsanilic acid during the differentiating stage while this activity was inhibited only by more than 40 microM of danofloxacin in the differentiated stage. Our results provide useful information about the different toxicities of chemicals and the impact on neural development.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Arsanilic Acid/toxicity , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Fluoroquinolones/toxicity , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Methylmercury Compounds/toxicity , Mice , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , Tetrazolium Salts/metabolism , Thiazoles/metabolism
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1094-1100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150297

ABSTRACT

Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/metabolism , Amnesia/pathology , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/chemistry , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Garlic/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Scopolamine/toxicity
11.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 455-463
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142604

ABSTRACT

A series of new N-substituted derivatives of 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2yl-2''-sulfanyl acetamide [6a-n] were synthesized in three phases. The first phase involved the sequentially converting phenyl acetic acid into ester, hydrazide and finally cyclized in the presence of CS[2] to afford 5-benzyl-1, 3, 4-oxadiazole-2-thiol. In the second phase N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides were prepared by reacting substituted amines with bromoacetyl bromide in basic media. In the third phase, 5-benzyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol was stirred with N-substituted-2-bromoacetamides in the presence of N,N-dimethyl formamide [DMF] and sodium hydride [NaH] to get the target compounds. Spectral techniques were used to confirm the structures of synthesized compounds. Synthesized compounds were screened against butyrylcho linesterase [BChE], acetylcholinesterase [AChE], and lipoxygenase enzymes [LOX] and were found to be relatively more active against acetylcholinesterase


Subject(s)
Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Acetamides/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2013. 103 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-688250

ABSTRACT

Pesticidas organofosforados são amplamente usados e seu uso constitui um grave problema de saúde pública. A ação clássica destes compostos é a inibição irreversível da acetilcolinesterase, promovendo acúmulo de acetilcolina nas sinapses e hiperestimulação colinérgica. No entanto, as consequências da exposição a baixas doses podem se estender a outros mecanismos de ação e sistemas neurotransmissores. Considerando que crianças constituem um grupo particularmente vulnerável aos efeitos de pesticidas, neste trabalho investigamos os efeitos da exposição aos organofosforados metamidofós (MET) e clorpirifós (CPF) durante o desenvolvimento sobre os sistemas colinérgico e serotoninérgico e sobre o comportamento de camundongos. Para isso, camundongos suíços foram expostos a injeções subcutâneas de MET, clorpirifós ou veículo do terceiro (PN3) ao nono (PN9) dias de vida pós-natal. As doses de exposição foram previamente escolhidas através da construção de uma curva dose-resposta que identificou como mais adequadas para este estudo as doses de 1mg/kg de MET e 3mg/kg de CPF, as quais promoveram em torno de 20% de inibição da acetilcolinesterase. Em PN10, parte dos animais foi sacrificada e foram avaliados os sistemas colinérgico e serotoninérgico no tronco encefálico e córtex cerebral. De PN60 a PN63, os animais foram submetidos a uma bateria de testes comportamentais. Em seguida, estes animais também foram sacrificados tendo sido avaliados os sistemas colinérgico e serotoninérgico. Em PN10, MET e CPF causaram alterações que sugerem aumento da atividade colinérgica respectivamente no tronco e córtex em fêmeas. No sistema serotoninérgico, apenas CPF promoveu alterações, aumentando a ligação ao receptor 5HT1A e transportador 5HT em fêmeas e diminuindo na ligação ao 5HT2. Em PN63, a atividade da acetilcolinesterase foi reestabelecida em todos os grupos. Ainda assim, MET diminuiu a atividade da colina acetiltransferase no córtex e a ligação ao transportador colinérgico.


Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and its use consist on a severe public health problem. The classic effect of these compounds involve irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, causing an accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses and, consequently, cholinergic hyperstimulation. However, when the doses of exposure are low, other the mechanisms of action may play a role and other neurotransmitter systems may be affected. Considering that children are particularly vulnerable to effects of these compounds, in this study we investigated the effects of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos organophosphate exposure during development on cholinergic and serotonergic systems and behavior. For this purpose, Swiss mice received subcutaneous injections of methamidophos or chlorpyrifos, or vehicle from the third to the nineth postnatal day (PN3 - PN9). Initially, a dose-response study was performed and the doses of 1mg/kg methamidophos and 3mg/kg chlorphrifos, which promoted 20% inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in brain were chosen to be used in the next set of experiments. At PN10, one day after exposure, a group of animals was sacrificed and the brainstem and cortex collected and stored to further analysis of cholinergic and serotonergic systems. From PN60 to PN63 the animals were submitted to behavioral tests in order to evaluate: anxiety, locomotor activity, decision making, depressive-like behavior and learning/memory. After the last test, the animals were sacrificed and the brainstem and cortex collected and stored to further analysis of cholinergic and serotonergic systems. At PN10, methamidophos and chlorpyrifos promoted alterations that suggest an increase of cholinergic activity respectively on the brainstem and cortex of females. As for the serotonergic system: only chlorpyrifos elicited alterations: There were increases in 5HT1A receptor and 5HT transporter binding in females and a decrease in 5HT2 receptor binding.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Insecticides, Organophosphate/adverse effects , Insecticides/toxicity , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Chlorpyrifos/adverse effects , Chlorpyrifos/toxicity , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Serotonin Agents/pharmacology
13.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 June; 48(3): 197-201
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135320

ABSTRACT

The neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of roots of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn (EEPV) was investigated against -amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice which is a suitable animal model for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The senile plaques of -amyloid (A) are major constituents accumulated during the progression of AD as a potent neurotoxicant. In our investigation, intracerebroventricular injection of A(25-35) in mice induced the neurodegeneration, exhibited the increased time of escape latency in behavioral pattern using water maze and decreased the levels of antioxidants namley superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and vitamin C with elevated level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The neuroprotective potential of EEPV was determined by behavioral pattern using water maze and biochemical parameters such as SOD, CAT and GPx and vitamin C content as well as AChE. Mice were treated with EEPV at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Except control, all animals received a single injection of neurotoxicant A(25-35) on 14th day. In behavioural assessment, treatment with ethanolic extract improved the cognitive function in the water maze and attenuated the elevated levels of AChE with increase in antioxidant enzymes, indicating the neuroprotection with increased levels of vitamin C. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of P. viscida exerts anti-amnesiac effects and enhances cognitive function.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/enzymology , Amnesia/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Catalase/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Maze Learning/drug effects , Mice , Neuroprotective Agents/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135453

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) are used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These drugs including galanthamine have been shown to modulate synaptic activity in hippocampus and improve memory processes. Although Tabernaemontana divaricata extract (TDE) has been used as traditional medicine for various pharmacological effects, its effect in enhancing cholinergic activity provides additional benefit to its known effects. We investigated whether TDE can modulate the synaptic function in hippocampus and compared its effects to those of galanthamine. Methods: Hippocampal slices were prepared from male wWistar rats, functional effects of TDE were characterized by using pharmacological tools and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Results: TDE significantly reduced fEPSPs. The fEPSPs reduction was prevented by atropine, but not pancuronium. These TDE effects were similar to those of galanthamine. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that TDE can effectively modulate synaptic responses in the hippocampus similar to galanthamine, suggesting that this traditional medicine could be beneficial in ageing with ACh deprivation in the brain.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Biological Factors/pharmacology , Brain/pathology , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/metabolism , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/pathology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials , Galantamine/pharmacology , Male , Memory , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Synaptic Transmission , Tabernaemontana/metabolism
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.2): 74-78, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess in vitro the correlation between the number of neurons and the sensitivity to cholinergic drugs and acetylcholinesterase activity in chagasic patients. METHODS: A 3x1 cm strip of the muscle layer of the anterior part of the stomach, always close to the angular incisure, was removed from 10 chronic chagasic patients (6 men) submitted to megaesophagus or megacolon surgery and from 10 non-chagasic patients (4 men) submitted to other types of surgery (control group), aged on average 52.3 and 50.1 years, respectively, for histological and pharmacological studies. The action of cholinergic drugs was investigated in isolated preparations according to the superfusion method of Ferreira and Costa, and acetylcholinesterase activity was determined by the method of Ellman. For neuron count, the strips were cut into 8 µm sections according to the method standardized by Alcântara. RESULTS: There was a difference in number of neurons between the chagasic (5,6) and control (7,3) groups. Acetylcholinesterase activity, in moles of hydrolyzed substrate per minute per gram tissue, was reduced in chagasic patients (4,32) compared to the controls (7,30). No hypersensitivity of the gastric musculature to cholinergic drugs was detected, with a reduced maximum response to carbachol and betanechol in the chagasic group. CONCLUSIONS: The reduction of neurons in the myenteric plexus of the stomach of chronic chagasic patients can be demonstrated even in the absence of clinical chagasic gastropathy. The hypersensitivity of the gastric musculature to cholinergic drugs probably depends on intense denervation. The reduced acetylcholinesterase activity demonstrates the involvement of the cholinergic innervation in the stomach of chronic chagasic patients. There was no correlation between number of neurons, sensitivity to cholinergic drugs and acetylcholinesterase activity in the gastric musculature of chagasic and non-chagasic patients.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro a correlação entre o número de neurônios e a sensibilidade a drogas colinérgicas e a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em pacientes chagásicos. MÉTODOS: Em 10 pacientes chagásicos crônicos (6 homens) submetidos à cirurgia de megaesôfago ou de megacólon e em 10 pacientes não chagásicos (4 homens) submetidos a outros tipos de cirurgia (grupo controle), respectivamente com idade média de 52,3 e 50,1 anos, retirou-se uma tira de 3x1 cm da camada muscular da parede anterior do estômago, sempre junto á cisura angular, que serviu para os estudos histológicos e farmacológicos. A ação de drogas colinérgicas foi feita em preparação isolada de acordo com o método de superfusão de Ferreira e Costa, e a determinação da atividade da acetilcolinesterase pelo método de Ellman. Para a contagem de neurônios a tira muscular foi submetida a cortes de 8 micra segundo método padronizado por Alcântara. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença do número de neurônios entre os grupos chagásico (5,6) e controle (7,3). A atividade da acetilcolinesterase mostrou-se diminuída nos chagásicos (4,32) expressa como número de moles do substrato hidrolisado por minuto por grama de tecido, em relação aos controles (7,30). Não se encontrou hipersensibilidade da musculatura gástrica a drogas colinérgicas, encontrando-se inclusive efeito máximo reduzido ao carbacol e betanecol no grupo chagásico. CONCLUSÕES: A redução de neurônios no plexo mioentérico do estômago de pacientes chagásicos crônicos pode ser demonstrada mesmo na ausência de gastropatia chagásica clínica. A hipersensibilidade da musculatura gástrica a drogas colinérgicas provavelmente depende de desnervação intensa. A redução da atividade da acetilcolinesterase demonstra o comprometimento da inervação colinérgica no estômago de pacientes chagásicos crônicos. Não houve correlação entre número de neurônios, sensibilidade a drogas colinérgicas e atividade da acetilcolinesterase na musculatura gástrica de pacientes chagásicos ou não chagásicos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Muscle, Smooth/innervation , Myenteric Plexus/pathology , Stomach/innervation , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Count , Carbachol/pharmacology , Chagas Disease/enzymology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Esophageal Achalasia/pathology , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Muscle, Smooth/enzymology , Neurons/cytology , Stomach/drug effects , Stomach/enzymology
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(4): 586-591, Aug. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555239

ABSTRACT

In the present study we investigated the effects of lipoic acid (LA) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat hippocampus during seizures. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9 percent saline (i.p., control group), lipoic acid (20 mg/kg, i.p., LA group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., P400 group), and the association of pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.) plus LA (20 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before of administration of P400 (LA plus P400 group). After the treatments all groups were observed for 1 h. In P400 group, there was a significant increase in GPx activity as well as a decrease in AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities after seizures. In turn, LA plus P400 abolished the appearance of seizures and reversed the decreased in AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities produced by seizures, when compared to the P400 seizing group. The results from the present study demonstrate that preadministration of LA abolished seizure episodes induced by pilocarpine in rat, probably by increasing AChE and Na+, K+-ATPase activities in rat hippocampus.


No presente estudo nós investigamos os efeitos do ácido lipóico (AL) sobre as atividades da acetilcolinesterase (AChE), da glutationa peroxidase (GPx) e da Na+, K+-ATPase no hipocampo de ratos durante crises convulsivas. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com solução salina a 0,9 por cento (i.p., grupo controle), ácido lipóico (20 mg/kg, i.p., grupo AL), pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., grupo P400), e a associação de AL (20 mg/kg, i.p.) com a pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min antes da administração de pilocarpina (grupo AL + P400). Após os tratamentos todos os grupos foram observados durante 1 h. No grupo P400, houve um aumento significativo na atividade da GPx, assim como uma diminuição das atividades da AChE e Na+, K+-ATPase. Por sua vez, o pré-tratamento com AL aboliu o aparecimento de convulsões e reverteu a diminuição das atividades da AChE e da Na+, K+-ATPase causadas pelas convulsões, quando comparada com o grupo P400 sozinho. Os resultados do estudo demonstram que o pré-tratamento com AL aboliu os episódios de convulsão induzido pela pilocarpina em ratos, provavelmente por meio do aumento das atividades das enzimas AChE e Na+, K+-ATPase no hipocampo de ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hippocampus/enzymology , Seizures/enzymology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Thioctic Acid/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Pilocarpine , Rats, Wistar , Seizures/chemically induced
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Apr; 47(2): 117-120
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135254

ABSTRACT

Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate) is widely used as an acaricide in agriculture and public health programs. Studies have shown that sub-chronic exposure to propoxur can cause oxidative stress and immuno-suppression in rats. Carbamates are also known to exhibit inhibitory effect on cholinesterase activity, which is directly related to their cholinergic effects. In the present study, the effect of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a widely used herbal drug possessing anti-stress and immuno-modulatory properties was studied on propoxur-induced acetylcholine esterase inhibition and impairment of cognitive function in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I was treated with olive oil and served as control. Group II was administered orally with propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) in olive oil, group III received a combination of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) and W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) suspension and group IV W. somnifera (100 mg/kg b.wt.) only. All animals were treated for 30 days. Cognitive behaviour was assessed by transfer latency using elevated plus maze. Blood and brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was also assessed. Oral administration of propoxur (10 mg/kg b.wt.) resulted in a significant reduction of brain and blood AChE activity. A significant prolongation of the acquisition as well as retention transfer latency was observed in propoxur-treated rats. Oral treatment of W. somnifera exerts protective effect and attenuates AChE inhibition and cognitive impairment caused by sub-chronic exposure to propoxur.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/blood , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/toxicity , Cognition Disorders/blood , Cognition Disorders/chemically induced , Cognition Disorders/enzymology , Cognition Disorders/prevention & control , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Male , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propoxur/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Withania/chemistry
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-65179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to correlate the pathological results and clinical response in patients who underwent botulinum toxin (BT) injection for obstructive symptoms (OS) after a pullthrough operation for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). METHODS: Between August 2002 and February 2006, 16 of 107 HD patients (15%) were referred with persistent OS after pull-through (PT) operation in this center. They underwent rectal biopsy and BT injection in the internal sphincter. Their responses to BT injection were evaluated by the constipation score before, and at 1, 3 and 8 months after the injection, and anorectal manometry (ARM) before and at 2 weeks, and 1 and 8 months after the injection. The association between response to BT and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining of rectal biopsy was also assessed. RESULTS: Fourteen of 16 patients (87%) had improvement in bowel function after 2 weeks, and two patients did not respond at all. Six of the 14 patients with early response had recurrence of symptoms after 2-3 months. Eight patients with normal ganglia and negative AChE had good response with no recurrence on follow-up. However, 4 of 6 recurrences were neurogenic dysfunctions and 2 were intestinal neuronal dysplasia (2-4+AChE). Two patients with no response had an aganglionic segment (4+AChE). Four of 6 patients with recurrence showed improvement with BT re-injection and only 2 did not improve. CONCLUSION: A higher degree of AChE staining is associated with lack of response to BT injection. This is also a test for predicting the severity of neurogenic dysfunction in the intestinal wall.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Anal Canal , Biopsy , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Constipation/etiology , Female , Hirschsprung Disease/enzymology , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Male , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications , Predictive Value of Tests , Rectum/pathology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 May; 44(5): 381-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62912

ABSTRACT

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been purified from three different regions of rat brain using Sephadex G 200 column. SDS PAGE (6%) showed single band for the purified AChE fractions. Purified and lyophilized AChE from different (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fractions of three brain parts were utilized for in vitro enzyme kinetics using Dimethoate (Dmt) as inhibitor. K(m) values for cerebellum and hypothalamus were almost similar whereas cerebrum showed a different K(m) value compared to other two regions. With the drug Rivastigmine it was found that % G1 and G4 forms of AChE in three different parts of brain are different.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Animals , Cerebellum/enzymology , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Hypothalamus/enzymology , Male , Rats , Telencephalon/enzymology
20.
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2006; 2 (1): 7-10
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-77716

ABSTRACT

The crude extracts of some selected Pakistani medicinal plants, namely, Acacia modesta, Buddleja crispa. Carthamus oxycantha, Conyza bonariensis and Tanacetum artemisioides were assessed for their inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE]. All the tested plant extracts exhibited dose dependent [0.25 - 1.0 mg/ml] inhibitory effects against both these enzymes with more selectivity for BChE. A. modesta and C. bonariensis showed activity against BChE only. The plant extracts of B. crispa C. oxycantha and T. artemisioides caused maximum inhibition of AChE at 1.0 mg/ml with% inhibition of 28, 34 and 48 respectively. In the BChE inhibitory evaluation all the tested plant extracts at 1.0 mg/ml produced marked inhibition [68-80%] of the enzyme activity. The results show the presence of selective BChE inhibitory constituents in the aforementioned plant extracts


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors
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