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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e9941, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339454


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in seriously ill patients, while renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is the most frequent event in this oxidative renal injury. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a small molecule containing a thiol group that has antioxidant properties, promoting detoxification and acting directly as a free radical scavenger. In this study, the protective effect of NAC was investigated in short-term (30 min) and long-term (45 min) ischemic AKI. This was achieved via clamping of the renal artery for 30 or 45 min in Wistar rats to induce I/R injury. AKI worsened with a longer period of ischemia (45 compared to 30 min) due to probable irreversible damage. Preconditioning with NAC in short-term ischemia improved renal blood flow and increased creatinine clearance by reducing oxidative metabolites and increasing antioxidant capacity. Otherwise, NAC did not change these parameters in the long-term ischemia. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the period of ischemia determines the severity of the AKI, and NAC presented antioxidant effects in short-term ischemia but not in long-term ischemia, confirming that there is a possible therapeutic window for its renoprotective effect.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Kidney
Clinics ; 76: e2513, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249580


OBJECTIVES: The current study compared the impact of pretreatment with melatonin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the prevention of rat lung damage following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (iIR). METHODS: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal ischemia induced by a 60 min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Animals were divided into the following groups (n=7 per group): sham, only abdominal incision; SS+iIR, pretreated with saline solution and iIR; NAC+iIR, pretreated with NAC (20 mg/kg) and iIR; MEL+iIR, pretreated with melatonin (20 mg/kg) and iIR. Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators were measured and histological analyses were performed in the lung tissues. RESULTS: Data showed a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and TNF-alpha in the animals pretreated with NAC or MEL when compared to those treated with SS+iIR (p<0.05). An increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the NAC- and MEL-pretreated animals as compared to the SS+iIR group (34±8 U/g of tissue; p<0.05) was also observed. TNF-α levels were lower in the MEL+iIR group (91±5 pg/mL) than in the NAC+iIR group (101±6 pg/mL). Histological analysis demonstrated a higher lung lesion score in the SS+iIR group than in the pretreated groups. CONCLUSION: Both agents individually provided tissue protective effect against intestinal IR-induced lung injury, but melatonin was more effective in ameliorating the parameters analyzed in this study.

Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Reperfusion , Rats, Wistar , Ischemia
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(5): 519-526, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132116


Objective: This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. Methods: Heavy smokers were recruited from smoking cessation treatment for this 12- week randomized controlled trial. Eligible tobacco use disorder outpatients (n=34) were randomized to N-acetylcysteine or placebo plus first-line treatment. Abstinence was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide (COexh). The assessment scales included the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale, and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. We also assessed anthropometrics, blood pressure, lipid profile, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNF-R) levels 1 and 2. Results: First-line treatment for smoking cessation plus adjunctive N-acetylcysteine or placebo significantly reduced COexh (p < 0.01). In the N-acetylcysteine group, no significant changes were found in nicotine withdrawal symptoms, depressive and anxiety symptoms, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, or glucose compared to placebo. However, there was a significant reduction in sTNF-R2 levels between baseline and week 12 in the N-acetylcysteine group. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to associate N-acetylcysteine with first-line treatment for smoking cessation, since combined treatment may affect inflammation and metabolism components. Clinical trial registration: NCT02420418

Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking Cessation , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Nicotine
Brasília; s.n; 28 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1117726


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 18 artigos e 3 protocolos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Rho(D) Immune Globulin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
Brasília; s.n; 8 jun. 2020. 24 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1100298


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , BCG Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Autohemotherapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Observational Study , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 47-52, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090559


Abstract Introduction Cisplatin damages the auditory system and is related to the generation of free radicals. Glutathione peroxidase is an endogenous free radicals remover. Objective To investigate the mechanisms involved in otoprotection by N-acetylcys- teine through the expression of glutathione peroxidase in outer hair cells from rats treated with cisplatin. Methods Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin (8 mg/Kg) and/or received oral administration by gavage of N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 4th day, the animals were euthanized and beheaded. The tympanic bullae were removed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy and Results Among the groups exposed to ototoxic doses of cisplatin, there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase immunostaining in two groups, the one exposed to cisplatin alone, and the group exposed to both cisplatin and N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion The expression of glutathione peroxidase in the outer hair cells of rats exposed to cisplatin showed the synthesis of this enzyme under cellular toxicity conditions.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Cisplatin/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , Acetylcysteine/metabolism , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Cisplatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Cochlea/anatomy & histology , Cochlea/drug effects , Free Radicals , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(1): 108-114, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138452


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade da estratificação para identificar e escolher alvos para terapia antioxidante em um modelo de sepse letal em animais e pacientes que desenvolveram hipotensão prolongada. Métodos: Submeteu-se um grupo de ratos à sepse induzida por ligadura e punção do ceco. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: os com níveis plasmáticos altos e os com níveis plasmáticos baixos de interleucina-6. Após a estratificação, administrou-se aos animais N-acetilcisteína mais desferroxamina ou soro fisiológico a partir de 3 e 12 horas após a cirurgia. Em pacientes hipotensos, N-acetilcisteína mais desferroxamina ou placebo foram administrados dentro de 12 horas após o cumprimento dos critérios para inclusão. Resultados: O uso de N-acetilcisteína mais desferroxamina aumentou a sobrevivência no modelo com ligadura mais punção do ceco quando a administração ocorreu 3 e 12 horas após indução da sepse. Ao utilizar os níveis de interleucina-6 para separar os animais que receberam antioxidantes, o efeito protetor só foi observado nos animais que tinham níveis elevados de interleucina-6. O efeito antioxidante de N-acetilcisteína mais desferroxamina foi similar nos dois grupos, porém observou-se diminuição significante dos níveis plasmáticos de interleucina-6 no grupo que apresentava elevado nível de interleucina-6. Em comparação com pacientes tratados com antioxidantes no subgrupo que tinha baixos níveis plasmáticos de interleucina-6, aqueles que tinham níveis elevados de interleucina-6 tiveram menor incidência de lesão renal aguda, porém não foram diferentes em termos de severidade da lesão renal aguda ou da mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva. Conclusão: Direcionar a terapia antioxidante para um elevado fenótipo inflamatório selecionaria uma população responsiva.

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the effectiveness of stratification to identify and target antioxidant therapy for animal models of lethal sepsis and in patients who develop sustained hypotension. Methods: Rats were subjected to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Animals were divided into two groups: those with high and low plasma levels of interleukin-6. Following stratification, N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine or saline was administered to animals starting 3 and 12 hours after surgery. N-Acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine or placebo was administered within 12 hours of meeting the inclusion criteria in hypotensive patients. Results: N-Acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine increased survival in the cecal ligation and puncture model when administered 3 and 12 hours after sepsis induction. When dividing animals that received antioxidants using plasma interleukin-6 levels, the protective effect was observed only in those animals with high IL-6 levels. The antioxidant effect of N-acetylcysteine + deferoxamine was similar in the two groups, but a significant decrease in plasma interleukin-6 levels was observed in the high-interleukin-6-level group. Compared with patients treated with antioxidants in the low-interleukin-6 subgroup, those in the high-interleukin-6 subgroup had a lower incidence of acute kidney injury but were not different in terms of acute kidney injury severity or intensive care unit mortality. Conclusion: Targeting antioxidant therapy to a high inflammatory phenotype would select a responsive population.

Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rats , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Deferoxamine/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20190423, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090804


ABSTRACT Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a form of chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown cause, which predominantly affects elderly men who are current or former smokers. Even though it is an uncommon disease, it is of great importance because of its severity and poor prognosis. In recent decades, several pharmacological treatment modalities have been investigated for the treatment of this disease, and the classic concepts have therefore been revised. The purpose of these guidelines was to define evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of IPF in Brazil. We sought to provide guidance on the practical issues faced by clinicians in their daily lives. Patients of interest, Intervention to be studied, Comparison of intervention and Outcome of interest (PICO)-style questions were formulated to address aspects related to the use of corticosteroids, N-acetylcysteine, gastroesophageal reflux medications, endothelin-receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, pirfenidone, and nintedanib. To formulate the PICO questions, a group of Brazilian specialists working in the area was assembled and an extensive review of the literature on the subject was carried out. Previously published systematic reviews with meta-analyses were analyzed for the strength of the compiled evidence, and, on that basis, recommendations were developed by employing the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. The authors believe that the present document represents an important advance to be incorporated in the approach to patients with IPF, aiming mainly to improve its management, and can become an auxiliary tool for defining public policies related to IPF.

RESUMO A fibrose pulmonar idiopática (FPI) é uma forma de pneumopatia intersticial crônica fibrosante de causa desconhecida, que acomete preferencialmente homens idosos, com história atual ou pregressa de tabagismo. Mesmo sendo uma doença incomum, ela assume grande importância devido a sua gravidade e prognóstico reservado. Nas últimas décadas, diversas modalidades terapêuticas farmacológicas foram investigadas para o tratamento dessa doença, de tal modo que conceitos clássicos vêm sendo revisados. O objetivo destas diretrizes foi definir recomendações brasileiras baseadas em evidências em relação ao emprego de agentes farmacológicos no tratamento da FPI. Procurou-se fornecer orientações a questões de ordem prática, enfrentadas pelos clínicos no seu cotidiano. As perguntas PICO (acrônimo baseado em perguntas referentes aos Pacientes de interesse, Intervenção a ser estudada, Comparação da intervenção e Outcome [desfecho] de interesse) abordaram aspectos relativos ao uso de corticosteroides, N-acetilcisteína, tratamento medicamentoso do refluxo gastroesofágico, inibidores dos receptores da endotelina, inibidores da fosfodiesterase-5, pirfenidona e nintedanibe. Para a formulação das perguntas PICO, um grupo de especialistas brasileiros atuantes na área foi reunido, sendo realizada uma extensa revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema. As revisões sistemáticas com meta-análises previamente publicadas foram analisadas quanto à força das evidências compiladas e, a partir daí, foram concebidas recomendações seguindo a metodologia Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. Os autores acreditam que o presente documento represente um importante avanço a ser incorporado na abordagem de pacientes com FPI, objetivando principalmente favorecer seu manejo, e pode se tornar uma ferramenta auxiliar na definição de políticas públicas relacionadas à FPI.

Humans , Male , Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Brazil , Indoles/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Inst. Nac. Hig ; 50(1-2): 14-21, Diciembre 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118362


El Paraquat (PQ) es un herbicida de contacto bipiridilico ampliamente utilizado en agricultura. La intoxicación en humanos por este agente ocasiona fibrosis pulmonar. Evaluamos los cambios histológicos pulmonares de ratas intoxicadas con PQ y tratadas con N-aceticisteina (NAC) administrada vía inhalatoria. Realizamos un estudio experimental descriptivo con 25 ratas adultas, machos cepa Wistar, divididas en cinco grupos. Al grupo I no se les administro ni PQ ni NAC. Grupo II, recibió NAC inhalada a 15mg/kg diaria c/12 horas. Grupo III, PQ vía oral (VO) 15mg/kg. Grupo IV, PQ a 15mg/kg, por VO y a la hora NAC 150mg/kg. Grupo V, PQ a 15mg/kg, por VO y a las seis horas NAC dosis de 150mg/kg. Los pulmones fueron extraídos y se evaluaron mediante cortes histológicos. Resultados: Los grupos I y II (supervivencia del 100%, n=10) no desarrollaron sintomatología de intoxicación. Grupos III, IV y V predominaron síntomas respiratorios, diversos grados de edema pulmonar, enfisema, congestión vascular y hemorragia intra-alveolar focal. La eficacia de la NAC sobre la intoxicación por PQ en términos de sobrevivencia al primer día, fue del 100% y al segundo día, fue del 80% (p= 0,005; prueba Chi-cuadrado). El PQ indujo un proceso inflamatorio (agudo-crónico) por infiltrado de segmentados neutrófilos y linfocitos, lo cual fue revertido parcialmente por la administración inhalada de NAC. Conclusión: Los cambios histopatológicos observados a nivel pulmonar fueron aminorados por el tratamiento con NAC, lo que sugiere un posible efecto protector de este fármaco sobre el daño oxidativo inducido por el herbicida

Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl contact herbicide widely used in agriculture. Intoxication in humans by this agent causes pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluated pulmonary histological changes of rats intoxicated with PQ and treated with N-acetycysteine (NAC) administered via inhalation. We conducted a descriptive experimental study with 25 adult rats, male Wistar strain, divided into five groups. Group I was not administered PQ or NAC. Group II, received NAC inhaled at 15mg/kg daily c/12 hours. Group III, PQ orally (VO) 15mg/ kg. Group IV, PQ at 15mg/kg, by VO and at hour NAC 150mg/ kg. Group V, PQ at 15mg/kg, by VO and at six hours NAC dose of 150mg/kg. The lungs were extracted and evaluated by histological sections. Results: Groups I and II (100% survival, n=10) did not develop intoxication symptoms. Groups III, IV and V predominantly respiratory symptoms, various degrees of pulmonary edema, emphysema, vascular congestion and focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage. The efficacy of NAC on PQ poisoning in terms of survival on the first day was 100% and on the second day it was 80% (p = 0.005, Chi-square test). The PQ induced an inflammatory process (acute-chronic) by infiltration of segmented neutrophils and lymphocytes, which was partially reversed by the inhaled administration of NAC. Conclusion: The histopathological changes observed at the pulmonary level were reduced by the treatment with NAC, which suggests a possible protective effect of this drug on the oxidative damage induced by the herbicide.

Animals , Male , Rats , Paraquat/poisoning , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Herbicides/poisoning , Paraquat/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Administration, Inhalation , Survival Analysis , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Herbicides/administration & dosage
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 667-677, oct 2019. fig, graf
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1025940


The authors present a clinical and farmacological evaluation of the effect and safety of N-acetylcysteine in chronic obstructive diseases. The N-actylcysteine (NAC) is a sulphorated amino acid employed as an mucolytic agent. The efficacy and tolerability of oral NAC as compared with other agents was determined, in the mucolytic treatment on mucus hypersecretion and in the management of respiratory tract fluids and sputums from cigarette smokers, and also as a bronchial mucus fluidifying agent. A sistematic review and analysis of the effect of NAC and its effectiveness. In the treatment of acute respiratory disorders in children was determined

Humans , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromhexine/pharmacology , Respiratory Mucosa/physiopathology , Mucus/drug effects
Femina ; 47(9): 540-545, 20190930. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425749


A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é responsável por cerca de 80% dos casos de infertilidade anovulatória. Não há na literatura evidências suficientes para a definição do tratamento ideal da infertilidade na SOP, mas repete-se que deve ser iniciado por mudanças no estilo de vida, e frequentemente envolve a indução farmacológica da ovulação e, em casos selecionados, as técnicas de reprodução assistida e o drilling ovariano laparoscópico. Este texto pretende reunir informações atuais sobre o manejo da infertilidade em mulheres com SOP e, dessa forma, permitir ao ginecologista a escolha da melhor abordagem, de forma Individualizada e baseada nas melhores evidências disponíveis.(AU)

Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Infertility, Female/drug therapy , Anovulation/drug therapy , Ovulation Induction/methods , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Insemination, Artificial , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use , Aromatase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , In Vitro Oocyte Maturation Techniques , Gonadotropins/therapeutic use , Infertility, Female/surgery , Inositol/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(4): 1921-1927, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958662


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine and diosmin-hesperidin in an experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods: The study used 20 Wistar adult male rats divided into the following groups: control (laparotomy with no induction of abdominal sepsis), sepsis (experimental model of sepsis with cecal ligation and puncture), N-acetylcysteine + sepsis and diosmin-hesperidin + sepsis. The evaluation contemplated physiological parameters (temperature, glycemia, and average blood pressure), kidney function (creatinine clearance), oxidative stress (urinary peroxides) and kidney histology. Results: The animals submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis) presented lower body temperature, lower average blood pressure, reduced creatinine clearance and increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels. Treatment with diosmin-hesperidin improved kidney function and led to a reduction in the excretion of oxidative metabolites. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the protective antioxidant action of diosmin-hesperidin in the experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la acción antioxidante de agentes como la N-acetilcisteína y Diosmina-Hesperidina en modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis en ratones. Método: Fueron utilizados veinte ratones Wistar, adultos y machos, divididos en los grupos: Control (laparotomía sin inducción de sepsis abdominal), Sepsis (modelo experimental de sepsis con ligadura y punción de ciego-LPC), N-acelsisteína+Sepsis y Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepsis. Se evaluaron parámetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glucemia y presión arterial promedio), la función renal (clearance de creatinina), el estrés oxidativo (peróxidos urinarios) e histología renal. Resultados: Los animales sometidos a LPC (sepsis) presentaron reducción de la temperatura corporal, de la presión arterial promedio, del clearance de creatinina e incremento de niveles de peróxidos de hidrógeno urinarios. El tratamiento con Diosmina-Hesperidina mejoró la función renal, reduciendo la excreción de metabolitos oxidativos. Conclusión: Este estudio destacó la acción renoprotectora antioxidante de la Diosmina-Hesperidina en el modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antioxidante de agentes como a N-acetilcisteína e diosmina-hesperidina em modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse em ratos. Método: Foram utilizados vinte ratos Wistar, adultos e machos, divididos nos seguintes grupos: Controle (laparotomia sem indução de sepse abdominal), Sepse (modelo experimental de sepse com ligadura e punção do cécum- LPC), N-acetilcisteína+Sepse e Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepse. Foram avaliados parâmetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glicemia e pressão arterial média), função renal (clearance de creatinina), estresse oxidativo (peróxidos urinários) e histologia renal. Resultados: Os animais submetidos à LPC (sepse) apresentaram redução da temperatura corporal, da pressão arterial média, do clearance de creatinina e elevação nos níveis de peróxidos de hidrogênio urinários. O tratamento com a Diosmina-Hesperidina melhorou a função renal com redução na excreção dos metabólitos oxidativos. Conclusão: Este estudo destacou a ação renoprotetora antioxidante da Diosmina-Hesperidina no modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse.

Animals , Rats , Sepsis/complications , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Brazil , Cecum/drug effects , Cecum/injuries , Sepsis/drug therapy , Diosmin/therapeutic use , Diosmin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(2): 129-134, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958390


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, selenium and vitamin C on the incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery. Methods: 291 patients requiring elective off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery were randomized to receive either N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium 600 mg, 1500 mg, 0.5 mg, and nothing orally twice a day, respectively, from the day before to 2 days after surgery. They were assessed for the development of acute kidney injury using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, time of onset, its severity and duration, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: 272 patients completed the study. The total incidence of acute kidney injury was 22.1% (n=60) with 14 (20.9%), 15 (22.1%), 21 (31.8%), and 10 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin C, NAC, selenium, and control groups, respectively (P=0.096). We did not register significant differences in the incidence, the time of occurrence, the severity and the duration of acute kidney injury, as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and the in-hospital mortality among the four groups. Conclusion: We found that perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium were not effective in preventing acute kidney injury and associated morbidity and mortality after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Selenium/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk Assessment , Creatinine/blood , Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Length of Stay
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(4): 537-539, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886983


Abstract: Trichotillomania is considered a behavioral disorder and is characterized by the recurring habit of pulling one's hair, resulting in secondary alopecia. It affects 1% of the adult population, and 2 to 4.4% of psychiatric patients meet the diagnostic criteria. It can occur at any age and is more prevalent in adolescents and females. Its occurrence in childhood is not uncommon and tends to have a more favorable clinical course. The scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes are the most commonly affected sites. Glutamate modulating agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to be a promising treatment. N-acetylcysteine acts by reducing oxidative stress and normalizing glutaminergic transmission. In this paper, we report a case of trichotillomania with an excellent response to N-acetylcysteine.

Humans , Male , Child , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/etiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(1): 118-120, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf


ABSTRACT Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm.

Humans , Female , Child , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/diagnosis , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Pimozide/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/drug therapy , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Doxepin/therapeutic use
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(2): e5801, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839250


We determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) protein and superoxide anion generation (SAG), two important players in the processing of neuropathic pain, in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was also measured to assess the functional recovery post-nerve lesion. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided equally into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve), which received 2, 4, or 8 intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) or saline beginning 4 h after CCI. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after CCI. The SFI was measured on these days and the lumbosacral spinal cord was used for analysis of p-p38 expression and SAG. CCI induced a decrease in SFI as well as an increase in p-p38 expression and SAG in the spinal cord. The SFI showed a partial recovery at day 7 in saline-treated CCI rats, but recovery was improved in NAC-treated CCI rats. NAC induced a downregulation in p-p38 expression at all time-points evaluated, but did not reverse the increased SAG induced by CCI. Since p-p38 is a mediator in neuropathic pain and/or nerve regeneration, modulation of this protein may play a role in NAC-induced effects in CCI rats.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Neuralgia/drug therapy , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Superoxides/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Constriction, Pathologic , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Neuralgia/etiology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Pain Threshold , Phosphorylation/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord/metabolism
J. bras. pneumol ; 42(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-776473


Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection.

Objetivo : Investigar os efeitos da N-acetilcisteína (NAC) e pentoxifilina em um modelo de lesão pulmonar remota após isquemia/reperfusão (I/R) de membro posterior em ratos. Métodos : Trinta e cinco ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em cinco grupos (n = 7/grupo), cada qual submetido ao seguinte: operação simulada (grupo controle); isquemia de membro posterior, induzida por pinçamento da artéria femoral esquerda por 2 h, seguida por de 24 h de reperfusão (grupo I/R); e isquemia de membro posterior, como descrito acima, seguida de injeção intraperitoneal (antes da reperfusão) de 150 mg/kg de NAC (grupo I/R+NAC), 40 mg/kg de pentoxifilina (grupo I/R+PTX) ou ambas (grupo I/R+NAC+PTX). Ao final do experimento, tecidos pulmonares foram removidos para análise histológica e avaliação do estresse oxidativo. Resultados : Comparados aos ratos dos outros grupos, os do grupo I/R apresentaram menor atividade de superóxido dismutase e menores níveis de glutationa, além de maiores níveis de malondialdeído e maiores escores de lesão pulmonar (p < 0,05 para todos). Infiltração celular inflamatória intersticial dos pulmões também foi bem maior no grupo I/R do que nos outros grupos. Além disso, os ratos do grupo I/R apresentaram vários sinais de edema intersticial e hemorragia. Nos grupos I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX e I/R+NAC+PTX, a atividade de superóxido dismutase, níveis de glutationa, níveis de malondialdeído e escores de lesão pulmonar foram preservados (p < 0,05 para todos). As diferenças entre a administração de NAC ou pentoxifilina isoladamente e a das duas combinadas não foi significativa para nenhum desses parâmetros (p > 0,05 para todos). Conclusões : Nossos resultados sugerem que tanto NAC quanto pentoxifilina protegem o tecido pulmonar dos efeitos de I/R de músculo esquelético. Entretanto, seu uso combinado não parece aumentar o nível dessa proteção.

Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lung Injury/prevention & control , Lung/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Glutathione/analysis , Hindlimb/blood supply , Lung Injury/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 32(1): 61-64, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-946809


Las ictiosis son trastornos generalizados de la queratinización, que se caracterizan por presentar hiperqueratosis y/o descamación. El tratamiento es sintomático e incluye terapias tópicas y sistémicas. La N-Acetilcisteína (NAC) tópica ha mostrado utilidad en algunos reportes. Se describirá la experiencia con el uso de NAC 10% y urea 5% en novobase II (NB II) en 6 pacientes con distintos tipos de ictiosis hereditarias. Caso Nº1: Escolar masculino de 7 años con Ictiosis lamelar (IL) en tratamiento con fórmula de NAC hace 4 años con buena respuesta. Caso N°2, 3 y 4: Escolar masculino de 7 años, escolar masculino de 5 años y lactante masculino de 1 año 8 meses con Ictiosis recesiva ligada a X (IRLX), en tratamiento con fórmula de NAC con buena respuesta. Caso N°5: Mujer de 18 años con Eritrodermia ictiosiforme congénita (EIC), inicia tratamiento con fórmula de NAC, pero se suspende por mala tolerancia. Caso N°6: Preescolar femenina de 3 años, con Ictiosis epidermolítica (IE), inicia tratamiento con fórmula de NAC con mala tolerancia por lo que también se suspende. Se evaluaron los efectos de la fórmula de NAC en diferentes tipos de ictiosis, mostrando un buen perfil de seguridad y eficacia en IL e IRLX, sin embargo, en EIC e IE su uso estuvo restringido por efectos adversos. El tratamiento con fórmula de NAC presenta buena respuesta y tolerancia en pacientes con IL e IRLX, por lo que podría considerarse en el tratamiento habitual de estos pacientes.

Ichthyosis are generalized disorders of keratinization, characterized by hyperkeratosis and/or scaling. Treatment is symptomatic and includes topical and systemic therapies. Topical N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown utility in some reports. We describe the experience using 10% NAC and 5% urea in novobase II (NB II) in 6 patients with different types of hereditary ichthyosis. Case N°1: 7-year-old boy with lamellar Ichthyosis (IL) in treatment with NAC formula 4 years ago, with good response. Case N°2, 3 and 4: 7-year-old boy, 5-year-old boy and 1-year-8-month-old male infant, with X-recessive recessive Ichthyosis (IRLX) in treatment with NAC formula with good response. Case N°5: An 18-year-old woman with congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (EIC) begins treatment with NAC formula but is discontinued because of poor tolerance. Case No. 6:3-year-old girl, with epidermolytic Ichthyosis (IE), starts treatment with NAC formula with poor tolerance and is also suspended. The effects of the NAC formula on different types of ichthyosis were evaluated, showing a good safety and efficacy profile in IL and IRLX, however, in EIC and IE, its use was restricted by adverse effects. Treatment with NAC formula has a good response and tolerance in patients with IL and IRLX, so it could be considered in the usual treatment of these patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Ichthyosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Acetylcysteine/adverse effects , Urea/therapeutic use , Administration, Topical , Free Radical Scavengers/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(5): 58-65, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764546


Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed.Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage.Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed.Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs).Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements.

Introdução: a ancoragem ortodôntica é um dos aspectos mais desafiadores da Ortodontia. A prevenção de movimentos dentários indesejados poderia resultar em um tratamento ortodôntico mais seguro e menos complexo. Recentemente, foram publicadas várias revisões de literatura sobre os efeitos de diferentes substâncias na fisiologia do tecido ósseo e os efeitos colaterais clínicos na Ortodontia. Porém, os efeitos da aplicação local dessas substâncias no grau de movimentação dentária ortodôntica não foram avaliados.Objetivos: o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi analisar a evidência científica publicada na literatura sobre os efeitos de diferentes substâncias na ancoragem ortodôntica.Métodos: a literatura foi sistematicamente revisada utilizando-se as bases de dados PubMed/Medline, Scopus e Cochrane, de 2000 a 31 de julho de 2014. Os artigos foram selecionados, de maneira independente, por dois pesquisadores diferentes, tendo como base critérios de inclusão e exclusão previamente estabelecidos, com um índice Kappa de concordância de 0,86. A qualidade metodológica dos artigos revisados foi analisada.Resultados: a estratégia de pesquisa identificou 270 artigos; 25 artigos foram selecionados após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, mas apenas 11 foram qualificados para a análise final. As substâncias envolvidas na ancoragem ortodôntica foram divididas em três grupos principais: osteoprotegerina (OPG), bisfosfonatos (BFs) e outras substâncias (OSs).Conclusões: diferentes substâncias são capazes de alterar o ciclo de remodelação óssea, influenciando na função dos osteoclastos e, portanto, na movimentação dentária. Sendo assim, essas substâncias podem ser utilizadas para promover o máximo de ancoragem e prevenir movimentos indesejados. A OPG foi a substância mais eficaz no bloqueio da ação dos osteoclastos, reduzindo os movimentos indesejados.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Clodronic Acid/therapeutic use , Clodronic Acid/pharmacology , Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures/methods , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Resveratrol , Zoledronic Acid , Pamidronate , Imidazoles/pharmacology