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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928259


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical effect of scar tissue suture at the broken end of Achilles tendon after gastrocnemius aponeurosis release in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 17 patients with old achilles tendon rupture treated from January 2017 to December 2019 were analyzed retrospectively, including 15 males and 2 females, aged 26 to 53 years with an average of (35.2±11.6) years old, and the time from injury to operation was 37 to 92 days with an average of (49.3±13.3) days. Myerson's classification included 6 cases of typeⅡ and 11 cases of typeⅢ. The defect of the broken end of Achilles tendon was 2 to 5 cm with an average of(4.1±1.5) cm after partial scar tissue was removed. All patients were treated with gastrocnemius aponeurosis, appropriate excision of scar tissue at the broken end of Achilles tendon and direct suture. The continuity and healing of Achilles tendon were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound 3 months after operation. The ankle plantar flexor strength was measured by ankle plantar flexor strength tester before operation and 1 year after operation. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle hindfoot score (AOFAS) and Achilles tendon rupture score were used before operation and 1 year after operation Achilles tendon total fracture score (ATRS) was used to evaluate the clinical rehabilitation of Achilles tendon rupture.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months with an average of(13.6±1.8) months. The surgical incision healed in stageⅠ. Color Doppler ultrasound showed good continuity of Achilles tendon, local Achilles tendon slightly thickened and irregular fiber direction. The ankle plantar flexor force (92.2±3.9) N at 1 year after operation was significantly higher than that before operation (29.5±4.2) N (P<0.05);One year after operation, the AOFAS(91.20±3.30) was significantly higher than that before operation (42.20±4.40)(P<0.05);the ATRS (90.70±3.00) was significantly higher than that before operation(40.00±2.90)(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The gastrocnemius aponeurosis release combined with scar suture of Achilles tendon end is an effective technique for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture, avoid injury to hallux flexor longus or flexor digitorum longus, with the plantar flexor muscle strength of the ankle was recovered well, is an effective method to treat chronic Achilles tendon rupture.

Achilles Tendon/surgery , Adult , Aponeurosis , Cicatrix , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Rupture/surgery , Sutures , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928258


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical effect of modified medial J-shaped incision of Achilles tendon combined with fascia lata transplantation in the treatment of Kuwada typeⅡand Ⅲ Achilles tendon defects.@*METHODS@#From January 2016 to August 2018, the clinical data of 15 patients with KuwadaⅡand Ⅲ Achilles tendon defects treated with modified J-shaped approach with autologous fascia lata transplantation were retrospectively analyzed, including 14 males and 1 female, with an average age of 31.7 years old ranging from 24 to 43. There were 9 cases of KuwadaⅡdefect and 6 cases of KuwadaⅢ defect. Postoperative observations were made for incision complications, and the Arner-Lindholm scoring standard was used to evaluate the function of the affected foot at the last follow-up.@*RESULTS@#All 15 cases were followed up from 3 to 16 months with an average of 9.2 months. No skin necrosis or infection occurred after operation, and no Achilles tendon rupture occurred again. According to the Arner-Lindholm scoring standard, 13 cases were excellent, 2 cases were good.@*CONCLUSION@#Modified medial J-shaped incision is a satisfactory approach for repairing Achilles tendon defects. It is helpful to prevent postoperative incision complications, which double-strengthen the Achilles tendon strength, so that patients can perform early rehabilitation and functional exercises with satisfactory clinical results.

Achilles Tendon/surgery , Adult , Fascia Lata , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928257


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the morphological, histological and ultrastructural changes of acute closed rupture of Achilles tendon, in order to clarify the pathological basis of the injury and to explore the significance.@*METHODS@#From January 2015 to January 2019, 35 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture who underwent the minimally invasive Achilles tendon suture technique were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 12 cases in acute open Achilles tendon rupture group included 10 males and 2 females, with an average age of (35.1±9.7) years old ranging from 19 to 50, and the time from injury to operation was 2 to 8 hours with an average of(5.6±1.8);23 cases in acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group included 21 males and 2 females, with an average age of (35.5±6.6) years old ranging from 18 to 50, and the time from injury to operation was 3 to 15 hours with an average of (7.5±3.1). The gross appearance and imaging findings of the broken end of Achilles tendon tissue in the two groups were compared by naked eye observation and foot and ankle MRI at 4 to 6 hours before operation. HE staining, scanning and fluoroscopic electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry(Sirius red staining) were performed on the intraoperative Achilles tendon tissue specimens at 1 to 2 days after operation, the collagen fiber degeneration and local fat infiltration, collagen fiber shape, cell morphology and function, and the distribution of typeⅠand type Ⅲ collagen fibers in Achilles tendon were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the acute open Achilles tendon rupture group, the acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group had poor elasticity, hard texture, moderate edema, irregular shape of Achilles tendon broken end, horsetail shape, and more calcification around the broken end. HE staining results:the collagen fibers in the Achilles tendon of the acute open Achilles tendon rupture group were arranged irregularly, with hyaline degeneration and fat infiltration;The results of electron microscopy showed that collagen arranged disorderly and fibroblasts atrophied in the acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group. Immunohistochemical(Sirius staining) results:the proportion of collagenⅠin the acute open Achilles tendon rupture group and the acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group was(91.12±4.34)% and(54.71±17.78)% respectively, and the proportion of collagen Ⅲ was (8.88±4.34)% and (45.29±17.78)% respectively. The content of collagenⅠin the acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group was lower than that in the acute open Achilles tendon rupture group, and the content of collagen Ⅲ in the acute closed Achilles tendon rupture group was higher than that in the acute open Achilles tendon rupture group(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the acute closed ruptured Achilles tendon are significantly altered compared with the normal Achilles tendon. The original fine and orderly spatial structure cannot be maintained, part of collagen Ⅰ is replaced by collagen Ⅲ, and the toughness and strength of the tendon tissue decreased, which may be the feature of degeneration of the Achilles tendon and an important pathological basis for closed Achilles tendon rupture.

Achilles Tendon/surgery , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rupture/surgery , Suture Techniques , Tendon Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378017


Introducción: Las técnicas mínimamente invasivas son las preferidas para tratar las roturas agudas del tendón de Aquiles. Representan una opción para evitar las complicaciones tegumentarias, y la lesión del nervio sural es uno de sus principales problemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la utilidad de la ecografía para prevenir la lesión del nervio sural durante la reparación del tendón de Aquiles con técnicas percutáneas. materiales y métodos: Estudio en 12 piezas cadavéricas. Se recreó una lesión en el tendón de Aquiles 5 cm proximales de su inserción distal. En uno de los miembros del cadáver, se identificó el nervio sural o su vena satélite mediante ecografía. Se reparó el nervio sural por vía percutánea con dos agujas proximales y dos agujas distales a la lesión, y se representó el recorrido del nervio sural. En el miembro contralateral, no se identificó el nervio sural mediante ecografía. Se efectuó la reparación percutánea de las lesiones mediante la técnica de Ma y Griffith. Resultados: En el grupo ecográfico, no se identificaron lesiones del nervio sural. En el grupo de control, se observaron dos lesiones del nervio sural (p = 0,6). En todos los casos, la identificación del nervio sural mediante ecografía fue correcta. Conclusión: La asistencia ecográfica en el tratamiento percutáneo de las lesiones del tendón de Aquiles es un método eficaz y confiable para evitar las lesiones del nervio sural. Nivel de Evidencia: III

Introduction: Minimally invasive techniques are preferred to treat acute Achilles tendon ruptures. They represent an option to avoid integumentary complications, and sural nerve injury is one of its main problems. This study aims to verify the usefulness of ultrasound in preventing sural nerve injury during Achilles repair with percutaneous techniques. materials and methods: Study in 12 cadaveric pieces. We recreated an injury at the level of the Achilles tendon, 5 cm proximally to its distal insertion. In one of the cadaver limbs, the sural nerve and/or its satellite vein were identified by ultrasonography. We repaired the sural nerve percutaneously with two needles at the proximal level and two needles at the distal level of the lesion and represented the path of the sural nerve. In the contralateral limb, the sural nerve was not identified by ultrasound. We performed the percutaneous repair of the injuries using the Ma & Griffith technique. Results: In the ultrasound group, no sural nerve injuries were identified. In the control group, two sural nerve injuries were observed (p=0.6). In all cases, the identification of the sural nerve by ultrasound was correct. Conclusion: Ultrasound assistance in the percutaneous treatment of Achilles tendon injuries is an effective and reliable method to prevent sural nerve injuries. Level of Evidence: III

Achilles Tendon/surgery , Achilles Tendon/injuries , Sural Nerve/injuries , Ultrasonography , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Ankle Joint/surgery
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(4): 432-437, July-Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341175


Abstract Objective Sound experimental data suggest that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tendinopathies. However, this hypothesis in humans remains speculative given that clinical data are lacking to confirm it. Recently, a new methodology has allowed to quantify the oxidative stress in vivo by measuring the concentration of hydroperoxides of organic compounds, which have been utilized as an oxidative stressrelated marker in several pathologic and physiologic conditions. Given the reliability of this test and the lack of information in subjects with tendinopathies, the aim of the present study was to assess the oxidative stress status in elite professional soccer players with and without ultrasonographic features of tendon damage. Methods In 73 elite players, blood metabolic parameters were evaluated and oxidative stress was measured by means of a specific test (expressed as U-Carr units). Therefore, an ultrasonographic evaluation of the Achilles and patellar tendons was performed. Results No significant relationships were observed between metabolic parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers. The Achilles and patellar tendons showed a normal echographic pattern in 58 athletes, and sonographic abnormalities in 15. The athletes with ultrasonographic alterations, compared to those with normal US picture, showed significantly higher U-Carr levels (p = 0.000), body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.03) and were older (p = 0.005). The difference in U-Carr values among the subjects remained significant also after adjustment for age and BMI. Conclusion The results of the present study support the hypothesis that oxidative substances, also increasedat systemicand notonlyat local level, mayfavor tendon damage. Level of Evidence IV (pilot study).

Resumo Objetivo Dados experimentais ultrassonográficos sugerem que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel importante na patogênese das tendinopatias. No entanto, essa hipótese permanece especulativa em humanos, dado que faltam dados clínicos para comprová-la. Recentemente, uma nova metodologia permitiu quantificar o estresse oxidativo in vivo medindo a concentração de hidroperóxidos de compostos orgânicos, que tem sido utilizada como um marcador relacionado ao estresse oxidativo em várias condições patológicas e fisiológicas. Dada a confiabilidade desse teste e a falta de informação em sujeitos com tendinopatias, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o status de estresse oxidativo em jogadores profissionais de elite com e sem características ultrassonográficas de dano tendinoso. Métodos Em 73 jogadores de elite foram avaliados parâmetros metabólicos e o estresse oxidativo foi medido por meio de um teste específico (expresso como unidades U-Carr). Por isso, foi realizada uma avaliação ultrassonográfica dos tendões de Aquiles e patelar. Resultados Não foram observadas relações significativas entre parâmetros metabólicos e biomarcadores de estresse oxidativo. Os tendões de Aquiles e patelar mostraram um padrão ecográfico normal em 58 atletas, e anormalidades ultrassonográficas em 15. Os atletas com alterações, em comparação com aqueles com quadro normal, apresentaram níveis significativamente mais elevados de U-Carr (p = 0,000), índice de massa corporal (IMC) (p = 0,03) e eram mais velhos (p = 0,005). A diferença nos valores de U-Carr entre os sujeitos permaneceu significativa também após ajuste por idade e IMC. Conclusão Os resultados deste estudo corroboram a hipótese de que as substâncias oxidativas, também aumentadas a nível sistêmico e não apenas a nível local, podem favorecer danos no tendão. Nível de Evidência IV (estudo piloto).

Humans , Achilles Tendon/injuries , Achilles Tendon/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Patellar Ligament/diagnostic imaging , Oxidative Stress , Athletes , Football
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 360-367, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922355


PURPOSE@#To observe the changes of gait behavior and the expression of wound healing factors of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β3 and cAMP response element binding protein-1 (CREB-1) during the healing of Achilles tendon in a rat model, and to investigate whether gait analysis can be used to evaluate the tendon healing.@*METHODS@#Achilles tendon of 40 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were transected and sutured to establish the Achilles tendon injury (ATI) model. They were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the observational time point at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury (n = 10 for each group). Before modeling, 9 rats were randomly selected for CatWalk gait analysis, which contained step cycle, single stance time and average speed. Data were recorded as the normal controls. After then, ATI models were established in the left hind limbs of the all 40 rats (ATI group), while the right hind limbs were only cut and sutured without injury of the Achilles tendon (sham operation group). At 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after injury, the gait behavior of the corresponding group of rats (n = 9) as observed and recorded by CatWalk platform. After then, the rats were sacrificed and Achilles tendon of both limbs was harvested. The tendon healing was observed by gross anatomy and histological examination, and the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 were observed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The results of tendon gross grading were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test, and other data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance among multiple groups.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal controls, all gait indexes (step cycle, single stance time and average speed) were greatly affected following ATI, which however improved with time. The step cycle was significantly lower at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after ATI (compared with normal controls, all p  0.05). The single stance time of the ATI group was significantly shorter at 1 and 2 weeks after operation ((0.078 ± 0.010) s at 1 week, (0.078 ± 0.020) s at 2 weeks, all p < 0.001) and revealed no significant difference at 4 weeks (p = 0.120). The average speed of ATI group at 1, 2, 4, 6 weeks was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (all p < 0.001). Gross observation showed that the grade of local scar adhesion in ATI group increased significantly at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, compared with the sham operation group (all p < 0.001). Extensive adhesion was formed at 6 weeks after ATI. The results of HE staining showed that the number of fibroblast increased gradually and arranged more orderly in ATI group at 1, 2 and 4 weeks (all p < 0.001), and decreased at 6 weeks, but it was still significantly higher than that of the sham operation group (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed that the positive expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 in ATI group was higher than that in the sham operation group at 4 time points (all p < 0.05), which reached the peak at 2 weeks after operation and decreased at 4 weeks (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p = 0.041, respectively). The results of qPCR suggested that the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 in ATI group was higher than that in the sham operation group at all-time points (all p < 0.05), which reached the peak at 2 weeks after operation, decreased at 4 weeks, and significantly decreased at 6 weeks (all p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Gait behavior indexes are associated with Achilles tendon healing. The study gives an insight of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, CREB-1 changes in the coursing of Achilles tendon healing and these cytokines may be able to be used to regulate the Achilles tendon healing.

Achilles Tendon , Animals , CREB-Binding Protein , Gait Analysis , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta3 , Wound Healing
Acta cir. bras ; 36(4): e360407, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248542


ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of fibrin biopolymer sealant (FS) associated or not to aquatic exercise (AE) on the calcaneal tendon repair. Methods Forty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Lesion control (L), Lesion and FS (LS), Lesion and AE (LE) and Lesion and FS associated to AE (LSE). The edema volume (EV), collagen ratio, and histopathological analysis were evaluated after 7, 14, and 21 days of partial tendon transection. Results The EV was statistically reduced for all treatment groups after 7 and 21 days when compared to L group. The LS and LSE had the highest EV reduction after 21 days of treatment. The FS group didn't induce tissue necrosis or infections on the histopathological analysis. It was observed tenocytes proliferation, granulation tissue and collagen formation in the tendon partial transection area in the FS group. The LSE demonstrated higher amount of granulation tissue and increased the collagen deposition at the injury site. Conclusions Our data suggests that the therapeutic potential of the association of heterologous fibrin biopolymer sealant with aquatic exercise program should be further explored as it may stimulate the regeneration phase and optimize calcaneal tendon recovery.

Animals , Female , Rats , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Collagen , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 36(1): e360103, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152692


ABSTRACT Purpose: Histologically evaluate the effects of low frequency electrical stimulation in the treatment of Achilles tendon injuries in rats. Methods: Thirty-four rats underwent Achilles tendon tenotomy and tenorrhaphy. They were randomly allocated in two groups. Half of the sample constituted the experiment group, whose lesions were stimulated with 2 Hz, nonpolarized current and 1 mA, for 14 days. The other animals formed the control group. They were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The histological study was carried out, the collagen density and the wound maturity index were measured. Results: The healing score was higher in the group stimulated at the 6th week (p = 0.018). The density collagen 1 was higher in the group treated at the three times (p = 0.004) and that collagen 3 was higher in the group treated at 6 weeks (p = 0.004). Together, collagen 1 and 3 were higher in the group stimulated at 4 and 6 weeks (p = 0.009, p = 0.004). The maturity index was higher in this group at the three moments (p = 0.017 p = 0.004 and p = 0.009). Conclusion: Low frequency electric stimulation improved healing and increased the quantity of collagen.

Animals , Rats , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Tendon Injuries/therapy , Tenotomy , Wound Healing , Biomechanical Phenomena , Electric Stimulation
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353932


Introducción: Las técnicas quirúrgicas modernas buscan rehabilitar en forma temprana para una recuperación en menor tiempo. Las técnicas mínimamente invasivas son una opción para lograrlo. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad de comenzar una rehabilitación y la carga de peso en el posoperatorio inmediato utilizando una técnica mínimamente invasiva sin nudos y la evolución a los 6 meses de la cirugía. materiales y métodos: Se realizaron 10 reparaciones quirúrgicas de lesiones agudas del tendón de Aquiles con una técnica mínimamente invasiva sin nudo. Se utilizó el sistema combinado (PARS ­ SpeedBridgeTM original. A las 48 h se permitió la carga completa de forma progresiva, según tolerancia. Se evaluó el resultado final a los 6 meses utilizando el puntaje ATRS. Resultados: En promedio los pacientes tardaron 14 días en deambular sin muletas. Todos comenzaron la rehabilitación con movilidad activa y pasiva del tobillo durante la primera semana posoperatoria. El puntaje ATRS promedio fue de 79 (rango 60-90). Conclusión: Esta técnica ha demostrado ser una excelente opción quirúrgica en las lesiones agudas del tendón de Aquiles de media sustancia, pero no fue posible comenzar con la carga de peso inmediata debido al dolor o temor del paciente, pero sí con la rehabilitación dentro de la primera semana posquirúrgica. Nivel de Evidencia: IV

Introduction: Modern surgical techniques seek to rehabilitate early for recovery in less time. Minimally invasive techniques are one option to accomplish this. Objective: To evaluate the ability to start rehabilitation and weight bearing in the immediate post-operative period and the evolution at 6 months postoperative using a minimally invasive knotless technique. materials and methods: 10 surgical repairs of acute Achilles tendon injuries were performed with a minimally invasive technique. The original Arthrex combination system (PARS - SpeedBridgeTM) was used. After 48 hours, weight bearing was progressively allowed according to tolerance. The final outcome at 6 months was evaluated using the ATRS score. Results: On average, patients took 14 days to walk without crutches. All began rehabilitation with active and passive ankle range of motion during the first postoperative week. The average ATRS score was 79 points (between 60 and 90 points). Conclusion: This technique has proven to be an excellent surgical option in acute midsubstance Achilles tendon injuries. The patients were able to start rehabilitation within the first postoperative week, whereas immediate weight bearing was not possible, due to the patients ́ pain or fear. Level of Evidence: IV

Adult , Rehabilitation , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Acute Disease , Ankle Injuries , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
Clinics ; 76: e2803, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278922


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, ground reaction force (GRF), and function of the plantar muscles and dorsiflexors of the ankle in runners with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and in non-runners. METHODS: Seventy-two participants (42 men, 30 women; mean age: 37.3±9.9 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and divided into three groups: AT group (ATG, n=24), healthy runners' group (HRG, n=24), and non-runners' group (NRG, n=24). Both ankles were evaluated in each group. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale was used for clinical and functional evaluation. GRF was evaluated using force plates and muscle strength was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The AOFAS scores were lower in the ATG. The strike impulse was higher in the ATG than in the HRG and NRG. However, GRF was similar among the groups. The ATG exhibited lower total work at 120°/s speed than the HRG. The peak torque in concentric dorsiflexion was lower in the NRG than in the ATG and HRG. The peak torque and total work in concentric plantar flexion were lower in the NRG than in the ATG. The peak torque and total work in eccentric plantar flexion were lower in the NRG than in the ATG and HRG. CONCLUSION: Runners with AT showed higher strike impulse, lower muscle strength of the plantar flexors, and higher clinical and functional damage.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Achilles Tendon , Tendinopathy , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cross-Sectional Studies , Muscle, Skeletal , Torque , Muscle Strength , Ankle , Ankle Joint
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 665-672, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156191


Abstract The increasing incidence of calcaneal tendon ruptures has substantially impacted orthopedic care and costs related to its treatment and prevention. Primarily motivated by the increasing of life expectancy, the growing use of tenotoxic drugs and erratic access to physical activity, this injury accounts for considerable morbidity regardless of its outcome. In recent years, the evolution of surgical and rehabilitation techniques gave orthopedists better conditions to decide the most appropriate conduct in acute tendon rupture. Although still frequent due to their high neglect rate, Achilles chronic ruptures currently find simpler and more biological surgical options, being supported by a new specialty-focused paradigm.

Resumo A crescente incidência de rupturas do tendão calcâneo tem impactado substancialmente o cuidado ortopédico e os custos relacionados ao seu tratamento e prevenção. Motivada principalmente pelo aumento da expectativa de vida, o crescimento do uso de drogas tenotóxicas e o acesso errático à atividade física, essa lesão gera morbidade considerável aos pacientes qualquer seja o desfecho a ser considerado. A evolução das técnicas cirúrgicas e de reabilitação permitiu que ortopedistas, nos últimos anos, tivessem melhores condições para decidir a conduta mais apropriada nas roturas agudas do tendão calcâneo. Por mais que ainda frequentes pela sua alta taxa de negligência, as rupturas crônicas do Aquiles hoje encontram opções operatórias biológicas mais simples e são amparadas por um novo paradigma que se debruça sobre a especialidade.

Humans , Achilles Tendon , Calcaneus , Exercise , Acute Disease , Incidence , Disease Prevention , Orthopedic Surgeons , Motor Activity
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 657-664, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156185


Abstract Calcaneal tendon injuries are extremely common in the general population and in orthopedics routine care. Its increasing incidence, which is motivated by an aging population, improved access to the health care system, increased prescription of continuous-use medication, erratic participation in sports and other factors, has had a direct impact on society. Consolidated treatment options for tendinopathies lack quality scientific support for many modalities. New therapies have emerged to enhance nonsurgical approach outcomes and to reduce the number of patients requiring surgery. Although these operative procedures provide good pain relief and functional outcomes, they are costly and may lead to complications.

Resumo As afecções que acometem o tendão calcâneo são extremamente comuns na população geral e no cotidiano da atenção ortopédica. Sua crescente incidência, motivada pelo envelhecimento da população, pela melhora no acesso à saúde, pelo aumento na utilização de drogas de uso contínuo, pela errática participação esportiva e outros fatores, tem causado impacto direto na sociedade. As tendinopatias, ainda que hoje respaldadas por tratamentos consolidados, carecem de suporte científico de qualidade para muitas das suas recomendações. Novas terapêuticas têm surgido com o objetivo de potencializar o resultado da abordagem não-operatória e diminuir a quantidade de pacientes que necessitam de uma cirurgia. Esses procedimentos operatórios apresentam uma boa resposta álgica e funcional dos pacientes, no entanto não são livres de complicações e dos altos custos que os cercam.

Pain , Achilles Tendon , Sports , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Aging , Acute Disease , Incidence , Costs and Cost Analysis , Delivery of Health Care , Tendinopathy
Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol ; 34(1): e219, ene.-jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139113


RESUMEN Introducción: La ruptura espontánea del tendón de Aquiles es una afección frecuente en los pacientes jóvenes que practican deportes. Cuando no se realiza el diagnóstico inicial, pasa a ser una lesión crónica, donde su diagnóstico y tratamiento es aún más complejo. En la mayoría de estos casos son necesarios los injertos tendinosos. Objetivo: Demostrar la eficacia y resultados clínicos funcionales de la reparación quirúrgica de la ruptura crónica del tendón de Aquiles mediante transferencia del tendón peroneo lateral corto. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino de 38 años de edad con antecedentes de una caída mientras practicaba deportes. Se constató ruptura crónica del tendón de Aquiles. Se realizó una cirugía a cielo abierto, con transferencia tendinosa del tendón peroneo lateral corto hacia el cabo distal del tendón de Aquiles. Se reforzó la plastia con el tendón del plantar delgado. Se colocó una inmovilización tipo bota para el tobillo con 30o de flexión plantar por seis semanas. Pasado este tiempo, se colocó una bota de marcha y comenzó la deambulación, así como la rehabilitación con apoyo parcial hasta cumplir tres meses. A los seis meses se incorporó a su vida normal con adecuada función del pie y el tobillo. Conclusiones: La reparación quirúrgica de la ruptura crónica del tendón de Aquiles mediante transferencia del tendón peroneo lateral corto constituye un método eficaz y ofrece buenos resultados clínicos y funcionales(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon is a frequent condition in young patients who practice sports. When the initial diagnosis is not made, it becomes a chronic injury, consequently, diagnosis and treatment is even more complex. In most of these cases, tendon grafts are necessary. Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and functional clinical results of the surgical repair of the chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon by transferring the short lateral peroneal tendon. Case report: We report the case of a 38-year-old male patient with a history of a fall while playing sports. A chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon was found. Open surgery was performed, the short lateral peroneal tendon was transferred to the distal end of the Achilles tendon. The plasty was reinforced with the thin plantar tendon. Ankle boot-type immobilization was placed with 30° plantar flexion for six weeks. After this time, the patient received a walker boot, ambulation and rehabilitation began. The latter started with partial support during three months. At six months this patient returned to his normal life with adequate foot and ankle function. Conclusions: Surgical repair of chronic Achilles tendon rupture by transferring the short lateral peroneal tendon is an effective method and offers good clinical and functional results(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Rupture/surgery , Achilles Tendon/injuries , Tendon Transfer/methods , Lateral Ligament, Ankle/transplantation
Acta ortop. mex ; 34(1): 43-46, ene.-feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345084


Resumen: El pie equinovaro aducto congénito (PEVAC) es uno de los padecimientos más comunes en Ortopedia Pediátrica, el cual se compone del equino del retropié, el varo subastragalino, el aducto del antepié y el cavo del mediopié. El método de Ponseti es el tratamiento universalmente aceptado para el PEVAC; éste consta de tres fases: manipulación y enyesado, tenotomía del tendón de Aquiles y una fase de mantenimiento. El mayor porcentaje de las recaídas se presenta en la fase de mantenimiento; en la mayoría de los casos, está asociado el apego familiar deficiente. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con PEVAC típico, tratado en cuatro ocasiones con el método de Ponseti y que no requirió tratamiento quirúrgico.

Abstract: The clubfoot is one of the most common conditions in Pediatric Orthopedics, may affect each part of the foot and ankle, equinus, varus, and internal rotation of the calcaneum, and true equinus of the ankle are common. The Ponseti method is an universally accepted treatment, consisting of three phases: manipulation and plaster, Achilles tendon tenotomy and maintenance phase. The highest percentage of relapses occurs in the maintenance phase and the deficient family member is associated in most cases. We present a clinical case of a patient with typical clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method on four occasions without the need of surgical treatment.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Clubfoot/surgery , Tenotomy , Casts, Surgical , Treatment Outcome , Ankle Joint
Acta ortop. mex ; 34(1): 2-5, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345076


Resumen: Introducción: La parálisis cerebral infantil es una lesión cerebral no progresiva que ocurre antes, durante o después del parto y provoca daño neurológico variable que oscila de leve hasta discapacitante. La deformidad en el pie equino se trata conservadoramente en edades tempranas, pero ¿cuándo está indicado el manejo quirúrgico? Objetivo: Determinar la edad óptima para el manejo quirúrgico del pie equino en pacientes con PCI. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en pacientes con diagnóstico de PCI (todos los tipos), tratados quirúrgicamente con alargamiento del tendón de Aquiles abierto o percutáneo y valorados con notas de la consulta externa; los pacientes tuvieron de 1-16 años y un seguimiento promedio de seis años, valorándose la marcha con recidiva de deformidad y la marcha plantígrada. Resultados: Se analizaron 55 pacientes, 74 con pie equino (29 niñas y 45 niños); de éstos, presentaron más recidivas los operados antes de los seis años de edad, con un período vulnerable entre los cuatro y seis años. La monoplejía registró 100% de recidivas, mientras que la triplejía 0%. La cirugía abierta se asoció con recurrencia en 50% y la cirugía percutánea sólo en 19%. Conclusiones: En nuestra institución, se sugiere que la edad óptima de la cirugía esté entre los 6-12 años. Es preferible la técnica percutánea sobre la abierta, debiendo poner mayor atención en el seguimiento de la monoplejía.

Abstract: Introduction: Childhood cerebral palsy, a non-progressive brain injury, occurs before, during or after delivery, with variable neurological damage from mild to disabling. The deformity in equine is treated conservatively at an early age, but when is surgical management indicated? Objective: Our goal was to determine the optimal age for surgical management of the equine foot in CCP patients. Material and methods: Retrospective study, in patients diagnosed with CCP (all types), treated surgically with open or percutaneous Achilles tendon elongation, assessed with external consultation notes, in patients aged 1-16 years, and average follow-up of 6 years, evaluating progress with relapse of deformity and gait with plantigrade support. Results: 55 patients, 74 equinus feet (29 in girls, 45 in boys) were analyzed with surgical treatment. Those treated before six years old presented relapses, with vulnerable period in 4-6 years. Monoplegia presented 100% relapses, and triplegia presented 0%. Open surgery presented 50% recurrence and percutaneous technique only 19%. Conclusion: In our institution, the optimal age is suggested in 6-12 years. Percutaneous technique over the open, should be preferred, and greater attention should be paid to monitoring monoplexy.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Achilles Tendon , Equinus Deformity/surgery , Equinus Deformity/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/surgery , Cerebral Palsy/complications , Retrospective Studies , Gait , Horses
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811129


There is no clear consensus on the optimal treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Recently, studies have demonstrated the critical role of functional rehabilitation in the treatment of ruptured Achilles tendons. Hence, conservative treatment is preferred by a growing number of surgeons seeking to treat the condition without the risk of complications from surgery. However, operative treatment is still considered as a more reliable treatment option for acute Achilles tendon rupture. In this review article, we provide an overview of recent treatment strategies for acute rupture of the Achilles tendon.

Achilles Tendon , Consensus , Rehabilitation , Rupture , Surgeons
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811116


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the results of the standard once-weekly Ponseti casting technique to an accelerated twice-weekly regimen in our population cohort.METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted with a total of 100 consecutive patients (158 feet) being enrolled for the study. Fifty patients were randomized to each group and followed up for at least one year.RESULTS: Initial mean Pirani score was 4.67 ± 0.73 in the standard group and 4.35 ± 0.76 in the accelerated group, and the score decreased to 0.34 ± 0.38 and 0.35 ± 0.31, respectively. Initial mean Dimeglio score was 11.75 ± 2.75 in the standard group and 10.51 ± 2.57 in the accelerated group, and the score decreased to 0.79 ± 0.77 and 0.79 ± 0.71, respectively, immediately after casting. The average number of casts required to correct all the deformities was 6.3 ± 1.2 in the standard group and 6.1 ± 1.4 in the accelerated group (p = 0.45). Average time spent in cast was 58.2 ± 8.3 days in the standard group and 39.5 ± 5.2 days in the accelerated group (p < 0.001). Percutaneous Achilles tendon tenotomy was done in 86.42% in the standard group and in 84.41% in the accelerated group (p = 0.72). Final results were assessed by using a modified functional rating scoring system: 55.55% clubfeet had excellent results and 44.45% had good results in the standard group, whereas 66.23% clubfeet had excellent results and 33.77% had good results in the accelerated group. None amongst the two groups had fair or poor results.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the accelerated Ponseti technique significantly reduces the correction time without affecting the final results and that it is as safe and effective as the traditional Ponseti technique.

Achilles Tendon , Casts, Surgical , Clubfoot , Cohort Studies , Congenital Abnormalities , Foot Deformities , Humans , Prospective Studies , Tenotomy
Acta cir. bras ; 35(3): e202000303, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130621


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo response of photobiomodulation therapy associated with norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) membrane (PHB) in tenotomized calcaneal tendon. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n=5 each): LED groups (L1, L2 and L3) and membrane + LED groups (ML1, ML2 and ML3). The right calcaneal tendons of all animals were sectioned transversely and were irradiated with LED daily, one hour after surgery every 24 hours, until the day of euthanasia. At the end of the experiments the tendons were removed for histological analysis. Results: The histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory cells in the ML1, ML2 and ML3 groups (p=0.0056, p=0.0018 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to those in the LED group. There was greater proliferation of fibroblasts in the ML1 (p<0.0001) and L3 (p<0.0001) groups. A higher concentration of type I collagen was also observed in the ML1 group (p=0.0043) replacing type III collagen. Conclusion: Photobiomodulation in association with norbixin-based PHB membrane led to control of the inflammatory process. However, it did not favor fibroblast proliferation and did not optimize type I collagen formation in the expected stage of the repair process.

Animals , Male , Rats , Achilles Tendon/radiation effects , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Tendinopathy/radiotherapy , Tenotomy/methods , Hydroxybutyrates/pharmacology , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Achilles Tendon/drug effects , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/radiation effects , Random Allocation , Collagen/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Collagen Type I/analysis , Collagen Type I/drug effects , Collagen Type III/analysis , Collagen Type III/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/chemistry , Prohibitins
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 61(3): 112-115, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177827


OBJETIVO Presentación de un inusual caso de xantomatosis cerebrotendinosa en un paciente de edad cuya primera manifestación fueron xantomas bilaterales del tendón de Aquiles. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS Mujer de 62 años, que presenta tumoraciones, que presenta tumoraciones sólidas y polilobuladas, en la cara posterior de ambos tendones de Aquiles de 8 años de evolución. El diagnóstico se realizó mediante el hallazgo de hiperlipidemia y estudio genético. Se realió la exóresis quirúrgica parcial de las tumoraciones. RESULTADOS A los 5 años de la cirugía del pie izquierdo y 4 años del pie derecho la paciente estaba asintomática. Presentaba una fuerza para la flexión plantar bilateral de 5/5, pudiendo caminar y subir escaleras sin molestias. Presentaba una escala AOFAS de 85 y 90 puntos en el pie izquierdo y derecho, respectivamente. No hubo recidivas. DISCUSIÓN Los xantomas son depósitos de colesterol en el tejido conectivo de la piel, tendones o fascia, como resultado de una hiperlipoproteinemia. La importancia del caso radica en su sospecha diagnóstica, ya que la xantomatosis cerebrotendinosa suele manifestarse en pacientes de menos de 30 años de edad y en los que se ha recomendado la resección radical de las tumoraciones, e incluso del tendón, debido a las frecuentes recidivas. CONCLUSIÓN En pacientes de mayor edad con lesiones que infiltran el tendón, se puede optar por un tratamiento menos agresivo con un buen resultado clínico.

OBJETIVE Presentation of an unusual case of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis in an elderly patient whose first manifestation was bilateral Achilles tendon xanthomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS 62-year-old woman presenting solid and polylobed tumors on the posterior aspect of both Achilles tendons for eight years. The diagnosis was made by means of hyperlipidemia and a genetic study. Surgical partial excision of the tumors was performed. RESULTS Five years after surgery on the left foot and four years after the right foot, the patient was asymptomatic. Bilateral plantar flexion force was 5/5, The patient was able to walk and climb stairs without discomfort. AOFAS score was 85 and 90 on the left and right feet, respectively. There were no recurrences. DISCUSSION Xanthomatosis is a genetic alteration with deposits of cholesterol in connective tissue of the skin, tendons or fascia, because of hyperlipoproteinemia. The importance of the present case lies in its diagnostic suspicion, since cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis manifests usually in patients under 30 years of age and in whom radical resection of tumors, and even of the tendon, has been recommended due to frequent recurrences . CONCLUSION In older patients with tumors that infiltrate the tendon, a less aggressive treatment can be chosen with a good clinical result.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Achilles Tendon , Xanthomatosis/surgery , Xanthomatosis/diagnosis , Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous/complications , Tendinopathy/surgery , Tendinopathy/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Xanthomatosis/etiology , Xanthomatosis/diagnostic imaging , Tendinopathy/etiology , Tendinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Hyperlipidemias