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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Exposure to the ionizing radiation (IR) encountered outside the magnetic field of the Earth poses a persistent threat to the reproductive functions of astronauts. The potential effects of space IR on the circadian rhythms of male reproductive functions have not been well characterized so far.@*METHODS@#Here, we investigated the circadian effects of IR exposure (3 Gy X-rays) on reproductive functional markers in mouse testicular tissue and epididymis at regular intervals over a 24-h day. For each animal, epididymis was tested for sperm motility, and the testis tissue was used for daily sperm production (DSP), testosterone levels, and activities of testicular enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and acid phosphatase (ACP)), and the clock genes mRNA expression such as Clock, Bmal1, Ror-α, Ror-β, or Ror-γ.@*RESULTS@#Mice exposed to IR exhibited a disruption in circadian rhythms of reproductive markers, as indicated by decreased sperm motility, increased daily sperm production (DSP), and reduced activities of testis enzymes such as G6PDH, SDH, LDH, and ACP. Moreover, IR exposure also decreased mRNA expression of five clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Ror-α, Ror-β, or Ror-γ) in testis, with alteration in the rhythm parameters.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings suggested potential health effects of IR exposure on reproductive functions of male astronauts, in terms of both the daily overall level as well as the circadian rhythmicity.


Subject(s)
ARNTL Transcription Factors/genetics , Acid Phosphatase , Animals , CLOCK Proteins/genetics , Circadian Rhythm/radiation effects , Epididymis/radiation effects , Gene Expression/radiation effects , Genitalia, Male/radiation effects , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 1/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 2/genetics , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Radiation Exposure , Radiation, Ionizing , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena/radiation effects , Sperm Motility/radiation effects , Spermatozoa/radiation effects , Testis/radiation effects
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 199-207, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088910

ABSTRACT

The target cp1002_RS01850 from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was used to construct a DNA and recombinant subunit vaccine against caseous lymphadenitis. Recombinant protein rCP01850 was expressed in Escherichia coli using pAE vector, and DNA vaccine was engineered with pTARGET vector. BALB/c mice were divided in five groups containing eight animals each, inoculated with: pTARGET/cp01850 as DNA vaccine (G1); rCP01850 plus Al (OH)3 as recombinant subunit vaccine (G2); pTARGET/cp01850 and a boost with rCP01850 plus Al (OH)3 (G3); pTARGET (G4); or Al (OH)3 (G5). Mice were inoculated and blood samples were collected on days 0, 21, and 42 for the analysis of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a by ELISA. In each group, five animals were challenged with Mic-6 C. pseudotuberculosis strain, and three were used for cytokine quantification by qPCR. Although no group has been protected by vaccines against lethal challenge, G2 showed an increase in the survival rate after challenge. Significantly higher levels of IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were also detected for G2, evidencing a mixed Th1/Th2 immunological profile. In conclusion, despite no protection level provided by different vaccinal strategies using cp1002_RS01850 from C. pseudotuberculosis, G2 developed a Th1/Th2 immune response with an increase in survival rate.(AU)


O alvo cp1002_RS01850 de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis foi utilizado para construir uma vacina recombinante de subunidade e de DNA contra a linfadenite caseosa. A proteína recombinante rCP01850 foi expressa em Escherichia coli usando o vetor pAE, e a vacina de DNA foi construída com o vetor pTARGET. Camundongos BALB/c foram divididos em grupos de oito animais, inoculados com: pTARGET/cp01850 como vacina de DNA (G1); rCP01850 e Al (OH)3 como vacina recombinante de subunidade (G2); pTARGET/cp01850 e um boost com rCP01850 e Al (OH)3 (G3); pTARGET (G4); ou Al (OH)3 (G5). Os animais foram inoculados e amostras de sangue foram coletadas nos dias 0, 21, e 42 do experimento para a análise de IgG total, IgG1 e IgG2a por ELISA. De cada grupo, cinco animais foram desafiados com a cepa Mic-6 de C. pseudotuberculosis, e três foram usados para a quantificação de citocinas por qPCR. Apesar de nenhum grupo ter sido protegido pelas vacinas testadas contra o desafio letal, G2 apresentou taxa de sobrevida e níveis de IL-4, IL-12, IFN-γ, IgG total, IgG1 e IgG2a significativamente mais altos, evidenciando um perfil imunológico misto Th1/Th2. Conclui-se que apesar das diferentes estratégias vacinais utilizando cp1002_RS01850 de C. pseudotuberculosis não terem sido capazes de gerar proteção, G2 desenvolveu uma resposta Th1/Th2 e elevou a taxa de sobrevida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Acid Phosphatase , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis , Lymphadenitis/immunology , Recombinant Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 1-16, jan./feb. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049184

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of agroforestry systems of different ages (AFS1: one-year old; AFS5: five-years old) on the biological attributes of soil; the following systems were used for comparison: a slash-and-burn (SBF) farming area, Caatinga which has been undergoing regeneration for 6 years (CaR6), and native Caatinga (NCa) in Brazil. Enzyme activity, abundance and composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and production of glomalin-related soil proteins (GRSP) were evaluated at soil depths of 0­0.05 m. AMF species composition in the AFS was more similar to that in the NCa than in the SBF and CaR6 systems. In the rainy season, sporulation was most abundant in the AFS-1, CaR6, and SBF systems, whereas GRSP concentrations were highest in the AFS5 during the dry season. Acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase enzyme activity was lower in the AFS1 soils than in the NCa and SBF soils (rainy period), and levels of ß-glucosidase and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the AFS were equal to or higher than those in the NCa in the dry season but lower in the rainy season. AFS thus appear to promote the maintenance of soil biological quality, and may be more sustainable than SBF farming systems in the Brazilian Caatinga over the long term.


O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência de sistemas agroflorestais (AFS1: um ano de idade; AFS5: cinco anos de idade), nos atributos biológicos do solo usando como referência, uma área de agricultura de corte e queima (SBF), Caatinga em regeneração há 6 anos (CaR6), e Caatinga nativa (NCa), in Brasil. A atividade enzimática, a abundância e composição dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF), e a produção de proteína do solo relacionada à glomalina (GRSP) foram avaliados, na profundidade de 0-5 cm do solo. A composição das espécies de AMF nos AFS foi mais semelhante a observada na NCa, do que os sistemas SBF e CaR6. Na estação chuvosa, a esporulação foi mais abundante em AFS-1, CaR6 and SBF quando comparada as outras áreas, enquanto a GRSP apresentou maiores teores no AFS5 no período seco. AFS1 apresentou atividade da fosfatase ácida e arilsulfatase inferiores tanto a NCa quanto a SBF, no período chuvoso. No período seco, a atividade de ß-glicosidase e a hidrólise do diacetato de fluoresceína (FDA) na AFS foram iguais ou superiores a Nca, mas menor no período chuvoso. Verifica-se que os AFS são potenciais para a manutenção da qualidade biológica do solo, podendo, em longo prazo, serem mais sustentáveis que a SBF, em ambiente de Caatinga.


Subject(s)
Arylsulfatases , Soil , Acid Phosphatase , Glycoside Hydrolases
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF), known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, has been used as a traditional remedy for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis in Eastern Asia. However, its effect on osteoclasts, which play a crucial role in resorptive inflammatory bone diseases, is yet to be elucidated.METHODS: The effect of extract of RMF (RMF-E) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. In addition, RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation was also investigated.RESULTS: RMF-E remarkably inhibited TRAP+-osteoclast and resorptive pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic, known as pivotal transcription factors for osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo, and that of the osteoclast differentiation markers such as Acp5, Oscar, CtsK, Atp6v0d2, Tm7sf4, and Nfatc1 were significantly decreased by RMF-E treatment during osteoclastogenesis. The inhibitory effect of RMF-E on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was caused by the suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and RANKL-induced Ca2⁺-oscillation removal via inactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), and subsequently phospholipase C-γ2.CONCLUSIONS: RMF-E negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and formation. These findings suggest the possibility of RMF-E as a traditional therapeutic agent against osteoclast-related bone disorders such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Antigens, Differentiation , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Blotting, Western , Bone Diseases , Calcium Signaling , Cytoplasm , Far East , In Vitro Techniques , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis , Periodontitis , Phospholipases , Protein Kinases , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rosa , T-Lymphocytes , Transcription Factors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Root resorption is an unexpected complication after replantation procedures. Combining anti-osteoclastic medicaments with retrograde root filling materials may avert this resorptive activity. The purpose of this study was to assess effects of a cathepsin K inhibitor with calcium silicate-based cements on osteoclastic activity. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured for biocompatibility analyses. RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in the presence of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B and lipopolysaccharide, followed by treatment with Biodentine (BIOD) or ProRoot MTA with or without medicaments (Odanacatib [ODN], a cathepsin inhibitor and alendronate, a bisphosphonate). After drug treatment, the cell counting kit-8 assay and Alizarin red staining were performed to evaluate biocompatibility in MC3T3-E1 cells. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed in RAW 264.7 cells to determine the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Biocompatibility results showed that there were no significant differences among any of the groups. RAW 264.7 cells treated with BIOD and ODN showed the lowest levels of TNF-α and PGE2. Treatments with BIOD + ODN were more potent suppressors of inflammatory cytokine expression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The cathepsin K inhibitor with calcium silicate-based cement inhibits osteoclastic activity. This may have clinical application in preventing inflammatory root resorption in replanted teeth.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Alendronate , Calcium , Cathepsin K , Cathepsins , Cell Count , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Miners , Necrosis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Pemetrexed , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Replantation , Root Resorption , Tooth
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764046

ABSTRACT

Piperlongumine (PL) is a natural product found in long pepper (Piper longum). The pharmacological effects of PL are well known, and it has been used for pain, hepatoprotection, and asthma in Oriental medicine. No studies have examined the effects of PL on bone tissue or bone-related diseases, including osteoporosis. The current study investigated for the first time the inhibitory effects of PL on osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and osteoclastogenesis-related factors in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). Cytotoxicity was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation analysis. Osteoclast differentiation factors were confirmed by western blotting. PL exhibited toxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages, inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption, in addition to inhibiting the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related factors, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), c-Fos, and NFATc1, in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. These findings suggest that PL is suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, and it serves as a potential therapeutic agent for various bone diseases.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Bone and Bones , Bone Diseases , Bone Resorption , Macrophages , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Osteoclasts , Osteoporosis , Piper , RANK Ligand , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame-retardants, is a representative persistent organic pollutants group. Studies on TBBPA toxicity have been conducted using various target cells; however, few studies have investigated TBBPA toxicity in bone cells. Therefore, this study investigated the in vitro effects of TBBPA on osteoclasts, a cell type involved in bone metabolism. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were cultured in medium containing 50 ng/mL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and varying concentrations of TBBPA. To evaluate the effects of TBBPA on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, osteoclast-specific gene expression, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, bone resorbing activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial superoxide were measured. RESULTS: The presence of 20 μM TBBPA significantly increased TRAP activity in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, the bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts, and the gene expression of Akt2, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, and chloride channel voltage-sensitive 7. However, TBBPA treatment caused no change in the expression of carbonic anhydrase II, cathepsin K, osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1, Src, extracellular signal-related kinase, GAB2, c-Fos, or matrix metalloproteinase 9. Furthermore, 20 μM TBBPA caused a significant decrease in MMP and a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide production. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that TBBPA promotes osteoclast differentiation and activity. The mechanism of TBBPA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis might include increased expression of several genes involved in osteoclast differentiation and reactive oxygen species production.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Carbonic Anhydrase II , Cathepsin K , Chloride Channels , Cytoplasm , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Metabolism , Osteoclasts , Phosphotransferases , RANK Ligand , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Superoxides , T-Lymphocytes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wear debris-induced osteolysis leads to periprosthetic loosening and subsequent prosthetic failure. Since excessive osteoclast formation is closely implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis, identification of agents to suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is crucial for the treatment and prevention of wear particle-induced bone destruction. In this study, we examined the potential effect of pentamidine treatment on titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. METHODS: The effect of pentamidine treatment on bone destruction was examined in Ti particle-induced osteolysis mouse model. Ti particles were implanted onto mouse calvaria, and vehicle or pentamidine was administered for 10 days. Then, calvarial bone tissue was analyzed using micro-computed tomography and histology. We performed in vitro osteoclastogenesis assay using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) to determine the effect of pentamidine on osteoclast formation. BMMs were treated with 20 ng/mL RANKL and 10 ng/mL macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of pentamidine. Osteoclast differentiation was determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Pentamidine administration decreased Ti particle-induced osteoclast formation significantly and prevented bone destruction compared to the Ti particle group in vivo. Pentamidine also suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and actin ring formation markedly, and inhibited the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 and osteoclast-specific genes in vitro. Additionally, pentamidine also attenuated RANKL-mediated phosphorylation of IκBα in BMMs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that pentamidine is effective in inhibiting osteoclast formation and significantly attenuates wear debris-induced bone loss in mice.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Actins , Animals , Bone and Bones , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , In Vitro Techniques , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Mice , Osteoclasts , Osteolysis , Pentamidine , Phosphorylation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Skull , Titanium
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761795

ABSTRACT

Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrial peptide that exhibits cytoprotective actions against various stresses and diseases. HN has been shown to induce the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a negative regulator of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). However, the role of HN in osteoclastogenesis or other skeletal disorders remains unknown. Here, we examined whether HN regulates osteoclastogenesis via AMPK activation using bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cultures. Our results show that HN inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and reduced the expression of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, including nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, osteoclast-associated receptor, cathepsin K, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Moreover, HN increased the levels of phosphorylated AMPK protein; compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, recovered HN-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, we found that HN significantly decreased the levels of RANKL-induced reactive oxygen species in BMMs. Therefore, these results indicate that HN plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and may function as an inhibitor of bone disorders via AMPK activation.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cathepsin K , Cytoplasm , Macrophages , Osteoclasts , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of continuous force application for extrusive tipping movement and occlusal interference on periapical root resorption in the rat mandibular first molar. METHODS: We constructed an appliance comprising a titanium screw implant with a cobalt-chromium post as the anchorage unit and a nickel-titanium closed coil spring (50 cN) as the active unit. Force was applied on the mandibular left first molar of rats for 8 (n = 10) and 15 days (n = 10; experimental groups), with the tooth in occlusion. Five rats were included as a non-treated control group to examine the body effect of the appliance. Active root resorption lacunae, identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, were evaluated in terms of the length, depth, and area. RESULTS: The rat mandibular first molars were mesially tipped and extruded in the occlusal direction. This mesio-occlusal tipping movement and occlusion resulted in the formation of a compression zone and active root resorption lacunae in the distoapical third of the distal roots. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of root resorption between the two experimental groups. The control group did not exhibit any active root resorption lacunae. CONCLUSIONS: Periapical root resorption was induced by continuous extrusive tipping force and occlusal interference in rat mandibular molars. These data suggest that we orthodontists had better take care not to induce occlusal interference during our orthodontic treatment.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Molar , Orthodontists , Rats , Root Resorption , Titanium , Tooth , Tooth Movement Techniques
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716086

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Orthodontic root resorption (ORR) due to orthodontic tooth movement is a difficult treatment-related adverse event. Caspases are important effector molecules for apoptosis. At present, little is known about the mechanisms underlying ORR and apoptosis in the cementum. The aim of the present in vivo study was to investigate the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), caspase 3, caspase 8, and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in the cementum in response to a heavy or an optimum orthodontic force. METHODS: The maxillary molars of male Wistar rats were subjected to an orthodontic force of 10 g or 50 g using a closed coil spring. The rats were sacrificed each experimental period on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after orthodontic force application. And the rats were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: On day 7 for the 50-g group, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed numerous root resorption lacunae with odontoclasts on the root, while immunohistochemistry showed increased TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells. Caspase 3- and caspase 8-positive cells were increased on the cementum surfaces in the 50-g group on days 3 and 5. Moreover, the number of caspase 3- and caspase 8-positive cells and RANKL-positive cells was significantly higher in the 50-g group than in the 10-g group. CONCLUSIONS: In our rat model, ORR occurred after apoptosis was induced in the cementum by a heavy orthodontic force. These findings suggest that apoptosis of cementoblasts is involved in ORR.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases , Dental Cementum , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Models, Animal , Molar , Osteoclasts , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Root Resorption , Tooth Movement Techniques
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714997

ABSTRACT

Remifentanil is commonly used in operating rooms and intensive care units for the purpose of anesthesia and sedation or analgesia. Although remifentanil may significantly affect the bone regeneration process in patients, there have been few studies to date on the effects of remifentanil on bone physiology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of remifentanil on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured for 4 days in remifentanil concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ng/ml, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) alone, or in osteoclastogenic medium to induce the production of mature osteoclasts. To determine the degree of osteoclast maturity, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed. RT-PCR and western blotting analyses were used to determine the effect of remifentanil on the signaling pathways involved in osteoclast differentiation and maturation. Bone resorption and migration of BMMs were analyzed to determine the osteoclastic activity. Remifentanil reduced the number and size of osteoclasts and the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of c-Fos and NFATC1 was most strongly decreased in the presence of RANKL and remifentanil, and the activity of ERK was also inhibited by remifentanil. In the bone resorption assay, remifentanil reduced bone resorption and did not significantly affect cell migration. This study shows that remifentanil inhibits the differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and reduces bone resorption.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Blotting, Western , Bone Regeneration , Bone Resorption , Cell Movement , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Operating Rooms , Osteoclasts , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is intense interest in soy isoflavone as a hormone replacement therapy for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A new kind of isoflavone-enriched whole soy milk powder (I-WSM) containing more isoflavones than conventional whole soy milk powder was recently developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of I-WSM on bone metabolism in ovariectomized mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Sixty female ICR mice individually underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or a sham operation, and were randomized into six groups of 10 animals each as follows: Sham, OVX, OVX with 2% I-WSM diet, OVX with 10% I-WSM diet, OVX with 20% I-WSM diet, and OVX with 20% WSM diet. After an 8-week treatment period, bone mineral density (BMD), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, osteocalcin (OC), procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and osteoprotegenin (OPG) were analyzed. RESULTS: BMD was significantly lower in the OVX group compared to the Sham group but was significantly higher in OVX + 10% I-WSM and OVX + 20% I-WSM groups compared to the OVX group (P < 0.05). Serum calcium concentration significantly increased in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups. Serum ALP levels were significantly lower in the OVX + 10% and 20% I-WSM groups compared to the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). OC was significantly reduced in the OVX group compared to the Sham group (P < 0.05), but a dose-dependent increase was observed in the OVX groups supplemented with I-WSM. P1NP and OPG levels were significantly reduced, while TRAP 5b level was significantly elevated in the OVX group compared with the Sham group, which was not affected by I-WSM (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that I-WSM supplementation in OVX mice has the effect of preventing BMD reduction and promoting bone formation. Therefore, I-WSM can be used as an effective alternative to postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Animals , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling , Calcium , Diet , Female , Functional Food , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Isoflavones , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Ovariectomy , Procollagen , Soy Milk , Soybeans
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic which has antioxidant effects due to its similarity in molecular structure to α-tocopherol. It has been reported that α-tocopherol increases osteoclast fusion and bone resorption. Here, we investigated the effects of propofol on signaling pathways of osteoclastogenic gene expression, as well as osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). METHODS: BMMs were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) alone or M-CSF plus receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the presence of propofol (0–50 µM) for 4 days. Mature osteoclasts were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts were counted. To examine the resorption activities of osteoclasts, a bone resorption assay was performed. To identify the mechanism of action of propofol on the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts, we focused on dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a protein essential for pre-osteoclastic cell fusion. RESULTS: Propofol increased the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. In addition, the bone resorption assay revealed that propofol increased the bone resorption area on dentin discs. The mRNA expression of DC-STAMP was upregulated most strongly in the presence of both RANKL and propofol. However, SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, significantly suppressed the propofol/RANKL-induced increase in mRNA expression of DC-STAMP. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that propofol enhances osteoclast differentiation and maturation, and subsequently increases bone resorption. Additionally, we identified the regulatory pathway underlying osteoclast cell-cell fusion, which was enhanced by propofol through p38-mediated DC-STAMP expression.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Antioxidants , Bone Resorption , Cell Fusion , Dentin , Gene Expression , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Molecular Structure , Osteoclasts , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Propofol , RANK Ligand , RNA, Messenger
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741785

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the effectiveness of bisphosphonates combined with activated vitamin D administered for therapy of aromatase inhibitor-induced osteoporosis after a breast cancer operation and primary postmenopausal osteoporosis through propensity score matching. METHODS: Forty-eight postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer, who had postoperative adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors and whose T-score of bone mineral density (BMD) decreased below −2.5 (AI group), and 48 patients of primary postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO group) enrolled in this retrospective observational study. They were administered monthly risedronate or minodronate, and daily alfacalcitol or eldecalcitol were combined. Their BMD (L2–4, L-BMD), serum-corrected calcium, serum phosphate, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine calcium/creatinine ratio, intact-parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were measured before treatment and until 24 months. RESULTS: L-BMD values increased with time compared with the baseline values in each group, and there was no significant difference in the groups. Percentage value of TRACP-5b decreased rapidly after 6 months and maintained low level until 24 months in both groups. Percentage value of BAP in the AI group decreased continuously until 24 months. In contrast, the percentage change in the PO group plateaued after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that monthly oral bisphosphonate combined with activated Vitamin D is an effective therapy to increase BMD in the aromatase inhibitor-induced osteoporosis after breast cancer operation. Monitoring of kidney function and concentration of Ca in blood and urine may be necessary.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aromatase Inhibitors , Aromatase , Bone Density , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Calcium , Diphosphonates , Estrogens , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney , Observational Study , Osteoporosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risedronic Acid , Vitamin D , Vitamins
16.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 291-296, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689762

ABSTRACT

Human seminal plasma is rich in potential biological markers for male infertility and male reproductive system diseases, which have an application value in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. The methods for the detection of semen biochemical markers have been developed from the manual, semi-automatic to the present automatic means. The automatic detection of semen biochemical markers is known for its advantages of simple reagent composition and small amount of reagents for each test, simple setting of parameters, whole automatic procedure with few errors, short detection time contributive to batch detection and reduction of manpower cost, simple calibration and quality control procedure to ensure accurate and reliable results, output of results in the order of the samples in favor of clinical diagnosis and treatment, and open reagents applicable to various automatic biochemistry analyzers. At present, the automatic method is applied in the detection of such semen biochemical markers as seminal plasma total and neutral alpha-glucosidase, acid phosphatase, fructose, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, zinc, citric acid, uric acid, superoxide dismutase and carnitine, sperm acrosin and lactate dehydrogenase C4, and semen free elastase, which can be used to evaluate the secretory functions of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate, sperm acrosome and energy metabolism function, seminal plasma antioxidative function, and infection or silent infection in the male genital tract.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Biomarkers , Carnitine , Citric Acid , Epididymis , Metabolism , Fructose , Humans , Infertility, Male , Diagnosis , Isoenzymes , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Male , Prostate , Metabolism , Semen , Chemistry , Seminal Vesicles , Spermatozoa , Chemistry , alpha-Glucosidases , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To define the effect of statins on interleukin 1β (IL-1β)-induced osteoclastogenesis and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Bone marrow cells were obtained from 5-week-old male ICR (Institute for Cancer Research) mice, and they were cultured to differentiate them into osteoclasts with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand in the presence or absence of IL-1β or atorvastatin. The formation of osteoclasts was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and resorption pit assay with dentine slice. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of atorvastatin on osteoclastogenesis were investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for osteoclast specific molecules. RESULTS: Atorvastatin significantly reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells as well as the bone resorption area. Atorvastatin also downregulated the expression of the NF of activated T-cell c1 messenger RNA and inhibited the expression of osteoclast-specific genes. A possible underlying mechanism may be that atorvastatin suppresses the degradation of the inhibitors of NF-κB and blocks the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38; thus, implicating the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway in this process. CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin is a strong inhibitor of inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory joint diseases.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Atorvastatin , Bone Marrow Cells , Bone Resorption , Dentin , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Immunoblotting , Interleukins , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Joint Diseases , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Male , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Osteoclasts , Osteoprotegerin , Phosphotransferases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-357506

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This work aims to examine the effects of paeonol treatment on the ability of bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) to excrete inflammatory factors and to differentiate into osteoclasts upon induction with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). This work also aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of these abilities.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>BMM culture was treated with different paeonol concentrations at for 1 h and then stimulated with P. gingivalis for 24 h before programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was quantified with flow cytometry. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The BMM culture was treated with the receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and then with paeonol for 1 h prior to induction with P. gingivalis. Then, osteoclast formation was assessed using tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The osteoclast-related proteins TRAP and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK) were quantified by Western blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Paeonol was nontoxic to BMM within a range of 10-50 μmol·L⁻¹. Flow cytometry showed that paeonol inhibited PD-L1 expression in P. gingivalis-induced BMM in a dose-dependent manner. ELISA indicated that paeonol dose-dependently inhibited the excretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by P. gingivalis-induced BMM (P<0.01). TRAP staining revealed that paenol treatment inhibited the differentiation of P. gingivalis-induced BMM into osteoclasts. Western blot results suggested that paeonol decreased the expression of TRAP and RANK in BMM.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Paeonol dose-dependently inhibited the excretion of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 by P. gingivalis-induced BMM in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, paenol treatment prevented the differentiation of P. gingivalis-induced BMM differentiation into osteoclasts.
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Subject(s)
Acetophenones , Pharmacology , Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Carrier Proteins , Cell Differentiation , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Isoenzymes , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Macrophages , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mice , Osteoclasts , Porphyromonas gingivalis , RANK Ligand , Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between bone mineral density (BMD) and the turnover rate [√(MoMf²+ MoMr²), multiple of median formation (MoMf) was calculated as bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) value/18.6 and multiple of median resorption (MoMr) as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) value/463] and the balance (MoMf/MoMr) and to compare differences in therapeutic effects evoked by differences in previous treatments. METHODS: In 51 osteoporotic women treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), BMD was measured at 0, 24, and 48 weeks after denosumab administration. The values of BAP and TRACP-5b were measured at 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. RESULTS: The turnover rate decreased at week 4 and decreased further at week 12. The balance indicated a relative predominantly formative state at week 4. This balance became higher in the SERM group than in the BP group at week 4. A correlation was observed between the rate of BMD change and turnover rate at weeks 0 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to evaluate the turnover rate and balance to determine the therapeutic effect of denosumab, which induces dissociation between the trends in the bone turnover markers. Turnover rate and balance during the early stages of denosumab treatment may be predictive factors of BMD. When switching from bone resorption inhibitors to denosumab, it was necessary to consider the beginning values that were affected by the previous treatment. The state of relative anabolism is greater at 4 weeks when the previous treatment involved SERMs rather than BPs.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Bone Density Conservation Agents , Bone Density , Bone Remodeling , Bone Resorption , Denosumab , Diphosphonates , Female , Humans , Metabolism , Osteoporosis , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators , Therapeutic Uses
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17714

ABSTRACT

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common metabolic bone disease that is characterized by aberrant focal bone remodeling, which is caused by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption followed by disorganized osteoblastic bone formation. Genetic factors are a critical determinant of PDB pathogenesis, and several susceptibility genes and loci have been reported, including SQSTM1, TNFSF11A, TNFRSF11B, VCP, OPTN, CSF1 and DCSTAMP. Herein, we report a case of Chinese familial PDB without mutations in known genes and identify a novel c.163G>C (p.Val55Leu) mutation in FKBP5 (encodes FK506-binding protein 51, FKBP51) associated with PDB using whole-exome sequencing. Mutant FKBP51 enhanced the Akt phosphorylation and kinase activity in cells. A study of osteoclast function using FKBP51V55L KI transgenic mice proved that osteoclast precursors from FKBP51V55L mice were hyperresponsive to RANKL, and osteoclasts derived from FKBP51V55L mice displayed more intensive bone resorbing activity than did FKBP51WT controls. The osteoclast-specific molecules tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoclast-associated receptor and transcription factor NFATC1 were increased in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs) from FKBP51V55L mice during osteoclast differentiation. However, c-fos expression showed no significant difference in the wild-type and mutant groups. Akt phosphorylation in FKBP51V55L BMMs was elevated in response to RANKL. In contrast, IκB degradation, ERK phosphorylation and LC3II expression showed no difference in wild-type and mutant BMMs. Micro-CT analysis revealed an intensive trabecular bone resorption pattern in FKBP51V55L mice, and suspicious osteolytic bone lesions were noted in three-dimensional reconstruction of distal femurs from mutant mice. These results demonstrate that the mutant FKBP51V55L promotes osteoclastogenesis and function, which could subsequently participate in PDB development.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Remodeling , Bone Resorption , Femur , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Osteitis Deformans , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors
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