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1.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 27(1): 64-69, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280494

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El shock hemorrágico es una de las causas más comunes de muerte en pacientes con trauma debido a que pone en marcha un círculo vicioso de mecanismos que incluyen hipotermia, acidosis y coagulopatía. Para mitigar estos efectos, se han propuesto estrategias de control de daños, incluido el aporte controlado de líquidos con hipotensión permisiva contemplando metas en la presión arterial sistólica para mantener una adecuada perfusión de los tejidos. Objetivo: Conocer información actualizada acerca del manejo de la hipotensión permisiva en pacientes con trauma. Metodología: Se buscó información en las bases de datos Web-of-Science y Scopus de los últimos cinco años. El resultado arrojó un total de 118 artículos de los cuales se tomaron 30, según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Resultados: Todos los artículos consideran el uso de la hipotensión permisiva como una buena opción para el manejo de los pacientes con trauma e hipotensión, sin embargo, difieren en qué momento es adecuado utilizarlo y en qué condiciones se debe realizar. Conclusiones: Si bien la hipotensión permisiva se ha convertido en uno de los pilares fundamentales en el manejo prehospitalario del paciente con trauma, se requieren estudios investigativos en humanos para soportar cuándo y cómo debe utilizarse.


Abstract Introduction: Hemorrhagic shock is one of the most common causes of death in trauma patients, because it sets in motion a vicious cycle of mechanisms, including hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. To mitigate these effects, damage control strategies have been proposed, including the controlled intake of fluids with permissive hypotension, contemplating goals in systolic blood pressure, and thus, maintaining adequate tissue perfusion. Objective: The present research aimed to review the literature in search of updated information about the management of permissive hypotension in patients with trauma. Methodology: Information was searched in the Web-of-Science and Scopus databases in the last five years. The result yielded a total of 118 articles, of which 30 were taken according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: All the articles consider the use of permissive hypotension as a good option for the management of patients with trauma and hypotension, however, they differ when it is appropriate to use it and under what conditions it should be performed. Conclusions: Although permissive hypotension has become one of the fundamental pillars in the prehospital management of the patient with trauma, research studies in humans are required to support when and how it should be used.


Subject(s)
Humans , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Wounds and Injuries , Hypotension , Hypothermia , Tissues , Acidosis , Blood Pressure , Cause of Death , Health Strategies , Alkalies , Arterial Pressure
2.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 22(1): 1-12, Abril 30, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222372

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer un modelo predictivo de mor-talidad en recién nacidos de alto riesgo. Métodos: el presente es un estudio epidemiológico, observacional y transversal, realizado en el Hospital Ginecológico Isidro Ayora, Quito, Ecuador, en 2019, incluyó 220 recién nacidos de alto riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 220 Recién nacidos de alto riesgo. No existen asociaciones significativas con factores prenatales, pero sí una relación estadística con el peso, la edad gestacional, el puntaje de APGAR, las necesidades de reanimación y la presencia de anomalías congénitas; también, con shock, hemorragia pulmonar, hiperglucemia, acidosis y estancia hospitalaria. no existen asociaciones significativas con factores prenatales, pero sí una relación estadística con el peso, la edad gestacional, el puntaje de APGAR, las necesidades de reanimación y la presencia de anomalías congénitas; también, con shock, hemorragia pulmonar, hiperglucemia, acidosis y estancia hospitalaria. Conclusión: La presencia de mayor exceso de bases, mínima FiO2, choque séptico, al menos un defecto congénito, con pequeño para la edad gestacional, determina un 80% de probabilidad de muerte. Si el exceso de bases es superior a -12 mEq/L, el lactante tiene 13 veces más probabilidades de morir, y si requiere una FiO2 mínima superior al 29%, tiene 4.2 veces más probabilidades de morir. La fiabilidad del aumento de bases en exceso predice un 76,3% más de riesgo de muerte.


Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish a predictive model of mortality in high-risk newborns. Methods: An epidemiological, observational, and cross-sectional study was carried out at the Isidro Ayora Gynecological Hospital, Quito, Ecuador in 201. The study included 220 high-risk newborns. Results: No significant associations with prenatal factors were found, but a statistical rela-tionship with weight, gestational age, Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (APGAR) score, resuscitation needs, and the presence of congenital anomalies in addition to shock, pulmonary hemorrhage, hyperglycemia, acidosis, and hospital stay was noted. Conclusion: The presence of a more significant base excess, minimum fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), septic shock, and at least one congenital defect with small gestational age determined an 80% probability of death. If the base excess was > −12 mEq/L, the infant was 13 times more likely to die, and if the infant required a minimum FiO2 > 29%, the newborn was 4.2 times more likely to die. The reliability of the excess base increase predicted a 76.3% higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Infant Mortality , Bayes Theorem , Congenital Abnormalities , Acidosis , Fetal Growth Retardation , Lung Diseases
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 271-276, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248932

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine the relationship between indicators of the motor activity, pH factor, rumen and rectal temperature within 10 days after calving and to analyze the possibility of using the studied parameters as prognostic signs for diagnosing sub-acute rumen acidosis (SARA). The measurements were taken using bolus with sensors designed to monitor cow health. The motor activity, pH factor and ruminal temperature of 10 cows were measured during 10 days at a measurement interval of every 60 seconds. Next, the researchers calculated the average values of the obtained readings, which were divided into 2 groups according to a measurement interval of every 12 hours. Rectal temperature was measured using a veterinary thermometer every 12 hours (at 8 a.m. and at 8 p.m.). As a result, 200 measurements were obtained. Descriptive sampling statistics were calculated using the SPSS Statistics program. An increase in motor activity reduces the pH level of the rumen environment. Lowering the pH factor of the rumen environment leads to an increase in ruminal temperature. There is a positive statistically significant correlation between ruminal and rectal temperature. The nosology of SARA can be predicted by measuring the motor activity and rectal temperature of dairy cows.(AU)


Este estudo visa determinar a relação entre indicadores de atividade motora, fator de pH, temperatura ruminal e retal em até 10 dias após o parto e analisar a possibilidade de utilizar os parâmetros estudados como sinais prognósticos para o diagnóstico de acidose ruminal subaguda (SARA). As medições foram feitas usando bolus com sensores projetados para monitorar a saúde das vacas. A atividade motora, o fator de pH e a temperatura ruminal de 10 vacas foram medidos durante 10 dias em intervalos de medição de 60 segundos. A seguir, os pesquisadores calcularam os valores médios das leituras obtidas, que foram divididos em 2 grupos de acordo com um intervalo de medição a cada 12 horas. A temperatura retal foi medida com um termômetro veterinário a cada 12 horas (às 8h e às 20h). Como resultado, foram obtidas 200 medições. As estatísticas de amostragem descritiva foram calculadas usando o programa SPSS Statistics. Um aumento na atividade motora reduz o nível de pH do ambiente ruminal. A redução do fator de pH do ambiente ruminal leva a um aumento da temperatura ruminal. Existe uma correlação positiva estatisticamente significativa entre a temperatura ruminal e retal. A nosologia com SARA pode ser prevista medindo a atividade motora e a temperatura retal de vacas leiteiras.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Rumen , Acidosis/diagnosis , Acidosis/veterinary , Body Temperature , Postpartum Period/physiology , Prognosis
4.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.209-234.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344738
5.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.407-433, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344749
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 875-881, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155028

ABSTRACT

In this study we evaluated the effects of the prepartum anionic diet on the electrolyte balance and calcemia of high producing dairy cows in the first days of lactation, and investigated the impact on the frequency of subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH). Sixty healthy Holstein cows, producing 30 kg of milk/day, handled in intensive system (compost barn), were distributed in groups (n=15) according to lactation order: first, second, third, and fourth to sixth. In the last three weeks before calving they received a diet with negative DCAD (-6mEq/100g DM) and high chloride content. After calving, they received a diet with positive DCAD (18mEq/100g DM). Urine pH was measured before calving. Serum Na+, Cl-, K+, and total Ca concentrations, and the strong ion difference (SID3) were determined in samples taken soon after calving (0h), 24, 48, 72 and 96h after. The frequencies of SCH were determined considering the critical value of 2.125mmol/L (8.5mg/dL). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square test were used for comparisons. The cows eliminated acidic urine before calving. Na+, K+, Cl-, and SID3 values did not differ between groups. Na+ and K+ did not vary between days; Cl- was elevated at calving and decreased until 72h; and SID3 was reduced at calving and increased up to 48h. The Ca levels were reduced until 24h and increased up to 72h. Cows of third and fourth to sixth lactations presented lower values up to 24h. SCH was observed in almost half of the cows (43.3% to 55%) until 48h. The maintenance of hypocalcemia for three or more consecutive days occurred in 53.3% of third and fourth to sixth lactations cows. Ingestion of a high chloride prepartum anionic diet led to hyperchloremic acidosis and this imbalance was reversed on the second postpartum day. The induced effects on electrolyte and acid-base balances were not able to prevent the occurrence of SCH in the first days of lactation.(AU)


Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar os efeitos que a dieta aniônica pré-parto provoca sobre o equilíbrio eletrolítico e sobre a calcemia de vacas leiteiras de alta produção nos primeiros dias de lactação, e verificar o impacto sobre a frequência da hipocalcemia subclínica (HSC). Sessenta fêmeas hígidas HPB, com produção de 30 kg de leite/dia, manejadas em sistema intensivo (compost barn), foram distribuídas por grupos (n=15) de acordo com a ordem de lactação: primeira, segunda, terceira e quarta a sexta. Nas três semanas pré-parto receberam dieta com DCAD negativa (-6mEq/100g MS) e teor de cloreto elevado. Após o parto receberam dieta com DCAD positiva (18mEq/100g MS). O pH da urina foi mensurado antes do parto. As concentrações séricas de Na+, Cl-, K+ e Ca total e a diferença de íons fortes (SID3) foram determinadas em amostras colhidas ao parto (0h), 24, 48, 72 e 96h após. As frequências de HSC foram determinadas considerando-se o valor crítico de 2,125mmol/L (8,5mg/dL). ANOVA de medidas repetidas e teste de qui-quadrado foram empregados para as comparações. As vacas eliminavam urina ácida antes do parto. Os valores de Na+, K+, Cl- e SID3 não diferiram entre os grupos. Na+ e K+ não variaram entre os dias; Cl- era elevado ao parto e diminuiu até 72h; e SID3 era reduzida ao parto e aumentou até 48h. A calcemia era reduzida até 24h e se elevou até 72h. Vacas de terceira e de quarta a sexta lactações apresentaram valores mais baixos até 24h. A HSC foi observada em quase metade das vacas (43,3% a 55%) até 48h. A manutenção de hipocalcemia por três ou mais dias seguidos ocorreu em 53,3% das vacas de terceira e de quarta a sexta lactações. A ingestão de dieta aniônica pré-parto com alto teor de cloreto provocou acidose hiperclorêmica e este desequilíbrio se reverteu no segundo dia pós-parto. Os efeitos induzidos sobre os equilíbrios eletrolítico e ácido base não foram capazes de prevenir a ocorrência de HSC nos primeiros dias da lactação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Acidosis/chemically induced , Diet/veterinary , Hypocalcemia/prevention & control , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Ammonium Chloride
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1555-1560, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131472

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho descreve um surto de rumenite e abomasite decorrente de sobrecarga de carboidratos em um rebanho de 238 bezerros, com idades entre 12 e 15 meses, causada pela ingestão dos frutos de Enterolobium contortisiliquum. As taxas de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade foram de, respectivamente, 12,7%, 5,2% e 42,1%. Clinicamente, os bovinos apresentaram fotossensibilização, salivação e diarreia. Os achados de necropsia foram semelhantes nos dois bezerros necropsiados e consistiram de fotodermatite e rumenite ulcerativa multifocal, subaguda a crônica, e abomasite. A relevância deste relato é que, pela primeira vez, foi possível associar a ocorrência da rumenite devido à sobrecarga de carboidratos com a intoxicação espontânea por E. contortisiliquum em bovinos, confirmando achados anteriormente descritos em experimentos realizados com ovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Rumen/pathology , Acidosis/veterinary , Abomasum/pathology , Photosensitivity Disorders/veterinary , Plants, Toxic , Fabaceae/toxicity
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1429-1437, 01-06-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147313

ABSTRACT

Currently, the use of sodium bicarbonate (SB) as an ergogenic supplement has been linked to improved performance in several high-intensity and short time interval modalities because it is a natural buffer of the body fluids of the human body. This study aimed to evaluate the acute effect of SB supplementation on muscle strength endurance of resistance training practitioners. Crossover clinical trial, placebo-controlled (PL), and single-masked, included 10 trained adult men. The maximum repetition (1RM) and exhaustion tests with 80% 1RM were performed in the extensor chair and direct thread. In all sessions, the volunteers were verbally stimulated, the total maximum repetitions in the exercises and the blood lactate concentration were measured. SB was supplemented at a dose of 0.3 g/kg body mass. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25.0. The Shapiro­Wilktest was used to evaluate the normality of the data, and the Student's t-test was used for independent and paired samples. The size of the Cohen's effect was calculated, and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Comparing the supplements, no significant differences were found in all variables tested. However, when comparing pretest and posttest periods, significant differences were found between lactate concentrations, with considerably large effect sizes (> 1.00).SB supplementation by endurance training practitioners induces blood alkalosis, which reduces fatigue and possibly improves muscle strength endurance


Atualmente, o uso de bicarbonato de sódio (SB) como suplemento ergogênico tem sido associado a um melhor desempenho em várias modalidades de alta intensidade e intervalos de tempo curtos, pois é um amortecedor natural dos fluidos corporais do corpo humano. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito agudo da suplementação de SB na resistência da força muscular de praticantes de treinamento de resistência. Ensaio clínico cruzado, controlado por placebo (PL) e com máscara única, incluiu 10 homens adultos treinados. Os testes de repetição máxima (1RM) e exaustão com 80% de 1RM foram realizados na cadeira extensora e na rosca direta. Em todas as sessões, os voluntários foram estimulados verbalmente, foram medidas as repetições máximas totais nos exercícios e a concentração de lactato sanguíneo. O SB foi suplementado na dose de 0,3 g / kg de massa corporal. A análise estatística foi realizada no SPSS versão 25.0. O teste Shapiro-Wilk foi usado para avaliar a normalidade dos dados, e o teste t de Student foi usado para amostras independentes e emparelhadas. O tamanho do efeito de Cohen foi calculado e o nível de significância foi estabelecido em p <0,05. Comparando os suplementos, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas em todas as variáveis testadas. No entanto, ao comparar os períodos pré e pós-teste, foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre as concentrações de lactato, com tamanhos de efeito consideravelmente grandes (> 1,00). A suplementação de SB por praticantes de treinamento de resistência induz alcalose no sangue, o que reduz a fadiga e possivelmente melhora a resistência da força muscular.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Sodium Bicarbonate , Muscle Fatigue
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 333-339, May 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1135638

ABSTRACT

The causes of death of cattle kept in pre-export feedlots (PEFs) and in feedlot for finishing for slaughter are described. Two studies were conducted: a retrospective study of mortality cases in feedlots from 2000 to 2017 registered at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas"; and a prospective study from January 2018 to August 2019, following up 22 feedlots for finishing and six PEFs for the export of live cattle. From January 2000 to August 2019 samples of 150 cases of diseases that affected feedlot cattle were received from 22 feedlots for finishing and 115 of the six PEFs followed. Mortality considering all diagnosed diseases was significantly higher in feedlots for finishing (p<0.05), than in PEFs for the export of live cattle, of 1% and 0.12%, respectively. Diseases of the digestive system were the most important causes, of death in feedlots regardless of its purpose. Acidosis presented the highest mortality rates both in feedlot for finishing (3.33%) as in PEFs for export (0.95%). In all cases the disease occurred due to failure in the adaptation of animals to the ingestion of concentrated foods. Bovine tick fever and pneumonia presented mortality rates of 0.13% and 0.09%, respectively in PEFs. In the feedlot for finishing seneciosis was the second cause of death due to cattle coming from areas with high infestation by the plant. In the present study, it was possible to identify the main diseases that occur in cattle feedlots for finishing or for the export of live animals in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. These diseases are known in other systems of cattle breeding and can be prevented or controlled through management, chemoprophylaxis or vaccination, minimizing losses due to mortality.(AU)


Descrevem-se as causas de morte de bovinos mantidos confinados em estabelecimentos pré-embarque (EPEs) para exportação de animais vivos e em estabelecimentos de terminação para abate. Foram realizados dois estudos: um retrospectivo dos casos de mortalidade em confinamentos de 2000 a 2017 registrados no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas; e um estudo prospectivo de janeiro de 2018 a agosto de 2019, acompanhando-se 22 confinamentos de terminação e seis EPEs para exportação de bovinos vivos. No total, de janeiro de 2000 a agosto de 2019 foram recebidos no LRD-UFPel amostras de 150 casos de enfermidades que afetaram bovinos confinados, 35 provenientes de 22 confinamentos de terminação e 115 dos seis EPEs acompanhados. A mortalidade considerando-se todas as enfermidades diagnosticadas foi significativamente maior nos confinamentos para terminação (p<0,05), do que nos EPEs para exportação de bovinos vivos, de 1% e 0,12%, respectivamente. As doenças do sistema digestivo foram as causas de morte mais importante nos confinamentos, independente da finalidade. Acidose apresentou as maiores taxas de mortalidade tanto nos confinamentos para terminação (3,33%) como nos EPEs para exportação (0,95%). Em todos os casos a doença ocorreu devido a falha na adaptação dos animais à ingestão de alimentos concentrados. Tristeza parasitária bovina e pneumonias apresentaram taxas de mortalidade de 0,13% e 0,09, respectivamente em EPEs de exportação. Nos confinamentos para terminação a seneciose foi a segunda causa de morte devido aos bovinos serem provenientes de áreas com alta infestação pela planta. Este estudo permitiu identificar as principais enfermidades diagnosticadas em confinamentos para terminação de bovinos ou para exportação de bovinos vivos na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Observou-se que são doenças que ocorrem em outros sistemas de criação de bovinos e que podem ser prevenidas ou controladas por meio de manejo, quimioprofilaxia ou vacinação, minimizando prejuízos por mortalidade de animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Pneumonia/veterinary , Stomach Diseases/veterinary , Stomach, Ruminant , Acidosis/veterinary , Cattle Diseases/mortality , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Tick-Borne Diseases/veterinary , Quarantine/veterinary
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e159837, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1122150

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine the main acid-base and electrolytes disorders in hospitalized cattle, using both Henderson-Hasselbalch and the physicochemical approach and to compare their diagnostic and therapeutic utility. A total of 31 medical records were reviewed of bovines admitted to the Large Animal Hospital at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, that met the inclusion criteria of the measurement of blood gases, blood electrolytes and plasma protein on admission before providing any treatment. Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, acid base abnormalities were found in 83.3% of the patients, compared to 93.5% using the physicochemical approach. The principal acid-base disorders found were strong ion acidosis (61.29%) and weak acid acidosis (38.7%); strong ion gap (SIG) acidosis was found in 73.68% of cases showing strong ion acidosis. These results highlight the importance of the diagnosis of acid-base disorders in sick cattle for proper recognition of pathophysiological phenomena and its understanding to guide treatment decisions.(AU)


Os objetivos deste estudo retrospectivo foram determinar os principais distúrbios ácido-base e eletrolíticos em bovinos internados, utilizando a abordagem Henderson-Hasselbalch e a abordagem físico-química comparando a utilidade diagnóstica e terapêutica de tais procedimentos. Foram revisados 31 prontuários de bovinos admitidos no Hospital de Animais de Grande Porte da Universidad Nacional de Colombia, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão da medição de gases sanguíneos, eletrólitos sanguíneos e proteínas plasmáticas na admissão antes de fornecer qualquer tratamento. Com o emprego da abordagem de Henderson-Hasselbalch, as anormalidades da base ácida foram encontradas em 83,3% dos pacientes, enquanto com a abordagem físico-química o valor obtido foi de 93,5%. Os principais distúrbios ácido-base encontrados foram forte acidose iônica (61,29%) e acidose ácida fraca (38,7%). A acidose com Ion Gap Forte (SIG) foi encontrada em 73,68% dos casos com forte acidose iônica. Estes resultados destacam a importância do diagnóstico de distúrbios ácido-base em bovinos doentes para o reconhecimento adequado dos fenômenos fisiopatológicos e sua compreensão para orientar as decisões de tratamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acidosis/veterinary , Electrolytes/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Hyponatremia/veterinary , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) on electrophysiological epileptic activities of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the extracellular acidotic condition.@*METHODS@#We investigated effects of extracellular acidosis on epileptic activities induced by elevated extracellular K concentration or the application of an antagonist of GABA receptors in perfusate of mouse hippocampal slices under field potential recordings. We also tested the effects of extracellular acidosis on neuronal excitability under field potential recording and evaluated the changes in epileptic activities of the neurons in response to pharmacological inhibition of ASICs using a specific inhibitor of ASICs.@*RESULTS@#Extracellular acidosis significantly suppressed epileptic activities of the hippocampal neurons by converting ictal-like epileptic activities to non-ictal-like epileptic activities in both high [K ]o and disinhibition models, and also suppressed the intrinsic excitability of the neurons. ASICs inhibitor did not antagonize the inhibitory effect of extracellular acidosis on ictal epileptic activities and intrinsic neuronal excitability, but exacerbated non-ictal epileptic activities of the neurons in extracellular acidotic condition in both high [K]o and disinhibition models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ASICs can differentially modulate ictal-like and non-ictallike epileptic activities via its direct actions on excitatory neurons.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Acidosis , Animals , Hippocampus , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Pyramidal Cells
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) on electrophysiological epileptic activities of mouse hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the extracellular acidotic condition.@*METHODS@#We investigated effects of extracellular acidosis on epileptic activities induced by elevated extracellular K concentration or the application of an antagonist of GABA receptors in perfusate of mouse hippocampal slices under field potential recordings. We also tested the effects of extracellular acidosis on neuronal excitability under field potential recording and evaluated the changes in epileptic activities of the neurons in response to pharmacological inhibition of ASICs using a specific inhibitor of ASICs.@*RESULTS@#Extracellular acidosis significantly suppressed epileptic activities of the hippocampal neurons by converting ictal-like epileptic activities to non-ictal-like epileptic activities in both high [K ]o and disinhibition models, and also suppressed the intrinsic excitability of the neurons. ASICs inhibitor did not antagonize the inhibitory effect of extracellular acidosis on ictal epileptic activities and intrinsic neuronal excitability, but exacerbated non-ictal epileptic activities of the neurons in extracellular acidotic condition in both high [K]o and disinhibition models.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ASICs can differentially modulate ictal-like and non-ictallike epileptic activities via its direct actions on excitatory neurons.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels , Metabolism , Acidosis , Animals , Epilepsy , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Pyramidal Cells , Pathology , Physiology
14.
Repert. med. cir ; 29(2): 122-126, 2020. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1145835

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el trauma se considera un problema de salud pública, siendo la mortalidad el principal indicador de su magnitud. La detección de los componentes de la triada letal tienen relevancia clínica en la mortalidad de quienes padecen un trauma grave (ISS> 16 puntos). Objetivo: determinar las características operativas de la tríada letal en pacientes que ingresaron de enero 2012 a diciembre 2017 al servicio de urgencias de los Hospitales de San José e Infantil Universitario de San José de Bogotá con diagnóstico de trauma grave, para predecir mortalidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles para pruebas diagnósticas en este período con el fin de evaluar la mortalidad en los pacientes con trauma grave definido por una escala validada internacionalmente INJURY SEVERITY SCORE en este caso mayor de 16 puntos. Resultados: se incluyeron 500 casos; las características predominantes fueron trauma craneoencefálico en 74% de pacientes fallecidos y 43.8% de los egresados vivos, hipotermia (<36°C) evidenciada en 98,2% de los casos que egresaron vivos (controles) y en 96% de fallecidos (casos) y acidosis con 2,7% de los que sobrevivieron y 68% de los fallecidos. Esta triada letal presentó una sensibilidad de 0.02 y especificidad de 1, cuyos valores predictivos negativos fueron de 1 y 0.90. Conclusión: la sensibilidad de la triada letal en el estudio fue menor a la reportada en la literatura y la especificidad mayor con valores predictivos altos, considerándose así no determinante en la mortalidad de los pacientes con trauma severo.


Introduction: trauma is considered a public health problem, and mortality rate is the main indicator of its magnitude. Clinical recognition of the lethal triad components is relevant as a predictor of death in major trauma patients. Objective:to determine the operative features of the lethal triad in patients admitted to the emergency services of the San José and Infantil Universitario de San José Hospitals in Bogota with major trauma injuries, from January 2012 to December 2017, to estimate the probability of death. Methods: a case and control study of results in diagnostic tests during said period in order to evaluate mortality rate in severe cranioencephalic trauma patients. Results: 500 cases were included; the predominant characteristics were brain trauma in 74% of deceased patients and 43.8% of survivors, moderate hypothermia (equal or < 36°C) was evidenced in 98.2% among survivors and in 96% of non-survivors and acidosis in 2.7% of those who survived and 68% of those who died. This lethal triad had a sensibility and specificity of 0.02 and 1, with negative predictive values of 1 and 0.90. Conclusion: The sensitivity of the lethal triad was less than that reported in the literature and specificity was greater with high predictive values, thus it was considered that the triad was non determinant in the mortality rate of severe trauma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Wounds and Injuries , Acidosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Mortality , Hypothermia
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(12): 970-977, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056923

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify gross and microscopic changes, caused by high-energy diets, in the rumen environment and hoof of confined beef cattle. The study sample comprised 40 confined heifers (Bos taurus) with no disease history divided into four experimental groups using different diets: Group 1 (D1, control), 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio; Group 2 (D2), 30:70 forage:concentrate ratio; Group 3 (D3), 30:70 forage:concentrate ratio + sucrose; Group 4 (D4), 100% concentrate. All animals underwent clinical examination, assessment of ruminal fluid pH and lameness, and sample collection after slaughter for histopathology of the hoof laminae and digital cushion and ruminal tissue. All dependent variables of the study were compared using the SPSS 20.0 statistical software. The variables that did not show normality (HR, RM, ST, and CRT) were compared with application of the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunnet's multiple comparison test. All other variables were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. The different diets had an impact on the rumen environment (p<0.05) of the heifers assessed, with momentary general depression in the first 12 h after sucrose induction (D3), as well as mild clinical signs in D4. The animals in D3 and D4 presented lower motility (p<0.05) and ruminal pH (p<0.01) than those in D1. Of the 40 heifers, 27.5% (n=11) showed gross lesions in the epithelium of ruminal pillars, whereas 22.5% (n=9) of those in D3 and D4 presented these lesions. Sole corium thickness varied between heifers in D3 compared with those in D1 and D2 (p<0.05). Therefore, high-energy diets, as used in this study, alter some clinical parameters and the rumen environment, causing lesions in the rumen mucosa, and of lesser intensity, in the hoof corium and laminae, suggestive of laminitis.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas provocadas por dietas de alto valor energético no ambiente ruminal e casco de bovinos de corte (Bos taurus) em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 40 novilhas mantidas em confinamento, sendo divididas em 4 grupos experimentais: Grupo D1(controle) - 48% de volumoso e 52% de concentrado; Grupo D2 - 30% de volumoso e 70% de concentrado; Grupo D3 - 30% de volumoso e 70% de concentrado + sacarose; Grupo D4 - 100% de concentrado. Foi realizado exame clínico dos animais, avaliação do pH ruminal, da claudicação, além de coletas de amostras post-mortem para análises histopatológicas da região laminar do casco, coxim digital e do rúmen. Todas as variáveis dependentes do estudo foram comparadas por meio do software estatístico SPSS 20.0. As variáveis sem normalidade (FC, MR, Tc e TPC) foram comparadas pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis, seguido pelo teste de comparação múltipla de Dunnet. Todas demais foram submetidas a análise de variância (ANOVA), seguida pelo teste de Tukey. Foi observado impacto das distintas dietas ao ambiente ruminal (p<0,05). Os grupos D3 e D4 exibiram menor motilidade (p<0,05) e pH ruminal (p<0,01). 27,5% (n=11) dos animais tiveram registros macroscópicos de lesões no epitélio dos pilares ruminais enquanto que os submetidos às dietas 3 e 4 foi observada ocorrência de 22,5% (n=9) de lesões macroscópicas no rúmen. As espessuras do córium solear variaram entre os grupos que receberam a indução de sacarose em relação ao grupo controle e novilhas alimentadas com a dieta 2 (p<0,05). Sendo assim dietas com elevada densidade energética, na condição em que foi empregada, alteraram alguns parâmetros clínicos e o ambiente ruminal, provocando lesões na mucosa do rúmen e de pouca intensidade no córium e tecido laminar, sugestiva de laminite.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acidosis/veterinary , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Dietary Sucrose , Diet/veterinary , Foot Diseases/etiology , Foot Diseases/veterinary , Animal Feed/adverse effects
16.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(2): 168-176, 17 de octubre de 2019. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1023412

ABSTRACT

Aunque poco común, la intoxicación por cianuro acarrea una mortalidad alta, sobre todo, cuando no se administra el tratamiento oportuno. La exposición a este tóxico puede darse por inhalación o por ingestión oral. Lo que se ha descrito sobre el manejo de esta intoxicación está basado en reportes de casos y pequeñas series, dado que en la literatura no se encuentran estudios que den un sustento claro. Dentro de estos reportes, y según los aspectos fisiopatológicos, son especialmente relevantes: el nitrito de sodio, el nitrito de amilo, el tiosulfito de sodio y la hidroxicobalamina, como arsenal terapéutico de esta intoxicación.


Cyanide intoxication is a rare condition. Yet, it leads to a high mortality, especially when proper treatment is not available. The exposure to this substance may occur via inhalation or oral ingestion. The basis of this intoxication´s treatment is on little case series and reports; this is due to the fact that the literature to support it remains scant and unclear. Based on physiopathological aspects, within this evidence the following are particularly relevant: sodium nitrile, amile nitrile, sodium tiosulphite, and hidroxicobalamin, as part of this intoxication´s treatment.


Embora pouco comum, a intoxicação por cianeto provoca uma mortalidade alta, sobre tudo, quando não se administra o tratamento oportuno. A exposição a este tóxico pode dar-se por inalação ou por ingestão oral. O que se há descrito sobre o manejo desta intoxicação está baseado em reportes de casos e pequenas séries, dado que na literatura não se encontram estudos que deem um sustento claro. Dentro destes relatos, e segundo os aspectos fisiopatológicos, são especialmente relevantes: o nitrito de sódio, o nitrito de amilo, o tiossulfato de sódio e a hidroxicobalamina, como arsenal terapêutico desta intoxicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cyanides , Poisoning , Acidosis , Emergencies , Antidotes
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 200-203, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003410

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: A prompt and effective management of trauma patient is necessary. The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of intraoperative echocardiography as a useful tool in patients suffering from refractory hemodynamic instability no otherwise explained. Case report: A 41 year-old woman suffered a car accident. At the emergency department, no abnormalities were found in ECG or chest X-ray. Abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of abdominal free liquid and the patient was submitted to urgent exploratory laparotomy. Nevertheless, she persisted suffering arterial hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Looking for the reason of her hemodynamic instability, intraoperative transthoracic echocardiography was performed, finding out the presence of pericardial effusion. Once the cardiac surgeon extracted pericardial clots, patient's situation improved clinically and analytically. Conclusion: Every anesthesiologist should be able to use the intraoperative echocardiography as an effective tool in order to establish the appropriate measures to promote the survival of patients suffering severe trauma.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O atendimento rápido e eficaz do paciente de trauma é necessário. O objetivo deste relato de caso foi destacar a importância do ecocardiograma intraoperatório como uma ferramenta útil em pacientes que sofrem de instabilidade hemodinâmica refratária sem explicação aparente. Relato de caso: Uma mulher de 41 anos sofreu um acidente de automóvel. No departamento de emergência, nenhuma anormalidade foi encontrada no ECG ou na radiografia de tórax. Uma ultrassonografia abdominal revelou a presença de líquido livre no abdome, e a paciente foi submetida à laparotomia exploradora de urgência. No entanto, a paciente continuou apresentando hipotensão arterial e acidose metabólica. Na busca pelo motivo de sua instabilidade hemodinâmica, um ecocardiograma transtorácico foi realizado no período intraoperatório e constatou a presenc¸a de derrame pericárdico. Após a remoção dos coágulos pericárdicos pelo cirurgião cardíaco, a condição da paciente melhorou clínica e analiticamente. Conclusão: Todo anestesiologista deve saber utilizar o ecocardiograma intraoperatório como ferramenta eficaz para estabelecer as medidas adequadas para promover a sobrevida de pacientes com traumatismos graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Hemodynamics , Acidosis/etiology , Accidents, Traffic , Hypotension/etiology , Intraoperative Care/methods
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 308-311, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742530

ABSTRACT

Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency is a rare inborn error of ketone body utilization, characterized by episodic or permanent ketosis. SCOT deficiency is caused by mutations in the OXCT1 gene, which is mapped to 5p13 and consists of 17 exons. A 12-month-old girl presented with severe ketoacidosis and was treated with continuous renal replacement therapy. She had two previously unrecognized mild-form episodes of ketoacidosis followed by febrile illness. While high levels of ketone bodies were found in her blood and urine, other laboratory investigations, including serum glucose, were unremarkable. We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in OXCT1:c.1118T>G (p.Ile373Ser) and a large deletion ranging from exon 8 to 16 through targeted exome sequencing and microarray analysis. This is the first Korean case of SCOT deficiency caused by novel mutations in OXCT1, resulting in life-threatening ketoacidosis. In patients with unexplained episodic ketosis, or high anion gap metabolic acidosis in infancy, an inherited disorder in ketone body metabolism should be suspected.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Acidosis , Blood Glucose , Exome , Exons , Female , Humans , Infant , Ketone Bodies , Ketosis , Metabolism , Microarray Analysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Transferases
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on biochemical changes following rapid transfusion of blood mixtures in liver transplantation patients is limited. METHODS: A blood mixture composed of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and 0.9% saline was prepared in a ratio of 1 unit:1 unit:250 ml. During massive hemorrhage, 300 ml of the blood mixture was repeatedly transfused. A blood mixture sample as well as pre- and post-transfusion arterial blood samples were collected at the first, third, fifth, and seventh bolus transfusions. Changes in pH, hematocrit, electrolytes, and glucose were measured with a point-of-care analyzer. The biochemical changes were described, and the factors driving the changes were sought through linear mixed effects analysis. RESULTS: A total of 120 blood samples from 10 recipients were examined. Potassium and sodium levels became normalized during preservation. Biochemical changes in the blood mixture were significantly related to the duration of blood bank storage and reservoir preservation (average R2 = 0.41). Acute acidosis and hypocalcemia requiring immediate correction occurred with each transfusion. Both the pre-transfusion value of the patient and the blood mixture value were significant predictors of post-transfusion changes in the body (average R2 = 0.87); however, the former was more crucial. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid infusion of blood mixture is relatively safe because favorable biochemical changes occur during storage in the reservoir, and the composition of the blood mixture has little effect on the body during rapid transfusion in liver recipients. However, acute hypocalcemia and acidosis requiring immediate correction occurred frequently due to limited citrate metabolism in the liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Blood Banks , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion , Citric Acid , Electrolytes , Erythrocytes , Glucose , Hematocrit , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypocalcemia , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Metabolism , Plasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Potassium , Sodium
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719358

ABSTRACT

Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) in infants is manifested by presence of hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and metabolic acidosis. At initial stages, PAH is generally suspected as congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Transient PHA has been reported in infants with urinary tract infection and urinary tract malformation. We report a case of 5-month-old infant with failure to thrive and finally diagnosed with transient PHA due to urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Failure to Thrive , Humans , Hyperkalemia , Hyponatremia , Infant , Pseudohypoaldosteronism , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Vesico-Ureteral Reflux
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