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1.
In. Manzanares Castro, William; Aramendi Epstein, Ignacio; Pico, José Luis do. Disionías en el paciente grave: historias clínicas comentadas. Montevideo, Cuadrado, 2021. p.209-234.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1344738
2.
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(3): 323-329, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Metabolic acidosis is associated with the high mortality seen in hemodialysis patients. The panorama of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis in Brazil is unclear since 1996 when the analysis of bicarbonate levels was no longer a compulsory exam. We aimed to establish the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in a hemodialysis population and analyze the factors associated with low bicarbonate levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of metabolic acidosis in adults undergoing regular hemodialysis from January to April 2017, in four dialysis centers from Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and surroundings. For blood gas analysis, samples of 2 mL were collected in heparinized syringes before a midweek dialysis session. Results: 384 patients with a mean age of 58.1 ± 15.8 years (54.5% men and 63.0%, non-white) were included. Approximately 30% had diabetes and 48%, hypertension. Nearly 88% used primary arteriovenous fistula as vascular access. The pre-dialysis mean serum tCO2 in the midweek session was 22.7 ± 3.0 mEq/L. The prevalence rate of serum bicarbonate below DOQI recommendation (22 mEq/L or higher) was 40.3%, and 6.5% had serum bicarbonate < 18 mEq/L. The dialyzer use count and the use of low-flux dialyzers were negatively associated whereas age and the standard Kt/V values were positively associated with the serum bicarbonate levels. Conclusion: The findings were in agreement with global data reported in previous studies. However, because the sample was relatively small and non-representative of the Brazilian population, a more comprehensive study, addressing national data is necessary to substantiate our findings.


RESUMO Introdução: A acidose metabólica está associada à elevada mortalidade observada em pacientes em hemodiálise. O panorama da acidose metabólica na hemodiálise no Brasil perdeu visibilidade em 1996, ano em que a análise dos níveis de bicarbonato deixou de ser obrigatória. Nosso objetivo foi estabelecer a prevalência da acidose metabólica em uma população em hemodiálise e analisar os fatores associados a baixos níveis de bicarbonato. Métodos: O presente estudo transversal avaliou a prevalência de acidose metabólica em adultos regularmente submetidos a hemodiálise de janeiro a abril de 2017, em quatro centros de diálise situados em Niterói e arredores no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para análise de gasometria, foram colhidas amostras de 2 mL em seringas heparinizadas antes das sessões de diálise do meio de semana. Resultados: Foram incluídos 384 pacientes com idade média de 58,1 ± 15,8 anos (54,5% homens; 63,0% não brancos). Aproximadamente 30% tinham diabetes e 48% apresentavam hipertensão. Cerca de 88% usavam fístula arteriovenosa primária como acesso vascular. A concentração sérica média pré-diálise de tCO2 na sessão do meio de semana foi de 22,7 ± 3,0 mEq/L. A taxa de prevalência de bicarbonato sérico abaixo do valor recomendado no DOQI (22 mEq/L ou superior) foi de 40,3%; 6,5% dos pacientes apresentaram bicarbonato sérico < 18 mEq/L. Os níveis séricos de bicarbonato apresentaram associações negativas com número de usos do dialisador e uso de dialisadores de baixo fluxo e associações positivas com idade e valores do Kt/V standard. Conclusão: Os resultados foram concordantes com dados globais relatados em estudos anteriores. Contudo, como a amostra era relativamente pequena e não representativa da população brasileira, são necessários estudos mais abrangentes que venham a abordar dados nacionais para consubstanciar nossos achados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acidosis/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 200-203, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003410

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: A prompt and effective management of trauma patient is necessary. The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of intraoperative echocardiography as a useful tool in patients suffering from refractory hemodynamic instability no otherwise explained. Case report: A 41 year-old woman suffered a car accident. At the emergency department, no abnormalities were found in ECG or chest X-ray. Abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of abdominal free liquid and the patient was submitted to urgent exploratory laparotomy. Nevertheless, she persisted suffering arterial hypotension and metabolic acidosis. Looking for the reason of her hemodynamic instability, intraoperative transthoracic echocardiography was performed, finding out the presence of pericardial effusion. Once the cardiac surgeon extracted pericardial clots, patient's situation improved clinically and analytically. Conclusion: Every anesthesiologist should be able to use the intraoperative echocardiography as an effective tool in order to establish the appropriate measures to promote the survival of patients suffering severe trauma.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O atendimento rápido e eficaz do paciente de trauma é necessário. O objetivo deste relato de caso foi destacar a importância do ecocardiograma intraoperatório como uma ferramenta útil em pacientes que sofrem de instabilidade hemodinâmica refratária sem explicação aparente. Relato de caso: Uma mulher de 41 anos sofreu um acidente de automóvel. No departamento de emergência, nenhuma anormalidade foi encontrada no ECG ou na radiografia de tórax. Uma ultrassonografia abdominal revelou a presença de líquido livre no abdome, e a paciente foi submetida à laparotomia exploradora de urgência. No entanto, a paciente continuou apresentando hipotensão arterial e acidose metabólica. Na busca pelo motivo de sua instabilidade hemodinâmica, um ecocardiograma transtorácico foi realizado no período intraoperatório e constatou a presenc¸a de derrame pericárdico. Após a remoção dos coágulos pericárdicos pelo cirurgião cardíaco, a condição da paciente melhorou clínica e analiticamente. Conclusão: Todo anestesiologista deve saber utilizar o ecocardiograma intraoperatório como ferramenta eficaz para estabelecer as medidas adequadas para promover a sobrevida de pacientes com traumatismos graves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Hemodynamics , Acidosis/etiology , Accidents, Traffic , Hypotension/etiology , Intraoperative Care/methods
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(3): e6853, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889048

ABSTRACT

Glutathione synthetase deficiency (GSSD) is a rare inborn error of glutathione metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. The severe form of the disease is characterized by acute metabolic acidosis, usually present in the neonatal period with hemolytic anemia and progressive encephalopathy. A case of a male newborn infant who had severe metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia is reported. A high level of 5-oxoproline was detected in his urine and a diagnosis of generalized GSSD was made. DNA sequence analysis revealed the infant to be compound heterozygous with two mutations, c.738dupG in exon 8 of GSS gene resulting in p.S247fs and a repetitive sequence in exon 3 of GSS gene. Treatment after diagnosis of GSSD included supplementation with antioxidants and oral sodium hydrogen bicarbonate. However, he maintained a variable degree of metabolic acidosis and succumbed shortly after his parents requested discontinuation of therapy because of dismal prognosis and medical futility when he was 18 days old.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Glutathione Synthase/deficiency , Mutation , Acidosis/etiology , Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/analysis , Glutathione Synthase/genetics , Glutathione Synthase/metabolism , Pyroglutamate Hydrolase/deficiency , Pyroglutamate Hydrolase/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 305-311, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893777

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metabolic acidosis is highly prevalent in hemodialysis patients. The disorder is associated with increased mortality and its deleterious effects are already present in the predialysis phase of chronic kidney disease. Metabolic acidosis has been linked to progression of chronic kidney disease, changes in protein and glucose metabolism, bone and muscle disorders and cardiovascular disease. At present, the control of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis is mainly focused on the supply of bicarbonate during dialysis session, but further studies are needed to set the optimum target serum bicarbonate and the best concentration of the bicarbonate dialysate. The present study reviews pathophysiological and epidemiological aspects of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis patients and also addresses its adverse effects and treatment.


Resumo A acidose metabólica é altamente prevalente em pacientes em hemodiálise. A doença está associada com mortalidade aumentada e os seus efeitos deletérios já estão presentes na fase pré-diálise da doença renal crônica. A acidose metabólica tem sido associada a progressão da doença renal crônica, alterações no metabolismo das proteínas e da glicose, doenças ósseas e musculares e enfermidades cardiovasculares. Atualmente, o controle da acidose metabólica em hemodiálise está voltado principalmente para o suprimento de bicarbonato durante a sessão de diálise, porém, mais estudos são necessários para definir o bicarbonato sérico alvo ideal e a melhor concentração de bicarbonato do banho. O artigo revisa os aspectos fisiopatológicos e epidemiológicos da acidose metabólica em pacientes em hemodiálise e também aborda seus efeitos adversos e tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13344

ABSTRACT

Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl- HCO3 -, Ca++), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication.


Subject(s)
Acid-Base Equilibrium , Acidosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anions/chemistry , Biomarkers/chemistry , Blood Gas Analysis , Chemically-Induced Disorders/mortality , Electrolytes/analysis , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pesticides/poisoning , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Urinalysis , Young Adult
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(11): 1420-1426, nov. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-704569

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients who have suffered multiple traumatic injuries, have a serious risk for death. Hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy are three complications in these patients, whose presence is known as lethal triad and indicates bad prognosis.Aim: To determine if the lethal triad in multiple trauma patients is associated withhigher mortality and Injury Score Severity (ISS). Material and Methods: Onehundred multiple trauma patients aged 26 to 56 years (90 males), admitted toan emergency room, were studied. Body temperature, prothrombin time, partialthromboplastin time, platelet count and blood gases were determined on admission.Results: Twenty six patients had the lethal triad and 15% died in the emergencyroom within the first 6 hours. No death was recorded among the 74 patients withoutthe lethal triad. The mean ISS among patients with and without the lethal triad was31.7 and 25.6, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of the lethal triadamong patients with multiple trauma is associated with a higher mortality and ISS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acidosis/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Hypothermia/etiology , Multiple Trauma/complications , Acidosis/mortality , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hypothermia/mortality , Injury Severity Score , Multiple Trauma/mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80566

ABSTRACT

A 14-month-old boy was transferred because of dilated and hypertrophied left ventricle, neutropenia, and developmental delay. After checking computed tomographic angiography with contrast-dye, the patient showed acute exacerbation and finally died from multi-organ failure despite intensive cares. From genetic analysis, we revealed that the patient had Barth syndrome and found a novel hemizygous frame shift mutation in his TAZ gene, c.227delC (p.Pro76LeufsX7), which was inherited from his mother. Herein, we report a patient with Barth syndrome who had a novel mutation in TAZ gene and experienced unexpected acute exacerbation after contrast dye injection for computed tomographic angiography.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Barth Syndrome/diagnosis , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Frameshift Mutation , Heart Failure/etiology , Homozygote , Humans , Male , Mutation , Pedigree , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transcription Factors/genetics
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(10): 996-1000, Oct. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-561230

ABSTRACT

Hyperchloremia is one of the multiple etiologies of metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chloride dialysate on metabolic acidosis control in this population. We enrolled 30 patients in maintenance HD program with a standard base excess (SBE) ≤2 mEq/L and urine output of less than 100 mL/24 h. The patients underwent dialysis three times per week with a chloride dialysate concentration of 111 mEq/L for 4 weeks, and thereafter with a chloride dialysate concentration of 107 mEq/L for the next 4 weeks. Arterial blood was drawn immediately before the second dialysis session of the week at the end of each phase, and the Stewart physicochemical approach was applied. The strong ion gap (SIG) decreased (from 7.5 ± 2.0 to 6.2 ± 1.9 mEq/L, P = 0.006) and the standard base excess (SBE) increased after the use of 107 mEq/L chloride dialysate (from -6.64 ± 1.7 to -4.73 ± 1.9 mEq/L, P < 0.0001). ∆SBE was inversely correlated with ∆SIG during the phases of the study (Pearson r = -0.684, P < 0.0001) and there was no correlation with ∆chloride. When we applied the Stewart model, we demonstrated that the lower concentration of chloride dialysate interfered with the control of metabolic acidosis in HD patients, surprisingly, through the effect on unmeasured anions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acidosis/prevention & control , Chlorides/administration & dosage , Hemodialysis Solutions/administration & dosage , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Acidosis/etiology , Bicarbonates/administration & dosage , Bicarbonates/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods
11.
J. bras. med ; 98(4): 14-18, ago.-set. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-566749

ABSTRACT

Apesar de o cloreto ser um exame amplamente disponível e solicitado em instituições de saúde, a maior pane dos médicos crê ser difícil interpretar seus resultados, estabelecer correlações com outros parâmetros laboratoriais associados e tomar decisões terapêuticas baseadas no mesmo. Devido à complexidade de sua homeostase e à intrincada correlação com o status hidroeletrolítico e ácido-básico, poucos médicos se sentem efetivamente aptos a aproveitar a valiosa informação clínica que ele pode revelar. Isto é agravado pela rarefeita bibliografia objetiva sobre o tema. Os autores desta revisão não foram capazes de encontrar nenhum capítulo especificamente dedicado ao cloreto nos principais livros-texto de Fisiologia, Clínica Médica e Nefrologia, disponíveis, à exceção de três revisões bibliográficas no Medline. Não obstante, tentamos organizar a informação tão claramente quanto possível, com o objetivo de tornar o cloreto uma ferramenta útil aos nossos colegas profissionais de saúde.


Even though chloride is a widely available and requested test in health institutions, most part of physicians find it difficult to interpret its results, establish correlations with other laboratory linked parameters and take therapeutic decisions based on it. Due to the complexity of its homeostatic balance and intrincated correlation to hydroelectrolytic and acid base status, few doctors feel actually able to fully profit from the valuable clinical information it can unfold. This is aggravated by the scarce objective bibliography on the issue. The authors of this review were not able to find any chapters specifically dedicated to chloride on major Physiology, Internal Medicine and Nephrology textbooks, but only three reviews on Medline. Nevertheless, we managed to organize the information as clearly as possible with the aim of making chloride test an useful tool to our fellow health professionals.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Chlorides/physiology , Chlorides/blood , Acid-Base Imbalance/complications , Acid-Base Imbalance/diagnosis , Acid-Base Imbalance/etiology , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Acidosis/diagnosis , Acidosis/etiology , Alkalosis/diagnosis , Alkalosis/etiology , Bromides/adverse effects , Metabolism/physiology
12.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 July; 77(7): 805-806
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142636

ABSTRACT

A 2-week-old infant born at 36-week gestation developed diarrhea and metabolic acidosis when he was put on formula feeding. He was treated for sepsis and was screened for metabolic diseases. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were clear. The diarrhea and metabolic acidosis settled but recurred when formula feeding was resumed. He developed a florid erythematous rash involving the palms, feet, perioral and perineal regions. Zinc deficiency was confirmed and zinc replacement resulted in prompt resolution of the skin rash. The patient was put on Pepti-Junior and remained well. This case illustrates that zinc deficiency must be sought and treated in an infant with a typical rash involving the palms, feet and body orifices.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Acrodermatitis/etiology , Deficiency Diseases/complications , Deficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea, Infantile/etiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lactose Intolerance/complications , Lactose Intolerance/diagnosis , Male , Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Zinc/deficiency
13.
IRCMJ-Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2009; 11 (1): 28-31
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91525

ABSTRACT

In patients undergoing surgery, acid-base imbalance during general anesthesia causes disruption in the function of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and the central nervous system. Since the potential complications of acid-base disturbances are serious, we decided to explore these changes and related causes so that prevention and compensation would be feasible. In this study, acid-base disruption and its causes during general anesthesia were studied in 60 patients. The patients were divided into three groups based on the location of surgery: abdominal [I], extremities [II], and head and neck [III]. Body central temperature, type, and volume of injected fluids and bicarbonate [as needed] were recorded. In the second, third, and fourth hours of surgery, arterial blood gases and pH were measured. The incidence and degree of metabolic acidosis in all patients were significantly related to the duration of the surgery. The number of patients with acidosis and the number of patients requiring treatment were also greater in groups I and II than in group III. Although all patients became hypothermic during the surgery, there was no significant relationship with development of acidosis. No relationship was found between the type and volume of the solution administered and development of acidosis. In our opinion, monitoring of acid-base status in prolonged surgeries especially in abdominal and extremity operations seems necessary


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acid-Base Imbalance/complications , Acid-Base Imbalance/prevention & control , Anesthesia, General/complications , Blood Gas Analysis , Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Body Temperature , Bicarbonates , Surgical Procedures, Operative/complications
14.
Indian Pediatr ; 2008 Sep; 45(9): 777-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-12427

ABSTRACT

A three month old baby presented with refractory seizures, dermatosis and persistent metabolic acidosis. Biotinidase deficiency was diagnosed on enzyme assay. Patient responded dramatically to biotin supplementation.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Alopecia/etiology , Biotin/therapeutic use , Biotinidase Deficiency/complications , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/etiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male
15.
KMJ-Kuwait Medical Journal. 2008; 40 (3): 239-240
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-88571

ABSTRACT

Isoniazid [INH] overdose can be effectively treated, only if, suspected. Seizures and coma are due to INH unless proved otherwise in patients with access to the drug. Acute INH intoxication is characterized by a clinical triad consisting of metabolic acidosis resistant to treatment with sodium bicarbonate, seizure which may be fatal and refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and coma. Pyridoxine is the specific antidote for INH overdose. We report a case of a 25-yr-old lady, who in a suicidal attempt ingested a toxic dose of INH resulting in status epilepticus and was successfully treated with pyridoxine [Vit B6]


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Isoniazid/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyridoxine , Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/drug therapy , Pyridoxine/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; 29: 360-369, 2008.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-510215

ABSTRACT

Na prática médica, o distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-básico possui grande relevância. Muitas funções metabólicas e fisiológicas dependem do pH. Alterações no pH em geral, decorrem de patologias concomitantes (EX: sepse, insuficiência renal, pneumonia, etc...) e, dependendo do grau de alteração, representam um risco eminente de vida ao paciente,O equilíbrio ácido – básico é um assunto de importância para todas as especialidades. Porém, seu entendimento prático é revestido de diversos graus de dificuldade.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Acidosis/therapy , Alkalosis, Respiratory/ethnology , Alkalosis, Respiratory/therapy , Acid-Base Imbalance , Acid-Base Equilibrium/physiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metabolism , Kidney/metabolism
17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 83(2,supl): S11-S21, May 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-453977

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada e crítica sobre os mecanismos das principais patologias associadas e o tratamento da acidose metabólica, discutindo aspectos controversos quanto aos benefícios e riscos da utilização do bicarbonato de sódio e outras formas de terapia. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura publicada, obtida através de busca eletrônica com as palavras-chave acidose metabólica, acidose láctica, cetoacidose diabética, ressuscitação cardiopulmonar, bicarbonato de sódio e terapêutica nas bases de dados PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS e Cochrane Library, entre 1996 e 2006, além de publicações clássicas referentes ao tema, sendo selecionadas as mais atuais e representativas, buscando-se consensos e diretrizes. SíNTESE DOS DADOS: A utilização de bicarbonato de sódio não demonstra benefícios no quadro hemodinâmico, evolução clínica, morbidade e mortalidade nos quadros de acidose metabólica de anion gap elevado, relacionados à acidose láctica, cetoacidose diabética e ressuscitação cardiorrespiratória. Assim, a sua utilização rotineira não é indicada. Devem ser considerados os potenciais efeitos colaterais. O tratamento da doença de base é fundamental para reversão do processo. Outras terapias alternativas não demonstram efetividade comprovada em grande escala. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar dos efeitos conhecidos da acidemia em situações críticas no organismo, discute-se o papel protetor da acidemia nas células sob hipoxemia e os riscos da alcalemia secundária à intervenção medicamentosa. Existe consenso na reposição de álcalis e bicarbonato de sódio nos casos de acidose de anion gap normal; entretanto, nos casos de acidose de anion gap elevado, particularmente na acidose láctica, cetoacidose diabética e na ressuscitação cardiorrespiratória, o uso de bicarbonato de sódio não demonstra benefícios, além dos potenciais efeitos adversos, o que torna restrita sua indicação. Apesar da controvérsia, o único ponto concordante refere-se à abordagem...


OBJECTIVES: To critically discuss the treatment of metabolic acidosis and the main mechanisms of disease associated with this disorder; and to describe controversial aspects related to the risks and benefits of using sodium bicarbonate and other therapies. SOURCES: Review of PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between 1996 and 2006 using the following keywords: metabolic acidosis, lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate, treatment. Classical publications concerning the topic were also reviewed. The most recent and representative were selected, with emphasis on consensus statements and guidelines. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is no evidence of benefits resulting from the use of sodium bicarbonate for the hemodynamic status, clinical outcome, morbidity and mortality in high anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Therefore, the routine use of sodium bicarbonate is not indicated. Potential side effects must be taken into consideration. Treating the underlying disease is essential to reverse the process. The efficacy of other alternative therapies has not been demonstrated in large-scale studies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the known effects of acidemia on the organism in critical situations, a protective role of acidemia in hypoxic cells and the risk of alkalemia secondary to drug interventions are being considered. There is consensus regarding the advantages of alkali and sodium bicarbonate therapy in cases with normal anion gap; however, in the presence of high anion gap acidosis, especially lactic acidosis, diabetic acidosis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the use of sodium bicarbonate is not beneficial and has potential adverse effects, limiting its indication. The only points of agreement in the literature refer to the early treatment of the underlying disease...


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Acidosis/drug therapy , Sodium Bicarbonate/therapeutic use , Acidosis, Lactic/drug therapy , Acidosis/etiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sodium Bicarbonate/adverse effects
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92073

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to identify clinical factors that facilitate the diagnosis of typical cow's milk protein-induced enterocolitis (CMPIE). Data from 142 consecutive patients (aged 15 to 45 days, cow's milk formula- or cow's milk and breast milk mixed-fed) admitted due to vomiting and/or diarrhea were retrospectively analyzed. These 142 subjects were divided into three groups: the CMPIE, infection, and non-infection group. Each group was composed of 16 (11.3%), 102 (71.8%), and 24 (16.9%) patients, respectively. On admission, poor weight gain (p=0.003), hypoalbuminemia (p=0.035), peripheral leukocytosis (p=0.012), and metabolic acidosis (p=0.015) were found to be more significant in the CMPIE group than those in other two groups. In CMPIE, serum albumin levels decreased from 3.3+/-0.9 g/dL on admission to 2.6+/-0.3 g/dL during admission (p<0.05), and methemoglobinemia was observed in 3 patients (18.8%) (p=0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of CMPIE versus the infection group were failure to gain weight (OR, 10.75 [95% CI, 1.53-66.12]) (p= 0.014) and hypoalbuminemia (OR, 9.53 [95% CI, 1.62-49.01]) (p=0.010). The early recognition of indexes of suspicion for CMPIE may be of help in the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Animals , Cattle , Enterocolitis/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Methemoglobinemia/etiology , Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Milk Proteins/immunology , Serum Albumin/analysis , Weight Gain
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-97200

ABSTRACT

Oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma is a stressful physical and metabolic challenge for an individual. The metabolic acidosis and hypoxia resulting postoperatively in a 34-year-old male, suffering from oesophageal carcinoma, after transhiatal oesophagectomy was managed without assisted ventilation contrary to the usual teaching. Relevant literature has been reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Adult , Hypoxia/etiology , Biopsy, Needle , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/adverse effects , Esophagoscopy/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , India , Male , Needs Assessment , Neoplasm Staging , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53832

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to develop an experimental animal model of fulminant hepatic failure to test the efficacy of the bioartificial liver system. The portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped intermittently and then the hepatic artery was ligated (ligation group, n=5). Pigs whose hepatic arteries were not ligated after clamping were assigned to the non-ligation group (n=5). The biochemical changes in blood, histologic alterations of the liver and neurologic examination for pigs were checked up. All animals died within 17 hr in the ligation group. On the other hand, all animals survived more than 7 days in the non-ligation group. In the ligation group, the levels of ammonia, lactic acid and creatinine showed a progressively increasing pattern. Prothrombin time was also prolonged gradually. Cytoplasmic condensation and nuclear pyknosis of hepatocytes were detected histologically at autopsy. Neurologic findings such as decreased pain sensation, tachypnea and no light reflex of pupils were observed. The findings shown in the ligation group are similar to the clinical features of fulminant hepatic failure in human and this animal model is reproducible. Therefore, this can be a suitable animal model to evaluate the efficacy of the bioartificial liver system for treating fulminant hepatic failure.


Subject(s)
Acidosis/etiology , Ammonia/blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Comparative Study , Creatinine/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hepatic Artery/surgery , Lactic Acid/blood , Ligation/adverse effects , Liver Failure, Acute/blood , Portal Vein/surgery , Potassium/blood , Prothrombin Time , Sodium Bicarbonate/pharmacology , Swine
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