Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 126
Filter
1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 422-426, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Submandibular glands are exposed to many effects due to diseases and therapeutic interventions. A study evaluating the effect of submandibular gland dysfunction on the parotid gland has not been presented in the literature. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes in the parotid gland following submandibular gland failure. Methods: Three groups of seven randomly selected female New Zealand rabbits weighing 2500-3000 g were studied. Unilateral and bilateral submandibular glands were removed in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. No procedure was performed in Group III, the control group. The parotid glands were removed 30 days later. Histological parameters were evaluated and graded between 0 (none) and 3 (severe). Differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Mean mucus accumulation in acinar cells was 2.57 ± 0.53 and 1.71 ± 0.75 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p < 0.05). This value was 0.57 ± 0.53 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean dilatation of the intercalated ducts' lumen was 1.28 ± 0.48 and 1.57 ± 0.53 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05). This value was 0.28 ± 0.48 in Group 3, which was significantly lower than in Groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Mean mucus accumulation in the intercalated ducts' lumen was 2.00 ± 0.81 and 1.00 ± 0.57 in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that only 1 month after submandibular gland failure, the parotid glands exhibit significant changes.


Resumo Introdução: As glândulas submandibulares estão expostas a muitos efeitos causados por doenças e intervenções terapêuticas. Estudos que avaliam o efeito da disfunção da glândula submandibular na glândula parótida ainda não foram reportados na literatura. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações histopatológicas na glândula parótida após insuficiência da glândula submandibular. Método: Três grupos de sete coelhas fêmeas da raça Nova Zelândia, selecionadas aleatoriamente, pesando entre 2.500 e 3.000 gramas foram estudadas. As glândulas submandibulares unilaterais e bilaterais foram removidas nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Nenhum procedimento foi realizado no Grupo III, o grupo controle. As glândulas parótidas foram removidas 30 dias depois. Os parâmetros histológicos foram avaliados e classificados entre 0 (nenhum) e 3 (grave). As diferenças entre os grupos foram comparadas usando o teste U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: O acúmulo médio de muco nas células acinares foi de 2,57 ± 0,53 e 1,71 ± 0,75 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,57 ± 0,53 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). A dilatação média do lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi de 1,28 ± 0,48 e 1,57 ± 0,53 nos Grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente (p > 0,05). Esse valor foi de 0,28 ± 0,48 no Grupo 3, significativamente menor do que nos Grupos 1 e 2 (p < 0,05). O acúmulo médio de muco no lúmen dos dutos intercalados foi 2,00 ± 0,81 e 1,00 ± 0,57 nos Grupos 2 e 3, respectivamente (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Os achados deste estudo indicam que apenas um mês após a insuficiência da glândula submandibular as glândulas parótidas apresentam alterações significativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Parotid Gland/pathology , Submandibular Gland/surgery , Parotid Gland/surgery , Models, Animal , Acinar Cells/pathology , Mucus
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an irreversible progressive disease that destroys exocrine parenchyma, which are replaced by fibrous tissue. As pancreatic fibrosis is a key feature of CP, reducing fibrotic protein content in the pancreas is crucial for preventing CP. Studies suggest that NF-κB facilitates the expression of fibrotic mediators in pancreas and protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) regulates NF-κB activation in stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid having anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. It has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activity in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells which is a cellular model of CP. In the present study, we investigated if DHA inhibits expression of fibrotic mediators by reducing PKC-δ and NF-κB expression in mouse pancreatic tissues with CP.METHODS: For six weeks, mice were weekly induced for acute pancreatitis to develop CP. Furthermore, acute pancreatitis was induced by hourly intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (50 μg/kg × 7). Mice were administered DHA (10 μM) via drinking water before and after CP induction.RESULTS: Cerulein-induced pancreatic damages like decreased pancreatic weight/total body weight, leukocyte infiltration, necrosis of acinar cells, and vacuolization were found to be inhibited by DHA. Additionally, DHA inhibited cerulein-induced fibrotic mediators like alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in pancreas. DHA reduced expression of PKC-δ and NF-κB p65 in pancreatic tissues of cerulein-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: DHA may be beneficial in preventing CP by suppressing pancreatic expression of fibrotic mediators.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Actins , Animals , Body Weight , Ceruletide , Drinking Water , Fibronectins , Fibrosis , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocytes , Mice , Necrosis , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Protein Kinases
3.
Immune Network ; : 44-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785817

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic heterogeneous disease that mainly affects exocrine glands, leading to sicca syndromes such as xerostomia. Despite the second highest prevalence rate among systemic autoimmune diseases, its pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Here we report that SKG mice, a cardinal model of Th17 cell-mediated arthritis, also develop a secondary form of SS-like disorder upon systemic exposure to purified curdlan, a type of β-glucan. The reduced production of saliva was not caused by focal immune cell infiltrates but was associated with IgG deposits in salivary glands. Sera from curdlan-injected SKG mice contained elevated titers of IgG (predominantly IgG1), autoantibody to the muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) and inhibited carbachol-induced Ca2+ signaling in salivary acinar cells. These results suggest that the Th17 cells that are elicited in SKG mice promote the production of salivary gland-specific autoantibodies including anti-M3R IgG; the antibodies are then deposited on acinar cells and inhibit M3R-mediated signaling required for salivation, finally leading to hypofunction of the salivary glands. This type II hypersensitivity reaction may explain the origin of secondary SS occurring without focal leukocyte infiltrates.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antibodies , Arthritis , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Exocrine Glands , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes , Mice , Prevalence , Saliva , Salivary Glands , Salivation , Sjogren's Syndrome , Th17 Cells , Xerostomia
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787284

ABSTRACT

Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 1 (SPINK1) is a gene expressed from pancreatic acinar cell which its mutation is known to be associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer. We report a case of a 47-years-old female with nausea and weight loss with yellow discoloration of skin. Initial imaging and endoscopic study led us to an impression of chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic cancer with common bile-duct dilation. Biopsy result was confirmed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and additional imaging revealed lymph node and bone metastasis. Our genetic analysis revealed 194+2T>C mutation of SPINK1. Biliary obstruction was successfully decompressed by stent insertion and underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although there is accumulating evidence of association between SPINK1 mutation and CP, the relationship between SPINK1 mutation and pancreatic cancer in CP patient is an emerging concept. Genetic analysis should be considered in patients with young age especially when diagnosed with both CP and pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Drug Therapy , Female , Genes, vif , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive , Lymph Nodes , Nausea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Radiotherapy , Serine Proteases , Skin , Stents , Weight Loss
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772280

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of many diseases; however, they also induce various side effects. Dexamethasone is one of the most potent corticosteroids, and it has been reported to induce the side effect of impaired salivary gland function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone on mouse submandibular gland function to gain insight into the mechanism of dexamethasone-induced salivary hypofunction. The muscarinic agonist carbachol (CCh) induced salivary secretion and was not affected by short-term dexamethasone treatment but was decreased following long-term dexamethasone administration. The expression levels of the membrane proteins Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, transmembrane member 16A, and aquaporin 5 were comparable between the control and long-term dexamethasone treatment groups. The CCh-induced increase in calcium concentration was significantly lower in the presence of extracellular Ca in the long-term dexamethasone treatment group compared to that in the control group. Furthermore, CCh-induced salivation in the absence of extracellular Ca and Ca ionophore A23187-induced salivation was comparable between the control and long-term dexamethasone treatment groups. Moreover, salivation induced by the Ca-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was diminished in the long-term dexamethasone treatment group. In summary, these results demonstrate that short-term dexamethasone treatment did not impair salivary gland function, whereas long-term dexamethasone treatment diminished store-operated Ca entry, resulting in hyposalivation in mouse submandibular glands.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Metabolism , Animals , Calcium , Metabolism , Calcium Signaling , Carbachol , Pharmacology , Dexamethasone , Therapeutic Uses , Mice , Muscarinic Agonists , Pharmacology , Saliva , Metabolism , Salivation , Submandibular Gland , Metabolism
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the regeneration of rat's salivary gland diabetic defect after intraglandular transplantation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (HDPSCs) on acinar cell vacuolization and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). Material and Methods: HDPSCs isolated from the dental pulp of first premolars #34. HDPSCs from the 3rd passage was characterized by immunocytochemistry of CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD45. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, 3-month-old, 250-300 grams induced with Streptozotocin 30 mg/kg body weight to create diabetes mellitus (DM) divided into 4 groups (n=6); positive control group on Day-7; positive control group on Day-14; treatment group Day-7 (DM+5.105HDPSCs); treatment group on Day-14. On Day-7 and Day-14, rats were sacrificed. Histopathological examination performed to analyze acinar cells vacuolization while Enzyme-linked Immunoabsorbent Assay to measure IL-10 serum level. Data obtained were analyzed statistically using multiple comparisons Bonferroni test, Kruskal Wallis, Shapiro-Wilk and Levene's test result Results: The highest acinar cell vacuolization found in control group Day 14 (0.239 ± 0.132), meanwhile the lowest acinar cell vacuolization found in treatment group Day 7 (0.019 ± 0.035) with significant difference (p=0.003). The highest IL-10 serum level found in treatment group Day 14 (175.583 ± 120.075) with significant difference (p=0.001) Conclusion: Transplantation of HDPSC was able to regenerate submandibular salivary gland defects in diabetic rats by decreasing acinar cell vacuolization and slightly increase IL-10 serum level.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Interleukin-10 , Rats, Wistar , Totipotent Stem Cells , Diabetes Mellitus , Acinar Cells , Salivary Glands , Stem Cells , Immunohistochemistry/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp , Indonesia
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 79-87, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719378

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the anti-pancreatic fibrosis effects of matrine in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid was administrated to rats to establish a pancreatic fibrosis model. Rats were divided into four groups: Control, Sham, Model, and Matrine (n=8). Hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, and Azan staining were performed to evaluate pancreatic fibrosis. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I in pancreatic tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β receptor 1 (TβR1), TβR2, and Smad2 in pancreatic tissues were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: In the model group, hyperplasia of glandules around the glandular ducts, mitochondrial swelling of acinous cells, and severe fibrosis were found. Interestingly, in the Matrine group, mitochondrial swelling was only found in a small number of acinous cells, and the fundamental structures of pancreatic tissues were intact. Moreover, pancreatic fibrosis was markedly alleviated. Comparing to the Sham group, expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, and collagen I was sharply elevated in the Model group (p < 0.05); however, their expressions were much lower in the Matrine group, compared to the Model group (p < 0.05). Compared with the Sham group, mRNA and protein levels of Smad2, TβR1, and TβR2 in the Model group were notably raised (p < 0.05). However, their high expression was significantly downregulated in the Matrine group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Matrine suppressed pancreatic fibrosis by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling in rats.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Actins , Animals , Blotting, Western , Collagen , Fibrosis , Hyperplasia , Mitochondrial Swelling , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691406

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigated the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on the chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) rat model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups, including control, ciprofloxacin, anthocyanins and anthocyanins with ciprofloxacin groups (n=8 in each group). Then, drip infusion of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17 O:K:H) into Sprague-Dawley rats was conducted to induce CBP. In 4 weeks, results of prostate tissue, urine culture, and histological analysis on the prostate were analyzed for each group.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The use of ciprofloxacin, anthocyanins, and anthocyanins with ciprofloxacin showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in the reduction of prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P<0.05). The anthocyanins with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These results suggest that anthocyanins may have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, as well as a synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of anthocyanins and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP to obtain a higher rate of treatment success.</p>


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Pathology , Animals , Anthocyanins , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Escherichia coli Infections , Drug Therapy , Urine , Fibrosis , Inflammation , Pathology , Male , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Prostate , Microbiology , Pathology , Prostatitis , Drug Therapy , Microbiology , Urine , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Severity of Illness Index , Soybeans , Chemistry , Urine , Microbiology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728620

ABSTRACT

Intracellular Ca²⁺ mobilization is closely linked with the initiation of salivary secretion in parotid acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders and believed to be involved in salivary impairments. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on cytosolic Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse parotid acinar cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ levels were slowly elevated when 1 mM H₂O₂ was perfused in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. In a Ca²⁺-free medium, 1 mM H₂O₂ still enhanced the intracellular Ca²⁺ level. Ca²⁺ entry tested using manganese quenching technique was not affected by perfusion of 1 mM H₂O₂. On the other hand, 10 mM H₂O₂ induced more rapid Ca²⁺ accumulation and facilitated Ca²⁺ entry from extracellular fluid. Ca²⁺ refill into intracellular Ca²⁺ store and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1 µM)-induced Ca²⁺ release from Ca²⁺ store was not affected by 1 mM H₂O₂ in permeabilized cells. Ca²⁺ efflux through plasma membrane Ca²⁺-ATPase (PMCA) was markedly blocked by 1 mM H₂O₂ in thapsigargin-treated intact acinar cells. Antioxidants, either catalase or dithiothreitol, completely protected H₂O₂-induced Ca²⁺ accumulation through PMCA inactivation. From the above results, we suggest that excessive production of H₂O₂ under pathological conditions may lead to cytosolic Ca²⁺ accumulation and that the primary mechanism of H₂O₂-induced Ca²⁺ accumulation is likely to inhibit Ca²⁺ efflux through PMCA rather than mobilize Ca²⁺ ions from extracellular medium or intracellular stores in mouse parotid acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Dithiothreitol , Extracellular Fluid , Hand , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate , Ions , Manganese , Mice , Perfusion , Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Plasma , Reactive Oxygen Species
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740063

ABSTRACT

Recent findings indicate that Type 2 taste receptors (T2Rs) are expressed outside the gustatory system, including in the gastrointestinal tracts and the exocrine glands, such as the submandibular (SM), parotid (P), lacrimal (L) glands and pancreas (PC). Specifically, T2Rs are found in some of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells, and these cells secreted peptide hormones in response to stimulation by bitter-tasting compounds. The results show that T2Rs may have significant physiological roles besides bitter taste reception. The functions of the T2Rs in the exocrine glands remain poorly understood. An expression levels analysis of T2Rs will help to determine those functions in the exocrine glands. The expression levels of the T2Rs in the exocrine glands were discovered via the qPCR. C57BL/6J mice of 42~60-day-old were used. Messenger RNAs were extracted from S, P, L and PC. Cloned DNAs were synthesized by reverse transcription. Quantitative PCRs were performed using the SYBR Green method. The expression levels of the T2Rs were calculated as relative expression levels to that of the GAPDH. The statistical significance among the observed exocrine glands was tested using the variance analysis (ANOVA test). Tas2r108, out of murine 35 T2Rs, was the most highly expressed in every observed exocrine gland. This finding was similar to previous results from tongue papillae, but the expression levels were lower than those of the tongue papillae. Tas2r137 of SM, P, L and PC were expressed a little lower than that of tongue papillae. The T2Rs in the exocrine glands may play slightly different roles from those in the tongue. We suggest that physiological studies such as a patch clamp and functional Ca²⁺ imaging of acinar cells are necessary for understanding the Tas2r108 functions.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Clone Cells , DNA , Enteroendocrine Cells , Exocrine Glands , Gastrointestinal Tract , Methods , Mice , Pancreas , Peptide Hormones , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Messenger , Tongue
11.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 134-141, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715197

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a serious and fatal complication of gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Blunt trauma to the parenchyma of the pancreas can result from an assistant's forceps compressing and retracting the pancreas, which in turn may result in pancreatic juice leakage. However, no published studies have focused on blunt trauma to the pancreas during laparoscopic surgery. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between compression of the pancreas and pancreatic juice leakage in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three female pigs were used in this study. The pancreas was gently compressed dorsally for 15 minutes laparoscopically with gauze grasped with forceps. Pancreatic juice leakage was visualized by fluorescence imaging after topical administration of chymotrypsin-activatable fluorophore in real time. Amylase concentrations in ascites collected at specified times was measured. In addition, pancreatic tissue was fixed with formalin, and the histology of the compressed sites was evaluated. RESULTS: Fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of pancreatic juice leaking into ascites around the pancreas. Median concentrations of pancreatic amylase in ascites increased from 46 U/L preoperatively to 12,509 U/L 4 hours after compression. Histological examination of tissues obtained 4 hours after compression revealed necrotic pancreatic acinar cells extending from the surface to deep within the pancreas and infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic compression by the assistant's forceps can contribute to pancreatic juice leakage. These findings will help to improve the procedure for lymph node dissection around the pancreas during laparoscopic gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Administration, Topical , Amylases , Ascites , Female , Formaldehyde , Gastrectomy , Hand Strength , Humans , Laparoscopy , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Optical Imaging , Pancreas , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreatic Juice , Stomach Neoplasms , Surgical Instruments , Swine , Wounds, Nonpenetrating
12.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 21(4): 225-229, oct.-dic. 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900478

ABSTRACT

Resumen El carcinoma de células acinares es una neoplasia poco frecuente que se presenta principalmente en las glándulas salivales. Presentamos el caso de un paciente femenino de 48 años con dolor, paresia palpebral derecha y aumento de volumen. Biopsia que confirma diagnóstico, manejada con exenteración orbitaria derecha más RT. Durante seguimiento seis años después se presenta dolor columna dorsal, RMN con lesión osteoblástica en T2 biopsia con metástasis de carcinoma de células acinares. Debido a su baja incidencia el comportamiento del carcinoma de células acinares de la glán dula lacrimal es incierto, no hay reportes en la literatura de lesiones metastásicas únicas en columna.


Abstract Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm occurs primarily in the salivary glands. We report the case of a female patient of 48 years with pain, right palpebral paresis, and increased volume. Biopsy confirmed diagnosis, handled right exenteration more RT. During follow-up six years after dorsal spine pain, MRI with T2 lesion biopsy osteoblastic metastatic carcinoma of acinar cells. Because of its low incidence behavior acinar cell carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is uncertain, there are no reports in the literature of metastatic lesions unique column.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Spine , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Acinar Cells , Neoplasm Metastasis
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(2): 230-238, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840830

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Prostate-specific antigen densities have limited success in diagnosing prostate cancer. We emphasise the importance of the peripheral zone when considered with its cellular constituents, the “prostatocrit”. Objective Using zonal volumes and asymmetry of glandular acini, we generate a peripheral zone acinar volume and density. With the ratio to the whole gland, we can better predict high grade and all grade cancer. We can model the gland into its acinar and stromal elements. This new “prostatocrit” model could offer more accurate nomograms for biopsy. Materials and Methods 674 patients underwent TRUS and biopsy. Whole gland and zonal volumes were recorded. We compared ratio and acinar volumes when added to a “clinic” model using traditional PSA density. Univariate logistic regression was used to find significant predictors for all and high grade cancer. Backwards multiple logistic regression was used to generate ROC curves comparing the new model to conventional density and PSA alone. Outcome and results Prediction of all grades of prostate cancer: significant variables revealed four significant “prostatocrit” parameters: log peripheral zone acinar density; peripheral zone acinar volume/whole gland acinar volume; peripheral zone acinar density/whole gland volume; peripheral zone acinar density. Acinar model (AUC 0.774), clinic model (AUC 0.745) (P=0.0105). Prediction of high grade prostate cancer: peripheral zone acinar density (“prostatocrit”) was the only significant density predictor. Acinar model (AUC 0.811), clinic model (AUC 0.769) (P=0.0005). Conclusion There is renewed use for ratio and “prostatocrit” density of the peripheral zone in predicting cancer. This outperforms all traditional density measurements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Acinar Cells/pathology , Reference Standards , Biopsy , Logistic Models , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , ROC Curve , Stromal Cells , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(1): 212-218, Mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840957

ABSTRACT

The present paper describes the ultrastructural characteristics of the bulbo-urethral gland (Cowper' glands) of the Indian fruit bat, R. leschenaulti during sexually inactive-breeding cycle. Cyclic histological changes during the seasonal breeding quiescence cycle are not well marked. There are no marked differences. The ultrastructural characteristic of the secretory epithelial cells of Bulbo-Uretrhal Gland gland have been studied during different phases of reproductive cycle. The secretory epithelial cells are characterized by the well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, extensive developed complexus golgiensis (Golgi apparatus) and mitochondria. Mitochondria with lamellate cristae are dispersed in the cytoplasm. Three different types of secretory granules can be identified on the basis of electron density. These granules are not of different types but they represent the different stages of granule maturation. The secretory products of bulbo-urethral gland of bat are released into lumen both by apocrine and merocrine modes. The functional significance of the secretions of the bulbo-urethral glands in reproduction is discussed.


El presente trabajo describe las características ultraestructurales de las glándulas bulbouretrales (glándulas de Cowper) del murciélago de la fruta de la India, R. leschenaulti durante el ciclo inactivo de reproducción sexual. Los cambios histológicos cíclicos durante el ciclo de quiescencia estacional de la cría no están bien determinados. No hay diferencias marcadas. La característica ultra estructural de las células epiteliales secretoras de la glándula bulbouretral ha sido estudiada durante diferentes fases del ciclo reproductivo. Las células epiteliales secretoras se caracterizan por un retículo endoplasmático rugoso bien desarrollado, el complexus golgiensis (complejo de Golgi) y mitocondrias desarrollados extensamente. Las mitocondrias con crestas lamelares se encontraron dispersas en el citoplasma. Se pueden identificar tres tipos diferentes de gránulos secretores en base a la densidad de electrones. Estos gránulos no son de tipos diferentes, sino que representan las diferentes etapas de maduración del gránulo. Los productos secretores de las glándulas bulbouretrales de murciélagos son liberados en el lumen tanto por modos apócrinos como merócrinos. Se discute la importancia funcional de las secreciones de la glándula bulbouretral en la reproducción.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bulbourethral Glands/ultrastructure , Chiroptera/anatomy & histology , Epithelial Cells/ultrastructure , Acinar Cells/ultrastructure , Bulbourethral Glands/metabolism , Reproduction
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184095

ABSTRACT

Mammary carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis (MGA) is extremely rare, and MGA is regarded as a non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer. We report five cases of carcinoma arising in MGA of the breast. All cases showed a spectrum of proliferative lesions ranging from MGA to atypical MGA, ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, all cases were triple-negative and expression of S-100 protein gradually decreased as the lesions progressed from MGA to atypical MGA and carcinoma. Three cases showed acinic cell differentiation with reactivity to α1-antitrypsin, and one case was metaplastic carcinoma. During clinical follow-up, one patient developed local recurrence. Carcinoma arising in MGA is a rare but distinct subset of triple-negative breast cancer with characteristic histologic and immunohistochemical findings.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Breast , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Fibrocystic Breast Disease , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Recurrence , S100 Proteins , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226316

ABSTRACT

Cerulein-induced pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis, characterized by the dysregulation of digestive enzyme production, edema formation, and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. We previously showed that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway mediates inflammatory signaling in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. PPAR-γ has been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory responses in several cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of PPAR-γ in cerulein-induced activation of JAK2/STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells. Treatment with cerulein induced the activation of JAK2/STAT3 and PPAR-γ expression in AR42J cells. Cerulein-induced PPAR-γ expression was inhibited by AG490, a JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor, in AR42J cells. An immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PPAR-γ binds to STAT3 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Down-regulation of PPAR-γ by siRNA increased STAT3 phosphorylation in AR42J cells stimulated with cerulein. These results show that PPAR-γ inactivates STAT3 by directly interacting with STAT3 in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Overexpression of PPAR-γ may be beneficial for preventing pancreatitis by suppressing the activation of STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Ceruletide , Down-Regulation , Edema , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , Janus Kinase 2 , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Peroxisomes , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129235

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the exocrine pancreas. Because of its rare incidence, the efficacy of chemotherapy in this patient population has been largely unknown. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with advanced pancreatic ACC who received chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1997 and March 2015, 15 patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic ACC who received systemic chemotherapy were identified in Asan Medical Center, Korea. RESULTS: The median age was 58 years. Eleven and four patients had recurrent/metastatic and locally advanced unresectable disease. The median overall survival in all patients was 20.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 26.1). As first-line therapy, intravenous 5-fluorouracil were administered in four patients (27%), gemcitabine in five (33%), gemcitabine plus capecitabine in two (13%), oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) in two (13%), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by capecitabine maintenance therapy in two (13%). The objective response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy alone was 23% and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.4). After progression, second-line chemotherapy was administered in eight patients, while four patients received FOLFOX and the other four patients received gemcitabine. The ORR was 38%, and patients administered FOLFOX had significantly better PFS than those administered gemcitabine (median, 6.5 months vs. 1.4 months; p=0.007). The ratio of time to tumor progression (TTP) during first-line chemotherapy to TTP at second-line chemotherapy was significantly higher in patients administered FOLFOX (4.07; range, 0.87 to 8.30) than in those administered gemcitabine (0.12; range, 0.08 to 0.25; p=0.029). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oxaliplatin-containing regimens may have improved activity against pancreatic ACC.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Antineoplastic Agents , Capecitabine , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Pancreas, Exocrine , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer of the exocrine pancreas. Because of its rare incidence, the efficacy of chemotherapy in this patient population has been largely unknown. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with advanced pancreatic ACC who received chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1997 and March 2015, 15 patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic ACC who received systemic chemotherapy were identified in Asan Medical Center, Korea. RESULTS: The median age was 58 years. Eleven and four patients had recurrent/metastatic and locally advanced unresectable disease. The median overall survival in all patients was 20.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 26.1). As first-line therapy, intravenous 5-fluorouracil were administered in four patients (27%), gemcitabine in five (33%), gemcitabine plus capecitabine in two (13%), oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX) in two (13%), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by capecitabine maintenance therapy in two (13%). The objective response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy alone was 23% and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.6 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 8.4). After progression, second-line chemotherapy was administered in eight patients, while four patients received FOLFOX and the other four patients received gemcitabine. The ORR was 38%, and patients administered FOLFOX had significantly better PFS than those administered gemcitabine (median, 6.5 months vs. 1.4 months; p=0.007). The ratio of time to tumor progression (TTP) during first-line chemotherapy to TTP at second-line chemotherapy was significantly higher in patients administered FOLFOX (4.07; range, 0.87 to 8.30) than in those administered gemcitabine (0.12; range, 0.08 to 0.25; p=0.029). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oxaliplatin-containing regimens may have improved activity against pancreatic ACC.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Antineoplastic Agents , Capecitabine , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Pancreas, Exocrine , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies
19.
Biol. Res ; 50: 11, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cimicifuga racemosa is one of the herbs used for the treatment of climacteric syndrome, and it has been cited as an alternative therapy to estrogen. Apart from hectic fevers, dyspareunia and so on, dry mouth also increase significantly after menopause. It has not yet been reported whether C. racemosa has any impact on the sublingual gland, which may relate to dry mouth. In an attempt to determine this, we have compared the effects of estrogen and C. racemosa on the sublingual gland of ovariectomized rats. RESULTS: HE staining showed that the acinar cell area had contracted and that the intercellular spaces were broadened in the OVX (ovariectomized rats) group, while treatment with estradiol (E2) and iCR (isopropanolic extract of C. racemosa) improved these lesions. Transmission electron microscopy showed that rough endoplasmic reticulum expansion in mucous and serous acinar epithelial cells and apoptotic cells was more commonly seen in the OVX group than in the SHAM (sham-operated rats) group. Mitochondria and plasma membrane infolding lesions in the striated ducts were also observed. These lesions were alleviated by both treatments. It is of note that, in the OVX + iCR group, the volume of mitochondria in the striated duct was larger than in other groups. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells was significantly increased in the acinar cells of the OVX group compared with the SHAM group (p < 0.05); and the MA (mean absorbance) of caspase-3 in the striated ducts also increased (p < 0.05). Estradiol decreased the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells and the MA of caspase-3 in striated ducts significantly (p < 0.05). ICR also reduced the ratio of caspase-3 positive cells and the MA in the striated ducts (p < 0.05), but the reduction of the MA in striated ducts was inferior to that of the OVX + E2 group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both estradiol and iCR can inhibit subcellular structural damage, and down-regulate the expression of caspase-3 caused by ovariectomy, but their effects were not identical, suggesting that both drugs confer a protective effect on the sublingual gland of ovariectomized rats, but that the specific location and mechanism of action producing these effects were different.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Sublingual Gland/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ovariectomy , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Xerostomia/prevention & control , Climacteric/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Down-Regulation , Estrogen Replacement Therapy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Caspase 3/analysis , Caspase 3/drug effects , Acinar Cells/drug effects
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728575

ABSTRACT

Intracellular calcium (Ca²⁺) oscillation is an initial event in digestive enzyme secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species are known to be associated with a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders including pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on intracellular Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of H₂O₂ at 300 µM resulted in additional elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and termination of oscillatory Ca²⁺ signals induced by carbamylcholine (CCh) in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. Antioxidants, catalase or DTT, completely prevented H₂O₂-induced additional Ca²⁺ increase and termination of Ca²⁺ oscillation. In Ca²⁺-free medium, H₂O₂ still enhanced CCh-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and thapsigargin (TG) mimicked H₂O₂-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ increase. Furthermore, H₂O₂-induced elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels was abolished under sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase-inactivated condition by TG pretreatment with CCh. H₂O₂ at 300 µM failed to affect store-operated Ca²⁺ entry or Ca²⁺ extrusion through plasma membrane. Additionally, ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uniporter blocker, failed to attenuate H₂O₂-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ elevation. These results provide evidence that excessive generation of H₂O₂ in pathological conditions could accumulate intracellular Ca²⁺ by attenuating refilling of internal Ca²⁺ stores rather than by inhibiting Ca²⁺ extrusion to extracellular fluid or enhancing Ca²⁺ mobilization from extracellular medium in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Carbachol , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Extracellular Fluid , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Ion Transport , Mice , Pancreatitis , Perfusion , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Ruthenium Red , Thapsigargin
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL