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1.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 26-31, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362111

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii has reached extremely high levels worldwide, and class D OXA-type carbapenemases are the main associated mechanism. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic and molecular profile of clinical carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAb) isolates from a southern Brazilian border region. Methods: A. baumannii species was identified by the presence of the blaOXA-51 gene, and the susceptibility profile was determined by broth microdilution. The main carbapenemases were investigated by PCR and the molecular typing was performed by PFGE. Results: during the study, a total of 36 CRAb were recovered, of which 85.7% were from respiratory tract samples from ICU patients. High level resistance to were found in contrast to 100% of susceptibility for polymyxin B. The blaOXA-23 gene was present in 34 isolates and was the only one detected other than blaOXA-51. Molecular typing revealed the presence of four clonal strains, two of them endemic during the period of the study. Conclusion: to the best of our knowledge, our study brings the first data about resistance profile in Acinetobacter in the western border of southern Brazil and make aware of endemic clones of CRAb-producing-OXA-23 in this region of state, contributing for the construction of the national epidemiologic scenario of CRAb.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: a resistência aos carbapenêmicos em Acinetobacter baumannii atingiu níveis extremamente altos em todo o mundo, e as carbapenemases do tipo OXA classe D são o principal mecanismo associado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil fenotípico e molecular de isolados clínicos de A. baumannii resistentes aos carbapenêmicos (CRAb) de uma região de fronteira do sul do Brasil. Métodos: a espécie A. baumannii foi identificada através da presença do gene blaOXA-51, e o perfil de sensibilidade foi determinado por microdiluição em caldo. As principais carbapenemases foram investigadas por PCR, e a tipagem dos isolados de CRAb foi realizada por PFGE. Resultados: durante o período do estudo, 36 CRAb foram recuperados, dos quais 85,7% foram provenientes de amostras do trato respiratório de pacientes de UTI. Uma elevada resistência a aminoglicosídeos e fluoroquinolonas foi encontrada em contraste com 100% de sensibilidade a polimixina B. O gene blaOXA-23 foi encontrado em 34 isolados e foi o único detectado além do blaOXA-51. A tipagem molecular revelou a presença de quatro linhagens clonais, duas delas endêmicas ao longo do período do estudo. Conclusão: nosso estudo traz os primeiros dados sobre o perfil de resistência em Acinetobacter na fronteira oeste do sul do Brasil e alerta para a presença de clones endêmicos de CRAb produtores de OXA-23 nessa região, contribuindo para a construção do cenário epidemiológico nacional de CRAb.(AU)


Justificación y Objetivos: la resistencia a carbapenémicos en Acinetobacter baumannii ha alcanzado niveles extremadamente altos en todo el mundo y las carbapenemases OXA de clase D son el principal mecanismo asociado. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el perfil fenotípico y molecular de los aislados clínicos de A. baumannii resistentes a carbapenémicos (CRAb) de una región fronteriza en el sur de Brasil. Métodos: la especie A. baumannii se identificó a través de la presencia del gen blaOXA-51 y el perfil de sensibilidad se determinó por microdilución en caldo. Las principales carbapenemasas fueron investigadas por PCR y la tipificación se hizo con PFGE. Resultados: durante el período de estudio, se recuperaron 36 CRAb, 85,7% de muestras del tracto respiratorio de pacientes de la UCI. Se encontró una alta resistencia a los aminoglucósidos y las fluoroquinolonas en contraste con 100% de sensibilidad a polimixina B. El gen blaOXA-23 se encontró en 34 aislamientos y fue el único detectado además de blaOXA-51. La tipificación molecular reveló la presencia de cuatro cepas clonales, dos de ellas endémicas durante el período de estudio. Conclusiones: hasta donde sabemos, nuestro estudio trae los primeros datos sobre el perfil de resistencia en Acinetobacter en la frontera oeste del sur de Brasil y reconoce los clones endémicos de CRAb productores de OXA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Carbapenems , Acinetobacter baumannii
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136920

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200248, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136841

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in hospital settings has rapidly emerged worldwide as a serious health problem. METHODS: This review synthetizes the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, highlighting resistance mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the genetic mechanisms of resistance as well as the associated risk factors is critical to develop and implement adequate measures to control and prevent acquisition of nosocomial infections, especially in an intensive care unit setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 371-380, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) A. baumannii in the extra-hospital environment in Mthatha, South Africa and to investigate the frequency of carbapenemase-encoding genes. Material and Methods: From August 2016 to July 2017 a total of 598 abattoir samples and 689 aquatic samples were collected and analyzed presumptively by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii using CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium. Species identification was performed by autoSCAN-4 (Dade Behring Inc., IL) and confirmed by the detection of their intrinsic blaOXA-51 gene. Confirmed MDR A. baumannii isolates were screened for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes, ISAba1 insertion sequence and integrase intI1. Results: In total, 248 (19.3%) Acinetobacter species were isolated. Acinetobacter. baumannii was detected in 183 (73.8%) of which 85 (46.4%) and 98 (53.6%) were recovered from abattoir and aquatic respectively. MDR A. baumannii was detected in 56.5% (48/85) abattoir isolates and 53.1% (52/98) aquatic isolates. Isolates showed high resistance to antimicrobials most frequently used to treat Acinetobacter infections such as piperacillin/tazobactam; abattoir (98% of isolates resistant), aquatic (94% of isolates resistant), ceftazidime (84%, 83%), ciprofloxacin (71%, 70%), amikacin (41%, 42%), imipenem (75%, 73%), and meropenem (74%, 71%). All the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. All the isolates carried blaOXA-51-like. The blaOXA-23 was detected in 32 (66.7%) abattoir isolates and 11 (21.2%) aquatic isolates. The blaOXA-58-like was positive in 7 (14.6%) and 4 (7.7%) abattoir and aquatic isolates, respectively. Both groups of isolates lacked blaOXA-24-like, blaIMP-type, blaVIM-type, blaNDM-1, blaSIM, blaAmpC, ISAba1 and inI1. Isolates showed high level of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) ranging from 0.20-0.52. Conclusion: Extra-hospital sources such as abattoir and aquatic environments may be a vehicle of spread of MDR A. baumannii strains in the community and hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , South Africa/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii have become public-health problem. However, few studies have evaluated the control of endemic MDR A. baumannii in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship and comprehensive intensified infection control measures for controlling endemic MDR A. baumannii in ICUs at a tertiary care center. METHODS: Carbapenem use was strictly restricted through antimicrobial stewardship. Environmental cleaning and disinfection was performed at least 3 times per day in addition to basic infection control measures. Isolation using plastic curtains and contact precautions were applied to patients who were colonized or infected with MDR A. baumannii. The outcome was measured as the incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii among patients in the ICUs. RESULTS: The incidence density rate of hospital-onset MDR A. baumannii decreased from 22.82 cases per 1,000 patient-days to 2.68 cases per 1,000 patient-days after the interventions were implemented (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.4; p < 0.001). The mean monthly use of carbapenems also decreased from 134.99 +/- 82.26 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days to 94.85 +/- 50.98 defined daily doses per 1,000 patient-days (p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant implementation of strict antimicrobial stewardship and comprehensive infection control measures effectively controlled endemic MDR A. baumannii in our ICUs within 1 year.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disinfection , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Endemic Diseases , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Odds Ratio , Patient Isolation , Program Evaluation , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(1): 19-24, feb. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742532

ABSTRACT

Background: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MAB) is an important nosocomial pathogen. Objectives: To analyze the risk factors for acquiring MAB, and the clinical and microbiological characteristics of MAB bacteremia (MABB) in children. Materials and Methods: Control-case study 2005-2008. Demographic and clinical data from all MABB and from non-multiresistant gram-negative bacteremias were recorded. Identification at species level, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, time-kill studies and clonally relationships were performed. Stata 8.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A total of 50 MABB and 100 controls were included. Ninety four percent of patients acquired MAB in ICU and the 88% had underlying diseases. All patients had invasive procedures previous to MABB. The median of hospitalization stay previous to MABB was different in cases than in controls (16 vs 7 days, p < 0.001). Five clones were detected among the MABB. Time-killing curves showed bactericidal activity of ampicillin/sulbactam plus gentamicin and polymixin B. Three patients with MAB died. In a multivariate analysis final predictors of MABB were: previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics [OR: 7,0; IC 95% 1,93-25,0; p: 0,003] and mechanical ventilation [OR: 4,19; IC 95% 1,66-10,0; p: 0,002]. Conclusions: MABB were detected in patients with underlying conditions, invasive procedures and prolonged hospitalization. Predictors of MABB were mechanical previous use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and mechanical ventilation.


Introducción: Acinetobacter baumannii multi-resistente (ABM) es un patógeno intrahospitalario de importancia. Objetivos: Analizar factores de riesgo de adquisición y características clínicas y microbiológicas de las bacteriemias por ABM (BABM) en pediatría. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles período 2005-2008. Se incluyeron variables demográficas y clínicas de pacientes con BABM y por otros bacilos gramnegativos no ABM. Se realizaron pruebas para identificación de especie, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y detección feno-genotípica de mecanismos de resistencia, sinergia y clonalidad. Análisis estadístico: Stata 8.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 50 BABM y 100 controles. El 94% de los pacientes adquirieron la BABM en UCI y 88% tenía patologías subyacentes. La mediana de días de internación previa a la bacteriemia fue mayor en los casos (16 vs 7 días, p < 0,001). Se detectaron cinco clones de ABM. Se encontró efecto bactericida in vitro con polimixina B y con ampicilina/sulbactam+gentamicina. Tres casos fallecieron. Análisis multivariado: predictores finales de BABM fueron: antimicrobiano previo de amplio espectro [OR: 7,0; IC 95% 1,93-25,0; p: 0,003] y asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) [OR: 4,19; IC 95% 1,66-10,0; p: 0,002]. Conclusiones: Las BABM fueron detectadas en pacientes con enfermedad subyacente, con procedimientos invasores previos e internación prolongada. Fueron predictores de BABM el tratamiento antimicrobiano de amplio espectro y ARM previa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Bacteremia/microbiology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 583-588, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728910

ABSTRACT

Introduction Recently, pathogen ecology has been recognized as an important epidemiological determinant of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important agents known to cause HAIs. It is widespread in healthcare settings and exhibits seasonal variations in incidence. Little is known about the impact of competition with other hospital pathogens on the incidence of A. baumannii infection. Methods We conducted an ecological study, enrolling patients who presented with healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSIs) from 2005 to 2010 at a 450-bed teaching hospital in Brazil. HA-BSIs were said to be present when bacteria or fungi were recovered from blood cultures collected at least three days after admission. Monthly incidence rates were calculated for all HA-BSIs (overall or caused by specific pathogens or groups of pathogens). Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to identify the impacts of the incidence of several pathogens on the incidence of A. baumannii. Results The overall incidence rate of HA-BSI caused by A. baumannii was 2.5 per 10,000 patient-days. In the multivariate analysis, the incidence of HA-BSI caused by A. baumannii was negatively associated with the incidence rates of HA-BSI due to Staphylococcus aureus (rate ratio [RR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.80-0.97), Enterobacter spp. (RR=0.84; 95%CI=0.74-0.94) and a pool of less common gram-negative pathogens. Conclusions Our results suggest that competition between pathogens influences the etiology of HA-BSIs. It would be beneficial to take these findings into account in infection control policies. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Incidence
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 101-107, abr. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712426

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La caracterización fenotípica de las bacterias del género Acinetobacter mediante pruebas bioquímicas y microscópicas es posible. Varios estudios han demostrado que los aislamientos provenientes de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud presentan una elevada resistencia a los antibióticos de primera elección. Objetivo. Describir los patrones de resistencia de los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii obtenidos en una institución de salud, así como sus características fenotípicas y los posibles mecanismos de resistencia. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con 28 informes de muestras tomadas a pacientes hospitalizados con infección por A. baumannii . Las pruebas de sensibilidad para ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, amikacina y ciprofloxacina se realizaron con el sistema automatizado Vitek ® y la clasificación de sensible, intermedia y resistente se hizo con base en el protocolo establecido por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute para el año 2007. Resultados. El mayor porcentaje de aislamientos correspondió al sexo masculino (53,6 %), a la sala de infectología (28,5 %) y al mes de septiembre (21,4 %); el tipo de muestra más frecuente fue el de secreción endotraqueal (53,6 %). A partir de los patrones de los perfiles de sensibilidad a los antibióticos empleados se obtuvieron 13 filotipos. Conclusión. Acinetobacter baumannii es un agente patógeno resistente a múltiples antimicrobianos, involucrado en brotes de infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud. Los patrones de los perfiles de resistencia permiten inferir que los posibles mecanismos de resistencia presentes en la mayoría de los aislamientos son la producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido, las enzimas modificadoras del antibiótico y la modificación del sitio diana.


Introduction: Phenotypic characterization of the Acinetobacter genus bacteria through biochemical and microscopic tests is possible. Studies have shown that the isolates from health-care associated infections show high resistance to first-line antibiotics. Objective: To describe the resistance patterns of the A. baumannii isolates obtained in a health care institution, the phenotypic characteristics of the isolates, and the possible resistance mechanisms. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 28 reports of samples taken from patients hospitalized with infection by A. baumannii . Susceptibility testing for ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin was performed with the Vitek ™ automated system and the susceptible, intermediate, and resistant classification was based on the protocol established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for 2007. Results: The highest percentage of isolates corresponded to males (53.6 %), to the infectology ward (28.5 %), and to the month of September (21.4 %); the most frequent sample site were endotracheal secretions (53.6 %). From the profile patterns for susceptibility to antibiotics used, 13 phylotypes were obtained. Conclusion: Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogen resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents involved in outbreaks of health-care associated infections. The resistance profile patterns allow inferring that the possible resistance mechanisms present in the majority of the isolates are: Production of extended-spectrum b -lactamases, antibiotic modifying enzymes, and target site modification.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospital Departments/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Medicine , Internal Medicine , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pediatrics , Phenotype , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/microbiology , Seasons
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 36(1): 3-14, ene.-feb. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-703956

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria constituyen un grave problema de la salud pública a nivel mundial por su frecuencia y elevada mortalidad. El Acinetobacter spp. en la última década ha emergido como importante patógeno oportunista nosocomial. Dentro de estas especies, A. baumanii es la principal especie que se aisla hasta en 92 por ciento de las bacteriemias nosocomiales. La mayoría de los reportes de bacteriemia nosocomial por A. baumanii (B Ab) son de brotes en unidades de cuidados intensivos de pacientes adultos. Se ha reportado el incremento de la resistencia a antimicrobianos de este germen. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal acerca de la infección por Acinetobacter spp. en el Hospital Universitario Clínico Quirúrgico Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández, del municipio de Matanzas, entre los meses de octubre de 2011 a julio de 2012. Teniendo en cuenta la ausencia de un estudio anterior en Matanzas sobre infección por este microorganismo, se decidió identificar la incidencia de Acinetobacter spp. según muestra biológica y servicio de procedencia e identificar la sensibilidad/resistencia del mismo, lo cual permitirá instaurar un tratamiento eficaz a los pacientes portadores de esta bacteria atendiendo al patrón de susceptibilidad encontrado en el estudio. La especie más frecuente fue A. baumanii, fundamentalmente en secreción endotraqueal y hemocultivo, procedentes en su mayoría de UTI, siendo este servicio el que aportó más cantidad de cepas MDR. Se encontró una mayor sensibilidad a antimicrobianos no considerados de primera línea como doxiciclina, tetraciclina y trimetropim-sulfametoxazol.


Infections associated to the sanitary care are serious public health problems at the international level because of their frequency and high mortality. In the last ten years, Acinetobacter spp. has emerged as an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen. Among these species, A. baumanii (B Ab) is the main isolated species covering as many as 92 per cent of the nosocomial bacteremias. Most of the reports of nosocomial bacteremias by A. baumanii (B Ab) are outbreaks in adult patient intensive care units. It has been reported a boost of this germ antimicrobial resistance. We carried out a cross sectional, descriptive, observational study on Acinetobacter spp. infection, in the University Hospital Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández of Matanzas municipality, from October 2011 to July 2012. Taking into account the absence of a previous study in Matanzas on infections caused by this microorganism, we decided identifying the Acinetobacter spp. incidence according to biological samples and coming-from service and identifying its sensibility/resistance, allowing the instauration of the efficacious treatment of the patients who carry this bacterium, considering the susceptibility pattern found in the study. The most frequently found species was A. baumanii, mainly in endotracheal secretions and hemo-cultures, most of them coming from Intensive Therapy Units, being this service the one contributing with more quantity of multidrug resistant stocks. We found a bigger sensibility to antimicrobials that are not considered first line ones like doxycycline, tetracycline and trimetoprim-sulfametoxazole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Acinetobacter baumannii , Critical Care , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Observational Studies as Topic
10.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(1): 67-71, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-834447

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii has been an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide.Aim: To assess clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients during a large citywide outbreak of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study that evaluated the information obtained from the official notification system for CRAB within the Municipal Health Department, Porto Alegre, Brazil, in the period of July 1st, 2007 to December 31st,2008.Results: A total of 1,260 CRAB from infection (608 [48.3%]) or colonization (652[51.7%]) were reported in 18 hospitals. Most patients (53.5%) were hospitalized at intensive care units and have been exposed to invasive procedures, but 757 (60.7%)patients had no underlying comorbidity reported. A total of 1,143 (90.7%) patients received some antimicrobial 90 days before CRAB detection and 36.4% received a carbapenem. Data on the outcome were available for 618 (49.0%) patients and 54.3% of them died. Infection was significantly more common in patients admitted to public hospitals; with trauma, with exposure to antibiotics in the previous 90 days, and in patients submitted to invasive procedures. Conclusion: This study suggests that in the context of an outbreak, baseline comorbidities and previous carbapenem exposure may be less important risk factors for CRAB infection/colonization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/pathology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Intensive Care Units , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. acquire antimicrobial agent-resistance genes via class 1 integrons. In this study, integrons were characterized to investigate the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of MDR Acinetobacter isolates. In addition, the relationship between the integron type and integron-harboring bacterial species was analyzed by using epidemiological typing methods. METHODS: Fifty-six MDR Acinetobacter spp.-A. baumannii (N=30), A. bereziniae (N=4), A. nosocomialis (N=5), and A. pittii (N=17)-were isolated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on the basis of the results of the Epsilometer test (Etest). PCR and DNA sequencing was performed to characterize the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integrons. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence (REP)-PCR were performed for epidemiological typing. RESULTS: Class 1 integrons were detected in 50 (89.3%) of the 56 isolates, but no class 2 or 3 integron was found within the cohorts. The class 1 integrons were classified into 4 types: 2.3-kb type A (aacA4-catB8-aadA1), 3.0-kb type B (aacA4-blaI(MP-1)-bla(OXA-2)), 3.0-kb type C (bla(VIM-2)-aacA7-aadA1), and 1.8-kb type D (aac3-1-bla(OXA-2)-orfD). Type A was most prevalent and was detected only in A. baumannii isolates, except for one A. bereziniae isolate; however, type B was amplified in all Acinetobacter isolates except for A. baumannii isolates, regardless of clone and separation time of the bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Although class 1 integron can be transferred horizontally between unrelated isolates belonging to different species, certain types of class 1 integrons tend to transfer horizontally and vertically among A. baumannii or non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter/drug effects , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Integrons/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea
12.
Clinics ; 68(8): 1128-1133, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with colonization by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. METHODS: Surveillance cultures were collected from patients admitted to the intensive care unit at admission, on the third day after admission and weekly until discharge. The outcome was colonization by these pathogens. Two interventions were implemented: education and the introduction of alcohol rubs. Compliance with hand hygiene, colonization pressure, colonization at admission and risk factors for colonization were evaluated. RESULTS: The probability of becoming colonized increased during the study. The incidence density of colonization by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. and colonization pressure were different between periods, increasing gradually throughout the study. The increase in colonization pressure was due to patients already colonized at admission. The APACHE II score, colonization pressure in the week before the outcome and male gender were independent risk factors for colonization. Every 1% increase in colonization pressure led to a 2% increase in the risk of being colonized. CONCLUSION: Colonization pressure is a risk factor for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. colonization. When this pressure reaches critical levels, efforts primarily aimed at hand hygiene may not be sufficient to prevent transmission. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Carbapenems , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , APACHE , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Bacterial Load , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/prevention & control , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Risk Factors , Time Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to understand the molecular epidemiology of integron-associated gene cassettes in Acinetobacter baumannii across four hospitals in northern Taiwan and to clarify the relationship between the presence of integrons and antibiotic-resistant phenotypes. METHODS: Sixty-five A. baumannii isolates, collected from the patients of four regional hospitals in northern Taiwan in 2009, were tested for the presence of integrons and their associated gene cassettes. The susceptibility difference between integron-positive and integron-negative A. baumannii strains was analyzed. Antibiotic-resistant phenotypes among A. baumannii with different types of gene cassette array combinations were also compared. RESULTS: Around 72% of the A. baumannii isolates carried class 1 integrase genes. Despite this, only three gene cassette arrays were found in the integrons. Integron-positive strains were significantly more resistant to all the tested antibiotics than the integrase-negative strains. All the four types of A. baumannii with different gene cassette array combinations were multidrug-resistant in nature. Gene cassette array aacA4-catB8-aadA1 existed in all the integron-positive A. baumannii isolates. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) results revealed the prevalence of one major cluster of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii strains (84%) in the four regional hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of integrons with associated antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes can be used as a representative marker of multidrug resistance in A. baumannii. Some prevalent gene cassette arrays may exist among epidemiologically unrelated A. baumannii strains.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Integrases/genetics , Integrons/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Taiwan/epidemiology
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 177-182, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66224

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The increasing prevalence and global spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has become a serious problem. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular and epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates collected from Korean non-tertiary hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty six non-duplicated carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were collected from 17 non-tertiary hospitals in Korea between 2004 and 2006. Isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing and repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Detection of genes encoding OXA carbapenemase and their relationship with ISAba1 was performed by PCR. RESULTS: Two clones were prevalent among 36 isolates: ST69 (17 isolates, 47.2%) and ST92 (19 isolates, 52.8%). Rep-PCR patterns were diverse and revealed that all isolates were clustered into eight band patterns. The ISAba1-activated blaOXA-23-like and ISAba1-activated blaOXA-51-like genes were prevalent among the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates. CONCLUSION: The class D beta-lactamase genes of A. baumannii were distributed nationwide in non-tertiary Korean hospitals.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitals , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , beta-Lactamases/genetics
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612943

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial drug resistance is a particularly significant issue in Latin America. This article explores antimicrobial resistance in three classes of clinically important bacteria: gram-positive bacteria, enterobacteria, and nonfermenting gram-negativebacilli. The gram-positive bacteria frequently responsible for infections in humans are for the most part cocci: staphylococci, streptococci (including pneumococci), and enterococci,in both community and hospital settings. This situation is no different in theRegion of the Americas. Among the gram-positive bacteria, the causative agents of bacteremia are most commonly strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, followed by enterococci. This report explores the resistance of these species to different antimicrobial drugs, resistance mechanisms in community and hospital strains, and new drugs for treating infections caused by these bacteria. In Latin America, antimicrobialresistance in Enterococcus strains is still a minor problem compared to the situation in the United States. The strains of the genus Streptococcus isolated from respiratory infections are still sensitive to penicillin. Furthermore, the resistance of enterobacteriais extremely important in the Region, particularly because of the broad dissemination of CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), some of which originated in Latin America. This article analyzes the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, betahemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci. Among the nonfermentinggram-negative bacilli, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains remain the leading cause of bacteremia, infections caused by strains of Acinetobacter spp. have proliferatedextensively in some areas. With regard to antibiotics, several options are available for treating gram-positive bacterial infections...


La resistencia a los fármacos antibacterianos tiene particular importancia en América Latina. En este artículo se analiza la resistencia a los antimicrobianos de tres clases de bacterias de importancia clínica: bacterias grampositivas, enterobacterias y bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores.Las bacterias grampositivas que producen infecciones humanas frecuentes son, en su mayoría, cocos: estafilococos, estreptococos (incluidos neumococos) y enterococos, tanto en elmedio comunitario como en el nosocomial. Esta situación no es diferente en la Región de las Américas. Entre las bacterias grampositivas, las que causan bacteriemia con mayor frecuencia corresponden a cepas de estafilococos coagulasa negativos, seguidas de las de enterococos. Eneste informe se analiza la resistencia de estas especies a distintos antimicrobianos, los mecanismosde resistencia para las cepas de origen hospitalario y comunitario y los nuevos medicamentos para tratar las infecciones por estas bacterias. La resistencia a los antimicrobianos delas cepas de Enterococcus en América Latina todavía es un problema menor en relación con la situación en los Estados Unidos de América. Las cepas del género Streptococcus aisladasde infecciones respiratorias aún son sensibles a penicilina. Por otra parte, la resistencia de las enterobacterias es de gran importancia en la Región, particularmente por la gran difusión debetalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de tipo CTX-M, algunas de las cuales se originaron en América Latina. En el presente artículo se analizan la situación de la resistencia de las cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, y de los estreptococos betahemolítico y del grupo viridans. Entre los bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores, si bien las cepas de Pseudomonasaeruginosa siguen siendo la causa principal de bacteriemias, la proliferación de infecciones por cepas de Acinetobacter spp. tiene en algunas partes gran magnitud...


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Acinetobacter/enzymology , Acinetobacter/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Developing Countries , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/drug therapy , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Global Health , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Latin America , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Streptococcus/drug effects , Streptococcus/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/physiology
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(6): 603-609, Dec. 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612957

ABSTRACT

Objective. To determine whether restricting the use of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin could significantly reduce colonization and infection with resistant Gram-negative bacilli (r-GNB). Methods. A two-phase prospective study (before/after design) was conducted in an intensive care unit in two time periods (2004–2006). During phase 1, there was no antibiotic restriction. During phase 2, use of ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin was restricted. Results. A total of 200 patients were prospectively evaluated. In phase 2, the use of ceftriaxone was reduced by 93.6% (P = 0.0001) and that of ciprofloxacin by 65.1% (P = 0.041), accompanied by a 113.8% increase in use of ampicillin-sulbactam (P = 0.002). During phase 1, 48 GNB were isolated [37 r-GNB (77.1%) and 11 non-r-GNB (22.9%)], compared with a total of 64 during phase 2 [27 r-GNB (42.2%) and 37 non-r-GNB (57.8%)] (P = 0.0002). Acinetobacter spp. was isolated 13 times during phase 1 and 3 times in phase 2 (P = 0.0018). The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin increased from 40.0% in phase 1 to 100.0% in phase 2 (P = 0.0108). Conclusions. Restriction of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin reduced colonization byAcinetobacter spp. and improved the susceptibility profile of P. aeruginosa.


Objetivo. Determinar si la restricción del uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino reduce significativamente la colonización y la infección por bacilos gramnegativos resistentes. Métodos. Se efectuó un estudio prospectivo de dos fases (diseño antes/después de la intervención) en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en dos períodos sucesivos entre los años 2004 y 2006. Durante la fase 1, no hubo ninguna restricción de antibióticos. Durante la fase 2, se restringió el uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino. Resultados. Se evaluó prospectivamente a 200 pacientes en total. En la fase 2, el uso de ceftriaxona se redujo en 93,6% (P = 0,0001) y el de ciprofloxacino en 65,1% (P = 0,041), lo que se acompañó de un aumento de 113,8% en el uso de ampicilina/sulbactam (P = 0,002). Durante la fase 1, se aislaron 48 bacilos gramnegativos (37 resistentes [77,1%] y 11 no resistentes [22,9%]), en comparación con un total de 64 durante la fase 2 (27 resistentes [42,2%] y 37 no resistentes [57,8%]) (P = 0,0002). Se aisló Acinetobacter spp. 13 veces durante la fase 1 y 3 veces en la fase 2 (P = 0,0018). La sensibilidad de Pseudomonas aeruginosa al ciprofloxacino aumentó de 40,0% en la fase 1 a 100,0% en la fase 2 (P = 0,0108). Conclusiones. La restricción del uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino redujo la colonización por Acinetobacter spp. y mejoró el perfil de sensibilidad de P. aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pseudomonas Infections/prevention & control , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Drug and Narcotic Control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Superinfection , Uruguay/epidemiology
17.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 30(4): 287-294, oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-606841

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Comparar la mortalidad en pacientes infectados por Acinetobacter baumannii multisensibles con pacientes infectados por A. baumannii multirresistentes hospitalizados en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) de Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, observacional y multicéntrico. Se incluyó a 165 pacientes ingresados en las UCIs participantes entre abril de 2006 y abril de 2010. Se comparó la mortalidad de los pacientes con aislamientos clínicos de A. baumannii multirresistentes frente a aquellos multisensibles al día 14 y 30 de hospitalización. RESULTADOS: De los 165 pacientes adultos que presentaron infecciones asociadas al cuidado en salud (IACS) por A. baumannii, en 62 se encontraron bacterias multisensibles y en 103, multirresistentes. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la mortalidad al día 14 de hospitalización en UCI. Sí se observaron en cambio diferencias significativas (P < 0,05) para mortalidad al día 30 de hospitalización entre los pacientes con aislamientos multirresistentes y multisensibles, y esta diferencia se mantuvo al controlar los factores de riesgo de los pacientes con análisis multivariado. CONCLUSIONES: La presencia de multirresistencia es el principal factor de riesgo para la mortalidad entre los pacientes con IACS por A. baumannii en las UCI de Colombia.


OBJECTIVE: Compare mortality in multidrug-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii infected patients and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii-infected patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Colombia. METHODS: A prospective, observational, and multicenter study. A total of 165 patients admitted to the participating ICUs from April 2006 to April 2010 were included. On day 14 and day 30 of hospitalization, mortality in multidrug-resistant patients with clinical isolates of A. baumannii was compared with that in multidrug-susceptible patients. RESULTS: Of the 165 adult patients who had health care-associated infections (HAI) caused by A. baumannii, multidrug-susceptible bacteria were found in 62 patients and multidrug-resistant bacteria in 103. Statistically significant differences in mortality on day 14 of hospitalization in the ICU were not found. On the other hand, significant differences (P < 0.05) in mortality on day 30 of hospitalization were observed between patients with multidrug-resistant isolates and those with multidrug-susceptible isolates. This difference was maintained when the patients' risk factors were evaluated by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multidrug resistance is the primary risk factor for mortality in patients with HAI caused by A. baumannii in Colombian ICUs.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Mortality/trends , Prospective Studies , Statistics as Topic
18.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 9(supl.5): 680-687, dic. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-585193

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones por bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores han cobrado notoria importancia por su incidencia en las infecciones hospitalarias. Actualmente, se destaca el hallazgo de especies como la Pseudomonas aeruginosa y el Acinetobacter spp.; de este último, el Acinetobacter baumannii es la especie que con mayor frecuencia se asocia a infecciones graves y a la muerte. El aislamiento de estos patógenos se asocia a un incremento de la mortalidad y están entre los agentes que más frecuentemente causan infecciones en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, de ahí que constituyan desafíos terapéuticos. En el presente artículo, se realiza una revisión actualizada de la literatura y se hace énfasis en la problemática de la resistencia bacteriana y la terapéutica antibiótica(AU)


Infections caused by the nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli have charged notorious importance for their incidence in the hospital infections. At the moment it stands out the discovery of species like the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Acinetobacter spp.; Acinetobacter baumannii is the species that associates to severe infections and the death with more frequency. The isolation of these pathogens associates to an increment of the mortality. These pathogens are among the agents that more frequently cause infections in the Intensive Cares Units, they constitute therapeutic challenges. Presently article is made a modernized revision of the literature and emphasis is made in the problem of the bacterial resistance and the antibiotic therapy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Intensive Care Units/standards , Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods/pathogenicity , Critical Care/ethics
19.
Med. infant ; 17(3): 287-290, Septiembre 2010. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1253979

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter spp ha emergido como un importante germen en unidades de cuidados intensivos y en pacientes críticos como los quemados. Objetivos: Evaluar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de evolución en pacientes admitidos en la unidad de quemados con infecciones por Acinetobacter spp multiresistente. Población y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de todos los pacientes que entre enero de 2005 y diciembre de 2006 tuvieron aislamiento de Acinetobacter spp multitresistente en la unidad de quemados del Hospital J P Garrahan. Resultados: Se incluyeron 26 pacientes. La edad media fue de 66.5 meses (rango: 2 a 168 m), 17 pacientes (65%) fueron del sexo masculino. La superficie quemada fue entre 10% y 87% (mediana 42.5%). Diez pacientes (39%) tenían quemadura profunda o "full thickness". El foco más frecuente fue sepsis asociada a la quemadura en 10 pacientes (39%). En 8 pacientes (30%), la infección de la quemadura no se asoció con sepsis. Fue diagnosticada Bacteriemia asociada a catéter en 3 pacientes (11%), y bacteriemia no asociada en 1 paciente (4%). Dos pacientes tuvieron neumonía asociada a respirador (8%), y 2 (8%) infección urinaria asociada a sonda. Todos los pacientes recibieron colistín de acuerdo a test de susceptibilidad. El tiempo de tratamiento con colistín fue entre 10 y 71 días (mediana 21días). Ninguno de los pacientes presentó alteraciones renales o neurológicas relacionadas con el colistín. La evolución fue favorable en todos los pacientes (AU)


Acinetobacter spp has emerged as an important germ in intensive care units and in critical patients, such as those with burn wounds. Objectives: To assess epidemiological and clinical features and evolution of patients admitted to the burn unit with multiresistent Acinetobacter spp infections. Patients and Methods: All patients admitted to the burn unit of the J P Garrahan Hospital between January 2005 and December 2006 in whom multiresistent Acinetobacter spp was isolated were studied. Results: 26 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 66.5 months (range: 2 to 168 m), 17 patients (65%) were male. The burn surface was between 10% and 87% (median 42.5%). Ten patients (39%) had a deep or "full thickness" burn. The most frequent focus was burn-wound-associated sepsis in 10 patients (39%). In 8 patients (30%), infection of the burn wound was not associated with sepsis. Catheter-related bacteriemia was diagnosed in three patients (11%) and non-catheter-related bacteriemia in one patient (4%). Two patients developed respirator-associated pneumonia (8%) and two (8%) catheterassociated urinary infection. After susceptibility testing, all patients received colistin. Duration of colistin treatment was between 10 and 71 days (median: 21days). None of the patients developed colestin-related renal or neurological impairment. Evolution was favorable in all patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burn Units , Burns/complications , Burns/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/diagnosis , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Acinetobacter/isolation & purification
20.
West Indian med. j ; 59(2): 209-214, Mar. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. METHOD: This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical features. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. RESULTS: A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.


ANTECEDENTES: La neutropenia febril es una complicación común de la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer. Los regimenes de antibióticos empíricos se basan en las características epidemiológicas de aislados bacterianos, tanto global como localmente. MÉTODO: Este estudio examinó retrospectivamente todos los casos de neutropenia febril con confirmación de cáncer, ingresados y tratados con quimioterapia en el Hospital Universitario de West Indies, Jamaica, en el período de cuatro años entre el 1ero, de enero de 2003 y el 31 de diciembre de 2006. Se identificaron casos con historias de cultivos de sangre e historias clínicas que fueron examinadas para determinar los agentes etiológicos causantes de la bacteriemia, sus susceptibilidades antimicrobianas y características clínicas. Estos casos fueron comparados con pacientes de cáncer no neutropénicos ingresados con fiebre. RESULTADOS: Se examinaron un total de 197 episodios febriles en pacientes de cáncer. El treinta y siete por ciento tuvo neutropenia febril, mientras que el 62% eran no neutropénicos. La leucemia mieloide aguda fue la malignidad hematológica más común, y el tumor sólido más común fue el cáncer de mamas. Veintiséis por ciento de .los pacientes tuvieron cultivos de sangre positivos. En los pacientes neutropénicos febriles, Escherichia coli fue el organismo aislado más común, seguido de los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos, mientras que en los pacientes no neutropénicos, los estafilococos coagulasa-negativos fueron los más comúnes. Las infecciones por Acinetobacter fueron prominentes en pacientes no neutropénicos pero ausentes en los pacientes neutropénicos. Más de un organismo fue cultivado en 9 pacientes neutropénicos y 18 en no neutropénicos. La mortalidad fue de 10.8% en los pacientes neutropénicos y 24.4% en los no neutropénicos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los organismos gram-negativos son los aislados que predominan en los episodios neutropénicos febriles en Jamaica. Los pacientes no neutropénicos vieron su mortalidad aumentada con el incremento en infecciones Acinetobacter y aislados múltiples.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Neoplasms/complications , Neutropenia/etiology , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
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