Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05992020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155526

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the role of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA) in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. METHODS: We collected 100 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and identified and confirmed them using microbiological tests and assessment of the OXA-51 gene. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disk agar diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. The presence of AME genes and ArmA was detected by PCR and multiplex PCR. RESULTS: The most and least effective antibiotics in this study were netilmicin and ciprofloxacin with 68% and 100% resistance rates, respectively. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration test, 94% of the isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, and streptomycin, while the highest susceptibility (20%) was observed against netilmicin. The proportion of strains harboring the aminoglycoside resistance genes was as follows: APH(3′)-VIa (aphA6) (77%), ANT(2")-Ia (aadB) (73%), ANT(3")-Ia (aadA1) (33%), AAC(6′)-Ib (aacA4) (33%), ArmA (22%), and AAC(3)-IIa (aacC2) (19%). Among the 22 gene profiles detected in this study, the most prevalent profiles included APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (39 isolates, 100% of which were kanamycin-resistant), and AAC(3)-IIa + AAC(6′)-Ib + ANT(3")-Ia + APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (14 isolates, all of which were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). CONCLUSIONS: High minimum inhibitory concentration of aminoglycosides in isolates with the simultaneous presence of AME- and ArmA-encoding genes indicated the importance of these genes in resistance to aminoglycosides. However, control of their spread could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Methyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136920

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200371, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Acinetobacter baumannii outbreaks have been associated with pandemic International Clones (ICs), but the virulence factors involved with their pathogenicity are sparsely understood. Pigment production has been linked with bacterial pathogenicity, however, this phenotype is rarely observed in A. baumannii. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to characterise the reddish-brown pigment produced by A. baumannii strains, and to determine its biosynthetic pathway by genomic approaches. METHODS Pigment characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility were conducted by phenotypic tests. The clonal relationship was obtained by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The genome of an A. baumannii was obtained for characterisation of genes involved with pigment production. FINDINGS The pyomelanin was the pigment produced by A. baumannii. Strains were extensively drug resistant and belonged to the IC-5/ST79. The pyomelanin biosynthetic pathway was determined and presented a particular architecture concerning the peripheral (tyrB, phhB and hpd) and central (hmgB, hmgC and hmgR) metabolic pathway genes. The identification of a distant HmgA homologue, probably without dioxygenase activity, could explain pyomelanin production. Virulence determinants involved with adherence (csuA/BABCDE and a T5bSS-carrying genomic island), and iron uptake (basABCDEFGHIJ, bauABCDEF and barAB) were characterised. MAIN CONCLUSION There is a biosynthetic pathway compatible with the pyomelanin production observed in persistent A. baumannii IC-5 strains.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Melanins , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 371-380, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) A. baumannii in the extra-hospital environment in Mthatha, South Africa and to investigate the frequency of carbapenemase-encoding genes. Material and Methods: From August 2016 to July 2017 a total of 598 abattoir samples and 689 aquatic samples were collected and analyzed presumptively by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii using CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium. Species identification was performed by autoSCAN-4 (Dade Behring Inc., IL) and confirmed by the detection of their intrinsic blaOXA-51 gene. Confirmed MDR A. baumannii isolates were screened for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes, ISAba1 insertion sequence and integrase intI1. Results: In total, 248 (19.3%) Acinetobacter species were isolated. Acinetobacter. baumannii was detected in 183 (73.8%) of which 85 (46.4%) and 98 (53.6%) were recovered from abattoir and aquatic respectively. MDR A. baumannii was detected in 56.5% (48/85) abattoir isolates and 53.1% (52/98) aquatic isolates. Isolates showed high resistance to antimicrobials most frequently used to treat Acinetobacter infections such as piperacillin/tazobactam; abattoir (98% of isolates resistant), aquatic (94% of isolates resistant), ceftazidime (84%, 83%), ciprofloxacin (71%, 70%), amikacin (41%, 42%), imipenem (75%, 73%), and meropenem (74%, 71%). All the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. All the isolates carried blaOXA-51-like. The blaOXA-23 was detected in 32 (66.7%) abattoir isolates and 11 (21.2%) aquatic isolates. The blaOXA-58-like was positive in 7 (14.6%) and 4 (7.7%) abattoir and aquatic isolates, respectively. Both groups of isolates lacked blaOXA-24-like, blaIMP-type, blaVIM-type, blaNDM-1, blaSIM, blaAmpC, ISAba1 and inI1. Isolates showed high level of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) ranging from 0.20-0.52. Conclusion: Extra-hospital sources such as abattoir and aquatic environments may be a vehicle of spread of MDR A. baumannii strains in the community and hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , South Africa/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics
5.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 9(4): 281-286, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152242

ABSTRACT

Justificativa e objetivos: Infecções Relacionadas à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS) causadas por bacilos Gram negativos multirresistentes (BGN-MDR) são consideradas um problema de saúde pública e um impacto nas taxas de mortalidade nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o perfil fenotípico de resistência à colistina e à tigeciclina, consideradas como último recurso terapêutico aos BGN-MDR. Métodos: Os dados foram coletados nas fichas de busca ativa do serviço de controle de infecções e prontuários médicos de pacientes internados em duas UTIs de um hospital público de Joinville, entre janeiro de 2016 e junho de 2017. Resultados: Ocorreram 256 IRAS por BGN, acometendo principalmente o gênero masculino (62%), com mediana de idade de 65 anos. Entre os BGN, 37% expressaram MDR; sendo as espécies mais frequentes: Klebsiella pneumoniae e (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). A resistência de BGN-MDR à colistina e tigeciclina foi de 5% e de 12%, respectivamente; 5% dos isolados foram resistentes aos dois antibióticos. A taxa de óbito entre os pacientes com IRAS por BGN-MDR resistentes à colistina foi mais alta (60%) que aquelas à tigeciclina (45%). Conclusão: K. pneumoniae e A. baumannii produtores de carbapenemases, resistentes a colistina e tigeciclina prevaleceram entre os BGN-MDR, e estiveram associadas a maioria dos óbitos. Essas observações, junto com o alto uso de carbapenêmicos na terapia empírica, mostra a necessidade do uso racional de antimicrobianos.(AU)


Background and objectives: Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB-MDR) are considered a public health problem and have an impact on mortality rates in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The aim of this study was to verify the phenotypic profile of resistance to colistin and tigecycline, considered as the last antimicrobial choice to treat BGNMDR infections. Methods: Data were collected on the active search records of the infection control service and medical records of patients admitted to two ICUs at a public hospital in Joinville between January 2016 and June 2017. Results: There were 256 HAIs caused by GNB, mainly affecting males (62%), with a median age of 65 years. Among GNBs, 37% expressed MDR; the most frequent species were: Klebsiella pneumoniae (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). The resistance of GNB-MDR to colistin and tigecycline was 5% and 12%, respectively; 5% of the isolates were resistant to both antibiotics. The death rate among patients with HAIs caused by colistin-resistant GNB-MDR was higher (60%) than those to tigecycline (45%). Conclusion: Carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii, resistant to colistin and tigecycline, prevailed among GNB-MDRs, and were associated with most deaths. These observations, coupled with the high use of carbapenems in empirical therapy, show the need for rational use of antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: Las Infección nosocomial (IHs) causadas por bacilos Gram negativos multirresistentes (BGN-MDR) se consideran un problema de salud pública y un impacto en las tasas de mortalidad en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar el perfil fenotípico de resistencia a la colistina ya la tigeciclina, consideradas como último recurso terapéutico a los BGN-MDR. Métodos: Los datos fueron recolectados en las fichas de búsqueda activa del servicio de control de infecciones y prontuarios médicos de pacientes internados en dos UTIs de un hospital público de Joinville, entre enero de 2016 y junio de 2017. Resultados: Ocurrieron 256 IHs por BGN, que afectan principalmente al género masculino (62%), con mediana de edad de 65 años. Entre los BGN, el 37% expresó MDR; siendo las especies más frecuentes: Klebsiella pneumoniae (47%), Acinetobacter baumannii (23%) y Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (11%). La resistencia de BGN-MDR a la colistina y tigeciclina fue del 5% y del 12%, respectivamente; 5% de los aislados fueron resistentes a los dos antibióticos. La tasa de muerte entre los pacientes con IH causadas por los BGN-MDR resistentes la colistina fue más alta (60%) que aquellas a tigeciclina (45%). Conclusión: K. pneumoniae y A. baumannii productoras de carbapenemases, resistentes la colistina y la tigeciclina, fueron más frecuentes entre los BGN-MDR y su asociación estuvo presente en la mayoría de las muertes. Estas observaciones, junto con el alto uso de carbapenems en la terapia empírica, muestran la necesidad de un uso racional de los antimicrobianos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Colistin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Tigecycline/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Colistin/therapeutic use , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/drug effects , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Tigecycline/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Hospitalization , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190237, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020446

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The increased use of colistin against infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has resulted in colistin resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene in colistin-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: A total of 146 clinical isolates of A. baumannii (n = 62) and P. aeruginosa (n = 84) were collected from the four largest tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. All bacterial isolates were phenotypically screened for multidrug resistance using the Kirby-Baur disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin in all isolates was phenotypically performed using dilution methods. mcr-1 gene was detected through polymerase chain reaction and the nucleotide sequence of amplicon was determined using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Approximately 96.7% A. baumannii and 83.3% P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Colistin resistance was found in 9.6% (6/62) of A. baumannii and 11.9% (10/84) of P. aeruginosa isolates. Among 16 colistin resistant isolates, the mcr-1 gene was detected in one A. baumannii (1.61% of total isolates; 16.6% of colistin resistant isolates) and one P. aeruginosa strain (1.19% of total isolates; 10% of colistin resistant isolates). Nucleotide BLAST showed 98-99% sequence similarity to sequences of the mcr-1 gene in GenBank. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports, for the first time, the emergence of plasmid-mediated mcr-1-encoded colistin resistance in multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Further large scales studies are recommended to investigate the prevalence of this mode of resistance in these highly pathogenic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Pakistan , Plasmids/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 438-441, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039218

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most frequent Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens associated with hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We briefly describe A. baumannii isolates that were recovered from surrounding ICU bed surfaces, exhibiting multidrug resistance phenotype and belonging to some widely spread clonal complexes of clinical A. baumannii isolates.


Subject(s)
Beds/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Intensive Care Units , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers , Genes, Bacterial
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 637-647, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889185

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O) and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O) was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Petroleum/microbiology , Actinobacteria/metabolism , Corynebacterium/metabolism , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolism , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Soil Microbiology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Petroleum/analysis , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Actinobacteria/growth & development , Actinobacteria/enzymology , Actinobacteria/genetics , Corynebacterium/growth & development , Corynebacterium/enzymology , Corynebacterium/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Dioxygenases/genetics , India
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 785-792, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828193

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is widely recognized as an important pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The treatment of these infections is often difficult due to the acquisition of resistance genes. A. baumannii presents a high genetic plasticity which allows the accumulation of these resistance determinants leading to multidrug resistance. It is highlighted the importance of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes, through mobile genetic elements and its relationship with increased incidence of multidrug resistant A. baumannii in hospitals. Considering that resistance to carbapenems is very important from the clinical and epidemiological point of view, the aim of this article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about genetic elements related to carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii such as integrons, transposons, resistance islands and insertion sequences.


Subject(s)
DNA, Bacterial , DNA Transposable Elements , Carbapenems/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Integrons , Genomic Islands
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(6): 556-563, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828166

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is an important cause of nosocomial infections especially in intensive care units. This study aimed to assess clinical aspects and the genetic background of CRAb among ICU patients at a Brazilian teaching hospital. Methods: 56 critically ill patients colonized or infected by CRAb, during ICU stay, were prospectively assessed. Based on imipenem MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL, 28 CRAB strains were screened for the presence of genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases and OXA-type β-lactamases. The blaOXA-type genes were characterized by PCR using primers targeting ISAba-1 or -3. Genetic diversity of blaOXA-positive strains was determined by ERIC-PCR analysis. Results: Patient's mean age (±SD) was 61 (±15.1), and 58.9% were male. Eighty-percent of the patients presented risk factors for CRAb colonization, mainly invasive devices (87.5%) and previous antibiotic therapy (77.6%). Thirty-three patients died during hospital stay (59.0%). Resistance to carbapenems was associated with a high prevalence of blaOXA-23 (51.2%) and/or blaOXA-143 (18.6%) genes. ERIC-PCR genotyping identified 10 clusters among OXA-producing CRAb. Three CRAb strains exhibited additional resistance to polymyxin B (MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL), whereas 10 CRAb strains showed tigecycline MICs > 2 µg/mL. Conclusions: In this study, clonally unrelated OXA-123- and OXA-143-producing A. baumannii strains in ICU patients were strongly correlated to colonization with infected patients being associated with a poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Hospitals, Teaching , Intensive Care Units
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(9): 597-598, Sept. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794727

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems has emerged in many medical centres and has been commonly associated with high morbimortality. In Brazil, this resistance is mainly attributed to the spread of OXA-23-producing clones and, to a lesser extent, to OXA-143-producing clones. Here, we describe, for the first time, two OXA-72-producing A. baumannii isolates in southern Brazil to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Molecular typing by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated that both OXA-72-producing isolates belong to a new sequence type (ST), ST730, which was recently identified in OXA-23-producing A. baumannii isolates in São Paulo, Brazil. We demonstrate that the two A. baumannii ST730 isolates carrying blaOXA-72share a common ancestral origin with the blaOXA-23producers in Brazil. This observation reinforces the importance of strain-typing methods in order to clarify the dynamics of the emergence of new clones in a geographic region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(4): 433-440, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792800

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. METHODS: Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78), and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71). The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69) showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7) showed susceptibility to carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/drug effects , beta-Lactam Resistance/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Brazil , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Genotype
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 355-358, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782052

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter baumannii, a strictly aerobic, non-fermentative, Gram-negative coccobacillary rod-shaped bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans. We recently isolated a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain KBN10P02143 from the pus sample drawn from a surgical patient in South Korea. We report the complete genome of this strain, which consists of 4,139,396 bp (G + C content, 39.08%) with 3,868 protein-coding genes, 73 tRNAs and six rRNA operons. Identification of the genes related to multidrug resistance from this genome and the discovery of a novel conjugative plasmid will increase our understanding of the pathogenicity associated with this species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 165-171, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782103

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to the wide use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, clinical resistance to tigecycline has increased in recent years. Here, we investigated the relationship between tigecycline resistance and the expression of efflux pumps. METHODS: Clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were consecutively collected from hospitalized patients in three hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline was determined using the broth microdilution method. Expression levels of efflux pump genes and regulators were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlations between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 1,026 A. baumannii and 725 K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Most strains were isolated from sputum. The tigecycline resistance rate was 13.4% in A. baumannii isolates and 6.5% in K. pneumoniae isolates. Overexpression of AdeABC and AcrAB-TolC efflux systems was observed found in clinical tigecycline-resistant isolates. The tigecycline MIC had a linear relationship with the adeB expression level in A. baumannii isolates, but not with the acrB expression level in K. pneumoniae isolates. There were significant linear trends in the overexpression of ramA as the tigecycline MIC increased in K. pneumoniae isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Tigecycline resistance in A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae was strongly associated with the overexpression of efflux systems. More studies are needed to elucidate whether there are other regulators that affect the expression of adeB in A. baumannii and how ramA affects the expression of acrB in K. pneumoniae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Minocycline/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tigecycline , Minocycline/pharmacokinetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A rapid and sensitive test to detect CRPA and CRAB is required for appropriate antibiotic treatment. We optimized a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the presence of bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla OXA-23, which are critical components for carbapenem resistance. METHODS: Two sets of primers, inner and outer primers, were manually designed as previously described. The LAMP buffer was optimized (at 2mM MgSO4) by testing different concentrations of MgSO4. The optimal reaction temperature and incubation time were determined by using a gradient thermocycler. Then, the optimized bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23) LAMP reactions were evaluated by using 120 P. aeruginosa and 99 A. baumannii clinical isolates. RESULTS: Only one strain of the 100 CRPA isolates harbored bla(IMP-1), whereas none of them harbored bla(VIM-2). These results indicate that the acquisition of bla(VIM-2) or bla(IMP-1) may not play a major role in carbapenem resistance in Korea. Fifty two strains of the 75 CRAB isolates contained bla(OXA-23), but none contained bla(VIM-2) and bla(IMP-1) alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the usefulness of LAMP for the diagnosis of CRPA and CRAB.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 699-705, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767825

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Carbapenems are the therapy of choice for treating severe infections caused by the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. We aimed to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of producers of distinct oxacillinases among nosocomial isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in a 249-bed general hospital located in Joinville, Southern Brazil. METHODS: Of the 139 A. baumannii clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems between 2010 and 2013, 118 isolates from varying anatomical sites and hospital sectors were selected for genotypic analysis. Five families of genes encoding oxacillinases, namely blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-58-like, and blaOXA-143-like, wereinvestigated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Most (87.3%) isolates simultaneously carried the blaOXA-23-likeand blaOXA-51-likegenes, whereas three (2.5%) isolates harbored only blaOXA-51-likeones. The circulation of carbapenem-resistant isolates increased during the study period: from none in 2010, to 22 in 2011, 64 in 2012, and 53 in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates carrying the blaOXA-23-likeand blaOXA-51-likegenes were widely distributed in the hospital investigated. Because of the worsening scenario, the implementation of preventive measures and effective barriers is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cross Infection/microbiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Brazil , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Genotype , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phenotype , beta-Lactamases/drug effects
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(5): 691-692, Aug. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755894

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen frequently associated with nosocomial outbreaks around the world. In Brazil, A. baumannii has become particularly problematic because of its prevalence and the carbapenems resistance. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii(ST15/CC15) isolated in 2009 from the state of Espírito Santo (Southeast Brazil). We observed important resistance determinant genes in an estimated genome size of 4,102,788 bp with 3,862 predicted coding regions. A detailed report of the genomic data analysis might help to understand the specific features of highly successful strains belonged to a relevant complex clonal in different Brazilian geographical regions.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Bacterial , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Brazil , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759271

ABSTRACT

Background:In Brazil, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by carbapenem resis- tant Acinetobacter baumanniiand Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolates are associated with significant mortality, morbidity and costs. Studies on the clonal relatedness of these isolates could lay the foundation for effective infection prevention and control programs.Objectives: We sought to study the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of A. baumannii vs. P. aeruginosaVAP in an adult intensive care unit (ICU).Methods: It was conducted a cohort study of patients with VAP caused by carbapenem resistant A. baumanniiand P'. aeruginosaduring 14 months in an adult ICU. Genomic studies were used to investigate the clonal relatedness of carbapenem resistant OXA-23-producing A. baumanniiand P. aeruginosaclinical isolates. The risk factors for acquisition of VAP were also evaluated. Clinical isolates were collected for analysis as were samples from the environment and were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis.Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified trauma diagnosed at admission and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy as independent variables associated with the development of A. baumanniiVAP and hemodialysis as independent variable associated with P. aeruginosaVAP. All carbapenem resistant clinical and environmental isolates of A. baumanniiwere OXA-23 producers. No MBL-producer P. aeruginosawas detected. Molecular typing revealed a polyclonal pattern; however, clone A (clinical) and H (surface) were the most frequent among isolates of A. baumanniitested, with a greater pattern of resistance than other isolates. In P. aeruginosathe most frequent clone I was multi-sensitive.Conclusion: These findings suggest the requirement of constant monitoring of these microor- ganisms in order to control the spread of these clones in the hospital environment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , beta-Lactam Resistance , Cohort Studies , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Hospitals, University , Intensive Care Units , Molecular Typing , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 502-505, 03/07/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716310

ABSTRACT

Although analysis of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems can be instructive, to date, there is no information on the prevalence and identity of TA systems based on a large panel of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. The aim of the current study was to screen for functional TA systems among clinical isolates of A. baumannii and to identify the systems’ locations. For this purpose, we screened 85 A. baumannii isolates collected from different clinical sources for the presence of the mazEF, relBE and higBA TA genes. The results revealed that the genes coding for the mazEF TA system were commonly present in all clinical isolates of A. baumannii. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that transcripts were produced in the clinical isolates. Our findings showed that TA genes are prevalent, harboured by chromosomes and transcribed within A. baumannii. Hence, activation of the toxin proteins in the mazEF TA system should be investigated further as an effective antibacterial strategy against this bacterium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolism , Antitoxins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Antitoxins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL