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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887972


This study summarized and analyzed the current acne-relieving Chinese medicinal health products and Chinese patent medicines,aiming at providing references for the formulation and development of acne-relieving health products. The information on acne-relieving health products published by the Department of Special Food Safety Supervision and Management,the State Administration for Market Regulation( SAMR) was retrieved,and the Chinese patent medicines on DRUGDATAEXPY were searched. Microsoft Excel and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System V2. 5( TCMISS) were employed to statistically analyze the characteristics of formulations. Forty-three acne-relieving health products were obtained,including 40 ones containing Chinese herbal medicines. Six Chinese herbal medicines showed a usage frequency ≥8,with 61 times in use totally,including Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma( 13),Lonicerae Japonicae Flos( 12),Taraxaci Herba( 11),ALOE( 9),Carthami Flos( 8),and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma( 8). A total of 29 Chinese patent medicines with similar efficacy were collected in DRUGDATAEXPY. Nine Chinese herbal medicines showed a usage frequency ≥6,with 63 times in use,including Rhei Radix et Rhizoma( 10),Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma( 8),Scutellariae Radix( 8),Lonicerae Japonicae Flos( 7),Angelicae Sinensis Radix( 6),Paeoniae Radix Rubra( 6),Astragali Radix( 6),Paeoniae Radix Alba( 6),and Gardeniae Fructus( 6). Through unsupervised hierarchical entropy-based clustering of the above-mentioned Chinese medicinal health products and Chinese patent medicines,five and three new formulas were obtained,respectively. The selection of Chinese herbal medicines was consistent with the principles of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) theories in relieving acne,i. e.,dispelling exterior wind,ventilating lungs,clearing heat,dissipating mass,promoting diuresis,relaxing bowels,removing toxin,activating blood,resolving stasis,eliminating phlegm,and regulating Qi. According to the " lung governing skin and body hair" and " interior-exterior relationship between lung and large intestine" in TCM theories,the idea that acne could be treated by relieving constipation was proposed,which provided new methods and references for the research and development of Chinese medicinal health products.

Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(supl.1): 19-38, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152780


Abstract Background: Isotretinoin is a synthetic retinoid, derived from vitamin A, with multiple mechanisms of action and highly effective in the treatment of acne, despite common adverse events, manageable and dose-dependent. Dose-independent teratogenicity is the most serious. Therefore, off-label prescriptions require strict criteria. Objective: To communicate the experience and recommendation of Brazilian dermatologists on oral use of the drug in dermatology. Methods: Eight experts from five universities were appointed by the Brazilian Society of Dermatology to develop a consensus on indications for this drug. Through the adapted DELPHI methodology, relevant elements were listed and an extensive analysis of the literature was carried out. The consensus was defined with the approval of at least 70% of the experts. Results: With 100% approval from the authors, there was no doubt about the efficacy of oral isotretinoin in the treatment of acne, including as an adjunct in the correction of scars. Common and manageable common adverse events are mucocutaneous in nature. Others, such as growth retardation, abnormal healing, depression, and inflammatory bowel disease have been thoroughly investigated, and there is no evidence of a causal association; they are rare, individual, and should not contraindicate the use of the drug. Regarding unapproved indications, it may represent an option in cases of refractory rosacea, severe seborrheic dermatitis, stabilization of field cancerization with advanced photoaging and, although incipient, frontal fibrosing alopecia. For keratinization disorders, acitretin performs better. In the opinion of the authors, indications for purely esthetic purposes or oil control are not recommended, particularly for women of childbearing age. Conclusions: Approved and non-approved indications, efficacy and adverse effects of oral isotretinoin in dermatology were presented and critically evaluated.

Humans , Female , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Dermatology , Brazil , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Consensus
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 99-104, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089377


Abstract Introduction Isotretinoin (13 cis-retinoic acid) is the most effective treatment for acne vulgaris and is the only treatment option that can provide either remission or a permanent cure. Objective The aim of this study was to use both subjective and objective methods to assess the nasal complaints of patients with severe acne who received oral isotretinoin therapy. Methods Fifty-four subjects were enrolled in the study. All the subjects were assessed with subjective (NOSE and VAS questionnaires) and objective (rhinomanometry and saccharine) tests to determine the severity of their nasal complaints. Results The mean severity scores (min: 0; max: 100) for nasal dryness/crusting and epistaxis were 0.47 ± 1.48 (0-5); 0.35 ± 1.30 (0-5) at admission, 3.57 ± 4.45 (0-10); 2.26 ± 4.71 (0-20) at the first month, and 4.28 ± 6 (0-20); 2.26 ± 4.71 (0-20) at the third month of the treatment respectively. Total nasal resistance of 0.195 ± 0.079 (0.12-0.56) Pa/cm3/s at admission, 0.21 ± 0.084 (0.12-0.54) Pa/cm3/s at the first month, and 0.216 ± 0.081 (0.14-0.54) Pa/cm3/s at the third month. Conclusion Oral isotretinoin therapy can cause the complaint of nasal obstruction. In addition, nasal complaints, such as dryness/crusting and epistaxis, significantly increase in patients during the therapy schedule.

Resumo Introdução A isotretinoína (ácido-13 cis-retinóico) é o tratamento por via oral mais eficaz para acne vulgar e é a única opção de tratamento que pode produzir remissão ou cura permanente. Objetivo Usar métodos subjetivos e objetivos para avaliar as queixas nasais de pacientes com acne grave que receberam terapia com isotretinoína oral. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 54 indivíduos. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados por meio de testes subjetivos (questionários NOSE e escala EVA) e objetivos (rinomanometria e teste de sacarina) para determinar a gravidade de suas queixas nasais. Resultados Os escores médios de gravidade (min: 0; max: 100) para ressecamento/crostas e epistaxe nasal foram de 0,47 ± 1,48 (0-5); 0,35 ± 1,30 (0-5) no início, 3,57 ± 4,45 (0-10); 2,26 ± 4,71 (0-20) no primeiro mês e 4,28 ± 6 (0-20); 2,26 ± 4,71 (0-20) no terceiro mês do tratamento, respectivamente. A resistência nasal total foi de 0,195 ± 0,079 (0,12 a 0,56) Pa/cm3/s no início, 0,21 ± 0,084 (0,12 a 0,54) Pa/cm3/s no primeiro mês e 0,216 ± 0,081 (0,14 a 0,54) Pa/cm3/s no terceiro mês. Conclusão A terapia com isotretinoína por via oral pode resultar em queixa de obstrução nasal. Além disso, queixas nasais, tais como ressecamento/formação de crostas e epistaxe, aumentam significativamente nos pacientes durante o esquema terapêutico.

Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Isotretinoin/pharmacology , Dermatologic Agents/pharmacology , Nasal Cavity/drug effects , Saccharin , Sweetening Agents , Severity of Illness Index , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Nasal Obstruction/diagnosis , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Epistaxis/etiology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Rhinomanometry , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Symptom Assessment
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 363-368, July-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043439


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Acne needs to be treated early to prevent negative psychosocial impacts. In severe or moderate forms, which tend to leave scars, oral isotretinoin is the first-line therapy. However, concern about its adverse events, especially in developed countries, delays effective treatment. In contrast, isotretinoin is widely prescribed in Brazilian private clinics. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of isotretinoin for treating acne in a Brazilian public hospital, and to analyze whether its prescription is effective or belated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study in a public hospital. METHODS: Clinical and therapeutic data were obtained from the medical records of patients who were undergoing or had undergone acne treatment with isotretinoin in this hospital's general dermatology outpatient clinic over the last seven years, up to April 2018. RESULTS: 1526 medical records from patients with acne were analyzed. Isotretinoin was prescribed for 279 patients (18.28%) with mild (1.19%), moderate (57.37%), severe (35.85%) or conglobata (5.57%) forms of acne vulgaris. Sequelae of acne were present at the start of most of these patients' treatment. An initial daily dose of 20 mg was usually prescribed. The average initial dose/weight ratio was 0.33 mg/kg/day. The average total dose/weight ratio was 127.61 mg/kg. There were only a few cases of laboratory abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Sequelae of acne at the onset of treatment reveal delayed indication of isotretinoin, which can have negative psychosocial impacts on quality of life. Isotretinoin should be indicated early to prevent this. Its use is supported by its lack of laboratory alterations and controllable adverse events.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Isotretinoin/administration & dosage , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Public
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 62-75, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983728


Abstract: Background: Acne in women is often associated with anxiety and depression, and may persist from adolescence as well as manifest for the first time in adulthood. Genetic and hormonal factors contribute to its etiopathogenesis, and maintenance treatment is required, usually for years, due to its clinical evolution. Objective: To develop a guide for the clinical practice of adult female acne. Methods: A team of five experts with extensive experience in acne conducted a literature review of the main scientific evidence and met to discuss the best practices and personal experiences to develop a guide containing recommendations for the clinical practice of adult female acne. Results: The group of specialists reached consensus on the main guidelines for clinical practice, providing detailed recommendations on clinical picture, etiopathogenesis, laboratory investigation and treatment of adult female acne. Conclusion: Different from teenage acne, adult female acne presents some characteristics and multiple etiopathogenic factors that make its management more complex. This guide provides recommendations for best clinical practices and therapeutic decisions. However, the authors consider that additional studies are needed in order to provide more evidence for adult female acne to be better understood.

Humans , Female , Adult , Acne Vulgaris/etiology , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Sebum , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Consensus , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Androgens , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 21(3): 89-91, oct. 2018. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016246


El acné es la enfermedad dermatológica más común de la adolescencia. Aunque casi todos los casos remiten alrededor de la tercera década de la vida, cuando este problema conlleva una carga emocional para el paciente se requiere indicar tratamiento. En esta actualización, los autores revisan los distintos grados de compromiso de esta patología, el tratami-ento y los niveles de evidencia que tiene cada uno de ellos, con el objetivo de facilitar a los médicos de atención primaria el manejo de los pacientes que presentan esta enfermedad. (AU)

Acne is the most common dermatological condition in adolescents. Even though almost all cases will resolve around the third decade of life, treatment is indicated when this health problem carries an emotional burden for the patient. In this update, the authors review the grades of involvement of the disease and the available treatments according to levels of evidence, with the aim of helping primary care physicians to manage the patients presenting this illness. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Acne Vulgaris/therapy , Acne Conglobata/therapy , Anxiety , Self Concept , Skin Diseases/etiology , Testosterone/adverse effects , Cicatrix/prevention & control , Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous/therapy , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/diagnosis , Acne Vulgaris/diagnosis , Acne Vulgaris/pathology , Acne Vulgaris/psychology , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Rosacea/diagnosis , Acne Conglobata/diagnosis , Folliculitis/diagnosis
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(2): 191-195, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838051


Abstract: Background: Isotretinoin is a synthetic analog of vitamin A. Recent studies support a role for retinoic acid in the recovery of olfactory function following injury in mice. Objective: This study aimed at determining the effect of isotretinoin on olfactory function in patients who have acne and are otherwise healthy. Methods: Forty-five patients (aged 25-40 years) with acne were included in the study. All patients underwent a rhinological examination. Olfactory function was assessed by the Sniffin' Sticks Test. The test was assessed at baseline and in the third month of isotretinoin treatment. Results: Isotretinoin improved the performance of patients in the olfactory test. The SST score increased from 8.7±1.09 to 9.5±1.19 (p<0.001), prevalence of hyposmia decreased from 40% to 24% and normosmia increased from 60% to 75% (p=0.059). The percentage of patients whose olfactory function was categorized as "good" increased from 6% to 21.3%. This increase was statistically significant (p<0.05). Study limitations: Absence of a control group is one of the limitations of this study. Also, we did not evaluate patients with smell test after stopping isotretinoin treatment. Conclusion: We examined the effect of systemic isotretinoin on olfactory function. It can be concluded from the present investigation that isotretinoin therapy improves the sense of smell.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Smell/drug effects , Tretinoin/therapeutic use , Isotretinoin/therapeutic use , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Isotretinoin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 8-10, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887100


Abstract: Acne fulminans is a rare and severe variant of acne. In Brazilian medical journals, cases are infrequently reported, confirming its rarity. We followed five young male patients with this severe variant of cutaneous lesions, accompanied by also severe systemic symptoms: fever, anorexia, weight loss, and arthralgia. All had a good response to corticosteroids (prednisone), but had significant scarring.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Acne Vulgaris/complications , Acne Vulgaris/pathology , Arthralgia/etiology , Fever/etiology , Propionibacterium acnes/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Superantigens/immunology , Disease Progression , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Necrosis
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 820-821, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837973


Abstract Isotretinoin has been considered a unique drug for acne treatment. However, it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Isotretinoin can trigger premature ventricular contractions. This report describes a 33-year-old-woman who presented with palpitations for 1 week while undergoing 1-month isotretinoin treatment for mild-moderate facial acne. An electrocardiogram and Holter monitoring showed premature ventricular contractions during isotretinoin (Roaccutane, Roche) treatment. Isotretinoin-related premature ventricular contractions were strongly suggested in this case due to the existence of documented premature ventricular contractions on electrocardiograms and the disappearance of these premature ventricular contractions two weeks after termination of the treatment To the authors' knowledge, there has been 1 reported case of premature ventricular contractions linked to isotretinoin use; this report describes a second such case.

Humans , Female , Adult , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Ventricular Premature Complexes/chemically induced , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Ventricular Premature Complexes/physiopathology , Electrocardiography
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(2): e78-e83, abr. 2016. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-838187


El pseudotumor cerebral se caracteriza por una elevación de la presión intracraneal mayor de 20 cmH2O, con ventrículos y líquido cefalorraquídeo de características normales. El consumo de minociclina es una de las causas asociadas a este síndrome. Presentamos una paciente de 13 años de edad con antecedentes de acné tratado con minociclina. Comenzó con cefalea intensa, diplopía y visión borrosa. Se constató el diagnóstico de pseudotumor cerebral y se indicó la suspensión inmediata del antibiótico y el inicio del tratamiento con acetazolamida. Aunque la patogénesis de pseudotumor cerebral no es totalmente conocida, se ha observado una asociación con el empleo de minociclina. Este antibiótico es de uso frecuente para el manejo del acné, por lo que es importante considerar sus complicaciones antes de ser prescrito.

Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome characterized by an elevated intracranial pressure greater than 20 cmH2O with ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid of normal characteristics. Consumption of minocycline have been described among the causes associated with this syndrome. We present a 13-year old female patient with a history of acne treated with minocycline who began with severe headache, diplopia and blurred vision. The diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri was made, indicating the immediate antibiotic suspension and the beginning of the treatment with acetazolamide. Although the pathogenesis of pseudotumor cerebri is not fully known, an association with minocycline has been observed. This antibiotic is often used by health professionals for the management of acne, so it is important to consider its complications before being prescribed.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/chemically induced , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Minocycline/adverse effects , Minocycline/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 223-225, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781360


Abstract This paper describes the association of two unusual side effects of treatment with isotretinoin for severe acne: paronychia and excess granulation tissue in the nails furrows. We report a case of male patient aged 19 years, who in the course of the 36th week of treatment with isotretinoin for acne grade III showed erythema, edema, excess granulation tissue and onychocryptosis in various nail beds of hands and feet, with no history of trauma associated. A literature review revealed few reports of these adverse events, and two clinical patterns of exuberant granulation tissue has been described: one in periungual location and other in lesions of previous acne. The rarity and lack of knowledge on the best treatment for granuloma-like reactions make this theme a considerable challenge.

Humans , Male , Young Adult , Paronychia/chemically induced , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Granuloma, Pyogenic/chemically induced , Paronychia/pathology , Paronychia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Granuloma, Pyogenic/pathology , Granuloma, Pyogenic/drug therapy , Granulation Tissue/drug effects , Nail Diseases/chemically induced
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(6,supl.1): 1-16, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781351


Abstract: BACKGROUND: The current options for the treatment of acne vulgaris present many mechanisms of action. For several times, dermatologists try topical agents combinations, looking for better results. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a topical, fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris in the Brazilian population. METHODS: This is a multicenter, open-label and interventionist study. Patients applied 1.0 g of the fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel on the face, once daily at bedtime, during 12 weeks. Lesions were counted in all of the appointments, and the degree of acne severity, overall improvement, tolerability and safety were evaluated in each visit. RESULTS: From 79 recruited patients, 73 concluded the study. There was significant, fast and progressive reduction of non-inflammatory, inflammatory and total number of lesions. At the end of the study, 75.3% of patients had a reduction of >50% in non-inflammatory lesions, 69.9% in inflammatory lesions and 78.1% in total number of lesions. Of the 73 patients, 71.2% had good to excellent response and 87.6% had satisfactory to good response. In the first week of treatment, erythema, burning, scaling and dryness of the skin were frequent complaints, but, from second week on, these signals and symptoms have reduced. CONCLUSION: The fixed-dose combination of adapalene 0.1% and benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel is effective, safe, well tolerated and apparently improves patient compliance with the treatment.

Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage , Adapalene, Benzoyl Peroxide Drug Combination/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Acne Vulgaris/pathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(3): 215-219, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753174


Summary Objective: Objective: to compare clinical and laboratory parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using metformin or combined oral contraceptive (COC) after 6 months. Methods: retrospective study analyzing records of patients with PCOS using the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society criteria. The groups were: I-COC (21 tablets, pause of 7 days; n=16); II-metformin (850mg 12/12h, n=16); III-COC plus metformin (n=9). Body mass index (BMI), acne (% of improvement), modified Ferriman-Gallway index and menstrual cycle index (MCI), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (TT), androstenedione (A) and homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were assessed Results: isolated use of COC compared to metformin was better regarding to acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels. On the other hand, metformin was better in the HOMA-IR index (4.44 and 1.67 respectively, p=0.0007). The association COC plus metformin, compared to metformin alone shows the maintenance of improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, and testosterone levels. The HOMA-IR index remained lower in the metformin alone group (4.19 and 1.67, respectively; p=0,046). The comparison between COC plus metformin and COC alone, in turn, shows no difference in the improvement of acne, Ferriman index, MCI, LH, TT and A levels, indicating that the inclusion of metformin did not lead to additional benefits in these parameters. Still, the HOMA-IR index was similar in both groups (4.19 and 4.44 respectively; p=0.75), showing that the use of metformin associated with COC may not improve insulin resistance as much as it does if used alone. Conclusion: our data suggest that the combination of metformin and contraceptive does not improve insulin resistance as observed with metformin alone. .

Resumo Objetivo: comparar parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais de mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) em uso de metformina ou contraceptivo hormonal oral (CHO) após 6 meses. Casuística e métodos: estudo retrospectivo com análise do prontuário de pacientes com SOP (pelos critérios da Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society [AE-PCOS Society]), divididos em 3 grupos: (I) CHO (21 comprimidos e pausa de 7 dias; n=16), (II) metformina (850 mg a cada 12 horas; n=16) e (III) CHO associado com metformina (n=9). Foram avaliados: índice de massa corpórea (IMC), acne (% de melhora), índice de Ferriman-Gallway modificado, índice de ciclos menstruais (ICM), LH, FSH, testosterona total (TT), androstenediona (A) e resistência a insulina (HOMA-IR, do inglês homeostatic model assessment: insulin resistance). Resultados: o uso isolado de CHO comparado ao de metformina foi melhor em relação a acne, índice de Ferriman, ICM, níveis de LH, TT e A. Por outro lado, a metformina foi melhor para HOMA-IR (4,44 e 1,67; p=0,0007). O uso do CHO e metformina, em comparação com o de metformina isolada, manteve a melhora da acne, do índice de Ferriman, do ICM e dos níveis da TT. O índice de HOMA-IR manteve-se menor no grupo metformina isolada (4,19 e 1,67; p=0,046). Por sua vez, a melhora na acne, Ferriman, ICM, LH, TT e A são semelhantes nos grupos CHO associado com metformina e CHO isolado, indicando que a adição de metformina não trouxe benefícios nesses parâmetros. Ainda, o HOMA-IR foi semelhante nos dois grupos (4,19 e 4,44; p=0,75), mostrando que o uso de metformina em associação com o contraceptivo pode não melhorar a resistência insulínica como ocorre no uso isolado. Conclusão: os dados sugerem que a associação de metformina e contraceptivo não melhora a resistência insulínica como ocorre no uso da metformina isolada. .

Female , Humans , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin Resistance , Metformin/therapeutic use , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Body Mass Index , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Menstrual Cycle/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Testosterone/blood