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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 104-113, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929213

ABSTRACT

Aconitum heterophyllum (Patrees) is a critically endangered medicinal herb of the northwestern Himalayas and has enormous pharmacological potential. It is the only nonpoisonous member of the genus Aconitum, and has been used as a medicinal herb since ancient times. A. heterophyllum is an important ingredient in many traditional systems of medicine. Mostly, it is harvested for its roots, and its medicinal properties are due to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites, commonly known as aconites. Our understanding of the pharmacological properties of this intriguing genus is continuously growing due to its broad chemical diversity. The therapeutic uses identified by traditional medicinal practice are receiving extensive study. Multiple in vitro experimental investigations of A. heterophyllum have reported the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, antiparasitic and anticancer properties, as well as its effects on the central nervous system. In this review, we highlight the classification, distribution, commerce, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and conservation measures relevant to this species. Additionally, this review includes the biosynthetic pathways of A. heterophyllum's key constituents, which could be targeted to enhance the expression levels of desired metabolites via genetic interventions. Studying the genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomic aspects of this species would be helpful in developing highly designed genotypes and chemotypes of this species to be used in commercial production.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/genetics , Ethnopharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928187

ABSTRACT

This study selected three typical Chinese herbs with cold property(Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma) and another three with heat property(Cinnamomi Cortex, Zingiberris Rhizoma, and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata) to observe their regulatory effects on metabolism in animal organism, especially on lipid and energy metabolism in mice after a short-(7 d) and long-term(35 d) intervention. The mRNA expression levels of lipid metabolism genes in epididymal adipose tissue and liver were determined by real-time PCR. The oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and energy consumption were detected by metabolic system. After the short-term intervention, the Chinese herbs with heat property significantly reduced epididymal adipose tissue index and elevated the expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACC), lipoprotein lipase(LPL), and carnitine-palmityl transferase 1(CPT-1) in liver and epididymal adipose tissues. However, those with cold property promoted the expression of above-mentioned genes in epididymal adipose tissue. After the long-term intervention, cold and heat Chinese herbs had no significant effect on epididymal adipose tissue index of animals, while cold Chinese herbs could increase carbon dioxide production and energy consumption and reduce activity. These findings demonstrated that the short-term intervention effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on animal metabolism were significantly stronger than the long-term intervention effects. Specifically, the short-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs enhanced the lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue, while the heat Chinese herbs promoted lipid metabolism in epididymal adipose tissue and liver. The long-term intervention with cold and heat Chinese herbs resulted in no obvious change in lipid level, but long-term intervention with cold Chinese herbs accelerated energy consumption of the body. This study preliminarily observed the effects of cold and heat Chinese herbs on normal animal physiology from lipid and energy metabolism, which would provide reference for explaining the biological basis of Chinese herbs with cold or heat property based on biological response.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Animals , Carbon Dioxide , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism , Hot Temperature , Lipids , Mice
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928130

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput screening machine learning model for mitochondrial function was constructed, and compounds of Aco-niti Lateralis Radix Praeparata were predicted. Deoxyaconitine with the highest score and benzoylmesaconine with the lowest score among the compounds screened by the model were selected for mitochondrial mechanism analysis. Mitochondrial function data were collected from PubChem and Tox21 databases. Random forest and gradient boosted decision tree algorithms were separately used for mo-deling, and ECFP4(extended connectivity fingerprint, up to four bonds) and Mordred descriptors were employed for training, respectively. Cross-validation test was carried out, and balanced accuracy(BA) and overall accuracy were determined to evaluate the performance of different combinations of models and obtain the optimal algorithm and hyperparameters for modeling. The data of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata compounds in TCMSP database were collected, and after prediction and screening by the constructed high-throughput screening machine learning model, deoxyaconitine and benzoylmesaconine were selected to measure mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species(ROS) level and protein expression of B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-coactivator 1α(PGC-1α). The results showed that the model constructed using gradient boosted decision tree+Mordred algorithm performed better, with a cross-validation BA of 0.825 and a test set accuracy of 0.811. Deoxyaconitine and benzoylmesaconine changed the ROS level(P<0.001), mitochondrial membrane potential(P<0.001), and protein expression of Bcl-2(P<0.001, P<0.01) and Bax(P<0.001), and deoxyaconitine increased the expression of PGC-1α protein(P<0.01). The high-throughput screening model for mitochondrial function constructed by gradient boosted decision tree+Mordred algorithm was more accurate than that by random forest+ECFP4 algorithm, which could be used to build an algorithm model for subsequent research. Deoxyaconitine and benzoylmesaconine affected mitochondrial function. However, deoxyaconitine with higher score also affected mitochondrial biosynthesis by regulating PGC-1α protein.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/chemistry , Algorithms , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Machine Learning , Mitochondria , Reactive Oxygen Species , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928045

ABSTRACT

In Hezhang county, Guizhou province, black spot tends to occur to Aconitum carmichaelii in the hot rainy summer, with the incidence up to 50%-70%, seriously impacting the yield and quality of the medicinal material. Thus, this study aims to clarify the pathogen and the occurrence characteristics. To be specific, the pathogen was isolated and identified according to Koch's postulates and the pathogenicity and biological characteristics were determined. In addition, the sensitivity of the pathogen to four microbial fungicides, four botanical fungicides, and five chemical fungicides was determined with the mycelium growth rate method for the purpose of screening out optimal fungicides. The pathogen was identified as Alternaria alternate, as evidenced by the similar colony morphology and microscopic characteristics and 99.55%-100% similarity in sequences of rDNA-ITS, LSU, 18S, and TEF of the two. The optimum growth conditions for A. alternata were 28 ℃, pH 8, and continuous darkness. Bacillus subtilis had strong inhibitory effect on the pathogen, and the inhibition rate was more than 90% when the concentration was 1 mg·L~(-1). In addition, difenoconazole and quinoline copper can also control the pathogen, with median effective concentration(EC_(50)) of 2.92 and 9.02 mg·L~(-1), respectively. This study lays a theoretical basis for the field control of black spot in A. carmichaelii.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Alternaria , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycelium
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888779

ABSTRACT

The tubers and roots of Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) are widely used as heart medicine or analgesic agents for the treatment of coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis and neuropathic pain since ancient times. As a type of natural products mainly extracted from Aconitum plants, Aconitum alkaloids have complex chemical structures and exert remarkable biological activity, which are mainly responsible for significant effects of Aconitum plants. The present review is to summarize the progress of the pharmacological, toxicological, and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids, so as to provide evidence for better clinical application. Research data concerning pharmacological, toxicological and pharmacokinetic studies of Aconitum alkaloids were collected from different scientific databases (PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science) using the phrase Aconitum alkaloids, as well as generic synonyms. Aconitum alkaloids are both bioactive compounds and toxic ingredients in Aconitum plants. They produce a wide range of pharmacological activities, including protecting the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and immune system and anti-cancer effects. Notably, Aconitum alkaloids also exert strong cardiac toxicity, neurotoxicity and liver toxicity, which are supported by clinical studies. Finally, pharmacokinetic studies indicated that cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs) and efflux transporters (ETs) are closely related to the low bioavailability of Aconitum alkaloids and play an important role in their metabolism and detoxification in vivo.


Subject(s)
Aconitum/chemistry , Alkaloids/toxicity , Biological Availability , Phytochemicals/toxicity , Plant Roots/chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888142

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents from the roots of Aconitum kongboense were studied. Twenty-five diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from the 95% methanol extract of the roots of A. kongboense by silica gel, reverse-phase silica gel and basic alumina column chromatography. They included a new aconitine-type diterpenoid alkaloid, named as kongboensenine(1), and twenty-four known ones(2-25), i.e., acotarine F(2), acotarine G(3), 14-acetyltalatisamine(4), talatisamine(5), indaconitine(6), yunaconitine(7), chasmanine(8), 6-epi-foresticine(9), homochasmanine(10), 8-deacetyl-yunaconitine(11), chasmaconitine(12), ajaconine(13), franchetine(14), ezochasmanine(15), crassicautine(16), 14-O-deacylcrassicausine(17), genicunine A(18), falconeridine(19), sachaconitine(20), liljestrandisine(21), 8-methyl-14-acetyltalatisamine(22), kongboendine(23), 14-benzoylchasmanine(24) and pseudaconine(25). Their structures were elucidated by common spectroscopic methods including high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) techniques. Compounds 2-4, 10, 13, 15-19 and 21-22 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Experimental results showed that all compounds did not have a significant inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase(AChE).


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase , Aconitum/metabolism , Alkaloids , Diterpenes , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888056

ABSTRACT

Tianxiong has been used as a Chinese medicinal in China for thousands of years, and the earliest record can be traced back to the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. It is effective in dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to streng-then yang. To clarify the origin of Tianxiong, the present herbalogical study reviewed the ancient and modern literature from the origin, processing, and clinical efficacy. Before the Tang Dynasty, although the description of Tianxiong was quite superficial, an apparent difference between Tianxiong and Fuzi was recognized. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tianxiong and Fuzi were mistakenly recognized to be prepared from a same plant since their raw materials came from artificial cultivation. Medical literature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties mostly followed the previous records, with the origin of Tianxiong remaining controversial. There were three mainstream views about the origin of Tianxiong according the ancient medical books. First, Tianxiong was a kind of Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu) without attachment of Fuzi. Second, Tianxiong was the large Fuzi. Third, Tianxiong derived from Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) about 10 cm in length. By contrast, Fuzi in a large size was simply regarded as Tianxiong in modern times. The processing methods were diversified in the ancient times, and the fire-processing was continuously applied. With the deepening of the research on the efficacy and detoxification mechanism, more methods were discovered, such as processing with ginger juice, child's urine and alcohol. As for modern times, the processing of Tianxiong has not been nearly passed down. The characteristic processing of Tianxiong only handed down in Sichuan province and Lingnan area, which can be discriminated by the last step. The efficacies of Tianxiong can be directly understood from its literal name, including dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to assist yang. Nowadays, Tianxiong is mostly used to strengthen yang.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Child , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888051

ABSTRACT

Screening suitable reference genes is the premise of quantitative Real-time PCR(qRT-PCR)for gene expression analysis. To provide stable reference genes for expression analysis of genes in Aconitum vilmorinianum, this study selected 19 candidate re-ference genes(ACT1, ACT2, ACT3, aTUB1, aTUB2, bTUB, 18S rRNA, UBQ, eIF2, eIF3, eIF4, eIF5, CYP, GAPDH1, GAPDH2, PP2A1, PP2A2, ACP, and EF1α) based on the transcriptome data of A. vilmorinianum. qRT-PCR was conducted to profile the expression of these genes in the root, stem, leaf, and flower of A. vilmorinianum. The Ct values showed that 18S rRNA with high expression level and GAPDH2 with large expression difference among organs were not suitable as the reference genes. NormFinder and geNorm showed similar results of the expression stability of the other candidate reference genes and demonstrated PP2A1, EF1α, and CYP as the highly stable ones. However, BestKeeper suggested EF1α, ACT3, and PP2A1 as the top stable genes. In view of the different results from different softwares, the geometric mean method was employed to analyze the expression stability of the candidate re-ference genes, the results of which indicated that PP2A1, EF1α, and ACT3 were the most stable. Based on the comprehensive analysis results of geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geometric mean method, PP2A1 and EF1α presented the most stable expression in different organs of A. vilmorinianum. PP2A1 and EF1α were the superior reference genes for gene expression profiling in different organs of A. vilmorinianum.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879062

ABSTRACT

Sichuan province is very famous for its abundant resources of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM).However, within the scope of administrative division of Sichuan province, the origin records of Dao-di herbs in different historical periods show a dynamic distribution process. On the basis of carefully sorting out the geographical scope of Sichuan province in different historical periods, this article focuses on the textual research of the Dao-di herbs in Sichuan province recorded in the seven mainstream ancient works of materia medica.The results showed that, according to the records of Mingyi bielu and Bencaojing Jizhu, the main distribution areas of Dao-di herbs were mainly in the central and eastern regions of Sichuan province, mainly including Moschus, Coptidis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and most of the rest materia medica had become unused in the historical process. Qianjin Yifang records that the distribution areas of Dao-di herbs were mainly in the middle and eastern part of Sichuan province.Aconiti Radix, Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. According to the book of Bencao Tujing,the main distribution areas of Dao-di herbs are Chengdu Plain, Yibin and Santai, While Toosendan Fructus, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Zanthoxyli Pericarpium, Aconiti Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. Ben Cao Gang Mu records the place of origin as Sichuan.Coptidis Rhizoma, Toosendan Fructus, Cyathulae Radix are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan pro-vince. Yaowu Chuchanbian and Zengding Weiyao Tiaobian records the place of origin as Sichuan, as well as Kangding, Songpan, Dujiang-yan, Jiangyou, Nanchong, Ya'an, etc. Moschus, Coptidis Rhizoma, Eucommiae Cortex, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex are still the Dao-di herbs of Sichuan province. The results of this article provide a new understanding of the history and distribution changes of Dao-di herbs in Sichuan province, and can help to further understand the formation connotation of Sichuan Dao-di herbs.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828361

ABSTRACT

The enzymes CYP1 A2 and CYP3 A4 were measured by building a "Cocktail" probe drug and the incubation system of liver microsomes. The compatibility of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata combined with dried Rehmanniae Radix on CYP450 enzyme protein and gene expression was explored from the level of protein and molecular biology. It explored the molecular mechanism of compatibility detoxication of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata to provide scientific support for clinical safe and effective application of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. The CYP450 enzyme activity was determined by using "Cocktail" probe drugs. The content of CYP450 enzyme was measured by CO reduction of differential spectrum method. The mRNA expression of CYP1 A2 and CYP3 A4 enzyme was detected by RT-PCR technology. Compared with the blank group, the CYP1 A2 and CYP3 A4 enzyme activity and mRNA expression were increased in the dried Rehmanniae Radix combined with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata group with significant differences(P<0.05), while the CYP3 A4 enzyme activity and mRNA expression were no influence in the Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata group. The CYP3 A4 enzyme activity and mRNA expression were increased in the dried Rehmanniae Radix and the dried Rehmanniae Radix combined with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata group, and there were significant differences(P<0.05). The content of CYP450 enzyme was decreased in the Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata group, contributed to extremely significant difference(P<0.01). The content of CYP450 enzyme was increased in the dried Rehmanniae Radix and the dried Rehmanniae Radix combined with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata group, and there were significant differences(P<0.05). The CYP1 A2 and CYP3 A4 enzyme activity and gene expression were enhanced after dried Rehmanniae Radix combined with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. The metabolism of toxic ingredients of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was accelerated to reach an effect of detoxication. The detoxication mechanism of compatibility of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata was verified from the viewpoint of liver metabolic enzymes.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827977

ABSTRACT

The iterative innovation of processing technology is one of the important tasks in studies on processing of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). It is also the prerequisite for modern, refined, automatic and intelligent manufacturing of TCM pieces. Microwave processing is a new fire processing technique developed in the recent 30 years, with a unique thermodynamic form, and energy transfer and transformation laws. Moreover, it owns the advantages of a high processing efficiency, good product properties and low production energy consumption, with great application prospects. This paper introduced the study overview of microwave expansion technology in the food industry, reviewed the origin of microwave processing technology of TCM, and expounded the basic concept, principle and main purpose of microwave processing technology used in TCM. Then, the impacts of drug factors and microwave factors on the microwave processing effect were summarized, the industrial equipment that could be used for microwave processing was listed, and the impacts of microwave heating on starch, polysaccharide, protein and other components in Chinese herbal medicines were analyzed. Furthermore, the study advance of microwave processing of 14 herbs was investigated, including Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum and Asini Corii Colla; and the appearance and components of herbs processed by traditional processing method and microwave processing method were compared, so as to reveal the opportunities and challenges of microwave processing technology in the industrial transformation. We hoped that the systematic study of microwave processing technology could provide new ideas and techniques for the high-quality and high-level development of the TCM pieces industry in the new era, and promote its inheritance, innovation and transformation.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Microwaves , Quality Control
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878846

ABSTRACT

Pain is a protective defense response of the body to harmful stimuli. Long-term pain not only seriously affects the body of the patient and brings great pain to the patient, but also brings huge economic burden to the patient's family and society. It has become one of the most serious problems affecting human health. At present, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) are commonly used as painkillers, but they tend to cause a variety of adverse reactions or risk of addiction. To find and develop new analgesic drugs, which are safer and more effective, has become the hot spot and difficulty in medical research. A variety of alkaloids derived from terrestrial plants, microorganisms, marine organisms and fungi have been an important source of clinical analgesic medicines. Various alkaloids have been proved to have good analgesic effects, such as morphine and the related to opioids, the main analgesic active components from Corydalis Rhizoma and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. Here we summarized the research progress of natural alkaloids with analgesic activity, in order to provide reference for the research and development of analgesic drugs based on natural products.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Alkaloids , Analgesics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Rhizome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878840

ABSTRACT

Trace metals deficiency or excess are associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Aconiti Radix Cocta(A) and Paeoniae Radix Alba(B) are commonly used together for the treatment of RA. In this study, we aim to determine anti-arthritic-related metal bioavailability in the compatibility of herb A and B for avoiding metal deficiency or excess, and optimize the combination ratio of herb A and B, accordingly. Anti-arthritic-related metal bioaccessibility were evaluated by in vitro simulator of all gastrointestinal tract(including mouth, stomach, small and large intestines), and the roles of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes and intestinal microflora were investigated. Anti-arthritic-related metal bioavailability was assessed by the affinity adsorption with liposomes. The results indicated that compatibility proportion of corresponding herbal plants, gastrointestinal digestion and microbial metabolic, which could affect metal digestion and absorption. The optimal compatibility proportion of 1 A∶1 B is recommended, according to the dose of anti-arthritic-related metal bioavailability, which is often chosen for clinical practice of RA therapy. Thus, anti-arthritic-related metal bioavailability might be the key active substances for RA treatment.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Biological Availability , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878824

ABSTRACT

Aconitum is a kind of important medicinal plant, which has been used in China for more than 2 000 years, with both a good medicinal and ornamental value. However, due to the lack of effective breeding methods and low seed and root propagation coefficients, the comprehensive development and utilization of Aconitum were greatly restricted. Tissue culture is an important basis for seed selection, germplasm conservation and genetic engineering. Therefore, this paper summarized the research on tissue culture of Aconitum, put forward the main problems and corresponding countermeasures, and provided important references for accelerating the seedling breeding of Aconitum and conducting the basic research of molecular biology.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , China , Plant Breeding , Plants, Medicinal , Seedlings
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878794

ABSTRACT

As a most important Chinese materia medica, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata(Fuzi) had been widely used in China for thousands of years. This herbalogical study was systematically performed based on variation characteristics of the naming, habitat, harvesting, processing and properties. The sharp toxicity of Fuzi had been well known since the spring and autumn period in the history, which was much earlier than that its medical properties was understood and applied. Sichuan province was regarded as the geo-authentic region of Fuzi all along, where the best quality goods could be provided for clinic use. The study showed the harvesting time of Fuzi was changing in different periods, and the possible effects were of climate change and artificial planting. The perishable characteris-tics of Fuzi severely limited its storage period; therefore, different kinds of storage methods were effectively used since Tang Dynasty. For thousands of years, Fuzi had been processed with various accessories to reduce toxicity, while simultaneously the study on processing mechanism was on going all the time. Fuzi was widely used in clinical practice to cure Yang depletion syndrome, which was based on its function of enhancing Yang and removing cold. Along with the further study on quality evaluation standard, Fuzi will probably get a much wider range of applications.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Plant Extracts
16.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(3): 40-49, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1146529

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAnxiety disorders are highly prevalent that affect millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic system is gaining popularity due to its efficacy in chronic diseases. Ultra-diluted Aconitum napellusis a homeopathic medicine used by clinicians for treatment ofacute anxiety.AimObjective of this study is to test the efficacy of Aconiteon experimental anxiety models of Wistar rats. Methodology18 Female Wistar rats were dividedinto Control, Anxiety, andAnxiety + Aconite(ANX+ACO) groups. Acute stress was induced by restraining the rats for sixhours daily for fivedays in Anxiety and ANX + ACO groups. After fivedays of stress,a single dose of Aconite200cH was given to ANX + ACO group through oral gavage, whereas control and anxiety group rats were maintainedwith a normaldiet. Following this, behavioral assessment was done. Histological sections of the hippocampal area weretaken and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and also Cresyl violet stain. ResultsIt was observedthat the Aconitetreated group had morenumber of entries and also the percentage of time spent in the open arm was higher than the stressed anxiety group. Histological study of the brain tissue procured from all three groups was analyzed. ConclusionIt was inferred that ultra-diluted homeopathicAconitehas decreased anxiety in Wistar rats which were subjectedto acute restrainstress. However,the decrease was not statistically significant to deduce Aconiteas an anxiolytic.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anxiety , High Potencies , Aconitum , Homeopathy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777524

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to provide reference for the clinical safety use of aconite through the retrieval of literature about adverse reactions,predict its mechanism of cardiac toxicity by using network pharmacology,and provide ideas for the studies on toxicity mechanism of toxic Chinese medicines. The papers on adverse reactions of aconite were searched to established a database and summarize the adverse reactions of aconite. The results of literature review showed that the main causes for adverse reactions in clinical use of aconite included overdose use,short cooking time,consumption of medicinal liquor/medicinal diet,external use and misuse and so on. Therefore,the dosage of aconite should be strictly followed in clinical application,and the decoction method should be notified to the patients in detail to avoid taking the medicinal liquor and diet containing aconite,so as to prevent the occurrence of adverse reactions as much as possible,and make the best use of aconite in clinical application in avoid its toxicity. At the same time,based on the results of literature review,the network construction and visual analysis of cardio toxicity produced by aconite were carried out by using the network pharmacology technologies. RESULTS: showed that aconite can be applied to eight biological processes such as action potential of cardiac myocytes,cardiac conduction-related cell signal transduction,cardiac myocytes contraction,action potential involved in cardiac myocytes contraction,and signal transduction from atrial myocardial cells to atrioventricular node cells,and three target genes(SCN5 A,GJA1,GJA5). It was predicted that Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata may influence cardiomyocyte depolarization,intercellular information transmission and material exchange by acting on three target genes(SCN5 A,GJA1,GJA5) and regulating the sodium channel protein and the expression of gap junction protein,thus affecting the heart rhythm as well as its structure and function and causing cardiac toxicity.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Toxicity , Cardiotoxicity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Toxicity
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777503

ABSTRACT

Eight C_(19)-diterpenoid alkaloids( 1-8) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of 95% ethanol extract of the ground roots of Aconitum austroyunnanense through various column chromatographies on silica gel,ODS,Sephadex LH-20 and MCI gel.Their structures were elucidated as 14α-benzoyloxy-13β,15α-dihydroxy-1α,6α,8β,16β,18-pentamethoxy-19-oxoaconitan( 1),N-deethylaconitine( 2),spicatine B( 3),leucanthumsine A( 4),acofamine B( 5),macrorhynine B( 6),aconitilearine( 7),and ambiguine( 8) based on their chemical and physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was a new compound and alkaloids 2-8 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Some isolated alkaloids were tested in vitro for cytotoxic potential by employing the MTT method. As a result,alkaloid 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against three tested tumor cell lines( A-549,He La,and Hep G2) with IC_(50) values less than 20 μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Alkaloids , Diterpenes , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777475

ABSTRACT

The powder X-ray diffraction(PXRD) technique was used to investigate fourteen kinds of Ranunculaceae herbal decoction pieces(RHDP) recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and to explore a novel PXRD quality control method for RHDP. The results indicated that only three RHDP-Paeoniae Radix Alba, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, and Moutan Cortex, contained calcium oxalate monodydrate(COM), whereas no COM existed in other eleven kinds of RHDP. The difference in PXRD for Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra from different growing areas were investigated. The quantitative analysis method for COM was discussed by considering the water-boiling manufacturing process of herbal decoction pieces. The water-boiling experiments revealed that the PXRD peaks from COM crystals in RHDP were enhanced significantly after boiling. Paeoniae Radix Alba, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Moutan Cortex, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Aconiti Radix, Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix, and Anemone Raddeanae Rhizoma exhibited a similar series of broader peaks in the 2θ region of 15° to 35°, whose origins were discussed on the basis of chemical constituents RHDP reported by other researchers. These diffraction broader peaks most likely originated from periodic orientation of benzene ring in organic molecular crystals of aconitine-and paeonolum-based alkaloids and glycosides chemical constituents, subsequently, possibly from some other organic constituents. The PXRD technique can be used to rapidly identify Cimicifuga heracleifolia with an amorphous dispersion peak and C. dahurica with a sharp-peak feature. Climatidis Radix et Rhizoma exhibited a series of sharp PXRD peaks. The PXRD method can provide a valuable quality control method for RHDP.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Paeonia , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Ranunculaceae , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773711

ABSTRACT

Rat model of blood stasis syndrome was prepared by subcutaneous injecting of epinephrine hydrochlorid,then the model rats were administrated by Yunnan Baiyao for 15 days. Blood rheology,coagulation function and histopathology were chosen as indicators to evaluate the successful replication of blood stasis syndrome model and the treatment effect of Yunnan Baiyao. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to rapidly analyze the serum samples of blood stasis syndrome rat after 15 days Yunnan Baiyao treatment,Progenesis QI software was employed to identify the alkaloids components. The results showed that Yunnan Baiyao reduced the plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity of rats with blood stasis syndrome,prolonged thrombin and prothrombin time,reduced fibrinogen content,and effectively improved pathological state such as inflammatory cell infiltration,blood stasis,congestion and edema of various organs in rats with blood stasis syndrome. Seven alkaloids components from Aconitum kusnezoffii,including karacolidine,senbusine B,isotalatizidine,karakoline,denudatine,talatisamine and chasmanine were found in the rat serum after Yunnan Baiyao treatment. Based on the effectiveness of Yunnan Baiyao in the treatment of blood stasis syndrome induced by epinephrine hydrochloride in rats,alkaloids components from the root of A. kusnezoffii absorbed into blood after Yunnan Baiyao treatment were clarified rapidly and accurately with the help of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Karacolidine,senbusine B,isotalatizidine,karakoline,denudatine,talatisamine and chasmanine are the pharmacodynamic material basis of the root of A. kusnezoffii for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis.


Subject(s)
Aconitum , Chemistry , Animals , Blood Circulation , Blood Viscosity , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Prothrombin Time , Rats , Thrombin Time
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