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1.
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200091, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286133

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a interferência do uso do amplificador de voz na dose vocal de professoras não disfônicas. Método Trata-se de um estudo experimental, comparativo intrassujeitos, composto por 20 professoras do ensino fundamental da Rede Municipal de Ensino de Belo Horizonte/MG. Após o consentimento as participantes, foram solicitadas a responder o questionário de Escala de Sintomas Vocais - ESV e posteriormente participaram de dois momentos do estudo, selecionados aleatoriamente. No primeiro momento as participantes utilizaram somente o dosímetro vocal e no segundo momento utilizaram o dosímetro vocal e o amplificador de voz. As medições foram registradas pelo aparelho durante 1h40m, na sala de aula que as professoras lecionavam. O espaço entre as duas medições foi de uma semana, sendo mantidas a mesma sala, mesmo horário e mesma disciplina lecionada, em ambos os momentos. Resultados O parâmetro intensidade foi o único que apresentou diferença com o uso de amplificação de voz. Conclusão O uso da amplificação de voz durante a docência de professoras não disfônicas não interfere nos parâmetros acústicos de frequência fundamental, e nas medidas de dose vocal. A intensidade da voz é menor quando o professor faz uso de amplificação vocal.


ABSTRACT Purpose Analyze the interference of using the voice amplifier in vocal dose of non-dysphonic teachers. Methods This is an experimental study comparing people from the same ambience compound for 20 teachers from municipal elementary school in Belo Horizonte/MG. After consent, the participants were requested to answer the vocal symptom scale questionnaire (ESV) and later participated in two different moments of the study, for which they randomly selected. In the first moment, the participants used only the vocal dosimeter and in the second, they used the vocal dosimeter and the voice amplifier. The measurements were recorded by the device for 1h40m, in the classroom that the teachers taught. The time between the two measurements was one week, with the same room, the same time and the same discipline being taught, at both times. Results The intensity parameter was the only one that showed difference with the use of the voice amplifier. Conclusion Use voice amplification while non-dysphonic teachers are teaching doesn't affect the fundamental frequency and vocal dose measure in the acoustics parameters. The vocal intensity is smaller when teacher uses the vocal amplification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Phonation , Speech Acoustics , Acoustics , Hoarseness
2.
CoDAS ; 33(1): e20180324, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249593

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar como as vias auditivas codificam e diferenciam as sílabas plosivas [ga],[da] e [ba], por meio do potencial evocado auditivo Frequency Following Response (FFR), nas crianças em desenvolvimento típico. Método Vinte crianças (6-12 anos) foram avaliadas por meio do FFR para estímulos [ga],[da] e [ba]. Os estímulos foram compostos por seis formantes, sendo diferenciados na transição F2 e F3 (porção transiente). Os demais formantes foram idênticos nas três sílabas (porção sustentada). Foram analisadas latências de 16 ondas que compõe a porção transiente do estímulo (<70ms) e latências de 21 ondas da porção sustentada (90-160ms) nas respostas neurais obtidas para cada uma das sílabas. Resultados As respostas eletrofisiológicas registradas por meio do FFR demonstraram que as latências da porção transiente da resposta neural foram diferentes nas três silabas evocadas. Além disso, os valores de latência das ondas da porção transiente foram aumentando progressivamente, sendo [ga]<[da]<[ba]. Já na porção sustentada da resposta, não houve diferenças significantes nas latências das ondas que compõe essa porção. Conclusão O FFR mostrou-se uma ferramenta eficiente na investigação da discriminação subcortical de diferenças acústicas dos sons de fala, uma vez que demonstrou diferentes resposta eletrofisiológica para três silabas evocadas. Na porção transiente (consoantes) foram observadas mudanças de latência e na porção sustentada (vogal) não houve diferenças entre as latências para os três estímulos. Esses resultados demonstram a capacidade neural de distinção entre características acústicas dos estímulos [ga],[da],[ba].


ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate how the auditory pathways encode and discriminate the plosive syllables [ga], [da] and [ba] using the auditory evoked Frequency-following Response (FFR) in children with typical development. Methods Twenty children aged 6-12 years were evaluated using the FFR for the [ga], [da] and [ba] stimuli. The stimuli were composed of six formants and were differentiated in the F2 to F3 transition (transient portion). The other formants were identical in the three syllables (sustained portion). The latencies of the 16 waves of the transient portion (<70ms) and of the 21 waves of the sustained portion (90-160ms) of the stimuli were analyzed in the neural responses obtained for each of the syllables. Results The transient portion latencies were different in the three syllables, indicating a distinction in the acoustic characteristics of these syllables through their neural representations. In addition, the transient portion latencies progressively increased in the following order: [ga] <[da] <[ba], whereas no significant differences were observed in the sustained portion. Conclusion The FFR proved to be an efficient tool to investigate the subcortical acoustic differences in speech sounds, since it demonstrated different electrophysiological responses for the three evoked syllables. Changes in latency were observed in the transient portion (consonants) but not in the sustained portion (vowels) for the three stimuli. These results indicate the neural ability to distinguish between acoustic characteristics of the [ga], [da] and [ba] stimuli.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Speech Perception , Phonetics , Acoustic Stimulation , Acoustics , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 180-186, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089278

ABSTRACT

Abstract The understanding of the echolocation by studying different auditory nuclei of echolocating bats can be an important link in elucidating questions arising in relation to their foraging behavior. The superior olivary complex (SOC) is the primary center for processing the binaural cues used in sound localization since echo locating bats rely on acoustic cues to navigate and capture prey while in flight. The present study was taken to test the hypothesis that the SOC of echolocating neotropical bats with different foraging behavior will exhibit morphological variations in relative size, degree of complexity and spatial distribution. The brains were collected from six male adult bats of each species: Noctilio leporinus (fish eating), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnivorous/omnivorous) and Carollia perspicillata (fruit eating). They were double-embedded and transverse serial sections were cut and stained with cresyl fast violet. The SOC measured as 640 ± 70 µm in the N. leporinus bat, 480 ± 50 µm in the P. hastatus and 240 ± 30 µm in the C. perspicillata bat. The principal nuclei of the SOC of in all three bats were the LSO, MSO and MNTB. The MSO and LSO were very well developed in N. leporinus bats. The MSO of N. leporinus bat subdivided into DMSO and VMSO. The main cell type of cells present in MSO and LSO are dark staining multipolar cells in all the bats studied. The well-developed MSO and LSO of N. leporinus bats indicate that these bats are highly sensitive to low frequency sounds and interaural intensity differences, which help these bats to forage over water by using various types of echolocation signals. The average size of SOC in P. hastatus and C. perspicillata bats can be attributed to the fact that these bats use vision and smell along with echolocation to forage the food.


Resumo O entendimento da ecolocalização pelo estudo de diferentes núcleos auditivos de morcegos pode ser um elo importante na elucidação das inúmeras questões que surgem em relação ao seu comportamento de forrageamento. O complexo olivar superior (SOC) é o principal centro de processamento das pistas binaurais usadas na localização do som, já que os morcegos ecolocalizadores contam com sinais acústicos para navegar e capturar as presas durante o vôo. O presente estudo foi realizado para testar a hipótese de que morcegos que usam a ecolocalização para diferentes comportamentos de forrageamento irão variar na estrutura, tamanhos relativos e grau de complexidade e distribuição espacial do grupo SOC. Os cérebros foram coletados de seis machos adultos de morcego de cada espécie: Noctilio leporinus (piscívoro), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnívoros/onívoros) e Carollia perspicillata (frugívoro). Eles foram seccionados em série e transversalmente, cortados e corados com coloração rápida cresil-violeta. tolet. O grupo SOC foi medido como 640 ± 70 µm no morcego N. leporinus, 480 ± 50 µm no P. hastatus e 240 ± 30 µm no morcego C. perspicillata. Os principais núcleos do grupo SOC dos três morcegos foram o LSO e o MSO e o MNTB. O MSO e o LSO foram muito bem desenvolvidos em morcegos N. leporinus. A MSO de N. leporinus foi subdividida em DMSO e VMSO. O principal tipo de células presentes na MSO e LSO são as células multipolares de coloração escura em todos os morcegos. Os MSO bem desenvolvidos e LSO de morcegos N. leporinus indicam que estes morcegos são altamente sensíveis a sons de baixa frequência e diferenças de intensidade interaural, que ajudaram estes morcegos a se alimentarem na superfície da água usando vários tipos de sinais de ecolocalização. O tamanho médio de SOC em morcegos de P. hastatus e C. perspicillata pode ser atribuído ao fato destes morcegos usarem visão e olfato junto com a ecolocalização para forragear.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chiroptera , Echolocation , Superior Olivary Complex , Acoustics
4.
Revista Areté ; 20(2): 35-41, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354755

ABSTRACT

En múltiples estudios se ha determinado la importancia de la voz en aquellos profesionales que la utilizan como su herramienta principal de trabajo. Dentro de este grupo se encuentran locutores, agentes de call center, profesores, entre otros; la población objeto de estudio en esta investigación son los profesores universitarios, ellos trabajan durante varias horas al día usando su voz para transmitir el conocimiento dentro del aula de clase, muchas veces en condiciones poco óptimas para un desempeño laboral efectivo. Además, están expuestos a diversos factores de riesgos ambientales y organizacionales lo cual los predispone y pueden generar sintomatología vocal asociada a su ocupación. Los participantes pertenecen a un programa de conservación de la voz. El diseño de investigación preexperimental, cuantitativo, utilizando pre-test y pos-test en una misma población, descriptivo transversal, bajo un enfoque epidemiológico. Se aplicó una encuesta de autopercepción vocal como pre-test, con el fin de identificar la percepción que tenían estos profesionales acerca de sus características vocales. Posterior a esto, se les realizó una serie de ejercicios con tubos de resonancia basados en la técnica de Tracto Vocal Semi Ocluido (TVSO) y finalmente, se le reaplicó la encuesta de autopercepción vocal como post-test para determinar los efectos y cambios fisiológicos de estos ejercicios sobre los parámetros acústicos de la voz y las características del habla tales como: inteligibilidad, naturalidad y audibilidad; logrando un efecto fisiológico terapéutico inmediato y una percepción subjetiva de mejoría posterior a la terapia, generando un cambio en el patrón vibratorio de sus pliegues vocales, minimizando el abuso y mal uso vocal, creando conciencia del cuidado que se debe tener con la voz cuando se utiliza de manera profesional por ser la herramienta principal de su trabajo.


Multiple studies have determined the importance of voice in those professionals who use it as their main work tool. Within this group are announcers, call center agents, teachers, among others; this research will deepen the professors, these are found for several hours a day using their voice to transmit knowledge within the classroom, often in poor conditions for effective work performance. In addition, they are exposed to various environmental and organizational risk factors which predispose them and generate a diversity of laryngeal pathologies characteristic of their occupation. Participants belong to a voice conservation program. The design of pre- experimental, quantitative research, using pre-test and post-test in the same population, cross- sectional descriptive, under an epidemiological approach. A vocal self-perception survey was applied as a pre-test, in order to identify the perception that these professionals had about their vocal characteristics. After this, they performed a series of exercises with resonance tubes based on the Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract (TVSO) technique and finally, the vocal self- perception survey was reapplied as a post-test to determine the physiological effects and changes of these exercises on the acoustic parameters of voice and speech characteristics such as: intelligibility, naturalness and audibility; achieving an immediate therapeutic physiological effect and a subjective perception of improvement after therapy, generating a change in the vibratory pattern of your vocal folds, minimizing abuse and vocal misuse, creating awareness of the care that should be taken with the voice when Professionally used as the main tool of his work.


Subject(s)
Speech , Voice , Acoustics , Pathology , Teaching , Work , Risk Factors , Environmental Hazards , Knowledge , Faculty , Work Performance , Occupations
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200052, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134783

ABSTRACT

Abstract The pursuit for quality of life urged a better understanding of aspects involved in ageing to minimize its consequences. Although many studies investigated older adults' voice, aspects affecting this population voice-related quality of life have not yet been explored. Objective To investigate how aerodynamics and vocal aspects are associated with voice-related quality of life in older adults. Methodology fifty-six older adults aged 60 years or above - 39 women and 17 men - were evaluated. The following procedures were performed: application of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol; vocal assessment, including auditory-perceptual and acoustic analysis, from which we obtained fundamental frequency (F 0 ), standard deviation of fundamental frequency (SDF 0 ), shimmer, amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), jitter, pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ), and harmonics to noise ratio (HNR); aerodynamic assessment using a spirometer; and maximum phonation time (MPT) for /a/, /s/, /z/ and number counting. Results older adults tend to present high V-RQOL scores. Among women, roughness, APQ, and HNR parameters were negatively correlated with V-RQOL, whereas F 0 was positively. We found no correlation between spirometry measurements and V-RQOL. MPT for /a/, /z/, and number counting was positively correlated with V-RQOL solely among men. Conclusion Vocal roughness and acoustic parameters have a negative impact on the quality of life of older women. Respiratory aspects related to the available air support for speaking affected the most the voice-related quality of life of older men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality , Quality of Life , Acoustics , Middle Aged
6.
Clinics ; 75: e1670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index are widely used to assess liver fibrosis. However, efficacies of these methods in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ARFI elastography combined with either AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and Child-Pugh (CP) class for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: The shear wave velocities of 104 patients with clinically confirmed CHB-related cirrhosis were determined using the ARFI; and clinical serum markers (e.g. ALT, AST, PLT) were used to calculate the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. Cirrhosis patients were scored according to their CP class. The ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index were compared with the CP class. The efficacy of each indicator in diagnosis was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the ARFI combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index, which is used to predict decompensated cirrhosis. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in gender and age among CP classes A, B, and C patients (p>0.05). The ARFI values and the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index of patients with CP classes A, B, and C were significantly different (p<0.05). With an increasing CP class, the ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 values increased. The correlation between the ARFI and the CP class was stronger than that between the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index and the CP class. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis using the ARFI was 0.841, which was higher than that for the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. According to the area under the curve results, no significant differences were found when the ARFI was combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and when the ARFI alone was used. CONCLUSIONS: The ARFI value has a strong correlation with the CP class. Therefore, ARFI elastography complements CP class in the assessment of the hepatic functional reserve in patients with CHB-related cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Acoustics , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
7.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003337, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The voice is heavily influenced by breathing and abdominal muscles. Objective: To verify the immediate effects of cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release on the respiratory and phonatory function of adult women with no vocal complaints. Method: Relaxation maneuvers and eccentric work of the diaphragm were performed together with articulatory maneuver of the third cervical vertebra. Twenty-four women without vocal complaints, aged between 18 and 35 years were part of the intervention. All volunteers were submitted to an evaluation of respiratory muscle strength, maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/, sound pressure level and acoustic vocal analysis, before and after physiotherapeutic intervention. Statistical analysis consisted of the Student's t-test for independent samples and Spearman's correlation. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: There was a significant increase in the maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/ and in the modal sound pressure level. Regarding the acoustic analysis, there was a reduction in the standard deviation values of the fundamental frequency; in the smoothed pitch disturbance quotient; and in the fundamental frequency and amplitude variations. Conclusion: Cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release improved vocal quality regarding duration of emission, sound pressure, and stability and noise of the glottic signal.


Resumo Introdução: A voz é muito influenciada pela respiração e pela musculatura abdominal. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos imediatos da estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática na função respiratória e fonatória de mulheres adultas sem queixas vocais. Método: Realizaram-se manobras de relaxamento e trabalho excêntrico do diafragma junto a uma manobra articulatória da terceira vertebra cervical. Fizerem parte da intervenção 24 mulheres sem queixas vocais, com idades entre 18 e 35 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas a uma avaliação de força da musculatura respiratória, do tempo máximo de fonação da vogal /a/, do nível de pressão sonora e análise vocal acústica, pré e pós-intervenção fisioterapêutica. Foram realizados os testes t-student para amostras independentes e correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Verificou-se aumento significativo no tempo máximo de fonação da vogal de /a/ e do nível de pressão sonora modal. Na análise acústica, houve redução dos valores do desvio-padrão da frequência fundamental; do quociente de perturbação do pitch suavizado; da variação da frequência fundamental e da variação da amplitude. Conclusão: As manobras fisioterapêuticas de estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática melhoraram a qualidade vocal em relação ao tempo de sustentação da emissão, à pressão sonora, à estabilidade e ao ruído do sinal glótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Voice Quality , Acoustics , Diaphragm , Respiration , Abdominal Muscles
8.
Orient Journal of Medicine ; 32(1-2): 18-21, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1268292

ABSTRACT

Background: Local anaesthesia usage and wastage are common in the operation rooms. The wastage is often not given due considerations. Budgetary allocation for drugs is an identifiable area for cost-cutting and savings. Hence, the need to minimize wastage Objectives: To assess and estimate the amount of local anaesthesia usage and wastage in the labour ward theatre. Also, to analyze the financial implications of the wastages and suggest appropriate steps to reduce the wastages. Methodology: A prospective observational study conducted in the labour ward theatre of a tertiary care hospital. The amount of local anaesthesia administered to the patient during spinal anaesthesia prior to caesarean section was considered the dose used. The wastage was considered as the amount of local anaesthetic agents left unutilized in the syringes, ampules or vials after completion of each caesarean delivery. An estimation of the cost of wasted local anaesthetic agents was made. Result: The local anaesthetic agents being used in significant quantities were hyperbaric bupivacaine, plain lidocaine and lidocaine with adrenaline. The wastage was found more during the use of hyperbaric bupivacaine as the cost of its wastage formed the bulk (N75,000.00/ $210.10) of the estimated total cost of wasted local anaesthetic agents during the study period which was N88, 100.00 ($246.77). Conclusion: There were appropriate uses of the local anaesthesia with respect to the choice and doses for caesarean deliveries but there were wastages often ignored as infinitesimal. In the long run, the wastages become significant and the financial implication scale up the burden of health bills. Effective waste reduction strategies have input in the overall reduction of financial burden associated with health care. Emphasis should be t ailored towards awareness of these wastages among resident doctors and their prudent use of local anaesthesia


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Anesthetics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Lidocaine , Medical Waste Disposal , Nigeria
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879205

ABSTRACT

As drug carriers, magnetic nanoparticles can specifically bind to tumors and have the potential for targeted therapy. It is of great significance to explore non-invasive imaging methods that can detect the distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. Based on the mechanism that magnetic nanoparticles can generate ultrasonic waves through the pulsed magnetic field excitation, the sound pressure wave equation containing the concentration information of magnetic nanoparticles was derived. Using the finite element method and the analytical solution, the consistent transient pulsed magnetic field was obtained. A three-dimensional simulation model was constructed for the coupling calculation of electromagnetic field and sound field. The simulation results verified that the sound pressure waveform at the detection point reflected the position of magnetic nanoparticles in biological tissue. Using the sound pressure data detected by the ultrasonic transducer, the B-scan imaging of the magnetic nanoparticles was achieved. The maximum error of the target area position was 1.56%, and the magnetic nanoparticles regions with different concentrations were distinguished by comparing the amplitude of the boundary signals in the image. Studies in this paper indicate that B-scan imaging can quickly and accurately obtain the dimensional and positional information of the target region and is expected to be used for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles in targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Computer Simulation , Magnetics , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Tomography
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 566-576, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001471

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vocalizations are an important trait for the identification of cryptic and/or closely related amphibian species. Different vocalizations also contribute to partitioning of the acoustic space by sympatric species. This study aimed to describe the advertisement calls of anurans in a pond of the municipality of Floriano, State of Piauí, Brazil, and infer the acoustic niche partitioning of amphibians. Euclidean distance was used in a cluster analysis approach to infer the acoustic similarities among species. Thirteen species were analysed: Boana raniceps, Dendropsophus nanus, D. rubicundulus , D. minutus, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. troglodytes, L. vastus, Pithecopus nordestinus , Physalaemus cuvieri, P. nattereri, Pleurodema diplolister, Proceratophrys cristiceps and Scinax ruber. From these, six showed more than 90% of acoustic overlap: P. nattereri , P. cuvieri, L. fuscus and L. vastus (Leptodactylidae); and, D. nanus and D. rubicundulus (Hylidae). Despite the acoustic similarities among these six species, the acoustic interference was reduced due to the small number of sympatric species and to distinct features on carrier frequency such as dominant frequency and the degree of modulation in the frequency. Environmental factors limit the periods and sites of reproduction respectively, which may maintain the low anuran diversity and consequently reduce acoustic overlap.


Resumo A vocalização é um componente importante na identificação de espécies crípticas e/ou proximamente relacionadas de anfíbios anuros. Diferenças na bioacústica também contribuem para o particionamento do espaço acústico entre espécies simpátricas. Este estudo descreve o canto de anúncio de anuros em uma lagoa temporária do município de Floriano, Estado do Piauí, Brasil, além de buscar inferir o particionamento do nicho acústico entre essas espécies. Para tanto, foi utilizada a distância Euclidiana para compor uma análise de conglomerados e avaliar a similaridade/dissimilaridade da bioacústica da anurofauna. Treze espécies foram amostradas: Boana raniceps, Dendropsophus nanus, D. rubicundulus , D. minutus, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. troglodytes, L. vastus, Pithecopus nordestinus , Physalaemus cuvieri, P. nattereri, Pleurodema diplolister, Proceratophrys cristiceps e Scinax ruber. Destas, seis apresentaram mais de 90% de sobreposição acústica: P. nattereri, P. cuvieri, L. fuscus e L. vastus (Leptodactylidae); e, D. nanus e D. rubicundulus (Hylidae). Apesar da similaridade acústica entre essas seis espécies, a interferência é reduzida devido ao pequeno número de espécies simpátricas e certas características distintas na frequência do canto, tais como: frequência dominante e sua modulação. Fatores ambientais específicos do semiárido limitam os períodos e sítios reprodutivos, o que mantém baixa diversidade de espécies e consequentemente reduz a sobreposição no nicho acústico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anura/physiology , Vocalization, Animal , Acoustics , Brazil , Ponds
12.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 644-651, oct 2019. fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046879

ABSTRACT

The article introduces the findings of the analysis of the existing approaches to the development of mathematical models of acoustic heart phenomena. The analysis of mathematical methods that can be used to model heart sounds has been performed with the use of reference signals from the 3M Open Library (Littmann Library) and a set of signals obtained by the authors during their previous scientific efforts. The analysis findings have allowed revealing the approaches and methods that are most suitable for developing the mathematical models of human phonocardiograms (normal and pathological) for further research efforts meant to develop methods to single out heart beats against the high level of interference and creating intervalograms to characterize the heart rate at the current moments of time. In addition to the generation of model phonocardiograms, the article reviews the methods to analyze model and real-life phonocardiograms with the assessment of an input from random and deterministic components.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phonocardiography/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis , Acoustics , Models, Statistical , Heart Rate Determination/methods , Heart/physiology
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 205-213, jun 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1045980

ABSTRACT

The study was aimed at investigating the features of gnostic functions in the elderly people suffering from dementia. To implement the objectives of the study and to solve the set tasks, the following methods were used: visual gnosis tests (recognition of images, the selection of three subject pictures, selecting parts of a whole, etc.), the acoustic gnosis tests (score and perception of rhythms, recognition of nonspeech sounds), and tactile gnosis tests (tactile identification, Teuber test, Foerster test). When running the visual gnosis tests, the elderly people with the dementia diseases slowly initiated the tasks, made numerous errors, and sometimes could not cope with the tasks at all. Also, the perception integrity disorders, the presence of fragmentation, lack of accuracy, differentiation, preservation of specific objective images-objects, and the violation in the understanding of the spatial arrangement of things were revealed. When performing the auditory-motor coordination tests, the elderly people suffering from dementia needed more time to listen to, they asked for the repeated sound representation, and there were often errors in the rhythmic structure reproduction. When performing the tactile gnosis tests, the elderly people suffering from dementia had difficulties in identifying the subject by touch, in understanding the right and left-sided spatial relationships, and also made errors in recognizing one of the touches when the experimenter touched their hands. Based on the study results, the recommendations have been developed for the preservation and improvement of the existing gnostic functions' disorders in the elderly people suffering from dementia. The recommendations are complex, and they can also be useful for the medical staff whose professional activity is directly related to the elderly people suffering from dementia, their relatives and the persons closest to them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pattern Recognition, Visual , Trail Making Test , Acoustics , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Dementia/pathology , Agnosia/pathology
14.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180363, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039133

ABSTRACT

Abstract Agricultural Machinery as an off-road vehicle is the backbone of the World agricultural industry. Its main function is to operate as a prime mover and support the power requirements to function the various type of draft implements. In this regards, the hydraulic system is an important part and is controlled by the propagated oil which is cleaned by impurities and debris using a filter system. Once it blocks, the bypass opens to avoid any pressure burst of the system, and the particles find their way into the hydraulic system and get lodged in the gears, pumps, valves, and drive train to hinder the performance of the Agricultural Machinery. This research presents an onboard Multiple Signal Classification Algorithm (MUSIC) and pseudo-spectrum analysis as a computational tool used by cellphones to analyze the particle pollution level of the hydraulic filter. This analysis is carried out on the soundtracks recorded from different cell phones in different incremental stages of fluid contamination to the particles until it being choked, based on the standard of ISO4406.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Preventive Maintenance/methods , Hydraulics , Algorithms , Diagnostic Errors
15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1409-1421, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a diagnostic model for superficial soft tissue lesions to differentiate epidermal cyst (EC) from other lesions based on ultrasound (US) features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 205 patients who had undergone US examinations for superficial soft tissue lesions and subsequent surgical excision. The study population was divided into the derivation set (n = 112) and validation set (n = 93) according to the imaging date. The following US features were analyzed to determine those that could discriminate EC from other lesions: more-than-half-depth involvement of the dermal layer, “submarine sign” (focal projection of the hypoechoic portion to the epidermis), posterior acoustic enhancement, posterior wall enhancement, morphology, shape, echogenicity, vascularity, and perilesional fat change. Using multivariable logistic regression, a diagnostic model was constructed and visualized as a nomogram. The performance of the diagnostic model was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve and calibration plot in both the derivation and validation sets. RESULTS: More-than-half-depth involvement of the dermal layer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35; p = 0.051), “submarine sign” (OR = 12.2; p < 0.001), and morphology (OR = 5.44; p = 0.002) were features that outweighed the others when diagnosing EC. The diagnostic model based on these features showed good discrimination ability in both the derivation set (AUC = 0.888, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.825–0.950) and validation set (AUC = 0.902, 95% CI = 0.832–0.972). CONCLUSION: More-than-half-depth of involvement of the dermal layer, “submarine sign,” and morphology are relatively better US features than the others for diagnosing EC.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Calibration , Discrimination, Psychological , Epidermal Cyst , Humans , Logistic Models , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 206-214, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated. RESULTS: The median patient age (165 men, 97 women) was 56 years. The median ARFI velocity, spleen diameter, platelet count, and ASPS were 1.7 m/sec, 10.1 cm, 145×10⁹/L, and 1.16, respectively. During the median 38-month follow-up, 61 patients experienced EVB. Among all patients (179 without EVs and 83 with EVs), the cutoff value that maximized the sum of the sensitivity (73.1%) and specificity (78.4%) (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.824) for predicting EVB was 2.60. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with ASPS ≥2.60 than in those with ASPS <2.60 (p<0.001). Among patients with EVs (n=83), 49 had high-risk EVs (HEVs), and 22 had EVB. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in HEV patients than in low-risk EV patients (p=0.037). At an ASPS of 4.50 (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 70.6%; AUROC, 0.691), the cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with a high ASPS than in those with a low ASPS (p=0.045). A higher ASPS independently predicted EVB (hazard ratio, 4.072; p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: ASPS can assess EVB risk in patients with cirrhosis. Prophylactic management should be considered for patients with HEVs and ASPS ≥4.50.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Esophageal and Gastric Varices , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Liver Cirrhosis , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spleen , Viperidae
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760118

ABSTRACT

With a high sound quality stimulated by the electrical device and a large inclusion in medical insurance, the number of cochlear implant recipients has been rapidly increased in Korea. Today, it is not surprising that early implanted young children with congenital deafness show a similar performance to their normal hearing peers in speech perception. However, the cochlear implant users still have a trouble to enjoy music. This review study aims to introduce briefly about acoustic components that required to perceive the music and understand a relationship between cochlear implantation and temporal fine structure. For the pediatric implant users who have less experience on acoustical sound features but are much familiar with the electrically stimulated sound, perceiving the music seems to be challengeable due to the lack of temporal fine resolution related to pitch and timbre among various components of music. Four representative test batteries for evaluating the recipients' ability of the music perception were mentioned and effective auditory music trainings were discussed with analysis of related investigations. Unlike hearing aids users who usually depend on fitting algorism for better music quality, the cochlear implant users need systematic training to improve their music perception ability. In conclusion, advancement of speech processing technology which can provide accurate information about the temporal fine structure of incoming music to the recipients needs to be developed. Also, a practical application of music training should be recommended as a part of auditory training for the cochlear implant users.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Child , Cochlear Implantation , Cochlear Implants , Deafness , Hearing , Hearing Aids , Humans , Insurance , Korea , Music , Perception , Pitch Perception , Speech Perception
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Radiesse® is a widely used calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) injection material used for vocal fold injection. Recently, a new CaHA injection material (Facetem ®) which complements the structural disadvantages of Radiesse has been developed and released in the market. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and short-term voice outcome of these two CaHA materials. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A retrospective analysis was performed for 70 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent vocal fold injection using CaHA materials. Acoustic voice analysis, maximal phonation time (MPT), voice handicap index (VHI), and Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain (GRBAS) scale were evaluated between Radiesse and Facetem injection group. RESULTS: Both groups showed a signifcant improvement of MPT, VHI, and G, B, A scale after injection. The Facetem group showed similar voice improvement as the Radiesse group, where pre- and postoperatively objective and subjective voice evaluation results were compared. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that there is no significant difference in efficacy and nor any short-term vocal improvement between Radiesse and Facetem. Therefore, the use of Facetem as CaHA injection material could be considered as an alternative material for patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Asthenia , Calcium , Complement System Proteins , Durapatite , Humans , Laryngoplasty , Methods , Paralysis , Phonation , Retrospective Studies , Vocal Cord Paralysis , Vocal Cords , Voice
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765389

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been used as minimally invasive and effective neurosurgical treatment, it exhibits some limitations, mainly related to acoustic properties of the skull barrier. This study was undertaken to identify skull characteristics that contribute to optimal ultrasonic energy transmission for MRgFUS procedures. METHODS: For ex vivo skull experiments, various acoustic fields were measured under different conditions, using five non-embalmed cadaver skulls. For clinical skull analyses, brain computed tomography data of 46 patients who underwent MRgFUS ablations (18 unilateral thalamotomy, nine unilateral pallidotomy, and 19 bilateral capsulotomy) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' skull factors and sonication parameters were comparatively analyzed with respect to the cadaveric skulls. RESULTS: Skull experiments identified three important factors related skull penetration of ultrasound, including skull density ratio (SDR), skull volume, and incidence angle of the acoustic rays against the skull surface. In clinical results, SDR and skull volume correlated with maximal temperature (Tmax) and energy requirement to achieve Tmax (p<0.05). In addition, considering the incidence angle determined by brain target location, less energy was required to reach Tmax in the central, rather than lateral targets particularly when compared between thalamotomy and capsulotomy (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This study reconfirmed previously identified skull factors, including SDR and skull volume, for successful MRgFUS; it identified an additional factor, incidence angle of acoustic rays against the skull surface. To guarantee successful transcranial MRgFUS treatment without suffering these various skull issues, further technical improvements are required.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Brain , Cadaver , High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation , Humans , Incidence , Pallidotomy , Retrospective Studies , Skull , Sonication , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clear speech is an effective communication strategy used in difficult listening situations that draws on techniques such as accurate articulation, a slow speech rate, and the inclusion of pauses. Although too slow speech and improperly amplified spectral information can deteriorate overall speech intelligibility, certain amplitude of increments of the mid-frequency bands (1 to 3 dB) and around 50% slower speech rates of clear speech, when compared to those in conversational speech, were reported as factors that can improve speech intelligibility positively. The purpose of this study was to identify whether amplitude increments of mid-frequency areas and slower speech rates were evident in Korean clear speech as they were in English clear speech. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To compare the acoustic characteristics of the two methods of speech production, the voices of 60 participants were recorded during conversational speech and then again during clear speech using a standardized sentence material. RESULTS: The speech rate and long-term average speech spectrum (LTASS) were analyzed and compared. Speech rates for clear speech were slower than those for conversational speech. Increased amplitudes in the mid-frequency bands were evident for the LTASS of clear speech. CONCLUSIONS: The observed differences in the acoustic characteristics between the two types of speech production suggest that Korean clear speech can be an effective communication strategy to improve speech intelligibility.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Rehabilitation , Speech Acoustics , Speech Intelligibility , Speech Perception , Voice
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