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Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(4): 279-284, ago. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407854


Resumen Los índices térmico y mecánico son estimadores de riesgo fetal en una ecografía y se deben controlar sus valores minimizando la exposición. Comparamos los valores de los índices térmico y mecánico obtenidos en exámenes ecográficos obstétricos de pacientes gestantes, con el valor recomendado por la comunidad internacional. Se realizó la estimación de estos índices en 421 ecografías obstétricas en 2019. Los valores fueron comparados entre ellos y con el valor recomendado para cada índice y según el modo de visualización (B, Doppler color y Doppler espectral). Del total de la muestra, para el índice térmico en modo Doppler color un 0,24% superó el valor estándar recomendado y en modo Doppler espectral un 2,85%. Para el índice mecánico se sobrepasó el valor recomendado en modo B en un 11,16%, en un 8,08% en modo Doppler color y, por último, en un 0,48% para el modo Doppler espectral. Los índices mecánico y térmico en esta muestra de exámenes ecográficos obstétricos se encuentran en promedio bajo el valor de referencia. Sin embargo, existe un número importante de casos en que se superan las normas, lo que debe ser una voz de alerta para la comunidad médica.

Abstract The thermal and mechanical indices are the best estimators of fetal risk in an ultrasound and their values should be controlled in order to minimize exposure as much as possible. We compared the values of the thermal and mechanical indices obtained in obstetric ultrasound examinations of pregnant patients, with the value recommended by the international community. These indices were estimated in 421 obstetric ultrasounds during 2019. The estimated values were compared with each other and with the recommended value for each index and according to the display mode (B, color Doppler and spectral Doppler). Of the total sample, for the thermal index in color Doppler mode, 0.24% exceeded the recommended standard value and 2.85%. in spectral Doppler mode. For the mechanical index, the recommended value was exceeded in B mode by 11.16%, in 8.08% in color Doppler mode and, finally, by 0.48% for spectral Doppler mode. The mechanical and thermal indices in this sample of obstetric ultrasound examinations are on average below the reference value. However, there is a significant number of cases in which the standards are exceeded, which should be a warning to the medical community.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Obstetrics/methods , Reference Values , Temperature , Acoustics , Gestational Age , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Risk Assessment , Patient Safety
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928222


Transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation is a new non-invasive neuromodulation technology, in which the induced electric field generated by the coupling effect of ultrasound and static magnetic field are used to regulate the neural rhythm oscillation activity in the corresponding brain region. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation on the information transfer and communication in neuronal clusters during memory. In the experiment, twenty healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (five rats) and stimulation groups (fifteen rats). Transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation of 0.05~0.15 T and 2.66~13.33 W/cm 2 was applied to the rats in stimulation groups, and no stimulation was applied to the rats in the control group. The local field potentials signals in the prefrontal cortex of rats during the T-maze working memory tasks were acquired. Then the coupling differences between delta rhythm phase, theta rhythm phase and gamma rhythm amplitude of rats in different parameter stimulation groups and control group were compared. The experimental results showed that the coupling intensity of delta and gamma rhythm in stimulation groups was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P<0.05), while the coupling intensity of theta and gamma rhythm was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.05). With the increase of stimulation parameters, the degree of coupling between delta and gamma rhythm showed a decreasing trend, while the degree of coupling between theta and gamma rhythm tended to increase. The preliminary results of this paper indicated that transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation inhibited delta rhythmic neuronal activity and enhanced the oscillation of theta and gamma rhythm in the prefrontal cortex, thus promoted the exchange and transmission of information between neuronal clusters in different spatial scales. This lays the foundation for further exploring the mechanism of transcranial magneto-acoustic-electrical stimulation in regulating brain memory function.

Animals , Rats , Acoustics , Electric Stimulation , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Theta Rhythm/physiology , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928195


Transcranial magneto-acoustic electrical stimulation (TMAES) is a novel method of brain nerve regulation and research, which uses induction current generated by the coupling of ultrasound and magnetic field to regulate neural electrical activity in different brain regions. As the second special envoy of nerve signal, calcium plays a key role in nerve signal transmission. In order to investigate the effect of TMAES on prefrontal cortex electrical activity, 15 mice were divided into control group, ultrasound stimulation (TUS) group and TMAES group. The TMAES group received 2.6 W/cm 2 and 0.3 T of magnetic induction intensity, the TUS group received only ultrasound stimulation, and the control group received no ultrasound and magnetic field for one week. The calcium ion concentration in the prefrontal cortex of mice was recorded in real time by optical fiber photometric detection technology. The new object recognition experiment was conducted to compare the behavioral differences and the time-frequency distribution of calcium signal in each group. The results showed that the mean value of calcium transient signal in the TMAES group was (4.84 ± 0.11)% within 10 s after the stimulation, which was higher than that in the TUS group (4.40 ± 0.10)% and the control group (4.22 ± 0.08)%, and the waveform of calcium transient signal was slower, suggesting that calcium metabolism was faster. The main energy band of the TMAES group was 0-20 Hz, that of the TUS group was 0-12 Hz and that of the control group was 0-8 Hz. The cognitive index was 0.71 in the TMAES group, 0.63 in the TUS group, and 0.58 in the control group, indicating that both ultrasonic and magneto-acoustic stimulation could improve the cognitive ability of mice, but the effect of the TMAES group was better than that of the TUS group. These results suggest that TMAES can change the calcium homeostasis of prefrontal cortex nerve clusters, regulate the discharge activity of prefrontal nerve clusters, and promote cognitive function. The results of this study provide data support and reference for further exploration of the deep neural mechanism of TMAES.

Animals , Mice , Acoustics , Brain , Calcium , Electric Stimulation , Prefrontal Cortex , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 730-738, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349983


ABSTRACT Objective: Identifying significant fibrosis is crucial to evaluate the prognosis and therapeutic interventions in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, APRI, FIB-4, Forns, NFS and BARD scores in determining liver fibrosis in severe obesity. Subjects and methods: A prospective study included 108 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively and classified according to the NAFLD Activity Score. Patients were assessed with serological markers and shear wave velocity of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system preoperatively. Optimal cut-off values were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Results: In the entire cohort prevalence of NAFLD was 80.6%, steatohepatitis 25.9% and significant fibrosis 19.4%. The best tests for predicting significant fibrosis were FIB-4 and Forns scores (both AUROC 0.78), followed by APRI (AUROC 0.74), NFS (AUROC 0.68), BARD (AUROC 0.64) and ARFI (AUROC 0.62). ARFI elastography was successful in 73% of the patients. Higher body mass index (BMI) correlated with invalid ARFI measurements. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI showed 92.3% sensitivity and 82,6% specificity for the presence of significant fibrosis, with AUROC 0.86 and cut-off 1.32 m/s. Conclusions: FIB-4 and Forns scores were the most accurate for the prediction of significant fibrosis in bariatric patients. Applicability and accuracy of ARFI was limited in individuals with severe obesity. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI elastography was capable for predicting significant fibrosis with relevant accuracy.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acoustics , Biopsy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
CoDAS ; 33(5): e20200091, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286133


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a interferência do uso do amplificador de voz na dose vocal de professoras não disfônicas. Método Trata-se de um estudo experimental, comparativo intrassujeitos, composto por 20 professoras do ensino fundamental da Rede Municipal de Ensino de Belo Horizonte/MG. Após o consentimento as participantes, foram solicitadas a responder o questionário de Escala de Sintomas Vocais - ESV e posteriormente participaram de dois momentos do estudo, selecionados aleatoriamente. No primeiro momento as participantes utilizaram somente o dosímetro vocal e no segundo momento utilizaram o dosímetro vocal e o amplificador de voz. As medições foram registradas pelo aparelho durante 1h40m, na sala de aula que as professoras lecionavam. O espaço entre as duas medições foi de uma semana, sendo mantidas a mesma sala, mesmo horário e mesma disciplina lecionada, em ambos os momentos. Resultados O parâmetro intensidade foi o único que apresentou diferença com o uso de amplificação de voz. Conclusão O uso da amplificação de voz durante a docência de professoras não disfônicas não interfere nos parâmetros acústicos de frequência fundamental, e nas medidas de dose vocal. A intensidade da voz é menor quando o professor faz uso de amplificação vocal.

ABSTRACT Purpose Analyze the interference of using the voice amplifier in vocal dose of non-dysphonic teachers. Methods This is an experimental study comparing people from the same ambience compound for 20 teachers from municipal elementary school in Belo Horizonte/MG. After consent, the participants were requested to answer the vocal symptom scale questionnaire (ESV) and later participated in two different moments of the study, for which they randomly selected. In the first moment, the participants used only the vocal dosimeter and in the second, they used the vocal dosimeter and the voice amplifier. The measurements were recorded by the device for 1h40m, in the classroom that the teachers taught. The time between the two measurements was one week, with the same room, the same time and the same discipline being taught, at both times. Results The intensity parameter was the only one that showed difference with the use of the voice amplifier. Conclusion Use voice amplification while non-dysphonic teachers are teaching doesn't affect the fundamental frequency and vocal dose measure in the acoustics parameters. The vocal intensity is smaller when teacher uses the vocal amplification.

Humans , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Phonation , Speech Acoustics , Acoustics , Hoarseness
CoDAS ; 33(1): e20180324, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249593


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar como as vias auditivas codificam e diferenciam as sílabas plosivas [ga],[da] e [ba], por meio do potencial evocado auditivo Frequency Following Response (FFR), nas crianças em desenvolvimento típico. Método Vinte crianças (6-12 anos) foram avaliadas por meio do FFR para estímulos [ga],[da] e [ba]. Os estímulos foram compostos por seis formantes, sendo diferenciados na transição F2 e F3 (porção transiente). Os demais formantes foram idênticos nas três sílabas (porção sustentada). Foram analisadas latências de 16 ondas que compõe a porção transiente do estímulo (<70ms) e latências de 21 ondas da porção sustentada (90-160ms) nas respostas neurais obtidas para cada uma das sílabas. Resultados As respostas eletrofisiológicas registradas por meio do FFR demonstraram que as latências da porção transiente da resposta neural foram diferentes nas três silabas evocadas. Além disso, os valores de latência das ondas da porção transiente foram aumentando progressivamente, sendo [ga]<[da]<[ba]. Já na porção sustentada da resposta, não houve diferenças significantes nas latências das ondas que compõe essa porção. Conclusão O FFR mostrou-se uma ferramenta eficiente na investigação da discriminação subcortical de diferenças acústicas dos sons de fala, uma vez que demonstrou diferentes resposta eletrofisiológica para três silabas evocadas. Na porção transiente (consoantes) foram observadas mudanças de latência e na porção sustentada (vogal) não houve diferenças entre as latências para os três estímulos. Esses resultados demonstram a capacidade neural de distinção entre características acústicas dos estímulos [ga],[da],[ba].

ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate how the auditory pathways encode and discriminate the plosive syllables [ga], [da] and [ba] using the auditory evoked Frequency-following Response (FFR) in children with typical development. Methods Twenty children aged 6-12 years were evaluated using the FFR for the [ga], [da] and [ba] stimuli. The stimuli were composed of six formants and were differentiated in the F2 to F3 transition (transient portion). The other formants were identical in the three syllables (sustained portion). The latencies of the 16 waves of the transient portion (<70ms) and of the 21 waves of the sustained portion (90-160ms) of the stimuli were analyzed in the neural responses obtained for each of the syllables. Results The transient portion latencies were different in the three syllables, indicating a distinction in the acoustic characteristics of these syllables through their neural representations. In addition, the transient portion latencies progressively increased in the following order: [ga] <[da] <[ba], whereas no significant differences were observed in the sustained portion. Conclusion The FFR proved to be an efficient tool to investigate the subcortical acoustic differences in speech sounds, since it demonstrated different electrophysiological responses for the three evoked syllables. Changes in latency were observed in the transient portion (consonants) but not in the sustained portion (vowels) for the three stimuli. These results indicate the neural ability to distinguish between acoustic characteristics of the [ga], [da] and [ba] stimuli.

Humans , Child , Speech Perception , Phonetics , Acoustic Stimulation , Acoustics , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing
CoDAS ; 33(6): e20200192, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339728


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar o benefício obtido pela prescrição de ganho acústico baseada nos limiares audiométricos obtidos com tons puros (Warble) e com ruído de faixa estreita (NB). Método Amostra de 30 idosos, com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, perda auditiva neurossensorial de grau moderado a severo simétrica bilateral de configuração descendente com limiares em 4kHz iguais ou inferiores a 70dBNA. Foram dois grupos. GTP (grupo tom puro): 15 idosos tiveram as próteses auditivas adaptadas com emprego dos limiares obtidos com tom puro e grupo GNB (grupo Narrowband): 15 idosos tiveram as próteses auditivas adaptadas por meio dos limiares obtidos com NB. Os procedimentos realizados antes da adaptação de próteses auditivas e após três meses de uso de amplificação foram: Escala COSI, IPRF (Índice Percentual de Reconhecimento de fala), Relação Sinal/Ruído e análise do tempo de uso do AASI. O Questionário Internacional de Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora Individual (QI-AASI) foi aplicado após três meses. Resultados Os idosos do grupo em que as próteses auditivas foram adaptadas com ganho prescrito com base nos limiares auditivos obtidos com o estímulo Narrow Band apresentaram melhor desempenho nos seguintes testes: IPRF à orelha direita, pontuação total do questionário QI-AASI, escala COSI e maior tempo de uso do AASI em comparação ao grupo GTP. Conclusão Observou-se maior benefício com o uso de próteses auditivas, pela pontuação total do questionário QI-AASI, escala COSI e maior tempo de uso do AASI, no grupo cuja prescrição do ganho acústico baseou-se nos limiares audiométricos obtidos com o Narrowband.

ABSTRACT Purpose To verify the benefit obtained by the prescription of acoustic gain based on the auditory thresholds obtained with pure tones modulated in frequency and with Narrow Band Noise. Methods The sample consisted of 30 elderly people, aged 60 years or over with moderate to severe descending sensorineural symmetrical hearing loss with thresholds at 4kHz equal to or less than 70dBHL. There were two groups. GTP (pure tone group): 15 elderly people had their hearing aids fitted through the auditory thresholds obtained with pure tone and the GNB group (narrow band group): 15 elderly people had their hearing aids fitted through the auditory thresholds obtained with NB. The procedures performed before the fitting of hearing aids and after three months of amplification use were: COSI, WRS (Word Recognition Score), Signal/Noise ratio. The International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) was applied only after three months of hearing aid fitting. Results The elderly people in the group in which the hearing aids were fitted with a prescribed gain based on the hearing thresholds obtained with the Narrow Band stimulus showed better performance in the following tests: WRS on the right ear, total score of the IOI-HA inventory, COSI and longer use of hearing aids compared to the GTP group. Conclusion There was a greater benefit with the use of hearing aids, due to the total score of the IOI-HA inventory, COSI scale and longer daily use time of hearing aids, in the group whose prescription of acoustic gain was based on the auditory thresholds obtained with narrow band.

Humans , Aged , Hearing Aids , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , Acoustics , Prescriptions
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 180-186, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089278


Abstract The understanding of the echolocation by studying different auditory nuclei of echolocating bats can be an important link in elucidating questions arising in relation to their foraging behavior. The superior olivary complex (SOC) is the primary center for processing the binaural cues used in sound localization since echo locating bats rely on acoustic cues to navigate and capture prey while in flight. The present study was taken to test the hypothesis that the SOC of echolocating neotropical bats with different foraging behavior will exhibit morphological variations in relative size, degree of complexity and spatial distribution. The brains were collected from six male adult bats of each species: Noctilio leporinus (fish eating), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnivorous/omnivorous) and Carollia perspicillata (fruit eating). They were double-embedded and transverse serial sections were cut and stained with cresyl fast violet. The SOC measured as 640 ± 70 µm in the N. leporinus bat, 480 ± 50 µm in the P. hastatus and 240 ± 30 µm in the C. perspicillata bat. The principal nuclei of the SOC of in all three bats were the LSO, MSO and MNTB. The MSO and LSO were very well developed in N. leporinus bats. The MSO of N. leporinus bat subdivided into DMSO and VMSO. The main cell type of cells present in MSO and LSO are dark staining multipolar cells in all the bats studied. The well-developed MSO and LSO of N. leporinus bats indicate that these bats are highly sensitive to low frequency sounds and interaural intensity differences, which help these bats to forage over water by using various types of echolocation signals. The average size of SOC in P. hastatus and C. perspicillata bats can be attributed to the fact that these bats use vision and smell along with echolocation to forage the food.

Resumo O entendimento da ecolocalização pelo estudo de diferentes núcleos auditivos de morcegos pode ser um elo importante na elucidação das inúmeras questões que surgem em relação ao seu comportamento de forrageamento. O complexo olivar superior (SOC) é o principal centro de processamento das pistas binaurais usadas na localização do som, já que os morcegos ecolocalizadores contam com sinais acústicos para navegar e capturar as presas durante o vôo. O presente estudo foi realizado para testar a hipótese de que morcegos que usam a ecolocalização para diferentes comportamentos de forrageamento irão variar na estrutura, tamanhos relativos e grau de complexidade e distribuição espacial do grupo SOC. Os cérebros foram coletados de seis machos adultos de morcego de cada espécie: Noctilio leporinus (piscívoro), Phyllostomus hastatus (carnívoros/onívoros) e Carollia perspicillata (frugívoro). Eles foram seccionados em série e transversalmente, cortados e corados com coloração rápida cresil-violeta. tolet. O grupo SOC foi medido como 640 ± 70 µm no morcego N. leporinus, 480 ± 50 µm no P. hastatus e 240 ± 30 µm no morcego C. perspicillata. Os principais núcleos do grupo SOC dos três morcegos foram o LSO e o MSO e o MNTB. O MSO e o LSO foram muito bem desenvolvidos em morcegos N. leporinus. A MSO de N. leporinus foi subdividida em DMSO e VMSO. O principal tipo de células presentes na MSO e LSO são as células multipolares de coloração escura em todos os morcegos. Os MSO bem desenvolvidos e LSO de morcegos N. leporinus indicam que estes morcegos são altamente sensíveis a sons de baixa frequência e diferenças de intensidade interaural, que ajudaram estes morcegos a se alimentarem na superfície da água usando vários tipos de sinais de ecolocalização. O tamanho médio de SOC em morcegos de P. hastatus e C. perspicillata pode ser atribuído ao fato destes morcegos usarem visão e olfato junto com a ecolocalização para forragear.

Animals , Male , Chiroptera , Echolocation , Superior Olivary Complex , Acoustics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879205


As drug carriers, magnetic nanoparticles can specifically bind to tumors and have the potential for targeted therapy. It is of great significance to explore non-invasive imaging methods that can detect the distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. Based on the mechanism that magnetic nanoparticles can generate ultrasonic waves through the pulsed magnetic field excitation, the sound pressure wave equation containing the concentration information of magnetic nanoparticles was derived. Using the finite element method and the analytical solution, the consistent transient pulsed magnetic field was obtained. A three-dimensional simulation model was constructed for the coupling calculation of electromagnetic field and sound field. The simulation results verified that the sound pressure waveform at the detection point reflected the position of magnetic nanoparticles in biological tissue. Using the sound pressure data detected by the ultrasonic transducer, the B-scan imaging of the magnetic nanoparticles was achieved. The maximum error of the target area position was 1.56%, and the magnetic nanoparticles regions with different concentrations were distinguished by comparing the amplitude of the boundary signals in the image. Studies in this paper indicate that B-scan imaging can quickly and accurately obtain the dimensional and positional information of the target region and is expected to be used for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles in targeted therapy.

Acoustics , Computer Simulation , Magnetics , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Tomography
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 2(2): 14-30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396111


Introducción: la severidad de una disfonía da cuenta del grado de alteración que tiene una voz en relación con todos los procesos fisiológicos involucrados con la producción del sonido. Es importante determinar el nivel de severidad a fin de establecer un programa con el conjunto de ejercicios que permitan una rehabilitación apropiada. Objetivo: comprender si el comportamiento de los diferentes parámetros aerodinámicos, electroglotográficos, acústicos y de autorreporte vocal permite o no determinar la severidad de una disfonía. Método: se evaluaron 55 sujetos con diferentes tipos de disfonía según pará-metros aerodinámicos, electroglotográficos, acústicos y de autorreporte vocal. La muestra fue dividida en 3 grupos de acuerdo con el grado de gravedad de la patología. Se aplicó un análisis de varianza para comparar el comportamiento de las variables dependientes en relación con los niveles de severidad de la disfonía. Con el fin de determinar las diferencias entre estos niveles, se aplicó la prueba Post hoc (Tukey) a las variables significativas. Resultados: es posible determinar el nivel de severidad de una disfonía a partir de parámetros acústicos como el CPP, HNR y el cociente de pendiente espectral 1/5-5/8Khz. También se puede hacer por medio de cuestionarios de autorreporte vocal como el VOISS, el VHI y el VTDS

Introduction: the severity of dysphonia shows the degree of alteration that a voice has in relation to all the physiological processes involved in the production of sound. It is essential to determine the level of severity to establish a program with the set of exercises required for a proper rehabilitation. Objective: to understand if the behavior of the different aerodynamic, electroglot-tographic, acoustic, and vocal self-report parameters allows, or not, to determine the severity of dysphonia. Method: 55 subjects with different types of dysphonia were evaluated according to aerodynamic, electroglottographic, acoustic, and vocal self-report parameters. The sample was divided into three groups in relation to the severity degree of the patho-logy. An analysis of variance was applied to compare the behavior of dependent variables with the severity levels of dysphonia. The Post hoc test (Tukey) was applied to the significant variables to determine the differences between the severity levels. Results: it is possible to determine the level of severity of dysphonia from acoustic parameters such as CPP, HNR, and the ratio of spectral slope 1 / 5-5 / 8Khz. It is also possible to use voice self-report questionnaires such as the VOISS, the VHI, and the VTDS

Sound , Voice , Voice Disorders , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Pathology , Voice Quality , Acoustics , Analysis of Variance , Physiological Phenomena
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 2(2): 93-101, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396191


Se realizó una reflexión sobre la selección, durante los últimos 20 años, de los micró-fonos utilizados en estudios científicos que consideran análisis acústico y que son he-chos por profesionales de la voz. Se revisaron los equipos escogidos en 21 artículos ­a través del motor de búsqueda de Google, principalmente Google Scholar­ en los que la metodología consideraba el análisis acústico. Solo 4 de los 21 documentos elegidos realizaron una selección acertada según los estándares actuales de microfonía para fines de muestreo. Se determinó que los procesos de estandarización deben continuar con su perfeccionamiento

A reflection was made on the selection of microphones used in scientific studies, per-formed in the last 20 years, that consider acoustic analysis and are made by voice spe-cialists. The selected equipment was reviewed in 21 articles ­found through the Goo-gle engine, mainly Google Scholar­ in which the methodology considered acoustic analysis. Only 4 of the 21 chosen articles made an accurate selection according to the most recent microphone standards for sampling purposes. It was determined that the standardization processes should continue to be refined

Transducers , Voice Quality , Acoustics , Voice , Acoustics/instrumentation , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 33: e003337, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133910


Abstract Introduction: The voice is heavily influenced by breathing and abdominal muscles. Objective: To verify the immediate effects of cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release on the respiratory and phonatory function of adult women with no vocal complaints. Method: Relaxation maneuvers and eccentric work of the diaphragm were performed together with articulatory maneuver of the third cervical vertebra. Twenty-four women without vocal complaints, aged between 18 and 35 years were part of the intervention. All volunteers were submitted to an evaluation of respiratory muscle strength, maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/, sound pressure level and acoustic vocal analysis, before and after physiotherapeutic intervention. Statistical analysis consisted of the Student's t-test for independent samples and Spearman's correlation. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: There was a significant increase in the maximum phonation time of the vowel /a/ and in the modal sound pressure level. Regarding the acoustic analysis, there was a reduction in the standard deviation values of the fundamental frequency; in the smoothed pitch disturbance quotient; and in the fundamental frequency and amplitude variations. Conclusion: Cervical stimulation and diaphragmatic release improved vocal quality regarding duration of emission, sound pressure, and stability and noise of the glottic signal.

Resumo Introdução: A voz é muito influenciada pela respiração e pela musculatura abdominal. Objetivo: Verificar os efeitos imediatos da estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática na função respiratória e fonatória de mulheres adultas sem queixas vocais. Método: Realizaram-se manobras de relaxamento e trabalho excêntrico do diafragma junto a uma manobra articulatória da terceira vertebra cervical. Fizerem parte da intervenção 24 mulheres sem queixas vocais, com idades entre 18 e 35 anos. Todas as voluntárias foram submetidas a uma avaliação de força da musculatura respiratória, do tempo máximo de fonação da vogal /a/, do nível de pressão sonora e análise vocal acústica, pré e pós-intervenção fisioterapêutica. Foram realizados os testes t-student para amostras independentes e correlação de Spearman com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Verificou-se aumento significativo no tempo máximo de fonação da vogal de /a/ e do nível de pressão sonora modal. Na análise acústica, houve redução dos valores do desvio-padrão da frequência fundamental; do quociente de perturbação do pitch suavizado; da variação da frequência fundamental e da variação da amplitude. Conclusão: As manobras fisioterapêuticas de estimulação cervical e liberação diafragmática melhoraram a qualidade vocal em relação ao tempo de sustentação da emissão, à pressão sonora, à estabilidade e ao ruído do sinal glótico.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Voice Quality , Acoustics , Diaphragm , Respiration , Abdominal Muscles
Clinics ; 75: e1670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133460


OBJECTIVES: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index are widely used to assess liver fibrosis. However, efficacies of these methods in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ARFI elastography combined with either AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and Child-Pugh (CP) class for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: The shear wave velocities of 104 patients with clinically confirmed CHB-related cirrhosis were determined using the ARFI; and clinical serum markers (e.g. ALT, AST, PLT) were used to calculate the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. Cirrhosis patients were scored according to their CP class. The ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index were compared with the CP class. The efficacy of each indicator in diagnosis was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the ARFI combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index, which is used to predict decompensated cirrhosis. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in gender and age among CP classes A, B, and C patients (p>0.05). The ARFI values and the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index of patients with CP classes A, B, and C were significantly different (p<0.05). With an increasing CP class, the ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 values increased. The correlation between the ARFI and the CP class was stronger than that between the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index and the CP class. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis using the ARFI was 0.841, which was higher than that for the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. According to the area under the curve results, no significant differences were found when the ARFI was combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and when the ARFI alone was used. CONCLUSIONS: The ARFI value has a strong correlation with the CP class. Therefore, ARFI elastography complements CP class in the assessment of the hepatic functional reserve in patients with CHB-related cirrhosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Acoustics , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20200052, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134783


Abstract The pursuit for quality of life urged a better understanding of aspects involved in ageing to minimize its consequences. Although many studies investigated older adults' voice, aspects affecting this population voice-related quality of life have not yet been explored. Objective To investigate how aerodynamics and vocal aspects are associated with voice-related quality of life in older adults. Methodology fifty-six older adults aged 60 years or above - 39 women and 17 men - were evaluated. The following procedures were performed: application of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol; vocal assessment, including auditory-perceptual and acoustic analysis, from which we obtained fundamental frequency (F 0 ), standard deviation of fundamental frequency (SDF 0 ), shimmer, amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), jitter, pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ), and harmonics to noise ratio (HNR); aerodynamic assessment using a spirometer; and maximum phonation time (MPT) for /a/, /s/, /z/ and number counting. Results older adults tend to present high V-RQOL scores. Among women, roughness, APQ, and HNR parameters were negatively correlated with V-RQOL, whereas F 0 was positively. We found no correlation between spirometry measurements and V-RQOL. MPT for /a/, /z/, and number counting was positively correlated with V-RQOL solely among men. Conclusion Vocal roughness and acoustic parameters have a negative impact on the quality of life of older women. Respiratory aspects related to the available air support for speaking affected the most the voice-related quality of life of older men.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Speech Acoustics , Voice Quality , Quality of Life , Acoustics , Middle Aged
Revista Areté ; 20(2): 35-41, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354755


En múltiples estudios se ha determinado la importancia de la voz en aquellos profesionales que la utilizan como su herramienta principal de trabajo. Dentro de este grupo se encuentran locutores, agentes de call center, profesores, entre otros; la población objeto de estudio en esta investigación son los profesores universitarios, ellos trabajan durante varias horas al día usando su voz para transmitir el conocimiento dentro del aula de clase, muchas veces en condiciones poco óptimas para un desempeño laboral efectivo. Además, están expuestos a diversos factores de riesgos ambientales y organizacionales lo cual los predispone y pueden generar sintomatología vocal asociada a su ocupación. Los participantes pertenecen a un programa de conservación de la voz. El diseño de investigación preexperimental, cuantitativo, utilizando pre-test y pos-test en una misma población, descriptivo transversal, bajo un enfoque epidemiológico. Se aplicó una encuesta de autopercepción vocal como pre-test, con el fin de identificar la percepción que tenían estos profesionales acerca de sus características vocales. Posterior a esto, se les realizó una serie de ejercicios con tubos de resonancia basados en la técnica de Tracto Vocal Semi Ocluido (TVSO) y finalmente, se le reaplicó la encuesta de autopercepción vocal como post-test para determinar los efectos y cambios fisiológicos de estos ejercicios sobre los parámetros acústicos de la voz y las características del habla tales como: inteligibilidad, naturalidad y audibilidad; logrando un efecto fisiológico terapéutico inmediato y una percepción subjetiva de mejoría posterior a la terapia, generando un cambio en el patrón vibratorio de sus pliegues vocales, minimizando el abuso y mal uso vocal, creando conciencia del cuidado que se debe tener con la voz cuando se utiliza de manera profesional por ser la herramienta principal de su trabajo.

Multiple studies have determined the importance of voice in those professionals who use it as their main work tool. Within this group are announcers, call center agents, teachers, among others; this research will deepen the professors, these are found for several hours a day using their voice to transmit knowledge within the classroom, often in poor conditions for effective work performance. In addition, they are exposed to various environmental and organizational risk factors which predispose them and generate a diversity of laryngeal pathologies characteristic of their occupation. Participants belong to a voice conservation program. The design of pre- experimental, quantitative research, using pre-test and post-test in the same population, cross- sectional descriptive, under an epidemiological approach. A vocal self-perception survey was applied as a pre-test, in order to identify the perception that these professionals had about their vocal characteristics. After this, they performed a series of exercises with resonance tubes based on the Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract (TVSO) technique and finally, the vocal self- perception survey was reapplied as a post-test to determine the physiological effects and changes of these exercises on the acoustic parameters of voice and speech characteristics such as: intelligibility, naturalness and audibility; achieving an immediate therapeutic physiological effect and a subjective perception of improvement after therapy, generating a change in the vibratory pattern of your vocal folds, minimizing abuse and vocal misuse, creating awareness of the care that should be taken with the voice when Professionally used as the main tool of his work.

Speech , Voice , Acoustics , Pathology , Teaching , Work , Risk Factors , Environmental Hazards , Knowledge , Faculty , Work Performance , Occupations
Orient Journal of Medicine ; 32(1-2): 18-21, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268292


Background: Local anaesthesia usage and wastage are common in the operation rooms. The wastage is often not given due considerations. Budgetary allocation for drugs is an identifiable area for cost-cutting and savings. Hence, the need to minimize wastage Objectives: To assess and estimate the amount of local anaesthesia usage and wastage in the labour ward theatre. Also, to analyze the financial implications of the wastages and suggest appropriate steps to reduce the wastages. Methodology: A prospective observational study conducted in the labour ward theatre of a tertiary care hospital. The amount of local anaesthesia administered to the patient during spinal anaesthesia prior to caesarean section was considered the dose used. The wastage was considered as the amount of local anaesthetic agents left unutilized in the syringes, ampules or vials after completion of each caesarean delivery. An estimation of the cost of wasted local anaesthetic agents was made. Result: The local anaesthetic agents being used in significant quantities were hyperbaric bupivacaine, plain lidocaine and lidocaine with adrenaline. The wastage was found more during the use of hyperbaric bupivacaine as the cost of its wastage formed the bulk (N75,000.00/ $210.10) of the estimated total cost of wasted local anaesthetic agents during the study period which was N88, 100.00 ($246.77). Conclusion: There were appropriate uses of the local anaesthesia with respect to the choice and doses for caesarean deliveries but there were wastages often ignored as infinitesimal. In the long run, the wastages become significant and the financial implication scale up the burden of health bills. Effective waste reduction strategies have input in the overall reduction of financial burden associated with health care. Emphasis should be t ailored towards awareness of these wastages among resident doctors and their prudent use of local anaesthesia

Acoustics , Anesthetics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Lidocaine , Medical Waste Disposal , Nigeria
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 566-576, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001471


Abstract Vocalizations are an important trait for the identification of cryptic and/or closely related amphibian species. Different vocalizations also contribute to partitioning of the acoustic space by sympatric species. This study aimed to describe the advertisement calls of anurans in a pond of the municipality of Floriano, State of Piauí, Brazil, and infer the acoustic niche partitioning of amphibians. Euclidean distance was used in a cluster analysis approach to infer the acoustic similarities among species. Thirteen species were analysed: Boana raniceps, Dendropsophus nanus, D. rubicundulus , D. minutus, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. troglodytes, L. vastus, Pithecopus nordestinus , Physalaemus cuvieri, P. nattereri, Pleurodema diplolister, Proceratophrys cristiceps and Scinax ruber. From these, six showed more than 90% of acoustic overlap: P. nattereri , P. cuvieri, L. fuscus and L. vastus (Leptodactylidae); and, D. nanus and D. rubicundulus (Hylidae). Despite the acoustic similarities among these six species, the acoustic interference was reduced due to the small number of sympatric species and to distinct features on carrier frequency such as dominant frequency and the degree of modulation in the frequency. Environmental factors limit the periods and sites of reproduction respectively, which may maintain the low anuran diversity and consequently reduce acoustic overlap.

Resumo A vocalização é um componente importante na identificação de espécies crípticas e/ou proximamente relacionadas de anfíbios anuros. Diferenças na bioacústica também contribuem para o particionamento do espaço acústico entre espécies simpátricas. Este estudo descreve o canto de anúncio de anuros em uma lagoa temporária do município de Floriano, Estado do Piauí, Brasil, além de buscar inferir o particionamento do nicho acústico entre essas espécies. Para tanto, foi utilizada a distância Euclidiana para compor uma análise de conglomerados e avaliar a similaridade/dissimilaridade da bioacústica da anurofauna. Treze espécies foram amostradas: Boana raniceps, Dendropsophus nanus, D. rubicundulus , D. minutus, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. troglodytes, L. vastus, Pithecopus nordestinus , Physalaemus cuvieri, P. nattereri, Pleurodema diplolister, Proceratophrys cristiceps e Scinax ruber. Destas, seis apresentaram mais de 90% de sobreposição acústica: P. nattereri, P. cuvieri, L. fuscus e L. vastus (Leptodactylidae); e, D. nanus e D. rubicundulus (Hylidae). Apesar da similaridade acústica entre essas seis espécies, a interferência é reduzida devido ao pequeno número de espécies simpátricas e certas características distintas na frequência do canto, tais como: frequência dominante e sua modulação. Fatores ambientais específicos do semiárido limitam os períodos e sítios reprodutivos, o que mantém baixa diversidade de espécies e consequentemente reduz a sobreposição no nicho acústico.

Animals , Anura/physiology , Vocalization, Animal , Acoustics , Brazil , Ponds
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 644-651, oct 2019. fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046879


The article introduces the findings of the analysis of the existing approaches to the development of mathematical models of acoustic heart phenomena. The analysis of mathematical methods that can be used to model heart sounds has been performed with the use of reference signals from the 3M Open Library (Littmann Library) and a set of signals obtained by the authors during their previous scientific efforts. The analysis findings have allowed revealing the approaches and methods that are most suitable for developing the mathematical models of human phonocardiograms (normal and pathological) for further research efforts meant to develop methods to single out heart beats against the high level of interference and creating intervalograms to characterize the heart rate at the current moments of time. In addition to the generation of model phonocardiograms, the article reviews the methods to analyze model and real-life phonocardiograms with the assessment of an input from random and deterministic components.

Humans , Phonocardiography/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis , Acoustics , Models, Statistical , Heart Rate Determination/methods , Heart/physiology
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 205-213, jun 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1045980


The study was aimed at investigating the features of gnostic functions in the elderly people suffering from dementia. To implement the objectives of the study and to solve the set tasks, the following methods were used: visual gnosis tests (recognition of images, the selection of three subject pictures, selecting parts of a whole, etc.), the acoustic gnosis tests (score and perception of rhythms, recognition of nonspeech sounds), and tactile gnosis tests (tactile identification, Teuber test, Foerster test). When running the visual gnosis tests, the elderly people with the dementia diseases slowly initiated the tasks, made numerous errors, and sometimes could not cope with the tasks at all. Also, the perception integrity disorders, the presence of fragmentation, lack of accuracy, differentiation, preservation of specific objective images-objects, and the violation in the understanding of the spatial arrangement of things were revealed. When performing the auditory-motor coordination tests, the elderly people suffering from dementia needed more time to listen to, they asked for the repeated sound representation, and there were often errors in the rhythmic structure reproduction. When performing the tactile gnosis tests, the elderly people suffering from dementia had difficulties in identifying the subject by touch, in understanding the right and left-sided spatial relationships, and also made errors in recognizing one of the touches when the experimenter touched their hands. Based on the study results, the recommendations have been developed for the preservation and improvement of the existing gnostic functions' disorders in the elderly people suffering from dementia. The recommendations are complex, and they can also be useful for the medical staff whose professional activity is directly related to the elderly people suffering from dementia, their relatives and the persons closest to them.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pattern Recognition, Visual , Trail Making Test , Acoustics , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/therapy , Dementia/pathology , Agnosia/pathology