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Autops. Case Rep ; 9(1): e2018063, Jan.-Mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-986756


Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a feared entity that occurs most frequently in conditions of extreme immunodeficiency. The diagnosis is often made long after the onset of symptoms due to the physicians' unfamiliarity, and the unavailability of diagnostic tests in some medical centers. Although the incidence of PML is decreasing among HIV patients with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in Brazil this entity is the fourth highest neurological complication among these patients. The authors present the case of a middle-aged man who tested positive for HIV concomitantly with the presentation of hyposensitivity in the face and the right side of the body, accompanied by mild weakness in the left upper limb. The clinical features worsened rapidly within a couple of weeks. The diagnostic work-up pointed to the working diagnosis of PML after brain magnetic resonance imaging; however, the detection of the John Cunningham virus (JCV) in the cerebral spinal fluid was negative. HAART was started but the patient died after 7 weeks of hospitalization. The autopsy revealed extensive multifocal patchy areas of demyelination in the white matter where the microscopy depicted demyelination, oligodendrocytes alterations, bizarre atypical astrocytes, and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. The immunohistochemistry was positive for anti-SV40, and the polymerase chain reaction of the brain paraffin-embedded tissue was positive for JCV. The authors highlight the challenges for diagnosing PML, as well as the devastating outcome of PML among HIV patients.

Humans , Male , Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/diagnosis , Autopsy , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/pathology , Fatal Outcome , JC Virus
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 26: e31156, jan.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-970289


Objetivo: descrever o perfil de adesão à terapia antirretroviral (TARV) de pacientes com Síndrome Lipodistrófica do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (SLHIV), em uma unidade especializada do Estado do Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo qualiquantitativo, envolvendo questionário e prontuários de 124 pacientes, no período de fevereiro e março de 2013, após aprovação por Comitê de Ética. Na análise, a variância (p<0,05) articulou testes estatísticos, com dados apresentados em tabelas. Resultados: as dificuldades de entender e conhecer o esquema terapêutico, o Diabetes Mellitus e as alterações da lipodistrofia foram significantes na interferência da adesão à TARV. O grupo de adesão irregular está em risco para a eficácia do tratamento. Os demais têm a possibilidade de migração de um grupo para outro a qualquer momento. Conclusão: o perfil de adesão à TARV não é definida por dados socioeconômicos. A participação em grupos de adesão deve ser estimulada como fator de reversão do padrão de abandono. Descritores: HIV; AIDS; lipodistrofia; adesão à medicação.

Objective: to profile adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) by patients with human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy syndrome (HIVLS) at a specialized unit in Pará, Brazil. Method: this quali-quantitative study, involving a questionnaire and medical records of 124 patients, was conducted from February to March 2013, after research ethics approval. In the analysis, statistical tests were related by variance (p <0.05) and data were presented in table form. Results: the difficulties of understanding and knowing the therapeutic regimen, mellitus diabetes and changes in lipodystrophy were significant in the interference of ART adherence. The irregular adherence group is at risk for treatment efficacy. The others have the possibility of migrating from one group to another at any time. Conclusion: the profile of adherence to ART is not defined by socioeconomic data. Participation in membership groups should be encouraged as a factor in reversing the pattern of abandonment.

Objetivo: describir el perfil de adhesión a la terapia antirretroviral (TARV) de pacientes con síndrome lipodistrófico del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (SLHIV), en una unidad especializada del Estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio cualiquantitativo involucrando cuestionario e historias clínicas de 124 pacientes, en el período de febrero y marzo de 2013, después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética. En el análisis, la varianza (p <0,05) articuló pruebas estadísticas, con datos presentados en tablas. Resultados: las dificultades en entender y conocer el esquema terapéutico, la Diabetes Mellitus y las alteraciones de la lipodistrofia fueron significantes en la interferencia de la adhesión a la TARV. El grupo de adhesión irregular está en riesgo para la eficacia del tratamiento. Los demás tienen la posibilidad de migración de un grupo a otro en cualquier momento. Conclusión: el perfil de adhesión a la TARV no está definido por datos socioeconómicos. La participación en grupos de adhesión debe ser estimulada como factor de reversión del patrón de abandono.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , HIV Infections/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome , Medication Adherence , Brazil , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(3): e2018029, July-Sept. 2018. ilus tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-911893


Disseminated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs mainly as a congenital infection and among immunocompromised hosts. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk for CMV infection, and the most prevalent clinical manifestation is retinitis, followed by colitis, esophagitis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis. CMV oophoritis is poorly described in the literature with some cases reported in patients with hematological or solid malignancies, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and advanced AIDS cases. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of AIDS, which was associated with a wasting syndrome. The patient presented with abdominal pain, headache, cutaneous vesicular lesions on the abdomen, anemia, lymphopenia, and hyponatremia; she died suddenly on the fourth day of hospitalization. The autopsy was performed and demonstrated disseminated CMV infection with hemorrhagic encephalitis as the immediate cause of death. Additionally, pneumonitis, extensive adrenalitis, ulcerated enteritis, focal hepatitis, and necrotizing oophoritis were found.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/pathology , Encephalitis/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Oophoritis/complications
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018028, Apr.-May 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-905529


In the advanced stage of AIDS, the diagnosis of the opportunistic infections may be challenging due to the high risk of performing invasive diagnostic methods in a patient with a critical clinical condition, as well as the correct interpretation of the results of microbiological exams. One of the challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of the opportunistic infections is that they may occur concomitantly in the same patient and they may mimic each other, leading to a high discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man who was hospitalized because of weight loss, anemia, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. During the investigation, the diagnosis of AIDS was made, and the patient developed respiratory failure and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was found, affecting mainly the organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Also, severe and diffuse pneumonia caused by multiple agents (Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, suppurative bacterial infection, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, and cytomegalovirus) was seen in a morphological pattern that could be called "collision pneumonia." The lesson from this case, revealed by the autopsy, is that in advanced AIDS, patients often have multiple opportunistic infections, so the principle of Ockham's razor­that a single diagnosis is most likely the best diagnosis­fails in this clinical context.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Histoplasmosis/complications , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , Pneumocystis Infections/complications
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3066, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-978588


ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its risk factors among people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome under antiretroviral therapy. Method: cross-sectional study with 208 patients. Data collection was conducted through interviews using a form containing data on sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological aspects, hypertension risk factors, blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index and abdominal circumference. Mean, standard deviation, odds ratio and confidence interval were calculated, t-test and Chi-square test were used, considering P < 0.05 as statistically significant. Hypertension associated variables were selected for logistic regression. Results: patients were male (70.7%), self-reported as mixed-race (68.2%), had schooling between 9 and 12 years of study (46.6%), had no children (47.6%), were single (44.2%), in the sexual exposure category (72.1%) and heterosexual (60.6%). The prevalence of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and arterial hypertension was 17.3%. Logistic regression confirmed the influence of age greater than 45 years, family history of hypertension, being overweight and antiretroviral therapy for more than 36 months for hypertension to occur. Conclusion: the prevalence of hypertension was 17.3%. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hypertension were older than 45 years, had family history of hypertension, were overweight and under antiretroviral therapy for more than 36 months.

RESUMO Objetivos: verificar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial e seus fatores de risco entre pessoas com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida em terapia antirretroviral. Método: estudo transversal, com amostra de 208 pacientes. Coleta de dados realizada por meio de entrevista, com formulário envolvendo dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, fatores de risco para hipertensão, verificação da pressão arterial, peso, altura, índice de massa corporal e circunferência abdominal. Foram calculadas média, desvio padrão, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança e utilizados testet e teste do qui-quadrado, considerando-se estatisticamente significante P < 0,05. Variáveis associadas à hipertensão foram selecionadas para regressão logística. Resultados: destacaram-se pacientes do sexo masculino (70,7%), cor parda (68,2%), escolaridade entre nove e 12 anos de estudo (46,6%), sem filhos (47,6%), solteiros (44,2%), categoria de exposição sexual (72,1%) e heterossexuais (60,6%). A prevalência de pessoas com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e hipertensão foi de 17,3%. Regressão logística confirmou influência da idade maior que 45 anos, história familiar de hipertensão, sobrepeso e terapia antirretroviral acima de 36 meses para ocorrer hipertensão. Conclusão: a prevalência de hipertensão foi de 17,3%. Pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida e hipertensão tinham mais de 45 anos, história familiar de hipertensão, sobrepeso e terapia antirretroviral por mais de 36 meses.

RESUMEN Objetivos: verificar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial y sus factores de riesgo entre personas con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en terapia antirretroviral. Método: estudio transversal, con muestra de 208 pacientes. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas con formulario de datos sociodemográficos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, factores de riesgo para la hipertensión arterial, verificación de la presión arterial, peso, altura, índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia abdominal. Se calcularon la media, la desviación estándar, la razón de probabilidades (odds ratio)y el intervalo de confianza, y se utilizaron la prueba t y la prueba del chi-cuadrado, considerándose estadísticamente significante P <0,05. Las variables asociadas a la hipertensión fueron seleccionadas para la regresión logística. Resultados: se destacaron pacientes del género masculino (70,7%), color parda (68,2%), escolaridad entre nueve y 12 años de estudio (46,6%), sin hijos (47,6% ), solteros (44,2%), categoría de exposición sexual (72,1%) y heterosexuales (60,6%). La prevalencia de personas con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida e hipertensión fue del 17,3%. La regresión logística confirmó que hay influencia de la edad mayor de 45 años, del historial familiar de hipertensión, del sobrepeso y de la terapia antirretroviral por más de 36 meses para ocurrir la enfermedad. Conclusión: la prevalencia de hipertensión fue del 17,3%. Los pacientes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y hipertensión tenían más de 45 años, historial familiar de hipertensión, sobrepeso y terapia antirretroviral por más de 36 meses.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/classification , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies
Medisan ; 21(12)dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-997338


La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana/sida es uno de los problemas de salud pública más importante en todo el mundo. Se estima que hasta 95 por ciento de los afectados presentan manifestaciones cutáneas durante el curso de la infección, entre las cuales se encuentran las producidas por hongos. A tales efectos, se describen algunas de ellas, las cuales deben ser reconocidas por los médicos y el personal de salud a cargo del tratamiento y control de los pacientes con esta enfermedad.

Human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS infection is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. It is considered that up to 95 percent of the affected patients present cutaneous manifestations during the course of the infection, among which we can mention those caused by fungus. To such effects, some of these are described, which should be recognized by doctors and health staff in charge of the treatment and control of patients with this disease

Humans , Male , Female , Skin Diseases/etiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , HIV , Communication , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Cellular
Medisan ; 21(9)set. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-894660


Se presenta el caso clínico de un paciente de 47 años de edad con seropositividad del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/sida desde hacía 5 años, quien acudió a la consulta de Cirugía en el Hospital Gubernamental de Mbabane en Suazilandia, por presentar un tumor anal; se diagnosticó hemorroides, pero el tumor continuó aumentando de tamaño, unido a sangrado e intenso dolor. Se realizó una biopsia por incisión que indicó la presencia de un linfoma de alto grado de malignidad. Posteriormente el paciente fue evaluado en la consulta de Oncología, donde se le indicaron los exámenes complementarios necesarios, los que revelaron que la neoplasia se encontraba en estadio IE; de manera que fue remitido a Sudáfrica para recibir quimioterapia combinada, con la cual desapareció la lesión maligna y se controló la enfermedad

The case report of a 47 years patient with the human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS for 5 years is presented. He went to the Surgery Service in the Government Hospital of Mbabane in Swaziland, due to an anus malignancy; hemorrhoids was diagnosed, but its size continued increasing, along with bleeding and acute pain. An incision biopsy that indicated the presence of a high grade lymphoma malignancy was carried out. Later on the patient was evaluated in the Oncology Service, where the necessary complementary exams were indicated, revealing that neoplasm was in IE stage; so he was referred to South Africa to receive combined chemotherapy, with which the malignant lesion disappeared and the disease was controlled

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anus Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/diagnosis , Eswatini , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphoma/etiology
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 110-112, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-887095


Abstract Plasmablastic lymphoma is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by its plasmacytic differentiation and predilection for the oral cavity. It is among the lymphomas most commonly associated with AIDS. This report details a case of a HIV-positive patient with a 1-month history of an exophytic mass in the gingival area of the upper left quadrant. The diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma was made based on its histopathological and immunophenotypical features. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite complete resolution of the lesion, the patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest. This case illustrates plasmablastic lymphoma as the first clinical manifestation of AIDS, highlighting the importance of differentiating between a potentially malignant lesion and other pathologic processes.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Mouth Neoplasms/virology , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/pathology , Plasmablastic Lymphoma/pathology , Plasmablastic Lymphoma/virology , Biopsy , Mouth Neoplasms/therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related/therapy , Plasmablastic Lymphoma/therapy
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 114(5): e357-e361, oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-838283


El síndrome hemofagocítico secundario es infrecuente en pediatría y, más aun, asociado a tuberculosis. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, tuberculosis diseminada y síndrome hemofagocítico. Niña de 8 años, condiagnóstico de síndrome deinmunodeficiencia adquirida, que se internó por fiebre, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Presentaba distensión abdominal, deshidratación, taquipnea, rales subcrepitantes y sibilancias en ambos pulmones, anemia, plaquetopenia y alteración de la coagulación. Recibió antibióticos de amplio espectro y se realizó una laparotomía exploradora con apendicectomia y biopsia ganglionar. A las 72 horas, presentó convulsión tónico clónica, deterioro del sensorio, fiebre, hipoxemia, hepatoesplenomegalia, ascitis y edema periférico. Presentaba bicitopenia, hiperferritinemia y examen microscópico de médula ósea con hemofagocitosis. Recibió gammaglobulina intravenosa, corticoides y transfusiones sanguíneas. Se aisló Mycobacterium tuberculosis del aspirado gástrico, médula ósea y biopsia ganglionar abdominal. Se trató con isoniacida, rifampicina, estreptomicina y etambutol, y presentó franca mejoría.

The secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is rare in children and even rarer associated with tuberculosis. e report the case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, disseminated tuberculosis and hemophagocytic syndrome. An 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, was admitted due to fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. She presented abdominal distension, dehydration, tachypnea, crackles and wheezing in both lungs, anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. She received broad-spectrum antibiotics and exploratory laparotomy was performed with appendectomy and lymph node biopsy. After 72 hours the patient presented tonic clonic seizure, impaired sensory, fever, hypoxemia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral edema. She developed bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia and bone marrow microscopic examination with hemophagocytosis. She received intravenous gammaglobulin, steroids and blood transfusions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in gastric aspirate, bone marrow and abdominal lymph node biopsy. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, showing marked improvement.

Humans , Female , Child , Tuberculosis/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(1): 89-96, Mar. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-837313


Desde 1981 a aids tem estado presente em nossa sociedade. Como consequência, doenças infectocontagiosas e novos patógenos oportunistas têm desenvolvido novos comportamentos e adquirido novas virulências. Mesmo com a aquisição de novas tecnologias ­ como técnicas imunológicas, ressonância magnética (RM), tomografia computadorizada (TC), tomografia por emissão de pósitron (PET) e espectrometria ­, existem desafios para o diagnóstico que incluem falsos negativos e positivos. Reportamos nossa experiência com paciente imunocomprometido e suas múltiplas infecções oportunistas, e juntamos casos com diferentes patógenos que mimetizam tumores de estirpe glial com resultados falsos positivos e negativos nas provas imunológicas, seja por comprometimento imunológico do hospedeiro, seja por provas cruzadas de colagenoses.

Since 1981 AIDS has been present in our society. Following it, controlled infection diseases and new opportunistic pathogen have raised different behavior and virulence. Even with the important technical advance such as immunologic assay, magnetic resonance (MRI), computed tomography CT, positron emission tomography (PET) and spectrometry there still exists a real challenge for diagnosis, including high levels of false negatives. We report in this work our experience with imunocompromised patients and their multiple opportunistic diseases and attach it different pathogens that may mimic tumoral glial diseases with false positive and negatives results in immunological assay, developed by host imunocompromised reactivity or by cross reaction of collagenosis desease.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Granuloma/diagnosis , Glioma
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 14(4): 199-203, 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-827213


OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência e os fatores associados à dislipidemia em pacientes que utilizam a Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal que incluiu 100 pacientes que realizam acompanhamento em ambulatórios de Infectologia de Santa Catarina. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de revisão de prontuários e analisados no programa Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), versão 13.0. Utilizou-se o teste qui quadrado de Pearson ou teste exato de Fisher para as variáveis qualitativas. A associação entre as variáveis quantitativas foi avaliada por meio do teste t de Student. O nível de significância estabelecido foi p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Homens corresponderam a 51% e a média de idade foi de 42,90±11,39 anos. A prevalência de dislipidemia foi de 75% nos pacientes que utilizavam HAART e de 85% nos pacientes antes de iniciá-la. O colesterol total médio dos pacientes antes de iniciar HAART encontrou-se em 171,33±37,12, a HDL média em 41,01±14,57 e o LDL médio em 98,05±32,35. Já o colesterol total médio dos pacientes que utilizam HAART ficou em 199,97±42,47 (p<0,01), o HDL médio em 46,93±16,34 (p<0,01) e o LDL médio em 118,88±36,57 (p<0,01). Houve menor média de linfócitos TCD4+ pré-HAART entre pacientes com HDL reduzido (p=0,04) ou qualquer dislipidemia (p=0,01). CONCLUSÃO: Há alta prevalência de dislipidemia em pacientes infectados pelo HIV que utilizam ou não HAART.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with dyslipidemia in patients using the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study that included 100 patients who are being followed in infectious diseases clinics of the state of Santa Catarina. Data was obtained through the review of medical records and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for qualitative variables. Student's t test was used for the association of quantitative variables.The significance level was p<0.05. RESULTS: Men were 51% and the average age was 42.90±11.39 years. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 75% in patients using Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and 85% before the beginning of therapy. The average total cholesterol of patients before starting Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy was 171.33±37.12, average highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) was 41.01±14.57 and the average low-density lipoprotein was 98.05±32.35. The average total cholesterol of patients using Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy remained at 199.97±42.47 (p<0.01), the average high-density lipoprotein at 46.93±16.34 (p<0.01) and the average low-density lipoprotein at 118.88±36.57 (p<0.01). There was a lower averagem of TCD4+ lymphocytes counts pre-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy among patients with low high-density lipoprotein (p=0.04) or any dyslipidemia (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: There is high prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients using or not the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

Humans , Male , Female , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/chemically induced , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis
Audiol., Commun. res ; 21: e1620, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-950598


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar e caracterizar a deglutição de pacientes internados, diagnosticados com Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA), com queixas de deglutição. Métodos Análise retrospectiva de 17 prontuários de pacientes com SIDA, atendidos em um hospital escola, entre 2011 e 2012, submetidos a protocolos de avaliação e tratamento da deglutição em beira de leito. Os dados coletados foram referentes à avaliação da deglutição em beira de leito, por meio de protocolos específicos, no momento inicial e na alta fonoaudiológica ou hospitalar. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo de alta fonoaudiológica (GAF): pacientes que receberam alta fonoaudiológica antes da alta hospitalar; Grupo de alta hospitalar (GAH): pacientes que receberam alta hospitalar sem terem recebido alta fonoaudiológica. Resultados Os grupos não se diferenciaram em relação à idade e gênero. Quanto à classificação da disfagia: 1) ambos os grupos apresentaram escores significativamente melhores no momento da alta, em relação ao momento inicial (GAH - p=0,024; GAF - p=0,011); 2) os grupos não se diferenciaram no momento inicial (p=0,349); 3) no momento de alta, os grupos apresentaram diferença significativa (p=0,002), com melhores resultados para o GAF. A análise dos sinais clínicos sugestivos de disfagia e de penetração/aspiração apontou que, na comparação intragrupos (ambos os grupos), houve diferença significativa somente para a presença de deglutições múltiplas, com redução do número de deglutições após o tratamento. Conclusão Os grupos obtiveram melhora na escala de classificação da disfagia e na remissão de sinais clínicos sugestivos de disfagia orofaríngea e/ou penetração/aspiração, sendo que o GAF alcançou melhores resultados.

ABSTRACT Purpose To verify and characterize the function of swallowing in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with a complaint of dysphagia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 17 AIDS patients treated in a school hospital between 2011 and 2012, who underwent a bedside evaluation and treatment of swallowing. The data were related to the results of the bedside evaluation that followed specific protocols, both at baseline and discharge. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) patients who completed the swallowing intervention during the admission (GCSI); and 2) patients who did not complete the swallowing intervention during the admission (GNCSI). Results The groups did not differ in age and gender. For the classification of swallowing: 1) both groups had significantly better scores at discharge compared to those at baseline (GNCSI: p=0.024; GCSI: p=0.011); 2) the scores did not differ between groups at baseline (p=0.349); 3) at discharge, the scores were different between groups (p=0.002), with better results in the GCSI group. The analysis of the clinical signs and symptoms of oropharyngeal dysphagia or penetration/aspiration indicated that in both groups, there was a statistically significant difference between baseline and discharge only in the presence of multiple swallows (a decrease in the number of swallows after intervention). Conclusion Swallowing ability improved after intervention. Additionally, clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of oropharyngeal dysphagia or penetration/aspiration resolved. The GCSI group showed better results than GNCSI after intervention.

Humans , Deglutition Disorders , Medical Records , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Deglutition , Point-of-Care Testing , Patients , Brazil , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 31(2): 216-228, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1564


INTRODUÇÃO: Pacientes que vivem com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS) em uso da Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Potência (TARV) são suscetíveis a desenvolver síndrome lipodistrófica. O preenchimento facial com polimetilmetacrilato é opção de tratamento. O objetivo é analisar o procedimento de preenchimento facial e avaliar os pacientes em relação à percepção, incômodo, revelação do diagnóstico, expectativa quanto ao preenchimento e a satisfação e impacto em suas vidas. MÉTODOS: Análise em 63 pacientes submetidos ao preenchimento facial. Foram realizados procedimentos, analisados prontuários dos pacientes e o Protocolo do Ambulatório de Lipodistrofia do Programa Municipal de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DST)/AIDS e Hepatites Virais de São Bernardo do Campo, atendidos no período de janeiro a julho de 2009. RESULTADOS: Todos os 63 pacientes iniciais que concordaram em participar da pesquisa permaneceram até o término deste trabalho. Apenas seis pacientes (9,5%) eram de origem de outros municípios, enquanto 57 pacientes (90,5%) eram moradores de São Bernardo. 68,2% eram homens e 100% brancos. A média das idades foi 49,7 anos. Em média, o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV) foi diagnosticado há 11,5 anos, com tempo médio de uso de TARV por 10 anos e tempo médio de lipoatrofia facial de 3,8 anos. A maioria fez uso de Estavudina e/ou Efavirenz. Quem ficava mais desconfortável com as alterações na face eram os próprios pacientes. 85,7% não revelaram o diagnóstico para terceiros. 100% dos pacientes ficaram satisfeitos ou muito satisfeitos com o resultado obtido. CONCLUSÃO: 100% dos pacientes ficaram satisfeitos ou muito satisfeitos com o resultado obtido. Em 100% dos casos houve um impacto favorável na vida. Não houve efeitos adversos ao procedimento cirúrgico de preenchimento.

INTRODUCTION: Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who use highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can develop lipodystrophy syndrome, for which facial filling with polymethylmethacrylate is a treatment option. The objective is to analyze the procedure of facial filling and evaluate patients in relation to their perception, discomfort, revelation of the diagnosis to third parties, expectation concerning facial filling, and satisfaction with the treatment outcome and its impact on their lives. METHODS: Sixty-three patients who underwent facial filling were evaluated. Procedures performed between January and July 2009 were assessed, the records of the patients were analyzed, and the outpatient lipodystrophy protocol of the STD/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Municipal Program of São Bernardo do Campo was used. RESULTS: All the 63 patients who agreed to participate in the research completed the study. Only 6 patients (9.5%) were from other municipalities, while 57 patients (90.5%) were residents of São Bernardo. Of the patients, 68.2% were men and 100% were Caucasian. The mean age of the patients was 49.7 years. Human immunodeficiency virus was diagnosed 11.5 years prior on average, with 10-year average use of HAART and 3.8-year average time of facial lipoatrophy. Most of the patients used stavudine and/or efavirenz. The patients themselves felt more uncomfortable with facial changes. Among the patients, 85.7% did not reveal the diagnosis to third parties. CONCLUSION: All of the patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the result obtained, which had a favorable impact on their lives. The filling surgical procedure had no adverse effects.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , HIV Infections , Medical Records , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Patient Satisfaction , Stavudine , Polymethyl Methacrylate , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Evaluation Study , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Face , Lipodystrophy , HIV Infections/surgery , HIV Infections/pathology , Medical Records/standards , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/surgery , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Stavudine/therapeutic use , Polymethyl Methacrylate/therapeutic use , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , Face/surgery , Lipodystrophy/surgery , Lipodystrophy/metabolism
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 24: e2798, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-960918


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Method: quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. Results: the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. Conclusion: it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive.

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a oferta das ações e serviços de saúde para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento pelos Serviços de Atenção Especializada ao HIV/aids de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Método: estudo quantitativo, exploratório, do tipo inquérito. Participaram 253 pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento nos serviços, considerando os critérios de inclusão: indivíduos maiores de 18 anos, residentes no município e não pertencentes ao sistema prisional. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de janeiro/2012 a maio/2013, por meio de entrevistas com apoio de um instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados mediante indicadores e índice composto. Resultados: a oferta de ações e serviços para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids pelos serviços do município foi considerada regular, reforçando a necessidade de melhor planejamento da assistência de forma integral, articulação dos profissionais nas equipes e entre os serviços da rede, além da formação profissional e educação permanente. Conclusão: faz-se necessário a implementação de estratégias que favoreçam ações compartilhadas entre os programas de tuberculose e HIV/aids e entre os diferentes serviços, com o intuito de fortalecer a rede local de atenção objetivando a produção de um cuidado singular, integral e resolutivo.

RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la oferta de acciones y servicios de salud para el control de la tuberculosis en las personas viviendo con VIH-SIDA acompañadas por los Servicios de Atención Especializada al VIH-SIDA de Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil. Método: estudio cuantitativo, exploratorio, de tipo encuesta. Participaron 253 personas viviendo con VIH-SIDA seguidas por estos servicios, considerando como criterios de inclusión: individuos mayores de 18 años, residentes en el municipio y no ser del sistema de prisiones. La recolección de datos fue realizada en el periodo de enero de 2012 a mayo de 2013, por medio de entrevistas guiadas por un instrumento especifico. Los datos fueron analizados mediante indicadores y un índice compuesto. Resultados: la oferta de acciones y servicios para el control de la tuberculosis en personas viviendo con VIH-SIDA fue considerada intermedia, reforzando la necesidad de mejorar la planificación de la asistencia en forma integral, la articulación de los profesionales en los equipos y entre los servicios de la red, además de la formación profesional y la educación permanente. Conclusión: se hace necesaria la implementación de estrategias que favorezcan las acciones compartidas entre los programas de tuberculosis y VIH-SIDA y entre los diferentes servicios, con el fin de fortalecer la red local de atención para producir un cuidado personalizado, integral y resolutivo.

Humans , Adult , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , Brazil , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-36476


Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and <500 cells/ml), severely immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥50 and <200 cells/ml), and advanced AIDS patients, respectively (cell count <50 cells/ml), while only 3 immunocompromised patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4+ T lymphocyte count.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/complications
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 531-535, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), SES-SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-770117


The reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV infected patients presents high mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a female patient with confirmed Chagasic meningoencephalitis as AIDS-defining illness. Interestingly, her TCD4+ lymphocyte cell count was 318 cells/mm3. After two months of induction therapy, one year of maintenance with benznidazol, and early introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient had good clinical, parasitological and radiological evolution. We used a qualitative polymerase chain reaction for the monitoring of T. cruzi parasitemia during and after the treatment. We emphasize the potential value of molecular techniques along with clinical and radiological parameters in the follow-up of patients with Chagas disease and HIV infection. Early introduction of HAART, prolonged induction and maintenance of antiparasitic therapy, and its discontinuation are feasible, in the current management of reactivation of Chagas disease.

A reativação da doença de Chagas em pacientes com a infecção pelo HIV apresenta uma alta morbidade e mortalidade. Neste relato, apresentamos caso confirmado de meningoencefalite chagásica, como doença definidora de aids, em paciente com 318 linfócitos T-CD4+/mm3. Após 2 meses de tratamento seguido de um ano de profilaxia secundária com benzonidazol e início precoce de terapia antirretroviral (HAART), a paciente apresentou boa evolução clínica, parasitológica e radiológica. Utilizamos a reação em cadeia da polimerase qualitativa do T. cruzi, para monitorização da parasitemia por T. cruzi durante e após o tratamento. Ressaltamos o valor potencial das técnicas moleculares associadas aos parâmetros clínicos e radiológicos nos pacientes com doença de Chagas e infecção pelo HIV. A introdução precoce da terapia antirretroviral, a terapia antiparasitária prolongada, manutenção e descontinuação da mesma, são desafios atuais, embora possíveis, no manejo da reativação da doença de Chagas na era das terapias antirretrovirais de alta eficácia.

Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Chagas Disease/complications , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Meningoencephalitis , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/parasitology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Chagas Disease/virology , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/parasitology , Meningoencephalitis , Meningoencephalitis/virology , Secondary Prevention/methods , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(6): 505-508, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-770114


Neurological complications of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are infrequent and include various clinical pictures. The reactivation of VZV in patients with AIDS is generally associated with an acute and severe meningoencephalitis. We report the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 11 consecutive patients with diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and central nervous system (CNS) involvement due to VZV. All patients were male and seropositive for HIV. The primary risk factor for HIV infection was unprotected sexual contact. The median of CD4 T cell count was 142 cells/µL. All of them presented signs and symptoms of meningoencephalitis. Six patients (54.5%) presented pleocytosis; they all showed high CSF protein concentrations with a median of 2.1 g/dL. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid specimen was positive for VZV in all of them and they were treated with intravenous acyclovir at doses of 30/mg/kg/day for 21 days. Overall survival was 63% (7 of 11 patients). The four dead patients had low cellular counts in CSF, below the median of this parameter. VZV should be included among the opportunistic pathogens that can involve CNS with a diffuse and severe meningoencephalitis in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS disease.

As complicações neurológicas do vírus varicela-zoster (VVZ) são pouco frequentes e incluem vários quadros clínicos. A reativação do VVZ em pacientes com AIDS é geralmente associada com meningoencefalite aguda e grave. Nós relatamos os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e virológicos de onze pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de HIV/AIDS e comprometimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC) devido ao VVZ. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo masculino e soropositivos para HIV. O principal fator de risco para a infecção pelo HIV foi o contato sexual sem proteção. A mediana da contagem de células CD4 T foi de 142 cel/µL. Todos apresentavam sinais e sintomas devido à meningoencefalite. Seis pacientes (54,5%) apresentaram pleiocitose; todos apresentaram hiperproteinorraquia com mediana de 2,1 g/dL. A reação em cadeia da polimerase de amostra do líquido cefalorraquidiano foi positiva para VVZ em todos eles. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com aciclovir por via intravenosa em doses de 30 mg/kg/dia durante 21 dias. A sobrevida global foi de 63% (sete de 11 pacientes). Os quatro pacientes mortos tiveram uma escassa resposta celular no LCR abaixo da mediana para este parâmetro. O VVZ deve ser incluído entre os patógenos oportunistas que podem comprometer o SNC com meningoencefalite difusa e grave em pacientes com doença avançada por HIV/SIDA.

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster/virology , /isolation & purification , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster/complications , Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster/cerebrospinal fluid , Fatal Outcome , HIV Seropositivity/complications , HIV Seropositivity/virology , Leukocytosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Unsafe Sex
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(2): 246-250, Apr-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-750794


OBJECTIVE: To alert the pediatrician who is following up HIV-infected patients about the possibility of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) in this period of life, in order to avoid the catastrophic consequences of this disease as bleeding esophageal varices. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 13 years old HIV-infected patient by vertical route was receiving didanosine (ddI) for 12 years. Although the HIV viral load had been undetectable for 12 years, this patient showed gradual decrease of CD4+ T cells, prolonged thrombocytopenia and high alkaline phosphatase. Physical examination detected splenomegaly, which triggered the investigation that led to the diagnosis of severe liver fibrosis by transient elastography, probably due to hepatic toxicity by prolonged use of ddI. COMMENTS: This is the first case of NCPH in HIV-infected adolescent described in Brazil. Although, the NCPH is a rare disease entity in seropositive patients in the pediatric age group, it should be investigated in patients on long-term ddI or presenting clinical and laboratories indicators of portal hypertension, as splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase.

OBJETIVO: Alertar o pediatra sobre a ocorrência de hipertensão portal não cirrótica (HPNC) na faixa etária pediátrica, no sentido de evitar as consequências catastróficas dessa doença, como o sangramento de varizes de esôfago. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente de 13 anos, infectado pelo HIV por via vertical, recebia esquema antirretroviral com didanosina (ddI) havia 12 anos. Apesar do controle adequado da replicação viral, com carga viral do HIV indetectável havia 12 anos, passou a apresentar diminuição gradativa dos linfócitos TCD4+, trombocitopenia prolongada e fosfatase alcalina elevada. O exame físico detectou esplenomegalia, que desencadeou o processo de investigação e culminou no diagnóstico de fibrose hepática acentuada pela elastografia, por provável toxicidade hepática devido ao uso prolongado de ddI. COMENTÁRIOS: Este é o primeiro caso de HPNC em adolescente infectado pelo HIV descrito no Brasil. Embora seja entidade mórbida rara em pacientes soropositivos para o HIV na faixa etária pediátrica, deve ser investigada nos pacientes em uso prolongado de ddI ou que apresentem indicadores clínicos e/ou laboratoriais de hipertensão portal, como esplenomegalia, trombocitopenia e aumento de fosfatase alcalina.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Didanosine/adverse effects , Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Cirrhosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 116-122, 04/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-746470


Objective This study aims to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases and anti-TPO status. We searched for an association among presence of immune reconstitution and use of stavudine, didanosine and protease inhibitors with thyroid diseases. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was performed to analyze the records of 117 HIV-infected patients who had their CD4+ cell count, viral load, anti-TPO, TSH and free T4 levels collected on the same day. Immune reconstitution was considered in those whose T CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3, but these values increased above 200 cells/mm3 after the use of antiretrovirals. The odds ratio obtained by a 2x2 contingency table and a chi-square test were used to measure the association between categorical variables. Results The prevalence of thyroid disease was 34.18%; of these, 4.34% were positive for anti-TPO. There was an association of risk between stavudine use and subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 4.19, 95% CI: 1.29 to 13.59, X2 = 6.37, p = 0.01). Immune reconstitution achieved protection associated with thyroid disease that was near statistical significance OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.19 to 1.04, X2 = 3.55, p = 0.059. Conclusion The prevalence of thyroid disease in the sample studied was higher than what had been found in the literature, with a low positive anti-TPO frequency. The historical use of stavudine has an association of risk for the presence of subclinical hypothyroidism, and immune reconstitution has trends towards protection for the presence of thyroid diseases. .

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Iodide Peroxidase/immunology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stavudine/therapeutic use , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Diseases/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Didanosine/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/immunology , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stavudine/adverse effects , Thyroid Diseases/drug therapy